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BENGKEL KIMIA GOMBAK 2014

The Importance of
Chemical Equations

01/04/16

Prepared By
Sir HONG BOON LIANG

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Cations (Positive Ions)
Ionic Formula

Ion Name

Ionic Formula

Ion Name

NH4+

Ammonium ion

Ca2+

Calcium ion

K+

Potassium ion

Sn2+

Tin(II) ion

Na+

Sodium ion

Cu2+

Copper(II) ion

Ag+

Silver ion

Fe2+

Iron(II) ion

H+

Hydrogen ion

Pb2+

Lead(II) ion

Li+

Lithium ion

Mn2+

Manganese(II) ion

Mg2+

Magnesium ion

Al3+

Aluminium ion

Zn2+

Zinc ion

Fe3+

Iron(III) ion

Ba2+

Barium ion

Cr3+

Chromium(III) ion
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Anions (Negative Ions)
Ionic Formula

Ion Name

Ionic Formula

Ion Name

F-

Fluoride ion

ClO3-

Chlorate(V) ion

Cl-

Chloride ion

CO32-

Carbonate ion

Br-

Bromide ion

O2-

Oxide ion

I-

Iodide ion

S2-

Sulphide ion

OH-

Hydroxide ion

SO42-

Sulphate ion

NO3-

Nitrate ion

S2O32-

Thiosulphate ion

NO2-

Nitrite ion

Cr2O72-

Dichromate(VI) ion

MnO4-

Manganate(VII) ion

CrO42-

Chromate(VI) ion

CH3COO-

Ethanoate ion

PO43-

Phosphate ion
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com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Chemical Formula of ionic compounds Ionic Compound Name Chemical Formula Sodium oxide Na2O Potassium manganate(VII) KMnO4 Aluminium nitrate Al(NO3)3 Calcium chloride CaCl2 Sodium nitrite NaNO2 Copper(II) carbonate CuCO3 Ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 Iron(II) phosphate Fe3(PO4)2 Potassium dichromate(VI) K2Cr2O7 4 http://www.facebook.

facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Chemical Formula of ionic compounds How many Chemical Formula of ionic compounds do you have? 18 Cations 18 Anions 324 Chemical Formula 5 http://www.

Classify Chemical Formula into 7 groups Group 1 .facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Acids (H+) Chemical Formula HF Compound Name Hydrofluoric acid HCl HBr Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid H2CrO4 Chromic(VI) acid HNO3 Nitric acid CH3COOH Ethanoic acid H2CO3 Carbonic acid H2SO4 Sulphuric acid H3PO4 Phosphoric acid 6 http://www.

Classify Chemical Formula into 7 groups Group 2 .facebook.Alkalis (OH-) .com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Bases that soluble in water Chemical Formula Compound Name NaOH Sodium hydroxide solution KOH Potassium hydroxide solution LiOH Lithium hydroxide solution Ca(OH)2 Calcium hydroxide solution Ba(OH)2 Barium hydroxide solution NH4OH Ammonium hydroxide solution Only 6 alkalis 7 http://www.

& O2-) .com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.Classify Chemical Formula into 7 groups Group 3 .Bases (OH.Insoluble in water (Solid) Chemical Formula Mg(OH)2 Compound Name Magnesium hydroxide Pb(OH)2 Lead(II) hydroxide Al(OH)3 Aluminium hydroxide ZnO CuO Zinc oxide Copper(II) oxide K2O Potassium oxide PbO SnO Lead(II) oxide Tin(II) oxide Fe2O3 Iron(III) oxide 8 http://www.

Insoluble in water (Solid. NH4+) Chemical Formula Compound Name CaCO3 Calcium carbonate MgCO3 Magnesium carbonate ZnCO3 Zinc carbonate PbCO3 Lead(II) carbonate CuCO3 Copper(II) carbonate Ag2CO3 Silver carbonate FeCO3 Iron(II) carbonate 9 http://www.Metal carbonate (CO32-) . except K+. Na+.facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Classify Chemical Formula into 7 groups Group 4 .

