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SUMMER TRAINING

UNDERGONE
AT
NATHPA JHAKRI HYDRO
POWER PROJECT
(250x6 MW)

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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


HAMIRPUR, (H.P.) 177005
(A Deemed University)

MAY-JUNE 2009

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Foremost, I express my sincere thanks and gratitude to Er. Harish


Sharma and Er. Jeeta Ukhal, my Project Guides for their valuable
guidance and inspiration throughout the project. Their abundant enthusiasm

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and zeal, with which they solved my difficulties whenever I approached
them.

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I also express my heart-felt gratitude to Er. Hans raj, who cleared my
doubts regarding the operation of the Plant.
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I would also like to commend the friendly support of the people at SJVNL.
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As always and do shall remain, the moral encouragement and warm


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affection from all the engineers and associates has helped me to come much
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better with the successful completion of my project thereof.

AVINASH SINGH DOGRA


B.TECH
MECHANICAL ENGG.
NIT-HAMIRPUR
(06316)

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INTRODUCTIONTOSJVNL
The Satluj JaL Vidut Nigam Limited SJVNL (formally Nathpa
Jhakri power corporation limited - NJPC) was incorporated on
24th may 1988 as a joint venture of Govt. of India and Govt. of
Himachal Pradesh plan investigate , organize , execute , operate
and maintain Hydro Electric Power Project in the Satluj
River . Nathpa Jhakri ( 6x 250MW ) is the largest hydro -

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electric project in India. A comparison with other

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comparable projects ( single power station of 500MW and

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above ) in India. Total capacity of this project is 1500 MW. It
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is having 6 units of 250 MW capacity of each. The 1500MW
Nathpa Jhakri Hydro Project is the largest under ground hydro
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project in the country and is the first project undertaken by SJVNL


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for execution. Different states to which the balance power is


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allocated are Himachal Pradesh , Haryana , Jammu & Kashmir,


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Punjab, Rajsthan,Utter Pradesh, Chandigarh and Delhi.


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The approved cost of the project was Rs. 7666.31 crores with
completion cost of 8058.34 crores. On completion the project had
cost Rs. 9083 crores.

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The main components of this project are:
a) A 67.5 m high diversion dam on the Satluj River.
b) An underground desilting complex.
c) A 27.4 m long head race tunnel.
d) A 301 m deep surge shaft.
e) Steel lined pressure shaft.
f) Underground power house and transformer hall.

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Nathpa jhakri projecta brief on salient
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features
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It has a 62.50 m high concrete gravity dam at Nathpa village of


Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh and it divert 486 cumecs of
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water through 4 Nos. power Intakes


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Underground Desilting chamber 4 Nos. each of 525m long, 16.31 m


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wide and 27.50 m deep which is the largest underground complex


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for desiltation of water in the World.


A head race tunnel of 10.15 m dia. And 27.39km long which is the
longest power tunnel in the world and terminates to 21.6m/ 10.2m
diameter
It has the deepest surge shaft which is 301m deep.
There are three circular steel lined pressure shafts each of 4.9 m dia.
And 571 m to 622 m length which feed six generating units.

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The six generating units with Francis turbine of 250 MW and utilize a
design discharge of 405 cumecs and a design head of 428 m.
The discharge tubes to the collection gallery for discharging the water
back into the river through the 10.15 m dia and 982 m long tail race
tunnel.
The project has an underground Transformer hall and Power
house. There is a Surface Switch Yard for evacuation of power
through two no. of transmission lines.
The project also has an interesting feature of Sholding Works

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Complex which enable diverting the water of Sholding Stream into
the HRT.

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Annual energy generation of 6750.85 million units in a 90% (MU)
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dependable year.
This project has also provided direct and indirect employment by
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various national and international contract agencies working on the


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project.
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Othermainfeaturesoftheproject
Human resource development :
The company is having well established strategy for imparting training to
the employees and involves other professional people to motivate the
employees for good working. The training imparted is two dimensional
i.e. in house training and through external professional institutions as
well.

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Safety concern:

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SJVNL abides by its moral responsibility for maintaining a safer
environment for all its employee and also these of its contracting agencies
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.Due attention is given to health and safety aspects in working areas. The
safety measures adopted encompass the best codes and practices, which
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are disseminated to all the employees for ensuring compliance at all levels.
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Future project:
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Agreement for the execution for the Rampur Hydro Electrical project
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between SJVNL and govt. of Himachal Pradesh was signed on 20th October
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2004 of 412 MW utilizing the tail race water of ongoing 1500MW Nathpa
Jhakri Hydro Electric Project is a run of the river scheme works for which
nave already been commenced by SJVNL and other project in the state
H.P.viz. Khab and Luhari projects and in Uttranchal and Sikkim shell be
taken for execution.

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Some Planning And Design Aspect :

Cable Anchors: It was found that a large number of cable anchors


of 200 tones capacity shall be needed in the dam complex. 285 cable
anchor have been provided for the excavation in the intake area. Another
185 have been installed in the left bank of dam and road to the top of
dam. 131 cable anchors are being installed for stabilization of both the
banks in the plunge pool area extending from 90 m downstream of dam

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axis to 150 m downstream of dam axis.

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Reservoir Flushing : Satluj river carries heavy sediment load during
snowmelt and 4
monsoon season. Provision of low level sluices in the
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dam ensures outflow of sediments from the reservoir whenever the water
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availability is more that the design discharge. Further flushing of reservoir


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behind Nathpa dam is also envisaged once or twice every year when the
discharge in the river exceed 1500 cumecs.
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Desilting Cavern: The four desilting chambers are required to


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function under adverse conditions of both external and internal water


pressure. Complete analysis both for the rock support during
excavation and long term stability during maintenance condition was
carried out through numerical modeling which involved through
investigation based on field and laboratory testing of rock mass properties
and geological details of joints, major shear planes etc.

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Head Race Tunnel :

Tunnel Lining In Hot Water : Hot water has been encountered


in the HRT downstream of Wadhal Adit junction for a length of about 3
km. the chemical test of water has revealed that it can be aggressive to
normal concrete. Special precaution in concrete mix design with use of
pozzolana were taken to counteract the aggressiveness.

