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Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

ElectronicCircuitII
Chap3PowerElectronics
DCDCConverters
Instructor:
AjayKumarKadel
KathmanduEngineeringCollege
CourseHomepage
www.courses.esmartdesign.com
DCDCconverters

ElectronicCircuitII

DCDCConversion

Choppers:Convertstheunregulated
unregulatedDCinput
DCinput
toacontrolledDCoutput
controlledDCoutput withadesired
voltagelevel
DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

DCDCconversioncontd
Earlier,DCDCconverterswerecalledchoppers
Inmodernpowerelectronics,chopperrefers
tohighpowerDCDCconverters&SMPS
(switchingregulators)referstolowpowerDC
DCconverters
ApplicationsofDCDCconverters:
Applications of DCDC converters:
Switchedmodepowersupply(SMPS),DCmotor
control,batterychargers
DCDCconverters

ElectronicCircuitII

LinearRegulatorsReview
Earlier,thelinearregulatorsweretheonly
reliablemethodstomeetalldcrequirements
li bl
th d t
t ll d
i
t
LinearRegulatorProblems
itssizeandweight
Largepowerdissipation&Lowefficiency
Limitedtolowpowerapplications
Limited to low power applications

DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

Example(LinearRegulator)
Transistoroperated
in linear or active
inlinearoractive
region
Outputvoltage,
Vo=VinVce

High
Highpowerlossin
power loss in
BJT
Lowefficiency
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
DCDCconverters

ElectronicCircuitII

SwitchingRegulators
Cameintoexistencewiththeadventofpower
semiconductor devices
semiconductordevices
thesemiconductordevicesareeitherfullyswitchedonor
fullyswitchedoff
Lowpowerconsumptionduetolowervoltagedropacross
thesemiconductordevice
g
c e cy
HighEfficiency
Swichedon/offathighfrequencysotherelativesize and
weight ofthecomponentsneededforitsdesignis
comparativelysmall
DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

SwitchingRegulatorscontd..
Transistoroperatedinswitched
mode
x Switchclosed:Fullyon
(
(saturated)
d)
x Switchopened:Fullyoff(cut
off)
x Whenswitchisopen,no
currentflowsthroughit
x Whenswitchisclosedno
voltagedropacrossit
Foranidealswitchpowerlossis
zerosinceP=VI
Practically,thelossisverysmall
DCDCconverters

ElectronicCircuitII

SwitchingRegulatorscontd...
Thehighvoltageripplecanbecontrolledbyplacinga
capacitoracrosstheload
The capacitor is large enough so that its voltage does not
Thecapacitorislargeenoughsothatitsvoltagedoesnot
haveanynoticeablechangeduringthetimetheswitchis
off
Circuitcanbeoptimizedbyplacinganinductorinseriesto
limitthecurrentrush
Problem: Sincethecurrentintheinductorcannot
changesuddenly,wehavetoprovideatleastonemore
switch,suchasafreewheelingdiode,toprovideapath
fortheinductorcurrentwhentheswitchisoff(open)
DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

SwitchingRegulatorscontd...
Insummary,agooddctodcconvertermayhave,an
inductor,acapacitor,afreewheelingdiodeandan
electronicswitch.
Theplacementoftheseelementsinacircuitdictatesthe
The placement of these elements in a circuit dictates the
performanceofthecircuit.
Thethreeconfigurationsthatutilizethesecircuitelements
are:
a) BuckConverter(loweringtheoutputvoltage,step
downapplication),
b) BoostConverter(raisingtheoutputvoltage,step
upapplication),and
c) BuckBoostConverter(loweringorraisingthe
outputvoltage,stepdownorstepupapplication)
DCDCconverters

ElectronicCircuitII

Choppers
DCDCconvertersusedinhighpowerapplications
Equivalenttotransformersinac
Byswitchingonlyafractionofpoweris
transferred
Classification
StepDownchopper
Step Down chopper
StepUpchopper

DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

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Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

StepDownChopper

i0
t=0
SW

+
VS
-

Average output vol tage


t

1 1
t
Va = v 0 dt = 1 Vs = kVs
T0
T
Average load current
Ia =

+
v0

v0

Vs

t1

t2
kT

0
i
Vs/R

Va kVs
=
R
R

t1

t2
kT

T is the chopping period


k is duty cycle of chopper
f is the chopping frequency
DCDCconverters

ElectronicCircuitII

11

StepDownChoppercontd..
rms output voltage

+
VS

12

1 kT 2

V0 = v 0 dt = k Vs
T 0

For lossless converter PIN = POUT


kT

1
1
PIN = v 0idt =
T 0
T

kT

v 02
Vs2
=
dt
k
0 R
R

Effective input resistance seen by source


V
Vs
R
Ri = s =
=
I a k Vs R k

DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

i0
t=0
SW

+
v0

v0

Vs

t1

0
i
Vs/R
0

t2
kT

t1

T
t2

kT

T is the chopping period


k is duty cycle of chopper
f is the chopping frequency
ElectronicCircuitII

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Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