& I-) Chemical Formula KBr Compound Name Potassium bromide NaI NaF Sodium iodide Sodium fluoride MgCl2 Magnesium chloride NaCl ZnBr2 Sodium chloride Zinc bromide FeCl3 Iron(III) chloride NH4I Ammonium iodide KI Potassium iodide 10 http://www. Br.Classify Chemical Formula into 7 groups Group 5 .Metal halide (F-.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group . Cl-.facebook.

Metal nitrate (NO3-) Chemical Formula Compound Name KNO3 Potassium nitrate Mg(NO3)2 Magnesium nitrate NH4NO3 Ammonium nitrate Zn(NO3)2 Zinc nitrate Al(NO3)3 Aluminium nitrate LiNO3 Lithium nitrate 11 http://www.Classify Chemical Formula into 7 groups Group 6 .facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .

Classify Chemical Formula into 7 groups Group 7 .facebook. Group 5. Group 6) Chemical Formula Compound Name PbSO4 Lead(II) sulphate CaCrO4 Calcium chromate(VI) ZnS Zinc sulphide K2S2O3 Potassium thiosulphate AlPO4 Aluminium phosphate FeSO4 Iron(II) sulphate 12 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Salts (Include Group 4.

facebook.Flow chart of equations Chemical Equation Describe a chemical reaction and give the number of moles of the reactants and products.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group . 13 http://www. Ionic Equation Find the particles involve in the chemical reaction. (Atoms / Molecules / Ions) 2 x Half Equations Show the transfer of electrons and change in oxidation number of the reactants.

facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .CHEMISTRY SPM 2014 TARGET SPM Marks SPM Marks Paper 1 40 Paper 1 38 75 Paper 2 60 40 Paper 3 78 Total 68 SPM Marks Paper 1 45 Paper 2 Paper 3 Total A YOU CAN DO IT Paper 2 Paper 3 A- A+ Total 38 85 40 85 14 http://www.

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Acid + Metal  Salt + Hydrogen gas Electrochemical Series Kami K Cu + HNO3  No Reaction NakNa Copper is less electropositive than Cari Ca hydrogen. Mangkuk Mg Decreasing Aluminium Al order of ZonZn electropositivity Felipina Fe Saya Sn Pandai Pb Metal which is more electropositive can Hisap (H) attract negative ions from an aqueous Cuka Cu Apple Ag solution of a less electropositive metal.facebook. 15 http://www.

Acid + Metal  Salt + Hydrogen gas Sulphuric acid reacts with magnesium Chemical equation H2SO4 + Mg  MgSO4 + H2 Ionic equation 2H+ + Mg  Mg2+ + H2 Half equations 2H+ + 2e  H2 Mg  Mg2+ + 2e 16 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.Acid + Base (Solid)  Salt + Water (Neutralization reaction) Nitric acid reacts with copper(II) oxide powder Chemical equation 2HNO3 + CuO  Cu(NO3)2 + H2O Ionic equation 2H+ + CuO  Cu2+ + H2O 17 http://www.

Acid + Alkali (Solution)  Salt + Water (Neutralization reaction) Nitric acid reacts with ammonia solution Chemical equation HNO3 + NH4OH  NH4NO3 + H2O Ionic equation H+ + OH.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group . H2O 18 http://www.facebook.

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Acid + Metal carbonate (Solid)  Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide gas Hydrofluoric acid reacts with marble powder Chemical equation 2HF + CaCO3  CaF2 + H2O + CO2 Ionic equation 2H+ + CaCO3  Ca2+ + H2O + CO2 19 http://www.facebook.

More reactive metal + Salt  Salt + Less reactive metal (Metal displacement reaction) Electrochemical Series Kami K Cu + Zn(NO3)2  No Reaction NakNa Copper is less electropositive than zinc.facebook. Cari Ca Mangkuk Mg Decreasing Aluminium Al order of ZonZn electropositivity Felipina Fe Saya Sn Pandai Pb Hisap (H) Metal which is more electropositive can Cuka Cu displace another metal which is less Apple Ag electropositive from its salt solution. 20 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.More reactive metal + Salt  Salt + Less reactive metal (Metal displacement reaction) Zinc reacts with tin(II) nitrate solution Chemical equation Zn + Sn(NO3)2  Zn(NO3)2 + Sn Ionic equation Zn + Sn2+  Zn2+ + Sn Half equations Zn  Zn2+ + 2e Sn2+ + 2e  Sn 21 http://www.

