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Name: Lee Teraoka


Level A Case 2

Heather Age: 8.1 Grade: 3
Directions: Read the STAR Sheets on the possible strategies listed above
(pages 3 & 15-23).

1. Write a summary of each strategy, including its purpose.

Rules are used to provide students with certain expectation in a
classroom. The purpose of creating rules is to help foster a positive, safe, secure
and effective learning environment. When creating rules, the rules must be clear
for students to understand the teachers expectations. Researchers suggest to
set in place around three to five rules for the classroom. Students should be
involved in the rule making process. As teachers we always need to enforce
rules that is followed by the appropriate consequence. Teachers need to be
consistent with their rules so students know rules cannot be broken by anyone.

Contingent instruction
Contingent instruction is an action to stop students from an undesired
action and followed by giving instruction that is desired of the teacher. The
objective of a contingent instruction is to be to the point and private to the specific
person. To be effective in contingent instruction, the teacher must immediately
address the unwanted behavior while it is happening in order for the student to
understand what they are doing is wrong. It is also important to praise a student
for following your request so students know their change in action is noticed. The
teacher also reflects if the contingent instruction is effective and doing its
purpose. If a teacher noticed that there is too much contingent instruction, the
teacher may rethink about adding new classroom rules and consequences.

Group Contingency
Group contingency is grouping up students and providing them a goal for
them to complete. As a teacher we can also implement a consequence if
students are off task or breaking classroom rules. There are 3 types of grouping
contingencies, dependent, independent and interdependent dependent grouping,
student(s) earn a reward by behaving appropriately. Independent grouping, not
all students need to earn the reward in the group, but only students who are able
to exhibit the proper behavior. Interdependent, all group members meet the goal
will receive the reward.

2. Describe why each strategy might be used to help Heather meet one or
more of her goals.

This strategy can help Heather by allowing Heather help contribute to rule
making in the classroom. An activity that involves Heather is creating the
classroom rules as a class. While making the classroom rules, I would pose a
question on Heather. What should we do if we want to speak in class? What
should happen if we break this rule? As a teacher it would be our job to accept
an acceptable rule and consequence. For example, raising our hand and waiting
to be called on before speaking. An example consequence the students could
make is that if they broke that rule they need to give up one of their classroom
money. Incorporating Heather in the rule making process allows Heather to
clearly understand the expectations of the classroom.

Contingent instruction
How this strategy can help Heather is to stop Heather from an undesired
task to a more desired task. For example, Heather constantly talks to her
neighbors during group and independent work. As a teacher you can simply tell
Heather, Heather stop talking to your neighbors and work on your own work. As
you notice that Heather starts to work on her own work, the teacher can come
around a praise Heather by saying, Very nice Heather, I like how youre working
indecently and not talking to your neighbor. Heather also continues to interrupt
others while they are speaking. As a teacher I could tell Heather, Please do not
interrupt while someone is speaking, raise you want to share.

Grouping Contingency
How this strategy can help Heather complete independent work quietly is
provide her with any of the 3 grouping contingency strategies. For dependent and
independent grouping, Heather is accountable for her own self. She does not
need to obtain the group reward if she does not complete her work. The
important aspect is that the reward needs to be meaningful to Heather. Such as if
Heather likes candy, the reward can be candy which will motivate her to finish
her work. Interdependent grouping, Heathers group members will push Heather
to finish her work in order for the entire group to receive the reward. When
creating an interdependent grouping for Heather, the teacher needs to put
Heather in a highly motivated group that wants to get the job done so they can
motivate Heather to finish her part of the work.


Assignment II (25 pts): EARLY READING

Level A Case 3

Greg Age: 6.2 Grade: 1
Directions: Read the STAR sheets for each of the three possible strategies (pp
18-22, & 25-28).

1. Summarize the components of each strategy. Be sure to include how each
strategy will support Greg and what the benefits are to using each strategy.

Independent Practice
Independent practice is where a student practices what they have already
learned. What this looks like in the classroom is learning centers, games,
computer assisted learning, independent reading, and self-correcting materials.
For Greg, repetition through different engaging activates will hopefully bring Greg
up to reading level. Studies who that games are highly motivating and allows
them to apply their learning. I think Greg would benefit from playing games that
has him practice his site words. Understanding that Greg is in the first grade and
is a boy, it is most likely that he is interested in games. During the game, I
wouldnt tell Greg we are working on reading, I would just tell him we are going to
play a game so that he is engaged.

Peer Tutoring
Peer tutoring is allowing students to work with each other to promote
learning. Grouping should be with all different learning levels so that students can
support each other at different levels. Research shows that peer tutoring helps
students that are academically proficient and developing. The teacher needs to
model how peer tutoring looks likes and what kinds of conversations students
should be focused on. This strategy can support Greg because he may be more
comfortable working with a classmate instead of a teacher. Greg will not feel so
intimidated when working a peer, and is more open to a peers point of view.

Repeated Reading
Repeated reading is allowing the student to read material that is familiar to
them and at their reading level. A reading level that is too complex will lead to
frustration and the student not motivated. Through repeated reading, students
will develop fluency skills and comprehension. An important aspect in repeated
reading is that the stories must be interesting to the student or else the student
will lose interest in the story. It is also important to incorporate comprehension
questions after a story has been read. How this strategy can benefit Greg is that
he needs to go through constant practice reading. Again, the books need to be
interesting to Greg or else he will be unmotivated to keep on reading and
practicing. I think once Greg finds a genre of books he likes, he will gravitate to
more books just like that.