StepDownChoppercontd..
For lossy converter
kT

PIN =

1
1
Vsidt =
T 0
T

POUT =

1
T

kT

2
0

kT

v
1
0 R idt = T

Vs (Vs VSW )
V (V VSW )
dt = k s s
R
R
kT

(Vs VSW )2 dt = k (Vs VSW )2


R

Dutycyclecanbevariedfrom0to1byvaryingt1,Torf
OutputvoltageV0 canbevariedform0toVs byvaryingk
Powerflowcanbecontrolledby
Constantfrequencyoperation:forTiskeptconstantandt
f
i
f
i k
d 1 isvaried
i
i d
pulsewidthmodulation
Variablefrequencyoperation:t1 ort2 iskeptconstantandfisvaried.
Operationneedstobecarriedoutoverwiderange.Generatesharmonics
andunpredictablefrequencies
DCDCconverters

ElectronicCircuitII

13

StepDownChopper(withRLload)
Operationin2modes
Mode1 switchisclosed&current
flows from supply to load (0 kT)
flowsfromsupplytoload(0kT)
Mode2 switchisopen&current
continuestoflowthoughfreewheeling
diodeDM (kTT)
Assumecurrent&voltagerises/falls
linearly
Actuallycurrentrises/fallsexponentially
Actually current rises/falls exponentially
withtimeconstant=L/R
If isverylargecomparedtoswitching
periodT,linearassumptioncanbe
made
DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

i
+

t=0 +
SW

VS

v0
-

Vs

DM

L
E

v0

t1

t2
kT

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Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

StepDownConverterWithRLLoad
For mode 1, 0 t t1 (= kT)

Vs

Prove
di
Vs = Ri1 + L 1 + E
dt
tR
tR
V E
(1 e L )
i1 (t) = I1e L + s
R
At t = t1 = kT i1 (t = t1 ) = I 2

t1

i1

VS
-

di 2
+E
dt
tR
tR
E
L
i 2 (t) = I 2 e + (1 e L ) Q i 2 (t = 0) = I 2
R
At t = t 2 = (1 k)T i 2 (t = t 2 ) = I3

I2

I1

i1
kT

i2
1-kT
kT

i2
R

DM

L
E

0 = Ri 2 + L

t2
kT

For mode 2, 0 t t 2 (= (1 k)T)

DCDCconverters

v0

t
T

i
I2
i1

i2
kT

t
T

ElectronicCircuitII

15

StepDownConverterWithRLLoad
Attheendofmode2converteristurnedONagaininthenextcycle,after
timeT=t1+t2
UndersteadystateconditionI1=I3

I 2 = I1e

kTR
L

V E
+ s
(1 e
R
(1- k)TR
L

kTR
L

(1- k)TR
E
(1 e L )
R
Solving these two equations

I 3 = I1 = I 2 e

kTR
Vs e L 1 E
I1 = TR

R L
R
e 1
DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

kTR
Vs e L 1 E
I 2 = TR

R L
R
1
e
ElectronicCircuitII

16

Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

StepDownConverterWithRLLoad
Peaktopeakcurrentisgivenby,I=I2I1
V 1- e
I = s
R

kTR
L

+e

TR
L

(1- k)TR
L

TR

1- e L
For maximum ripple,
d(I)
=0
k

Vs
TR kTR
TR (1-k)TR
L

0+
e
e L =0
+0
TR

L
L

R 1 - e L

kTR
(1- k)TR

TR kTR
TR (1-k)TR
e L
e L =0 e L =e L
L
L
k = 1 k k = 1
2
DCDCconverters
ElectronicCircuitII

17

StepDownConverterWithRLLoad
I max

I max =

V 1- e
= s
R

Vs
R

TR
2L

+e
1- e

TR
L

TR
L

TR
2L

V 1 - 2e 2fL + e
= s
R

R
1 - e fL

R
fL

R
1 - e 2fL
+ e 2fL

= Vs
= Vs 1 - e 2fL
R
2
R

R R 2 R

2fL
2fL
2fL
1
e
+

1 - e
1 - e

1 - 2e

R
2fL

R
R

4fL

R
4fL
e
e

sinh

V
= Vs
4fL = Vs ttanhh R
I max = s R R

R 4fL 4fL
R
R R
4fL
4fL
cosh

e e + e
4fL

V
for 4fL >> R tanh I max = s
4fL

R
4fL

DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

18

Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

StepDownConverterWithRLLoad

Fordiscontinuouscurrentflow
lowfrequency,lowoutputcurrent&largeofftime
CurrentcontinuousifL/R>>TorLf>>T
FordiscontinuouscurrentI1=0