More reactive halogen + Metal halide 
Metal halide + Less reactive halogen
(Halogen displacement reaction)
FClBrI-

Decreasing
order of
electronegativity

I2 + NaCl  No Reaction
Iodine is less electronegative than chlorine.

An element which is more electronegative can displace another
element which is less electronegative from its salt solution.
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More reactive halogen + Metal halide 
Metal halide + Less reactive halogen
(Halogen displacement reaction)
Chlorine reacts with potassium bromide solution
Chemical
equation

Cl2 + 2KBr  2KCl + Br2

Ionic
equation

Cl2 + 2Br-  2Cl- + Br2

Half
equations

Cl2 + 2e  2Cl-

2Br-  Br2 + 2e
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Soluble salt + Soluble salt  Insoluble salt + Soluble salt
(Precipitation reaction / Double decomposition reaction)
Salts
Insoluble salt
AgCl
PbCl2
PbSO4

Soluble salt
K+
Na+
NH4+

BaSO4

NO3-

CaSO4
PbI2

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 PbI2 25 http://www.Soluble salt + Soluble salt  Insoluble salt + Soluble salt (Precipitation reaction / Double decomposition reaction) Lead(II) nitrate solution reacts with potassium iodide solution Chemical equation Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI  PbI2 + 2KNO3 Ionic equation Pb2+ + 2I.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.

Metal oxide + Water  Metal hydroxide (Alkali solution) Sodium oxide dissolves in water Chemical equation Na2O + H2O  2NaOH 26 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.

Metal + Oxygen gas  Metal oxide Δ Aluminium reacts with oxygen gas Chemical equation 4Al + 3O2  2Al2O3 Ionic equation 4Al + 3O2  4Al3+ + 6O2- Half equations Al  Al3+ + 3e O2 + 4e  2O227 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.Metal + Halogen gas  Metal halide Δ Zinc reacts with bromine gas Chemical equation Zn + Br2  ZnBr2 Ionic equation Zn + Br2  Zn2+ + 2Br- Half equations Zn  Zn2+ + 2e Br2 + 2e  2Br28 http://www.

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Metal carbonate  Metal oxide + Carbon Δ dioxide gas (Except alkali metal carbonate) Magnesium carbonate decomposes by heating Chemical equation MgCO3  MgO + CO2 29 http://www.facebook.

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Alkali metal nitrate  Metal nitrite + Δ Oxygen gas Sodium nitrate decomposes by heating Chemical equation 2NaNO3  2NaNO2 + O2 30 http://www.facebook.

Metal nitrate  Metal oxide + Nitrogen Δ dioxide gas (Brown) + Oxygen gas Zinc nitrate decomposes by heating Chemical equation 2Zn(NO3)2  2ZnO + 4NO2 + O2 31 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.

facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Alkali metal + Water  Alkali metal hydroxide (Alkali solution) + Hydrogen gas Sodium dissolves in water Chemical equation 2Na + 2H2O  2NaOH + H2 32 http://www.

facebook.Metal + Steam  Metal oxide + Hydrogen gas Aluminium reacts with steam Chemical equation 2Al + 3H2O  Al2O3 + 3H2 33 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Halogen + Water  Mixture of acid Bromine dissolves in water Chemical equation Br2 + H2O  HBr + HOBr Hydrobromic acid + Hypobromus acid 34 http://www.facebook.

+ 2H+  S + SO2 + H2O 35 http://www.Alkali metal thiosulphate + Acid  Salt + Sulphur + Sulphur dioxide gas + Water Sodium thiosulphate solution reacts with sulphuric acid Chemical Na2S2O3 + H2SO4  Na2SO4 + S + SO2 + H2O equation Ionic equation S2O32.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.

facebook.Extra reaction Bubbling of carbon dioxide through lime water Chemical equation CO2 + Ca(OH)2  CaCO3 + H2O 36 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Extra reaction Reaction between ammonia and hydrogen chloride Chemical equation NH3 + HCl ↔ NH4Cl (Thick white fume) 37 http://www.facebook.