2. Upload Fry High Frequency Words handout or click on link or cut/paste to
browser and download Fry List - The First 100 Words.

Group the sight (high-frequency) words into sets of five. Decide which words
you would introduce first, second, and so forth. List five words that will teach


3. Using the first group of five words from your list, select one strategy from the
STAR Sheets and describe an activity from this strategy that would help
Greg meet his goal.

A strategy that I would use for this student is independent practice. The
independent practice I would focus is on a game. Games is engaging for
students participate in. The game that I would use is a game which is a puzzle
that is explained in the article. The games is relating picture cards with a certain
word and also seeing if the pieces of paper match up. The words that I selected
have a common theme where it is a noun and describes a type of person. The
student needs to be able to identify which card matches up with the certain word.
For example, I would put a picture of the student for the word I. That way the
student will be able to recognize who they are in the game.



Level A Case 2

Pablo Age: 10.3 Grade: 5

Directions: Read pages 3 & 15-22

1. Describe each strategy.

Graphic Organizers
Graphic organizers help students organize and display their understanding
from a passage through visual models. There are different types of graphic
organizers such as a word web, story map, and story matrix. A word web helps
students understand vocabulary, synonyms and antonyms. The main idea of the
word web is represented in the middle of the word web. Story maps help with
comprehension from a story by recalling important facts from a story. Story maps
can be used for picture and chapter books. Story Matrix helps readers see the
connections through different chapters. Graphic organizers need to be modeled
over and over with students before allowing them to do it on their own.

Metacognitive strategy
Metacognitive strategy teachers work with the students and ask questions
along during or after the reading. Teachers need to focus on one strategy at a
time. The goal for this strategy is for students to be able to ask comprehension
questions to themselves and answering them. Students should be able to ask
questions before, during, and after the reading. Some aspects of metacognitive
strategy is self-questioning, paraphrasing, predict, organize, search, summarize,
and evaluate.

2. Define literal, evaluative, and inferential comprehension.

Literal Comprehension- comprehension that can be answered directly from the
text given

Evaluative comprehension- comprehension that brings everything together from
the text in order to come up with an answer.

Inferential comprehension- comprehension that is taking hints from the text and
creating an inference from the clues.

3. Describe how each strategy could be used to assist Pablo in achieving his
goals. *Remember, Instructional Level is the level at which a child needs
4. the support of a teacher, parent, or tutor. This is the level where students are
introduced to new vocabulary and is where the greatest progress in reading

Graphic Organizers
A graphic organizer can help Pablo by organizing his thoughts. The Pablo
will be guided through this process of filling out an appropriate graphic organizer.
I would use the Story map because Pablos write up said he needs to work on
comprehension because the worksheet is engaging and each component is
sectioned off so students can clearly understand. With Pablo, the goal is for him
to work his way up to story matrix which deals with chapter books and much hard
text to follow. Once Pablo is done with the story matrix, he will be able to
understand the flow of the story.

Metacognitive Strategy
A metacognitive strategy that I would use on Pablo is POSSE (predict,
organize, search, summarize, and evaluate) this will engage Pablo in many
different reading strategies for him to better comprehend the text. Predicting is
powerful because is access students prior knowledge, and is a way for students
to read carefully to see if their prediction is correct. Pablo would then organize
facts and events which would help him understand the order of events. Then
Pablo can search and summarize main ideas from the reading to get an overall
view of what he just read. Then Pablo can evaluate what he just read and bring
everything together. Pablo going through this practice of POSSE will allow him to
understand the flow of the text and comprehend main ideas and valuable


Assignment IV (25 pts): NORMS AND EXPECTATIONS

Level A Case 2

Class of 23 students Grade: 3

Directions: Read the Case Study Set Introduction (2-3) and the STAR sheets
on each of the three possible strategies (14-20).

1. Give one suggestion from each strategy that may be helpful to Mr. English
in meeting the goals for his class.

Classroom rules for behavior
Mr. English can set rules and procedures. The problem that Mr. English is
facing is that students are not behaving when they coming back from their
tutoring. A routine should be set in place for these students how they should be
coming back to the classroom. For example, Mr. English can set a routine when
the students come back, they must come back quietly, put their work away and
silent read or do homework until lunch. Consequence for not following this
routine will result in practicing during lunch what the routine looks like. Rules
should be in place in the classroom to see, and all students should be
accountable to follow those rules.

Constant support of expectations
Mr. English has consistently enforce his rules to the classroom and not let
anyone get by. Once a student understand that he can get away with an
undesired action, the likelihood that he will repeat that action is highly. Mr.
English needs to remember to use his authority and take control of his
classroom. Mr. English needs to be fair with all his students, and expect the
same behavior from all his students. What is important for Mr. English is to
support positive actions. If one of the SPED students does follow the routine
when coming in class, Mr. English should provide a positive praise so that the
student knows their actions are being noticed.

Reevaluating classroom routines
If Mr. English realizes that his routines and expectations are not being
followed, its his responsibility to change something. If students dont find the
consequence as bad, then Mr. English should adapt the consequence that is
more meaningful to the student. For example if the student still comes in noisy
and disrupts the class and doesnt care about the consequence, change the
consequence. Change the consequence into something that the students love,
like taking away their field trip privileges. Students love field trips. Explain to
students that field trips are earned, not given. If students are not able to behave
during class, they are not allowed to come on field trips.