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World Cultures

Name: Gianna Rocca

Block 2

Unit III: Southeast Asia, Oceania and Austrialia

SOUTHEAST ASIA [Page 705 709]


A Long History of Diversity:

In a paragraph, explain how the early history [prior to 1000 AD] was highly
Early history in Southeast Asia was highly diversified due to the many cultures that have had an influence.
Since ancient times, many cultures have influenced Southeast Asia. Likewise, China and India both have
made an impact. Since China ruled northern Vietnam, Chinese art, technology, political ideas, and ethical
beliefs shaped Vietnams culture. In addition, there was a spread of religious beliefs. Hinduism and
Buddhism have spread from India and influenced religion and art in Southeast Asia.
How was the area of Southeast Asia organized and governed during their early
Southeast Asia was organized during its early history by mandalas, which are states organized as rings of
power around a central court. This is because early Southeast Asian states didnt have set borders. Southeast
Asia was governed by the Khmer Empire, which was a powerful mandala that lasted roughly from the 9th to the
15th centuries.
How did this change from 1300-1800?
This changed in the years from 1300 to 1800 due to development of Southeast Asia. Instead of where
Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Java, and the Malay Peninsula are located today, five power states previously
existed. Those five states were similar to mandalas but were larger and more complex. Also, during that period,
the Burmese, the Vietnamese, and Thai, and the Javanese each began to define their national identities.
Colonialism and its aftermath
What is colonialism?
Colonialism is the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country,
occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
What was the only country in the region that wasnt a colony?
Siam (now Thailand)
Identify and explain the three ways colonialism changed Southeast Asia.
Centralized, bureaucratic governments were set routines and regulations were created by colonialism.
Commodities were produced by the colonies to help the European economy.
Colonialism sparked nationalism.
Skillbuilder: Interpreting Maps [p. 706] -- Answer #1 and #2
The British and the French colonies.
New Guinea.
What changes came to Southeast Asia during WWII?
Independence and leadership roles came to Southeast Asia during WWII.
How was control of the area in Southeast Asia by Japan different than
European control?
Unlike European control, the Japanese put Southeast Asians in leadership roles. This gave them valuable
After WWII, Southeast Asia gained their independence differently. Briefly
explain this statement with examples.

Southeast Asian leaders were the ones who sought independence. In addition, Southeast Asia gained their
independence peacefully whereas other nations like Indonesia had to fight for years to gain their independence
from the Dutch.
An Uneven Economy
Southeast Asia has a traditional economy. Explain that statement with
specific examples to back it up.
Southeast Asia has a traditional economy because agriculture is the main source of livelihood. Despite how
there is industrialization upon several nations in Southeast Asia, industry is unevenly distrusted across the
region. Furthermore, there is in fact a lack of industry and much political turmoil.
What is ASEAN? How has it helped to create a region within a region?
ASEAN is the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. This organization is an alliance that promotes economic
growth and peace in the region. ASEAN has helped create a region within a region because it has highly
developed the economies that are members.
A Rich Mosaic of Culture
How is this area a mosaic of religions? Identify the different religions and
where they are practiced.
This area is a mosaic of religions because it has much religious diversity. Likewise, Buddhism is widespread
in the region, while the Philippines is mostly Catholic, as a result of Spanish rule. Indonesia and Brunei is
mostly Muslim. Also, some Southeast Asians practice Hinduism, and others follow traditional local beliefs.
Are there more rural or urban communities in this area?
Despite how there are a growing number of people that are moving to urban areas and leading more modern
lives, most Southeast Asians live in rural villages and follow traditional ways.
Interpret the picture of page 709. What does this scene show about diversity
in Malaysia?
This scene shows much diversity since there are people wearing Western clothes as well as traditional Muslim
OCEANIA [P. 711-715]

Identify these terms and explain their importance in the region:

Micronesia- Tiny Islands
Melanesia- Black Islands
Polynesia- Many Islands
Subsistence activities- Where families work to produce their own food, clothes, and shelter them themselves
need rather than wages.
e. Copra- Dried meat of coconuts.
f. Taro- A major crop that is a plant with a starchy root.
2. What type of migration is happening within Oceania today?
An increasing number of people in the Pacific Islands are moving to cities to find jobs.
3. How did contact with Europeans and Americans affect the societies of the Pacific Islands?
The contact with the Europeans and Americans disrupted the islanders traditional ways of life. As result of
contact, island societies began to decline.
4. What is distinctive about Oceania in terms of its languages?
In terms of its languages, Oceania is one of the most linguistically diverse regions in the world; therefore, some
1,100 of the worlds languages are spoken there.
5. How has modern technology both helped and harmed Oceania?

Modern technology such as communication systems has helped Oceania by unifying countries consisting of
scattered island groups as well as link Oceania to the rest of the world. In contrast, modern technology has harmed
Oceanias culture since city dwellers are giving up their traditional ways of life.
1. What prevents Australia from benefiting completely from its mining industry?
The fact that it is expensive to build roads and buildings necessary for mines to operate is a difficulty that prevents
Australia from benefiting completely from its mining industry.
2. What historic actions demonstrated New Zealanders concern for equal rights and social welfare?
Historic actions such as how New Zealand became the first country to grant women the right to vote demonstrate
concern for equal rights and social welfare. It was also one of the first nations to provide pensions for its citizens.
3. What is the major activity conducted in Antarctica?
Scientific research is a major activity conducted in Antarctica. This is because twenty nations have research
facilities stationed there.