-tR
Vs E
i (t) =
(1 e L )
1
R
I2 =

but at t = kT, i1 (t) = I 2

kTR
Vs E
(1 e L )
R

- tR E
- tR
L
i (t) = I e
+ (1 e L ) for 0 t t
2
2
2
R
i 2 (t = t 2 ) = I 3 = I1 = 0

kTR

L RI 2 L Vs E
L

ln1 +
=
+

ln
1
1
e

R
E R
E

DCDCconverters

t2 =

19

StepUpConverter
Switchclosedfortimet1
Inductorcurrentrisesandenergyisstored
Switchopenfortimet2
Energytransferredtoloadthroughdiode
Energy transferred to load through diode
VoltageacrosstheinductorwhenONis

di
dt
Peak to peak current in the inductor is
V
I = s t1
L
Average output voltage
VL = L

V0 = Vs + L
DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

t
I
1
= Vs 1 + 1 = Vs
t2
1 k
t2
ElectronicCircuitII

+
Vs
-

iL

i
L

D1

VL

CL

Load

+
V0
-

i
I2
I1
5

i1
t1

i2
t2

V0/Vs

4
3
2
1
k
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
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Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

StepUpConverter

Capacitorconnectedoutputisaveraged
Voltagecanbevariedbyvaryingk
As k increases sensitivity decreases
Askincreasessensitivitydecreases
Convertercannotworkcontinuouslyfork=1
Canbeusedtotransfervoltageformonesource
toanother
Whenswitchisclosed(mode1)

di1
dt
V
i1 (t) = S t + I1 I1 Initial current for mode 1
L
The current must rise,

+
Vs
-

D1

VL

CL

Load

+
V0
-

V0/Vs

5
4
3
2
1

VS = L

iL

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1


+
Vs
-

iL

i
L

+
E

D1

VL

di1
> 0 or VS > 0
dt

DCDCconverters

ElectronicCircuitII

21

StepUpConverter
Whenswitchisopen(mode2)

+
Vs
-

di
VS = L 2 + E
dt
V E
i 2 (t) = S
t + I 2 I 2 Initial current for mode 2
i
L
I
2
The current must fall for stable operation,
i1
di
I1
2 < 0 or VS < E
t1
dt

iL

i
L

+
E

D1

VL

i2
t2
kT

t
T

For controllable power transfer 0<VS<E

DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

22

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Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

StepUpConverterWithResistiveLoad

Whenswitchisclosed(mode1)

di1
dt
V
i1 (t) = S t + I1 for 0 t kT
L
V
I 2 = i1 (t = kT) = S kT + I1
L
VS = L

+
Vs

D1

VL

+
E-

i
I2

When switch is open (mode 2)

di 2
I1
+E
dt
tR
tR

V E
1 - e L + I 2 e L for 0 t (1 - k)T
i 2 (t) = S

i1
t1

VS = Ri 2 + L

I1 = i 2 (t = (1 - k)T) =

iL

i2
t2

(1- k)TR
(1- k)TR

VS E
1 - e L + I 2 e L

DCDCconverters

ElectronicCircuitII

23

StepUpConverterWithResistiveLoad
By solving the equations
+
Vs

(1- k)TR
L

V kT e
V E
I1 = S
+ S
(1- k)TR
L
R
1 e L
V kT
V E
1
I2 = S
+ S
(1- k)TR
L
R
1 e L
The ripple current is given by
V kT
I = I 2 -I1 = S
L

DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

iL

i
L

D1

VL

+
E-

i
I2
I1

i1
t1

i2
t2

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Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

ChopperClassification
Onthebasisofpowerflow,i.e.onthebasisof
currentandvoltageflowschopperscanbe
dividedinto
Firstquadrantconverter(ClassA)
Secondquadrantconverter(ClassB)
First&secondquadrantconverter(ClassC)
Third&fourthquadrantconverter(ClassD)
Fourquadrantconverter(ClassE)
vL
-IL 0

IL i L

-IL

vL

-IL

iL

Third & Fourth

DCDCconverters

iL

Second

vL
VL

IL i L

-VL

-VL
First & Second

VL

-IL 0

VL

IL

IL i L

First

vL

vL
VL

vL
VL

Four-quadrant

IL i L
-VL

Class D

ElectronicCircuitII

25

ChopperClassificationcontd..
FirstQuadrantConverter
Currentflowsintotheload
Voltage&currentpositive
Voltage & current positive
SingleQuadrantconverter
Actsasarectifier

iS
VS

iL
S1

+
VL
-

iL
I2

SecondQuadrantConverter
Currentflowsoutoftheload
Loadvoltagepositive
LoadCurrentNegative
SingleQuadrantconverter
Actsasaninverter
BatteryEispartoftheload
DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