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.Extra reaction Reaction between sulphur dioxide gas and water Chemical equation SO2 + H2O  H2SO3 (Sulphurous acid) Reaction between carbon dioxide gas and water Chemical equation CO2 + H2O  H2CO3 (Carbonic acid) 38 http://www.

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Manganese(IV) oxide) Decomposition of potassium chlorate(V) Chemical equation 2KClO3  2KCl + 3O2 39 http://www.Extra reaction Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide Chemical equation 2H2O2  2H2O + O2 (Catalyst .facebook.

facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Extra reaction Ionization of acid in water Chemical equation H2O HCl  H+ + Cl- Ionization of alkali in water Chemical equation H2O NaOH  Na+ + OH40 http://www.

Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide.facebook.500 ºC Pressure: 1 atmosphere 41 http://www. V2O5 Temperature: 450 .com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Contact process Manufacture of sulphuric acid Chemical equation Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 S + O2  SO2 2SO2 + O2 ↔ 2SO3 SO3 + H2SO4  H2S2O7 (Oleum) H2S2O7 + H2O  2H2SO4 Stage 2 .

Fe Temperature: 450 .500 atmosphere 42 http://www.Haber Process Manufacture of ammonia Chemical equation N2 + 3H2 ↔ 2NH3 Catalyst: Iron filings.facebook.500 ºC Pressure: 200 .com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .

5 Homologous series Number of carbon atoms Name 1 Meth Mak 2 Eth Engkau 3 Prop Pergi 4 But Brazil 5 Pent Pakai 6 Hex Helikopter 7 Hept Hantar 8 Oct Orang 9 Non Nak 10 Dec Dating 43 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.

Alkanes CnH2n+2 where n = 1.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group . 3… Chemical Formula Name CH4 Methane C2H6 Ethane C3H8 Propane C4H10 Butane C5H12 Pentane 44 http://www. 2.facebook.

Alkenes CnH2n where n = 2. 4… Chemical Formula Name C2H4 Ethene C3H6 Propene C4H8 Butene C5H10 Pentene C6H12 Hexene Functional group Double covalent bond between two carbon atoms -C=C- 45 http://www.facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group . 3.

2.facebook. 3… Chemical Formula Name CH3OH Methanol C2H5OH Ethanol C3H7OH Propanol C4H9OH Butanol C5H11OH Pentanol Functional group Hydroxyl group -OH 46 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Alcohols CnH2n+1OH where n = 1.

facebook. 1.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group . 2… Chemical Formula Name HCOOH Methanoic acid CH3COOH Ethanoic acid C2H5COOH Propanoic acid C3H7COOH Butanoic acid C4H9COOH Pentanoic acid Functional group Carboxyl group -COOH 47 http://www.Carboxylic acids CnH2n+1COOH where n = 0.

2… and m = 1. 1.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Esters CnH2n+1COOCmH2m+1 where n = 0. 2.facebook. 3… n from carboxylic acid and m from alcohol Chemical Formula Name HCOOCH3 Methyl methanoate CH3COOC2H5 Ethyl ethanoate C2H5COOC3H7 Propyl propanoate C3H7COOC4H9 Butyl butanoate C4H9COOC5H11 Pentyl pentanoate Functional group Carboxylate group -COO- 48 http://www.

facebook.Alkane / Alkene / Alcohol + Oxygen gas  Δ Carbon dioxide gas + Water (Complete combustion reaction) Complete combustion of propene Chemical equation 2C3H6 + 9O2  6CO2 + 6H2O 49 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .

Alkane / Alkene / Alcohol + Oxygen gas (Limited)  Carbon monoxide gas + Water Δ (Incomplete combustion reaction) Incomplete combustion of propane Chemical equation 2C3H8 + 7O2  6CO + 8H2O 50 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.

facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .Alkane + Halogen  Haloalkane + Hydrogen halide (Substitution reaction) Condition: uv rays Methane reacts with chlorine Chemical equation CH4 + Cl2  CH3Cl + HCl Name and structural formula of the product H | H–C–H | Cl Chloromethane 51 http://www.

Alkene + Halogen  Dihaloalkane (Addition reaction / Halogenation reaction) Pent-1-ene reacts with bromine Chemical equation C5H10 + Br2  C5H10Br2 Observation The brown colour of bromine changes to colourless.2-dibromopentane Br Br H H H 52 http://www. Name and structural formula of the product H H H H H | | | | | H–C–C–C–C–C–H | | | | | 1.facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.Alkene + Hydrogen halide  Haloalkane (Addition reaction / Hydrohalogenation reaction) But-2-ene reacts with hydrogen chloride Chemical equation C4H8 + HCl  C4H9Cl Name and structural formula of the product H H H H | | | | H–C–C–C–C–H | | | | H Cl H H 2-chlorobutane 53 http://www.

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.Alkene + Hydrogen gas  Alkane (Addition reaction / Hydrogenation reaction) Conditions: Ni / Pt and 180 ºC But-1-ene reacts with hydrogen gas Chemical equation C4H8 + H2  C4H10 Name and structural formula of the product H H H H | | | | H–C–C–C–C–H | | | | H H H H Butane 54 http://www.

Alkene + Water  Alcohol (Addition reaction / Hydration reaction) Conditions: H3PO4.facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group . 300 ºC and 60 atm Ethene reacts with steam Chemical equation C2H4 + H2O  C2H5OH Name and structural formula of the product H H | | H–C–C–H | | H OH Ethanol 55 http://www.

2-diol 56 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group . Name and structural formula of the product H H H | | | H–C–C–C–H | | | OH OH H Propane-1.facebook.Alkene + Water + [Oxygen atom]  Alkane-diol (Oxidation reaction) Reactants: Acidified KMnO4 solution / Acidified K2Cr2O7 solution Propene reacts with acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution Chemical C3H6 + H2O + [O]  C3H6(OH)2 equation The purple colour of acidified potassium manganate(VII) Observation solution changes to colourless.

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .nAlkene  (Alkene)n (Polymerization reaction) Conditions: 200 ºC and 1500 atm Polymerization of ethene Chemical equation nC2H4  (C2H4)n Name and structural formula of the product H H | | –C–C– | | n H H Polyethene 57 http://www.facebook.

Alcohol  Alkene + Water (Dehydration reaction) Conditions: Heated porcelain pieces / Concentrated H2SO4 and 180 ºC Butan-1-ol in the presence of heated porcelain pieces Chemical equation C4H9OH  C4H8 + H2O Name and structural formula of the product H H H H | | | | H–C=C–C–C–H | | H H But-1-ene 58 http://www.facebook.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .

Alcohol + 2[Oxygen atom]  Carboxylic acid + Water (Oxidation reaction) Reactants: Acidified KMnO4 solution / Acidified K2Cr2O7 solution Propan-2-ol reacts with acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution Chemical equation C3H7OH + 2[O]  C2H5COOH + H2O Observation The orange colour of acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution changes to green. Name and structural formula of the product H H O | | || H – C – C – C – OH | | H H Propanoic acid 59 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.

Alcohol + Reactive metal  Salt + Hydrogen gas Propan-1-ol reacts with potassium Chemical equation 2C3H7OH + 2K  2C3H7OK + H2 60 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .facebook.

facebook.Carboxylic acid + Alcohol  Ester + Water (Esterification reaction) Conditions: Concentrated H2SO4 and reflux Propanoic acid reacts with propan-1-ol Chemical equation C2H5COOH + C3H7OH  C2H5COOC3H7 + H2O Name and structural formula of the product H H O H H H | | || | | | H–C–C–C–O–C–C–C–H | | | | | H H H H H Propyl propanoate 61 http://www.com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .

com/Sir HONG Chemistry Group .GOOD LUCK !!! A+ Chemistry Thank You 62 http://www.facebook.