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Lesson Plan

Math Level 1
Addition and Subtraction 0-10
By Janice Enquist
Overview: The goal of this lesson is to place a permanent mental and digital picture of the math facts and values of
digits added or subtracted between 0-10.
Objectives: Students will be able to “automatically” do mental math when adding or subtracting digits between 010. There will be a picture in their mind of what it takes to fill a value of ten and how many are missing when it is
less than 10. They will have a timed, multiple choice, drill for an assessment.
Vocabulary: Addition, Subtraction, Sum, Difference
Time: 60 minutes
Materials:

1. A rainbow of 0-10
2. 10 pennies/pair of children
3. Flash cards of 10 circles, each card with a different amount filled in representing a number.
Cards marked with squares & triangles
4. UNO cards to play an “Equal 10” game
5. Drill Sheet with about 50 multiple choice problems in this range.

Presentation:
1 First we will talk about fingers and toes. Everyone will hold up their 10 fingers. We will talk about
how many are left if we take one hand away. And then, how many are left when we put one finger
down, etc. After an oral drill, they will practice with their buddy.

2

Activity:

Teacher will line up pennies in two rows of 5 pennies to display with an overhead projector. We will
take one penny away and recite the total and then add it back and recite the total. Then we will take
two and three in the same manner. Then we will divide the pennies into two squares and two left over.
This will show them the pattern of 4 in a square, 3 in a triangle, 2 in a small rectangle, a square plus
one = 5, a square plus a rectangle = 6, a square plus a triangle = 7. Two squares = 8, and two squares
and one = 9. This way, they can discontinue counting to ten by just looking for shapes.

Pair children to practice with 10 pennies on a table. They will copy and practice the same drill that
Teacher showed them, taking turns.
Presentation:
Children will gather on the rug for a card drill. Teacher will show them cards with dots or black
circles. On each card some circles will be filled in and some not. The value of the card is according to the circles that
are filled in. (I have these cards already. It is difficult to illustrate them in this setting.) The students must instantly
call out the amount on each card with practice. Then we will put two cards together. First, we will have a “one” card.
We will place other cards with it so it will be: 1+2= 1+8= 1+4= etc. Then we will take a “two” card and add it
with all the other cards. Since we are not doing “11+” yet, we will make sure that no cards add up to more than 10.
During this presentation, teacher will say “sum” and “difference” repeatedly instead of the “answer.” Then she will
teach the children to use those words.

Activity:
Make groups of five children to drill each other with cards. Put an advanced student in each group to hold
up the cards.

Presentation:
With the help of an overhead projector, teacher will color this rainbow in rainbow colors. Then she will
place each number 0-5 and 5-10 at the bottom of each rainbow, above the clouds. Then she will show the children
how to add each “bow” to equal 10. 0 + 10, 1 + 9, etc. After coloring and giving an oral drill, each child will receive
their own rainbow to color.

Activity:
They will write numbers in order like the teacher did. They will practice “adding” and
“subtracting” using their rainbow.
Presentation:
The children will now gather in front of the white board. Teacher will transfer the concept of
circles and rainbows to digits. She will write 1 + 9 on the board. The children will add it and call out “10.” She will
do a number of “problems” calling on different children to answer, to assess their comprehension.
Presentation: UNO Pairs of 10
Game: Take a deck of UNO cards. Take out all the zeros and other cards that are not number cards. Use
only number cards from 1-9. Shuffle the cards well. Deal 5 cards to each player and set the draw pile upside down in
the center. Have students look through their “hand” to see if they have any pairs that equal 10. If they do, they take
that pair and lay it beside them face up. Then, one person begins by asking for a card from someone that will match
one of their cards. For example: if they have a “1” card, they will ask for a “9” card. If the person doesn’t have a
“9”, they will draw from the draw pile one card. If they draw a “9” they can place it beside them with its pair “1”.
Go around the circle, each person asking for a card that will match one of theirs to make 10. Each player gets only
one “ask.” Go around the circle until someone has no cards. The game is over. Everyone counts their “pairs.” The
one with the most pairs of 10 is the Winner.

Assessment:
When the teacher is satisfied that they “get it,” she will give them a pencil/paper drill. On it will be for example:
1+9= a. 2 b. 9 c. 10
10 – 2= a. 4 b. 7 c. 8

Summary and Review: By the time this lesson is over, the teacher should be able to play an oral game or visual
game with anything. If she holds up one pencil and says, “How many do pencils do I need to make a 10?” The
children should quickly call out “9.” It would be good to practice this daily until mastered. The rainbow 10 activity
and the UNO Game of 10 can be introduced to parents to practice at home.
Standards: Alaska Content Standards
Mathematics: A student who meets the content standard should:
1) understand and use numeration, including
a. numbers, number systems, counting numbers, whole numbers,
integers, fractions, decimals, and percents; and
b. irrationals and complex numbers;
Alaska Grade Level Expectations
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
• Represent and solve problems involving
addition and subtraction.
• Understand and apply properties of
operations and the relationship between
addition and subtraction.
• Add and subtract up to 20.
• Work with addition and subtraction equations.
• Identify and continue patterns.