I1

0
VL
VS

ElectronicCircuitII

t
kT

(1+k)T

26

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Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

ChopperClassification
SecondQuadrantConverterOperation
WhenswitchS1 isONvoltageEdrives
currentthroughinductor
g
VoltageVL becomeszero

iS

iL
S1

VS

+
VL
-

iL

di
0 = L L + Ri L + E
dt
R
R
t
t
E
i L = I1e L 1 e L for 0 t kT
R

i L (t = 0) = I1 i L (t = kT) = I 2

I2
I1

0
VL
VS

DCDCconverters

kT

(1+k)T

ElectronicCircuitII

27

ChopperClassification
SecondQuadrantConverterOperation
WhenswitchS1 isOFFenergystoredin
inductorisreturnedtosupplyV
pp y S via
diodeD
iL
CurrentiL falls

iS
VS

iL
S1

+
VL
-

I2
di L
+ Ri L + E
I1
dt
0
R
R
t
t

V
E
1 e L for kT t T
i L = I 2e L S
VL
R

VS
i L (t = kT) = I 2
Steady-state

VS = L

i L (t = T) = I1 continuous current

i L (t = T) = 0 dis - continuous current


DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

t
kT

(1+k)T

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14

Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

ChopperClassification
vL
S1
VS

D1

iL

VL

R
-IL 0

+
S2

VL
-

D2

IL i L

First & Second

First&SecondQuadrantConverter
Loadcurrentiseitherpositiveornegative
Loadvoltageisalwayspositive
S1 &D
& D2 operateasfirstquadrantconverter
operate as first quadrant converter
S2 &D1 operateassecondquadrantconverter
Firingofbothswitchedmustnotoccurtogethertopreventshort
circuit
Canoperateasarectifierorinverter
DCDCconverters

ElectronicCircuitII

29

ChopperClassification
vL

VS

L
+

iL
VL

D1
E
-D

S1

S2

-IL

IL
0

iL
-V
VL

Third & Fourth

Third&FourthQuadrantConverter
Loadcurrentiseitherpositiveornegative
Loadvoltageisalwaysnegative
S1 &D2 operatetoyieldbothnegativevoltageandloadcurrent
WhenS1 isclosedanegativecurrentflowsthroughtheload
WhenS1 isopencurrentfreewheelsthoughtdiodeD2
DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

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15

Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

ChopperClassification
vL

VS

iL

D1

E
-D

VL

S1

S2

-IL

IL
0

iL
-V
VL

Third & Fourth

Third&FourthQuadrantConverter
S2 &D1 operatetoyieldnegativevoltageandpositiveload
current
WhenS
Wh S2 isclosedapositivecurrentflowsthroughtheload
i l d
iti
t fl
th
h th l d
WhenS2 isopencurrentfreewheelsthoughtdiodeD1
Thisisanegativetwoquadrantconverter
Canoperateasarectifierorinverter
DCDCconverters

ElectronicCircuitII

31

ChopperClassification
vL
VS

S1

iL

E
D2 +

VL

VL

D1

0
-S2

IL i L
-V
VL

Class D

ClassDConverter
Theloadvoltageisalwayspositive
Theloadcurrentiseitherpositiveornegative
S1 &S2 operatetoyieldpositivevoltageandloadcurrent
D1 &D2 operatetoyieldpositiveloadcurrentandnegative
voltage
Canoperateasarectifierorinverter
DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

ElectronicCircuitII

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Chapter 3 Power Electronics

6/13/2009

ChopperClassification
S1
VS
S4

D1

D4

iL
+

R
VL

S3
E
- S
2

S1(modulating),
S4(modulating), D2 S2 (continuously ON)

D3

D2

S3(modulating),
(mod lating)
S2(modulating),
( d l ti ) D4
S4 (continuously ON)
D3, D4
S4, D2

FourQuadrantConverter
Loadcurrentiseitherpositiveornegative
Loadvoltageiseitherpositiveornegative
Onefirst&secondquadrantconverter
andonethird&fourthquadrant
converterjoinedtoformfourquadrant
converter
DCDCconverters

Instructor: Ajay Kumar Kadel

S2, D4

D1, D2

ElectronicCircuitII

VL
Inverting Rectifying
VL+ve IL VL+ve IL
-ve
+ve
Rectifying Inverting
VL -ve
VL -ve IL
IL -ve
-ve

IL

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