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Marybelle Panlilio
Period 2
Plasma/Cell Membrane
Function and location A real world example
The plasma membrane (or cell membrane)
is a semi-permeable (selective) to organic
molecules and ions. It also what goes in and
out of the cell. The plasma membrane
surrounds the cell itself in an animal cell. In a
plant cell, it is lining the plants cell wall.
Doors act like a plasma membrane since
both can let people or pets in and out.
However, doors do not surround the
house like the plasma membrane does.
Instead, it is in front or on the back of the
Function and location A real world example
The nucleuss function is the control center
of the cell. It contains the nucleolus, which
creates proteins from RNA. It also contains
chromosomes which contains genes. The
nucleus is normally located in the center of
the cell. In plant cells, the nucleus is pushed
to the side in plant cells due to the large
central vacuole.
The brain is like the nucleus as both
are in charge of controlling something
(nucleus controlling the cell, brain
controlling the body). However, the
location of the brain isnt pushed to
the side when something else is there.
Function and location A real world example
Ribosomes are used to make proteins and link
amino acids. On ribosomes, there is a large
submit and a small submit. The large submit is in
charge of joining amino acids to make
polypeptide bonds, and the small submit is in
charge of reading RNA. Ribosomes can be
located floating around in the cell, or on the
rough ER.
An instruction manual is like a ribosome
due to how it is set up. You have to read
the directions (small submit) in order to
build whatever the instructions are
telling you to (large submit). After you
are finished, you have the complete
Function and location A real world example
The cytoplasm is the jelly-like liquid inside of a cell.
It is made of mostly water and salt. In the
cytoplasm, it contains all of the cell organelles and
parts. The cytoplasm is located within the cell
membrane, but not inside the nucleus.
A real life example of the cytoplasm
would be soup. The liquid portion
would be the cytoplasm itself, and the
solids in the soup would be the
various organelles.
Function and location A real world example
Mitochondria are referred as the powerhouse
of the cell. It provides energy for the cell, via
ATP (adenosine and three phosphate groups).
It acts as the digestive system, taking in
nutrients and breaking them down. This
creates energy for the cell. This is known as cell
respiration. Mitochondria are located in the
plasma membrane, floating around.
A battery is a real life example of the
mitochondrion. Both provide energy for
what they are powering. In a batterys
case, it would be powering something like
a remote control.
Chloroplasts (Plant Cell only)
Function and location A real world Example
Chloroplasts are only found in plant cells. The
chloroplast is in charge of photosynthesis in the
plant. It takes in sunlight as well as water and
carbon dioxide to make food for the plant.
When it is done, the chloroplast releases oxygen
and glucose. The chloroplast is located where a
plant is able to perform photosynthesis.
Solar panels are like chloroplasts as food
comes from both of them. Solar panels
take sunlight and convert it into energy for
things to use. However, solar panels are
not located everywhere where energy is
Cell Wall (Plant Cell only)
Function and location A real world Example
Cell walls are only found in plant cells. They
are used for structure of the plant cell. Cell
walls support the plant cell when it goes
through turgor. The cell wall is made up of
cellulose, a polysaccharide consisting of
glucose monomer chains. It is located
outside of the plasma membrane.
Boxes are similar to the cell wall as
both of them protect what is inside.
However, boxes can be opened easily,
but cell walls are pretty rigid.
Rough ER (Endoplasmic Recticulum)
Function and location A real world Example
The Rough ER is lined with ribosomes. The rough
ER is tasked with protein synthesis in the cell.
Protein synthesis begins when mRNA lands on a
ribosome on the rough ER. The ribosomes begin
to build a chain of amino acids, and this chain
gets pushed into the cisternal space. The rough
ER is located throughout the cell attached to the
Conveyor belts and the rough ER are similar
as both fix a product as it is going through
the area. While a product is moving down
the conveyor belt, various things are added
to it to make it the finalized version.
However, the conveyor belt doesnt have a
small space like the cisternal space.
Smooth ER
Function and location A real world Example
The smooth ER has no ribosomes on its
surface. It is in charge of synthesis of carbs and
lipids, as well as detox of poisons. It can
transform organic chemicals into a safer
product. The smooth ER is located throughout
the cell like the rough ER.
