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By: Katarina Solomon

Fraction Parts

2
5

Numerator:
Number of
sections
coloured in,
making up part
of the whole

Denominat
or:
Number of
sections that

Unit Fraction
Any fraction that has the number one
as the numerator

1/
4

1/

1/5
2
1/3

Proper Fraction
A fraction representing less than a whole where
the numerator is less than the denominator

5
/
2

1
5/6 0/23

Improper Fraction

A fraction representing more than a whole


where the numerator is greater than the
denominator

3/1

7/4

9/2

Mixed Fractions

Improper fractions are converted into


mixed fractions and vice versa. Mixed
Fractions shows a whole number beside a
proper fraction.
Mixed Fraction

Multiply the whole number and


the denominator and add the
numerator (2x2= 4 +1= 5, 5/2)

Improper Fraction

5/2

Divide the numerator by the denominator


(5/2=2) with one left over making it 2 1/2

More About Fractions


Fractions are relative to their whole
Need to know what the whole is made up of to
know what the fraction represents
When looking at the same whole, is more
than 1/3
But of 10 is 5 and 1/4 of 100 is 25
Or of a small pizza will be less than 1/4 of a
large

Fraction Parts
Dont have to be adjacent- The different colour pieces do not have
to be touching to make up a fraction of the whole. Orange covers
1/4 , Yellow 1/3, Green and Red 1/6. Orange squares are all
touching unlike the green that are separated but the both cover of
the whole.

Dont have to be the same shape- The whole does not have to
broken down into equal sized squares. Can be divided into different
shaped triangle. Can easily see a yellow and orange triangle divides
the rectangle in half diagonally.

Manipulatives
for
Fraction Kit
Fractions

Fraction Circles
Fraction Strips
Fraction Blocks

Patterning Blocks
Geoboard

Faction Kit
Whole
1

Thirds
1/3

Halves
1/2

Sixths
1/6

Quarters
1/4

Twelfths
1/12

Eights
1/8

Twenty-Fourths
1/24

Fraction Circles Fraction Strips Fraction Blocks

Pattern Blocks

Geoboard

Grid Paper

Table 15.1 Models for Fraction


Concepts and how they Compare
Model

What Defines
the Whole

What
Defines the
Parts

What the Fraction


Means

Area

The area of the


defined region

Equal area

The part of the area


covered as it relates
to the whole unit

Length or
number
line
(Linear)

The unit of
distance or
length

Equal
The location of a
distance/lengt point in relation to 0
h
and other values on
the number line

Set

Whatever value Each number


is determined as of objects
one set

The count of objects


in the subset as it
relates to the defined
whole

1. Area Model
Known to be the easiest for kids to
understand
Uses equal sharing and partitioning
Can easily be seen visually while
using manipulatives
Rectangular model can be used

Area Model
Pink makes up the
whole and is
divided into
quarters

Purple represents a
fraction of the whole

1/4
1/2
1/4

1/4
3/4

2. Linear Model
Number Line
Infinite number of fractions on the
number line
Can always divide a space on the
number line in half
Looks at length rather than area

Fractions on a Number
Line
1/3

1/4

2/3

1/2

4/5

3/4

4/3

5/3

3. Set Models
Kids have the most difficulties with set

models
Visuals do not make up a whole
Groups of objects or a collection of objects
Whole = Set of objects not a certain area

Fractions with Set


Models Kids may find
difficulties seeing
these images as a
whole of 9. It is harder
to see that the 6
apples and 3 bananas
make up a whole of 9
fruits. We may see
that 2/3 of these
objects are apples
and 1/3 are bananas.
Instead, kids may just
see a group of fruits
and cannot visualize
the whole that these

Assisting with Set


Models

When starting to
introduce set models,
you may want to
include some sort of
area model behind the
images. This could help
assist the students in
understanding that the
apples are representing
6 red squares and the
bananas as 3 yellow
squares. Counting all
the squares, or fruit
within the squares,
make up a whole.
Colours or fruits would

Kids and Cookies Game


5 cookies and 4 kids, how do we equally share the
cookies?

Kids Problem Solving


Now What?

2 Cookies left over

4 kids, cut each cookie into 4 equal parts

We each have one!

Give a cut piece to each of the


kids until there are no more

Kid #1

Kid #2

Kid #3

Kid#4

Each kid will get one, one, one, one, quarter, quarter,
quarter, quarter and, quarter, quarter, quarter,
quarter. In total that is one cookie and 2 quarters
each.

References
Karp, Bay-Williams & Van de Walle. Elementary and

middle school mathematics: Teaching developmentally


(9th Ed.). Toronto: Pearson Education Canada Inc.
Ruth Beattys Week 11 Lecture, January 18th, Fractions
Sharp, J. Garofalo, J. &Adams, B (2002) Childrens

development of meaningful fraction alogrithms: A kids


cookies and a puppys pills. Making sense of fractions,
rations and proportions (pp 18-28)