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Steel Liner In HRT : Steel liner with length of 710 m and 375 m

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respectively have been provided at Manglad and Daj creek of the head race

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tunnel where rock covers are inadequate against maximum internal water
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pressure which ranges from2.8 to3.1 MPa. With a view to avoid stress
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relieving and limit the plate thickness to 40 mm the diameter of the
steel liner has been reduced to 8.5 m with transition both upstream and
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downstream to 10.15 m diameter. In the absence of information of water


able in the hill full external pressure up to the natural surface has been
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taken in the design of steel liner for the external water pressure.
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Maintenance Access : Being a very long HRT it would be difficult to


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inspect the same in case of emergency / shutdown. Keeping this point


in view intermediate vehicular accesses have been planned through Nathpa
and Wadhal construction adits here steel doors in an opening in the
concrete plugs has been provided.

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Power House Cavern :
Only rock bolting and shotcreting has been adopted for the
excavation in the machine hall cavern. An integrated design approach
comprising empirical design through the NGIs Q system, numerical
modeling and analysis of geological features were adopted for the
support system. A complete analysis of various stages of excavation
was carried out through numerical modeling and deformation was
monitored through multi - point borehole extensometers . The

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deformation observed was within the predicted limits.

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DAM:
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The function of the dam is not only to raise the water surface to
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create artificial head but also to provide the poundage. Storage and facility
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for diversion into conduit. The dam is straight gravity type dam having
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the height 62.5 m on Satluj River at Nathpa to divert 405 cumecs of


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water through four intakes. The dam is most important part of the
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hydro electric project. It is built of concrete or stone masonry on a rock


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hill.The length of the dam at the top is 170.2 m consisting of 63 m as non


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over flow structure and 88.2 m as sluice block section with each having the
size 7 x 7.35 m With crest 1458.0 m.
Catchment area of the dam 49820 sq.km.
Design Flood 5660 cumecs.
Maximum water level 1495.50 m.
Minimum water level 1474.00 m.

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1) Selection Of Dam:
Selection of dam to be constructed at a particular site depends upon
topography, Foundation survey , soil condition and other characteristic
of the location . The foundation of the dam must be sufficiently
strong to withstand the weight of the structure, water pressure etc.
without crushing , sliding or permitting movement of the structure .The
foundation of the dam should be sufficient impervious so that there will
be no objectionable passage of water.

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2) Spill Way Gates:

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There are two spill way gates on the dam situated at Nathpa on Satluj
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River. These act as a safety valve. It discharges the overflow water to
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outside the dam when reservoir is full . This condition arises during
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flood. These gates can be opened and shut automatically when water
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overflows of the level and closes when water reaches in the level.
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3) Radial Gates:
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There are five radial gates in the dam located in the lowest point of
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the dam. Radial gates are always closed. They can be opened only in
condition when trees come in dam or reservoir due to flood. All these
things can be discharged through these gates. So radial gates can be opened
in these conditions.

4) Intake Gates:
Intake structure comprises of four intakes of about 500 m long these
inlets of river has been designed to handle a discharge of 846 cumecs.

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Intake gates are trash racks type. The suitable opening of 19.26 m * 15.7 m
at the start of the base is reduced to 6m*5.2m through a suitable
transition. A continuous skimmer wall with top at EL. 1468.73 m is made
in front of all the four intake gates to restrict the entry of sediments into
the intakes. An opening provided in the skimmer at the downstream end
through which the bigger sediments are flushed out. Through four intake
gates the water goes to desilting chamber.

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5) Desilting Chambers:

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An underground desilting arrangement comprising of four chambers is

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made on the left bank of the river Satluj to exclude silt particles down to
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0.2 mm size from water before it enter head race tunnel. Four intakes has
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been made to feed four chambers through each tunnel respectively. The
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flow to the chambers is regulated by the gates at the intake. There are four
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desilting chambers each have a three meter wide collection trench in the
centre running along its length. The sediments from the collection trench
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will fall down to the flushing tunnel 5m in diameter horse sluice. The
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flushing gates will be provided at the junction of flushing conduits and main
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flushing tunnel. Top of each chamber is connected to the head race tunnel
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through link tunnel of diameter 5.02m. It reduces the flow of water and
also prevents the particle of 0.2 mm to the turbine. Here the water flows
with a velocity of 33.4 cm/sec.

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6) Silt Flushing Gates:
There are four silt flushing gates they create a pressure in the
desilting chamber and Suck out salt and particles at the edge of the
desilting chamber.

7) HRT Intake Gates:


After desilting chamber water goes through HRT intake gates. They
are also four in no. The water at the output of each HRT intake gates are

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combined to main head race tunnel.

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Head Race Tunnel
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The head race tunnel is 27.3 km long and have diameter 10.15m. it is
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one of the largest Head Race Tunnels in he world. The tunnel diameter is
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based on the techno economic studies for a discharge of 405 cumecs at


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a flow velocity 5m/sec.The rock cover of head race tunnel vary from
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about 90 m to about 1480 m along its length the head race tunnel is
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provided with steel lining where the rock support is not expected.
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There are six audits in the head race tunnel :


a) Nathpa Adit EL. 1450.89m.
b) Sholding Adit EL. 876 m.
c) Nugalsari Adit EL 647 m.
d) Wadhal Adit EL. 842 m.
e) Manglad Adit EL.691 m.
f) Rattanpur Adit EL.1357 m

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Sholding Works:
In order to augment the flow during the lean months of water
scarcity the water of the sholding khad one of the cribularies of Satluj river
is having a 26m long tunnel that divert a discharge of 8 cumecs through
a tunnel having a diameter of 2m. from here the water will enter the
hooper and desilting chamber.

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Surge Shaft:

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The main surge shaft is located at the intake of the penstock at 27.3

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km form head race tunnel. It is just like wall. Its function is to avoid the
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water hummer effect. Three penstocks are taken from the surge shaft at the
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bottom , two from side of surge shaft and one is taken from the centre of
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the surge shaft. A 12 m dia Horse shoe shaped 185m long lower gallery
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at EL 1370m has also been provided. The minimum water level in the
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surge shaft is about 30 m. The surge shaft is concrete lined of adequate


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thickness. It is the deepest surge shaft in the world.


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Three drainage galleries at different elevations has been provided


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around the surge Shaft to relieve the external water pressure on the lining.

Pressure Shaft:
Three shafts of diameter 4.9m and length varying from 619m to 660m
take off from the surge to an angle of 45 degree to the horizontal. These
are lined with high tensile steel of thickness varying from 32mm to
60mm. Each pressure shaft is bifurcated into the branch tunnel of dia
3.45 m. Each pressure shaft is designed to carry a discharge of 315

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cumecs . Butterfly valve housed in valve chamber has been
constructed in the horizontal reach of pressure shaft for its repair and
maintenance. A spherical valve has been provided in each penstock branch
tunnel inside the machine hall cavern to enable closing of penstocks
whenever required.

Other features of surge shaft :


a) pressure relief valves has been provided in the top 80 m of the

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concrete lining to reduce the external pressure as an additional

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margin.

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b) A 25 cm deep sill beam has been provided on the collar of the
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surge shaft to prevent any trash lying on the pond floor.
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c) The slopes of the top pond are well drained. The drainage water is
disposed off very far away from the pond.
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d) Due to very high head and difficulty in maintaining verticality of


guide rails, stop logs could not be provided in the surge shaft.
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e) An inspection ladder has been provided in the connecting shaft


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forming approach to the drainage galleries.


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Valve Assembly:
The valve assembly consists of a top and bottom valve body and a
double lattice valve disc assembly with all necessary seals, bearings and
seats. A valve chamber 79.52 m long 9.5 m wide and 22.34 m high has
been excavated 106 m downstream of the surge shaft essentially in quartz
mica schist.

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Valve Body :
The valve body is manufactured in cast steel and are flanged on both
sides. The top and bottom sections are assembled with an O ring seal
and locilite 574 between faces and located with stainless steel dowels.
The valve incorporate support feed fabricated with the valve body to
available the valve to secured to the foundation by the use of soleplates.

Valve Seat:

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Two valve seats are fitted within the valve body to form seal with each

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disc seal on The lattice blade with valve in the closed position. During

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normal operation the Downstream forms the water seal. The downstream
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is machined with the O ring seal located groove. A Nitrile rubber O
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ring seal is assembled in the groove and prevent leakage b/w the valve ring
and seat ring.
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Maintenance Seal :
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The purpose of the guard wall maintenance seal is to provide a double


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isolation when used in conjunction the service seal. The principle of


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double isolation is essential whenever personnel are required to enter the


downstream dewatered penstock. The upstream and downstream
chambers formed between the seat ring and the valve body are connected by
drilling to a penstock pressure water control system.

Air Release Valve:


Fitted on the top of the valve body is a orifice air release valve,
operated by a float. The valve release air to atmosphere during fitting of

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the valve body and when full of water seals the orifice to prevent
leakage. Most of the air trapped during penstock filling will be released
via the four anti vacuum valves. When all four anti vacuum valves are
closed all remaining trapped air is released via these valves operated by a
float.

Anti-Vacuum Valve Assembly:


Four Anti-Vacuum valves are fitted and two on each side of the

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downstream pipe works. The 500mm nominal diameter float operated

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anti vacuum valves sense the pressure drop downstream of the penstock

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guards valve and open and allow air into the penstock preventing the
formation of vacuum. When the chamber is filled with water the float
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rises extending the springs and contacts the Nitrile rubber sealing ring
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POWERHOUSE:
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Nathpa Jhakri project has an underground power house with


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internal dimensions 222 m* 20 m and 29 m high located at 200 m


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below the natural earth level . The main access tunnel to the power house
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is 731.5 m long .The power house has an arched roof with concrete lining.
The main inlet valve has also been provided at an EL. 982.5

The power house has four floors .

The turbine floor is at an EL. 990 m . The main auxiliaries in this


floor are Governor , Oil cooler , Brake Dust Collector , Oil Vapour

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Collector , Secondary water pump and the turbine pit . The turbine
is coupled with Generator with the help of the shaft.

The generator floor is at an EL. Of 995 m here we also have Unit Auxiliary
Board, Temperature measuring gauges, the Excitation Transformer for
providing the Starting torque to start the generator and the 220 V battery
room.

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Service Bay Floor at an EL. Of 1000.5m from here the functioning of

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generating units is controlled with the help of operating system .

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MIV Floor is the lowermost floor of the power house. It contain six
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individual MIVs, each weighing 92 tonnes and being controlled by the
lifting of a counter weight 76 tonnes by means of a servomotor which is
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operated hydraulically.
The construction cum downstream Surge gallery is provided to reach
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the tail race and to facilitate the excavation of the machine hall , the tail
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race and pressure shaft.


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Fig1: Block diagram of power station

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TURBINE: 4
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The Turbine used here is the VERTICAL FRANCIS TURBINE
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means the rotating parts of the unit have a vertical axis of rotation.
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This turbine belongs to the reaction turbine family. The water is under
pressure as it enter the runner and completely fills all its channel as it
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passes through . The head for the Francis turbine is usually between
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that of Kaplan ( low head ) turbines and that of Pelton (high head)
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turbines.

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TURBINE FUNCTION: 4
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The water from the penstock enter the spiral casing. In the spiral
casing , the water is spread around the whole circumference by stay
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vanes , and is lead in towards the guide apparatus. The guide apparatus has
movable vanes , which are controlled by the governor and can be set
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independent of output. After this impact the water continues in the Draft
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Tube and out the tail race tunnel. The effect is transferred from the Runner
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to the Generator, which is directly connected to the Turbine Shaft. The


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turbine develops the power partly due to the velocity of the water and due
to difference in pressure acting on the front and back of Runner buckets
such a Turbine essentially consist of guide apparatus consisting of outer
ring of stationary guide blades fixed to the casing of turbine and an inner
ring consist of rotating blade forming a wheel or a Runner. As the water
passes over the rotating blades of the Runner both pressure and
velocity of the water reduced causing a reaction force on the turbine.The
guide blades of the turbine are pivoted about axis an parallel with turbine

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axis so that quantity of the water entering in the turbine may be
regulated by turning them simultaneously in one direction or the other,
their motion is automatically controlled by Governor. Francis type turbines
can be constructed in vertical or horizontally but horizontal construction
more accessible and have higher speed, but for large machine vertical
construction is preferred to effect higher speed. As compare to Pelton wheel
a Francis turbine offer advantage of high efficiency at full load and at 75%
of full load . This turbine can be designed fir higher speed than Pelton Wheel
.The gross head of the turbine is 488m and design head is 425m.

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TURBINE COMPONENTS: 4 u.
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1) Rotating parts.
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2) Turbine guide bearings.


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3) Turbine upper and lower cover.


4) Guide vanes.
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5) Governor (Regulating mechanism).


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6) Spiral casing.
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7) Draft tube.
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8) Shaft seal.
9) Dewatering system.
1.) ROTATING PARTS :
There are mainly three rotating parts:
a) Runner.
b) Turbine shaft.
c) Oil slinger.

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a) Runner:
The Runner has been welded up from crown and band of stainless
cast steel to Vanes from stainless steel plates. The vanes have been
machine worked. The crown band have Roots towards the vanes.
Air for stabilizing purpose is allowed through the Runner centre via the
shaft seal and drilled holes in the turbine shaft flange. The moment of
force on the runner is transferred to the turbine shaft through the

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shear pin connection. The coupling bolts between the turbine shaft

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flange and the Runner are tensioned by means of hydraulic

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wrence.

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b) Turbine Shaft:
The turbine shaft is made of SM steel with flanges hammered
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out at both ends. The turbine shaft and generator shaft are connected
by flanges. The connection primarily transfer the moment of force
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through the shear studs.


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Francis Turbine Runner
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c) Oil Slinger:
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The Oil slinger is located below the turbine bearing and


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connected to the turbine shaft. Its purpose is to collect the oil from turbine
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bearing and during operation bring the oil into rotation inside the slinger
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cylinder from where it is catched by the oil scraper and led to the oil cooler
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and the bearing oil reservoir.

2.) Turbine Bearing :


Bearing Design:
The turbine bearing is radial vertical slide / guide bearing. The
bearing has a strong construction and a simple manner of operation, which
require a minimum of maintenance. The bearing house is split and attached
to the upper turbine cover. It has two manhole hatches for access and

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inspection of shaft seal and pipe connections. The bearing shell consist of
two segments, which are bolted together and attached to the upper side
of the bearing house. The shell has four oil pockets and four babbit metal
Surfaces with machined wedge shaped entrances , which ensure a stable
centering of The turbine shaft. The bearing has been fitted with an
inspection hatch ,dip stuck for oil slinger, Fluid level gauge for bearing
house, thermometers and level switches for surveillance. The bearing has
been fitted with external oil cooler. This is automatically put into
Operation when the cooling water system is started.

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Bearing Function:

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When the unit starts the oil slinger start rotating , oil is slung
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up into the cylinder section and cover the vertical with a layer of oil. The
thickness of this layer will be determined by the position of the oil scraper.
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The amount of the oil in the oil slinger is regulated by means of the oil
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scraper, which is attached to the bearing shell When there is a sufficient


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rotating speed , the damming up pressure become strong enough to


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force the oil up through the ascending pipe through the oil cooler and out
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into the bearing house. From there the oil flows down through the four
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windows in the bearing house cover and is spread out to the four oil pockets
in the bearing shell. A film of oil follow with the shaft in the wedge shaped
entrance on the bearing shell and builds up the guiding oil layer.

3.)Turbine cover:
The Turbine has two covers:
Upper cover and Lower cover

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Upper Cover: The upper cover is bolted to the spiral casing ring. It
serves as a bearing for the regulating ring and a support for the upper
stationary labyrinth seal, turbine inner cover with shaft seal as well for the
longest trunnion of the guide vanes. The interchangeable upper
stationary labyrinth seal is made of forged steel and is bolted to the
cover. The seal surface on the labyrinth seal faces the equivalent seal
surface on the upper rotating labyrinth seal bolted to the Runner.

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Lower cover: The lower turbine cover is bolted to the spiral casing stay

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ring. It serves as a support for the short trunnion of the guide vanes, the
lower stationary labyrinth seal and the draft tube cover. Supporting
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sleeves of Aluminum Bronze for guide vane bearing have been installed.
Corrosion resistant austenite steel has been welded into the wearing
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Psurface of the lower turbine cover between the wear ring and the lower
labyrinth seal.
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4.) Governor:
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The Turbine has two servomotors. The connection between the


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servomotor and the regulating ring consist of an adjustable connecting


rod and a spherical bearing. It sense the speed of the turbine
rotation and generate a signal proportional to the difference between
the turbine speed and the governor speed reference and therefore
develop a hydraulic control signal sufficient to control the turbine. The
adjustable rod is used for pre tensioning the guide apparatus.

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When pre tensioning the guide apparatus the guide vanes
are given a Moment which produces a force toward closed
position. This compensate for slackening and deformation in the lever
and link connection and provides a closing force greater than or
approximately equal to hydraulic opening force on the openings
force on the vanes with full pressure in the spiral casing.

5.) Spiral Casing:

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The spiral casing the waterway between the penstock and the guide

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apparatus. It has been constructed to ensure constant water speed

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around the whole Circumference of the guide apparatus. The spiral casing
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is built from a stay ring and a plate shell to an all welded construction of
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fine grained sheel steel .The spiral ring is consisting of an upper and lower
ring connected to each other by welded stay. The stays has been shaped
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in a hydraulically favorable way in order to lead the water in towards


the guide apparatus with the least possible loss.
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The spairal casing has been fitted with outlets for index
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measurements and a manhole for inspection. The outlets for pressure


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measurements , dewatering and air escape are positioned on the expansion


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box at the inlet of the spiral casing . The main part of the spiral casing has
been concreted in a solid slab being supported against the downstream
rock wall. The hydraulic force acting on the spiral casing inlet is thereby
balanced against the rock.

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Spiral casing
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6.) Draft Tube:


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The outlet consist of a draft tube and a draft tube steel lining
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continuing with a concrete lined tunnel and forms the water way from
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the runner to the race Channel. The draft tube cone is welded and
consist of two parts. The upper part is bolted to the lower fixed
labyrinth seal. It is made from stainless steel. The lower part is attached
to the draft tube steel lining with a flexible flange connection. It has one
manhole for access to the draft tube and it is fitted with four stub pipes
with cover for installation of an inspection platform. The draft tube
steel liner is completely set in concrete. It has been welded and fitted
with a flange toward the draft tube cone. The draft tube can be

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emptied into the dewatering pit by slight extension of the cross section in
the direction of the flow from the runner outlet to the end of the plate
covering. The draft tube have 10 segments with a plate thickness of 30
mm and total wt.34000kg.

7.) Shaft Seal :


Shaft seal is attached to the inner cover , which again is attached

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to the upper turbine cover. Due to the rotation of the water in the gap

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between the runner and the upper turbine cover the gaps in the shaft seal

u.
will be water free when the turbine is in operation. In order to prevent
4
the contaminated water downstream of the turbine to enter past the
as
upper labyrinth seals and up through the shaft seal during start and stop
v

of the unit. When the shaft has come to a complete standstill the service
an

seal will be closed , valves in drainage and overflow pipes will be


.c

automatically closed and flushing water pump stopped. At certain output


w

the turbine may need air to the outlet section of the runner. This
w

ventilation take place through a separate air pipe, which is connected to the
w

shaft seal support ring. The air pipe is fitted with a check value preventing
the tail water from leaking out during standstill.

8.) Shaft Seal Flushing Water:


In order to prevent the contaminated water from entering into the
shaft seal during start and stop sequence of the unit and when rotating
speed is too low to keep the shaft seal dry , the shaft seal flushing
water system will provide filtered water at sufficient water. The intake is

27
from the pressure equalizing piping between upper turbine cover and draft
tube. A centrifugal pump is increasing the pressure and flushing strainer
particles above 200 micron is removed. The system will
automatically be put into operation during start and stop of the unit.

9.) Penstock Dewatering System:


The dewatering system consists of one high pressure drainpipe for
each unit. The inlet is upstream the MIV and the system consist of a gate

g
valve and a hand manufactured needle valve. Dewatering is made from

or
the penstock to the draft tube down to the tail water level. After setting the

u.
draft tube gate the remaining water is drained through the draft tube to the
4
dewatering pit from where it is pumped to discharge outside the draft
as
tube gate by dewatering system.
The movement of MIV is shown in the fig. below:
v
an
.c
w
w
w

MIV in Closed Position

28
g
or
4 u.
v as

MIV fully Opened


an
.c

10.) Guide Apparatus :


w

The Governors action on the two main servomotors is


w

transferred via rod connections to the regulating ring . The actual


w

guide apparatus consists of 23 guide vanes, check plates on upper and


lower turbine cover as well as guide vane lever and links.
The guide vanes are made of forged stainless steel and had
been shaped to provide the best possible hydraulic conditions. The guide
vanes have bearings on upper and lower turbine covers . These are self
lubricating slide bearings with Teflon covering. The coupling between
guide vane and guide vane lever is a pure friction coupling, thus
allowing the guide vane to slide away in case of foreign object is

29
preventing the guide vane from being closed. An alarm in that case
will be activated. The guide vane lever and regulating ring is connected by
links. The links are joined by self - lubricating bushing on stainless steel
pins attached to the regulating ring and the guide vane lever respectively.
The guide vane movement is shown in the fig.

g
or
a) 4 u.
v as
an
.c
w
w
w

0% OPEN

30

or

u.

100% OPEN 4
as

GENERATOR:
an
.c

The vertically mounted synchronous generator converts the


w

hydraulic energy of water into electrical energy. The generator will be


w

vertical shaft type having salient poles with closed air circuit ventilation
w

and suitable for coupling to a machine turbine.


It will have static excitation system energizing the field coils. The
slip rings, Permanent magnet generator and mechanical over speed
device will be located suitably on a fabricated shaft, which in turn will be
fitted to a rotor spider. The speed of the turbine wheel must therefore
match the synchronous speed of the generator.
The generator will have a combined thrust and guide bearing below
the rotor. The generator will have the rating and characteristic as the

31
components will be designed to withstand seismic forces as applicable.

Generator Components :
The generator consist of following components-
1. Foundation
2. Stator
3. Rotor
4. Air water cooling system

g
5. Slip ring system

or
6. Excitation

u.
7. Bearing
8. Braking and lifting equipment 4
v as
1) Stator : The rotor winding is excited by a direct current
an

and induces a voltage in the stator winding. This is taken by Bus


.c

bar to the main current lines. The stator consist of the Frame ,
w

Laminated stator core and the stator winding embedded in the


w

slots of the laminated core.


w

HOUSING Depending upon the operating condition of the


machine, the generator housing absorb the generated mechanical
loading and transfer these to the foundations.

32
g
or
4 u.
v as
an

Generator components
.c
w

STATOR FRAME The stator frame will be build up of weld able steel
w

plates and will have adequate depth to prevent distortion during transport or
w

under any operating condition.

STATOR CORE -- The stator core will be built of stamping of high


grade , non aging cold rolled silicon alloy with varnished insulation on both
sides. The segments will be secured to the frame by dovetail notches
engaging with corresponding dovetail key bars welded to stator frame.

33
ANTI CONDENSATION HEATERS Low temperature to prevent,
condensation on the winding during period of shut down will be
mounted below the winding located below lower air guide. They are of
tubular or box type construction consisting of a coiled resistant wire
embedded in an electrically insulting and heat conducting compound and
protected with a metal sheath.

Air-Water Cooling:

g
The mechanical and electrical losses arising in the course of

or
operation of the and the temperature rise of the components this cause

u.
must be reduced by cooling. generator rotor and stator are air cooled ,
while the bearings are water cooled. 4
as
The generator has a closed cooling circuit and is therefore sealed off on
all sides against the surrounding surface. The foundation walls from the
v
an

enclosure from the machine house, and the outer cover separates the
generator from the turbine room. The enclosure at the circumference is
.c

provided by the generator pit. The cooling air enters tangentially through
w

the rotor and enters the stator through the gaps. The air water coolers
w

arranged after the stator removes the heat that the air has absorbed.
w

2) Rotor :
The rotor and rotor winding are excited with the direct current,
and generate a constant magnetic field. The rotational movement at the
specified synchronous speed induces a sinusoidal alternating current
voltage in all phases of the stator winding. The rotor will be designed to
safety withstand all mechanical stresses imposed by the maximum runway
speed. The static and dynamic balancing of the rotor will be carried

34
out , as a part of precommissioning test at site and values of rotor
vibrations will be kept with in allowable limits according to satnderds.

The rotor consist of following components;


1) Shaft NDE
2) Pole wheel
3) Slip ring
4) Hub
5) Yoke ring

g
or
6) Long pole
7) Brake ring

u.
8) Current feed
4
as
9) Pole body
10) Pole and plate
v

11) Pole winding


an

12) Damper winding


.c

13) Pole body insulator


w

14) Shaft DE
w
w

35
g
or
4 u.
v as
an

4) Slip Ring And Brush Gear :


The collector will be of mild steel and mounted on the top of
.c

the generator tube shaft. The brush gear for the collector will be
w

mounted on insulated studs supported on the top bracket and will be


w

arranged to permit convenient access for maintenance and inspection.


w

The insulation for slip rings and their connections will be non-
hygroscopic and oil resistant. The slip ring system transfer the direct
current necessary for excitation of the rotor from the fixed brushes to the
slip ring and thus to the rotor poles.

36
5) Bearings :
The two different bearings are attached to the rotor i.e. Guide
bearing and Thrust bearing. The thrust bearing must take up the entire
weight of the rotating components of the machine set (rotor and turbine)
and axial thrust of the hydraulic machine. Both journal bearing
together with turbine journal bearing ensure a centered machine run
from the standstill up to the runway speed of the turbine.

Thrust Bearing : Thrust bearing is of pivoted segmental pad type in

g
or
which the stationary parts consist of a set of Babbit segmental pad
supported on circular pad supports made of alloy steel forgings. The

u.
bearing is self lubricated and immersed in oil bath in which plugged n type
4
as
of water cooled oil coolers are placed to remove the bearing losses. Radial
and circumferential movement of the pads is prevented by means of
v

stoppers.
an
.c
w
w
w

Thrust bearing

37
Guide Bearing : The guide bearing will be of the pivoted pad type
consists of arrow of white metal pads arranged in a support ring to bear
on a journal surface. A pivot bar will be bolted to the back of each guide
pad to enable the pad to rock slightly to take up a suitable position and
facilitate formation of oil film when running. The air surface above the
oil surface will be vented to the atmosphere by vapor pipes and air
pressurized oil vapor seal will be fitted to prevent the escape of oil vapor
into the generator air circuit.

g
or
MAINELECTRICALEQUIPMENTS :

4 u.
as
1) Synchronous Machine (Generator) :
It is a three phase double excited machine because its field winding
v
an

is energized form a dc source and its armature winding is connected to an


ac source. Its working as a generator delivers or exports ac power. A
.c

synchronous generator is universally employed for the generation of three-


w

phase power at all generating stations. Most of the synchronous motors are
w

of silent pole type as it is most suitable for the slow speed water turbine
w

generators and are called Hydrogenates. There are six generators in the
power house each having 250 MW capacity and driven by speed of 300
rpm. Each generator is having 96 brushes in which 48 are positive and 48 are
negative. There are two slip rings one is positive and other is negative.
The slip ring give excitation Current to rotor through brushes according to
load.

38
Generator specification:
Rated speed 300 rpm
Turbine Rated Head 428 m
Rated output 250 MW
Rated Output (Generator) 278 MVA
Power Factor 0.9
Terminal Voltage 15.75 KV
Manufactured By ALSTOM / GERMANY

g
or
2) Excitation System:

u.
In large synchronous machine the field winding is always provided on the
rotor. Some important excitation systems are :
4
as
DC Exciters : This is an old conventional method of exciting the
field winding of synchronous generator. Here three machines pilot exciter,
v
an

main exciter and three phase alternator are mechanically coupled and
therefore driven by the same shaft. The pilot exciter feed the field winding
.c

of the main exciter. The dc output from the main exciter is given to the
w

field winding of the main alternator through brushes and slip rings. The
w

conventional method of excitation suffers from cooling and


w

maintenance problem as associated with the slip ring, brushes and


commutators as the alternator rating rise. This trend led to the
development of the static excitation and brushes excitation system.

Static Excitation : Here the excitation voltage for the main


alternator field is drawn from output terminal of the main 3- phase
alternator. For this purpose a three phase transformer TR step down the
alternator voltage to the desired value. This three phase voltage is fed to the

39
3-phase full converter bridge using thyristors. The power output from the
thyristor is delivered to the field winding of the main alternator through
brushes and slip rings. For initiating the process of static excitation first of
all field winding is switched on to the station battery bank to establish
the field current in alternator. The alternator aped is adjusted to the rated
speed.

3) Braking and Jacking System :

g
or
The generator brakes will consist of a number of steel shoes

u.
mounted on a vertical piston moving in cylinder and will operate against
a polished circular steel brake track located on underside of rotor. Brakes
4
as
will be automatically applied when the speed of the rotor reduce to a
preset value and will remain applied continuously so that the unit stops
v
an

completely.
The brakes will also serve as a convenient means for jacking the
.c

rotor for maintenance purpose for this a complete hydraulic rotor jacking
w

unit will be provided. Limit switch is provided which shows the


w

indication that the rotor is raised to maximum permissible limit. The


w

arrangement of piping will be such that after jacking system has been in use
air under pressure can be applied to the system to clear the pipes of oil.

4) Brake Dust Collector :


The brake dust collector consists of an extraction unit, hoppers
around brake assembly for trapping the brake dust and flexible hoses for
connecting hoppers to the extraction unit. The extraction unit will have a

40
motor driven exhaust fan and will be fitted with an easily removable
sheet steel bin for collecting heavy dust. The lighter air born particles will
be collected by a suitable fabric based filter. The starter panel for motor
having provision for automatic start and stop of the motor will also be
provided.

5) Oil Vapor System:


The oil vapor extraction system sucks of the vapor of generator

g
bearing. This oil vapor is generated during operation and led to the filters

or
outside the generator room. The pollution of the machine is this way

u.
avoided.

4
as
General:
As soon as the generator starts running with the operating
v
an

temperature , the oily fog Is developed in the bearing oil container by


very finally distributed oil drops . Breathing the oil in bearing or
.c

pressure differences inside and outside the bearing cause the oil vapor, a
w

mixture of air and oil that produces a different wetting of the parts and
w

surfaces at the outside. These damp places result in providing an ideal


w

background for dirt beginnings . During high speed of rotor or high


load the differential pressure increases also between the bearing
chambers and the environment. In this case the bearing seal and shaft oil
separators cannot hold back the oil mist any longer. To prevent this then
generator was equipped with a special oil vapor suction system.

41
Design And Function:
Two pipelines are attached parallel above at the upper and
lower bearing chamber. The two pipes are led outward to the two
suction filters. The particles separated by the filter run off on the inside of
the separation pipe. The ventilator for the production of suction flow is
inserted above the separation pipe within the clean air side. An activated
Carbon filter is mounted behind the electrostatic unit to absorb smells and
gases. Cleaned air is blown by the activated carbon filter into the open air.

g
or
TRANSFORMERS

u.
The Transformers used are manufactured by BHEL.The various
4
as
specifications of the transformers are given below:

v
an

TRANSFORMER SPECIFICATIONS
.c

Make Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited


w

Types of cooling ODWF(oil drift water force)


w

Rating HV & IV (MVA) 102


w

Rating LV (MVA) 102


No load voltage HV (KV) 420/3
No load voltage LV (KV) 15.75
Line current HV (AMPS) 421
Line current LV (AMPS) 6476
Temperature Rise oil (OC) 55(deg)
Temperature Rise windings 65(deg)

42
Phase 1(single)
Frequency HZ 50 Hz
Connection Symbol YNd 11

PARTS OF TRANSFORMER:

1) CONSERVATOR
It is used generally to conserve the insulating property of the oil from

g
deterioration and protect the transformer against failure on account of bad

or
quality of oil. It is a small tank mounted on main tank and the two are

u.
connected by a pipe. The main tank is completely filled with oil but
conservator tank is partially filled with oil. Its function is to allow space for
4
as
expansion of oil due to heating and contraction due to cooling of oil
v
an

2) SILICA GEL DEHYDERATING BREATHER


The breather is used to prevent entry of moisture inside the
.c

transformer tank. The breather consists of silicagel. When air is taken in or


w

out of the transformer due to contraction or expansion of oil in the tank,the


w

silicagel absorbs moisture and allows the air free from moisture and allows
w

the air free from moisture to enter the transformer.

3) BUCHHOLZ RELAY
It is a gas-actuated relay used for protecting oil immersed transformers
against all types of faults. It indicates presence of gases in case of some
minor fault and takes out the transformer out of circuit in case of serious
fault.

43
4) BUSHINGS
Bushings are made from highly insulating material to insulate and to
bringout the terminals of the transformer from the container.

5) OIL GAUGE
Every transformer is provided with an oil gauge to indicate the oil
level.

g
or
6) TAPPINGS
The transformers are usually provided with few tapings on secondary

u.
side so that output voltage can be varied for constant input voltage.
4
as
7) RADIATORS
v

The radiators increase the surface area of the tank and more heat is
an

thus radiated in less time. It is generally used in large capacity transformers


.c

50 KVA and above.


w
w

8) NON RETURNING VALVE (NRV)


w

It is used where air is produced and is stored in compressor. It is


between compressor and air producer. It means that air is not returned back
when it reaches in the NVR.

9) OLTC
It is known as On Load Tap Changer. If the supply from the previous
sub-station is coming according to the requirement and less than the required
supply OLTC is used to increase the supply to level of load.

44
10) WINDING TEMPERATURE INDICATOR:
It is a device which indicate the temperature of winding of
transformer and possible damage to the transformer due to overload can be
prevented. The sensing bulb of dial thermometer is inserted inside the
heating coil The terminal of heating coil are connected to temperature
gauge.

Gasinsulatedswitchyard

g
or
The increased demand for electrical energy in big cities and

u.
industrial areas has made it necessary to bring high voltage systems to the
4
load centers. It is very difficult and sometime impossible to find a suitable
as
place for installation of the air insulated switch gears. The SF6 GIS
v

guarantees out standing advantages for the planning and operation of high
an

voltage supply networks.The space requirement can be less than 10% of the
space taken up by air insulated switchgear ,as all the live parts are metal
.c

enclosed and sealed the SF6 GIS is completely immune to atm. conditions.
w

With SF6 GIS all foreign bodies are prevented from coming into contact
w

with live parts this ensure maximum safety.


w

GENERAL RATINGS
RATED VOLTAGE - 420KV
RATED NORMAL CURRENT- 4000A
RATED FREQUENCY 50Hz
RATED LIGHTNING IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE 1425KV
RATED SWITCHING IMPULSE WITHSTAND VOLTAGE 1050KV

45
RATED SHORT TIME WITHSTAND CURRENT 50KA
RATED DURATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT 1s
RATED POWER FREQUENCY WITHSTAND VOLTAGE 520KV
RATED PEAK WITHSTAND CUERRENT 125KA

SF6 DENSITY
NORMAL FILLING 48.1Kg/m3
MINIMUM 42.7Kg/m3.

g
SF6 GAUGE PRESSURE (1013mbar) AT 20C

or
NORMAL FILLING 6.3 bar

u.
MININMUM 5.55bar

4
as
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE
MAXIMIUM INDOOR 30C
v
an

MINIMUM OUTDOOR -20C


.c

DISCONNECTOR
w

TYPE - SF16
w
w

EARTHIONG SWITCH
TYPE - MR16-ML16

OPERATING DISONNECTOR AND EARTHING


SWITCH DEVICE
TYPE - BET-CLT

46
CURRENT BREAKER RATINGS
TYPE - FB16
RATED S.C. BREAKING CURRENT SYMMETRICAL 50KA
RATED S.C. MAKING CURRENT 125 KA
OPERATING SEQUENCE : TRANSFORMER 0-3min-CO-3min-CO.
OPERATING SEQYENCE : BUS COUPLER 0-0.3s-CO-3min-CO.
SF6 DENSITY
FILLING 48.1kg/m3

g
MINIMUM 42.7kg/m3.

or
SF6 GAUGE PRESSURE(1013mbar) AT 20C

u.
FILLING 6.3 bar
MINIMUM 5.55bar 4
as
CIRCUIT BREAKER OPERATING MECHANISM
v
an

TYPES CIF 70-40-240


TRIP COIL DC 220 V
.c
w
w

OTHER EQUIPMENTS
w

LBB PTOTECTION AND TRIP CIRCUITS SUPVN

GIS A SAFETY ASPECT


GIS has considerably lower risk of injury to personnel due to enclosed
live parts.
Electric fields are shielded by grounded GIS enclosures.
Magnetic fields due to conductor current are reduced by GIS
enclosure current.

47
Worker exposure to electric and magnetic field in GIS is generally
limited to vicinity of GIS interfaces.

ADVANTAGES OF GIS
GIS is compact in size .
Insulation not exposed to environment.
High reliability
Reduced static and dynamic operating load.

g
or
DISADVANTAGES OF GIS

u.
High cost .
4
Long outage period as repair of damage part at site is difficult.
as
Requirement of cleanliness are very stringent.
v

Dust and moisture inside the compartment can cause flashover.


an


.c

VARIOUS COMPONENTS OF GIS


w

Circuit Breakers
w
w

Isolators and earth switches.


Bus bar
Current and voltage transformer
Surge arrestor
Bushings
Metallic bellows
Local control cubicles
Monitoring device

48
DESIGNASPECTSOFDAM
1) RADIAL GATES:
These are manufactured by GE(UK) Ltd. These are 5 in number and their
purpose is to prevent the overtopping of dam and flooding. During the
period of high water level the gates are opened to release water in a
controlled and safe manner. Depending upon the water level and rate of
water rise one or more gates can be opened. The gates are basically used to

g
regulate the water level with in the water level and for flushing put sediment

or
upstream of dam.

u.
Each radial gate is operated by the two double acting hydraulic
4
cylinder retract to open and lower the gate. Five units are installed for each
as
gate and all are interconnected so that one unit can be used for any of the
v

gate in case the unit corresponding to particular gate fails.


an

Five petrol driven emergency pumps units are also been installed
.c

enabling a further method of gate operation in case of emergency.


w

A local control house located between gate 1&2, houses the power unit and
w

controls for gate 1,2&3 and another local control house is located between
w

gate 4&5, houses the power unit and controls for gate 4&5.
The complete hydraulic system is manufactured by Dennley Hydraulics
(dennley engg. Co. heckmondwike ltd.) .
The radial gate assembly comprises of following subassemblies:
1) Gate leaf fabrication
2) Cross bracing Structures
3) Radial arm assemblies
4) Pivot hubs and bearings

49
5) Guide roller assemblies
6) Sill Seals
7) Side Seals
8) Lintel Seals
9) Dogging Arrangement

2) TECHNICAL DATA:

g
RADIAL SLUICE GATES

or
Quantity 5

u.
Clear Span of Opening 7.5m
Clear Depth of Opening 9.13m
4
as
Sill Level 1457.37m
Lintel Level 15466.50m
v
an

Gate Lip Fully Open Level 1467.20m


Skin Radius (inside) 12m
.c

Pivot Trunnion axis level 1467.00m


w

Full Reservoir Level (FRL) 1495.50m


w

Max Reservoir Level (MRL) 1498.5m


w

Silt Depth 9.13m


Seismic Coefficient Horizontal 0.28g
Seismic Coefficient Vertical 0.14g
Design Code IS4623:1984
Permissible Stresses
Gate 0.55ys
Skin Plate 0.45ys
Embedded Parts 0.4ys

50
Occasional Loads 133% (normal Stress)
Hoist Type Double Acting Servo
Gate Speed Operation 0.6m/min 10%
Hoist Design Code IS10210:1993
Material
Skin Plate Stainless BS1501 gr304 S61
Gate Structure BS EN 10025 gr275
Seal Faces Stainless Grade 304L
Anchor Girder BS EN 10025 gr275

g
or
Anchor Ties BS EN 10025 gr355

4 u.
as
GATE OPERATING CYLINDERS
Quantity 10 (2 per radial gate)
v

Cylinder Bore 420mm


an

Cylinder Rod diameter 200mm


.c

Total Stroke 7808mm


w

Working Stroke 7742mm


w

Seismic Design Coefficient 0.28g


w

Max push per cylinder (extended) 332KN (at servo after losses)
Max pull per cylinder 1800KN (at servo after losses)
Working Pressure (annulus) 200 bar
Working Pressure (full bore) 40 bar
Test Pressure 300 bar
Cylinder Operating speed 0.475m/min 10%
Design Code IS10210 (1993)
Mounting Gimbel Barrel Mounting

51
Full bore Pressure relief valve 28bar

Cylinder Piston Transducer 24V dc supply


4-20 mA output
4 mA extended
20 mA retracted
Proximity Switches
Quantity 2 (per cylinder)
Supply 24V dc

g
or
Type Inductive Wire Type
Setting 55mm from end of retracted stroke

u.
70mm from end of extended stroke
4
v as

HYDRAULLIC POWER UNIT


an

Quantity 5
.c

Operation Normally each unit is dedicated to its


w

respective gate.
w

Emergency Reservoir All 5 units are interconnected so that


w

each unit can be used to operate any


gate.
Hydraulic Reservoir 2000 liters capacity
Hydraulic Oil Mineral ISO VG15
Hydraulic pump Tandem Type
Hydraulic Pump Motor 415V, 3Phase, 50 Hz, 55kW
Working Pressure Up to 200bar (gauge)

52
PETROL ENGINE DRIVEN EMERGENCY PUMP UNIT
Quantity 5
Power Source Petrol Engine
Starter HandPump/Accumulator
Engine Power 60W (80 BHP) approx
Cooling Water Cooled and Cooling fans
Hydraulic Pump
Speed approx 2000rpm
Output Min of 80 liters per minute at 200bar

g
or
gauge.

4 u.
v as
an
.c
w
w
w

53