A hallway in an office building is an
example of the Smooth ER. Information
flows from one department in the office
ends up flowing to the other
departments. This is similar to the RNA
passing through the smooth ER.
However, office hallways cant
synthesize anything, as well as detox
Function and location A real world Example
The golgi is involved in shipping off whatever
comes from the vesicles to the rest of the cell.
The golgi works with the rough ER, packaging
the proteins made within it and creates secretion
vesicles which move throughout the cytoplasm.
The golgi is also in charge of building lysosomes.
It is located near the rough and smooth ER,
bound to the cell membrane.
A post office works like the Golgi as it delivers
products made from other people (phones,
letters, etc.) to the rest of the world. Unlike
the golgi, the post office is not in charge of
building something like the lysosomes.
Function and location A real world Example
The vacuole and the vesicle are both apart of the
endomembrane system. The vacuole is used for storage.
It has a membrane surrounding a mass of fluid that can
hold nutrients or waste products. Plant cells have larger
vacuoles for the purpose to store water. The vacuole is
located in the middle if it is a plant cell.

The vesicle is used for transport within the cytoplasm. It
has fluid enclosed by a bilayer membrane. It is
surrounded by lipids, with the heads water loving and the
tails water fearing. The vesicle is located near the golgi
floating around in the cytoplasm.
The vacuole can be compared to a trash can in
real life, and the vesicle can be compared to a
warehouse in real life. The trash can hold waste
like the vacuole does and has a surrounding to
protect the waste. However, a trash can mainly
holds waste, and not many nutrients.

The vesicle and vacuole both hold important
things, and are able to be transported. The vesicle
transports around the cytoplasm, and the
warehouse transports on the inside. Unlike the
vesicle, the outside of a warehouse cant move
around freely like a vesicle. It only performs the
transport inside.
Large Central Vacuole (Plant Cell only)
Function and location A real world Example
The large central vacuole is only present in the
plant cell. It takes up most of the space in the cell,
which causes the nucleus to be pushed to the side
rather than be in the middle of the cell. The large
central vacuole stores water and helps a plants
volume, as it depends on how much material is in
the vacuole.
Water balloons are similar to the large
central vacuole as both fill up with water,
and can take up space in where theyre
placed. However, water balloons burst
easily. A large central vacuole has to stay
strong in order to support the plant cells
Function and location A real world Example
The lysosome is considered to be the
digestive system of the cell. They break
down waste and worn out organelles via
hydrolysis. Lysosomes use hydrolytic
enzymes to break down the food and
release nutrients. They are located in the
A recycling center can be compared to
a lysosome as both take waste or old,
worn out things and transform them
into new things to use. When you
break down things to be recycled, the
two do not have the same ways of
Centrioles (Animal Cells only)
Function and location A real world Example
Centrioles are only in animal cells, and they are
used in both mitosis (asexual reproduction) and
meiosis (sexual reproduction). They move to
opposite poles of the cell and prepare their
spindle fibers during prophase, and the
chromatids attach to them in metaphase, which
then get pulled apart during anaphase. The
centrioles are located near the nucleus, but you
cant see them when the cell isnt dividing.
A fishing rod can be compared to centrioles
as both reel things in. The centrioles reel in
the single stranded chromatids as the fishing
rod reels in fish. However, a fishing rod isnt
involved with any reproduction and doesnt
divide anything.
Function and location A real world example
Microtubules, along with microfilaments, form
the cytoskeleton of the cell. This means they
provide structure for the cell. Microtubules
also help form cilia and flagella. They are also
used in cell division, being a part of the
centrioles, and are located in the cytoplasm.
Bones and microtubules are similar as they
both can provide structure. Bones form the
structure to our bodies. Otherwise, wed be
jelly. However, bones are not used for
division within our bodies.
Picture Citations
Plasma Membrane:
Solar Panel:
Cell Wall:
Rough ER:
Conveyor Belt:
Smooth ER:
Office Hallway:
Post Office clip art:
Trash Can:
Warehouse clip art:
Large Central Vacuole:
Water Balloons:
Recycling Center:
Fishing Rod: