A The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List Scott Pakin <pakin@uiuc.

edu>∗ July 2, 2001

Abstract
A This document lists 2266 symbols and the corresponding L TEX commands that produce them. Some of A these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every L TEX 2ε system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. All of the fonts and packages used to prepare this document—as well as this document itself—are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org).

Contents
1 Introduction 2 Body-text symbols A Table 1: L TEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters . . . . . . A Table 2: L TEX 2ε Commands Defined to Work in Both Math A Table 3: Predefined L TEX 2ε Text-Mode Commands . . . . . Table 4: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) . Table 5: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages . . . . . Table 6: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 . . . . . . . Table 7: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks . . . . . . . . Table 8: Text-Mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 9: tipa Text-Mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 10: wsuipa Text-Mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 11: wsuipa Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 12: textcomp Diacritics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 13: textcomp Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 14: marvosym Currency Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 15: textcomp Legal Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 16: textcomp Old-Style Numerals . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 17: wasysym Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 18: tipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 19: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 20: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Mathematical symbols Table 21: Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 22: Variable-sized Math Operators . . . . . Table 23: AMS Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . Table 24: stmaryrd Binary Operators . . . . . . . Table 25: Variable-sized stmaryrd Math Operators Table 26: Variable-sized wasysym Math Operators 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15

. . . . . . . . . and Text Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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∗ The original version of this document was written by David Carlisle, with several additional tables provided by Alexander Holt. See Section 7.5 on page 42 for more information about who did what.

1

Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table Table

27: 28: 29: 30: 31: 32: 33: 34: 35: 36: 37: 38: 39: 40: 41: 42: 43: 44: 45: 46: 47: 48: 49: 50: 51: 52: 53: 54: 55: 56: 57: 58: 59: 60: 61: 62: 63: 64: 65: 66:

txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-sized txfonts/pxfonts Math Operators . . . . . . . . . . . Relation Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Negated Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arrow Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Negated Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Log-like Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Hebrew Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Large, Variable-sized Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . stmaryrd Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variable-Sized stmaryrd Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Text-Mode Delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Math-Mode Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some Other Constructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Extensible Arrow Accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Punctuation Symbols (Math Mode) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Miscellaneous L TEX 2ε Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous AMS Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode stmaryrd Extension Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other wasysym Math-Mode Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . textcomp Text-Mode Math and Science Symbols . . . . . . . . . . marvosym Math Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ar Aspect Ratio Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ulsy Contradiction and Other Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Math Alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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15 16 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28

4 Science and technology symbols Table 67: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols Table 68: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols . . . . . . Table 69: wasysym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . Table 70: marvosym Astronomical Symbols . . . . . Table 71: wasysym Astrological Symbols . . . . . . Table 72: marvosym Astrological Symbols . . . . . Table 73: wasysym APL Symbols . . . . . . . . . . Table 74: wasysym APL Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . Table 75: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols . Table 76: ASCII Control Characters (IBM) . . . . Table 77: marvosym Communication Symbols . . . Table 78: marvosym Engineering Symbols . . . . . .

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Table 79: marvosym Biological Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Table 80: marvosym Safety-Related Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 5 Dingbats Table 81: Table 82: Table 83: Table 84: Table 85: Table 86: Table 87: Table 88: Table 89: Table 90: Table 91: Table 92: Table 93: Table 94: Table 95: Table 96: Table 97: Table 98: Table 99: Table 100: Table 101: Table 102: Table 103: Table 104: Table 105: Table 106: Table 107: Table 108: Table 109: 29 29 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 38 38 39 40 41 42

bbding Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . marvosym Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dingbat Pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Pencils and Nibs . . . . . . . . . . . dingbat Hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pifont Hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . pifont Crosses and Plusses . . . . . . . . . bbding Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . pifont Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . . . wasysym Xs and Check Marks . . . . . . . pifont Circled Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . wasysym Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes . wasysym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . ifsym Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . . bbding Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . pifont Geometric Shapes . . . . . . . . . . manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols . . . . . marvosym Information Symbols . . . . . . . Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats . . . . . . Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats . . . . . . . Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats . . . . . . .

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6 Other symbols Table 110: textcomp Genealogical Symbols Table 111: wasysym General Symbols . . . . Table 112: wasysym Musical Notes . . . . . Table 113: wasysym Circles . . . . . . . . . Table 114: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols . Table 115: marvosym Navigation Symbols . Table 116: marvosym Laundry Symbols . . Table 117: Other marvosym Symbols . . . . Table 118: ifsym Weather Symbols . . . . . Table 119: ifsym Alpine Symbols . . . . . . Table 120: ifsym Clocks . . . . . . . . . . . Table 121: Other ifsym Symbols . . . . . . 7 Additional Information 7.1 Symbol Name Clashes . . . . . . . 7.2 Where can I find the symbol for . . . 7.3 Math-mode spacing . . . . . . . . . 7.4 ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference 7.5 About this document . . . . . . . .

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3

References Index

44 45

4

1

Introduction

A A Welcome to the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List! This document strives to be your primary source of L TEX A X commands, packages, usage details, caveats—everything needed to put symbol information: font samples, L TE thousands of different symbols at your disposal. All of the fonts covered herein meet the following criteria:

1. They are freely available from the Comprehensive TEX Archive Network (http://www.ctan.org).
A 2. All of their symbols have L TEX 2ε names. That is, a user should be able to access a symbol by name, not just by \char number . A These are not particularly limiting criteria; the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List contains samples of 2266 A symbols—quite a large number. Some of these symbols are guaranteed to be available in every L TEX 2ε system; others require fonts and packages that may not accompany a given distribution and that therefore need to be installed. See http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=instpackages+wherefiles for help with installing new fonts and packages.

Document Usage
Each section of this document contains a number of font tables. Each table shows a set of symbols, with the A corresponding L TEX command to the right of each symbol. A table’s caption indicates what package needs to be loaded in order to access that table’s symbols. For example, the symbols in Table 16, “textcomp Old-Style Numerals”, are made available by putting “\usepackage{textcomp}” in your document’s preamble. “AMS” means to use one of the AMS symbol packages, such as amssymb. Notes below a table provide additional information about some or all the symbols in that table. One note that appears a few times in this document, particularly in Section 2, indicates that certain symbols do not exist in the OT1 font encoding (Donald Knuth’s original, 7-bit font encoding, which is the default font A encoding for L TEX) and that you should use fontenc to select a different encoding, such as T1 (a common 8bit font encoding). That means that you should put “\usepackage[ encoding ]{fontenc}” in your document’s preamble, where encoding is, e.g., T1 or LY1. To limit the change in font encoding to the current group, use “\fontencoding{ encoding }\selectfont”. Section 7 contains some additional information about the symbols in this document. It shows which symbol names are not unique across packages, gives examples of how to create new symbols out of existing symbols, A explains how symbols are spaced in math mode, presents a L TEX ASCII and Latin 1 tables, and provides some A information about this document itself. The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List ends with an index of all the symbols in the document and various additional useful terms.

Frequently Requested Symbols
There are a number of symbols that are requested over and over again on comp.text.tex. If you’re looking for such a symbol, the following list will help you find it quickly.
©

and

®

......................... ......... .........

6 6 8 10 10 13 16 17 18

°,

as in “180°” or “15‰”

...............

24 25 25 39 40 40 41 42

, as in “Spaces are significant.” ´ ` ¯ ˆ etc. (versus ´ ` ¯ and ˆ ı, ı, ı, ı, i, i, i, i)
¢

L, F, etc.

......................... .......................

N, Z, R, etc.
. ..

................................ ............................... ............................... ............................... ................................ and ..........................

¤
‡

............................... ´, `, etc. (i.e., several accents per character) a e ¯ ˆ

................................ ............ ...........................

< and > (instead of ¡ and ¿) ˜ (or ∼)

5

2

Body-text symbols

This section lists symbols that are intended for use in running text, such as punctuation marks, accents, ligatures, and currency symbols.

A Table 1: L TEX 2ε Escapable “Special” Characters

$

\$

%

\%

\_

}

\}

&

\&

#

\#

{

\{

A Table 2: L TEX 2ε Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode

$
¶ §

\$ \P \S

c O

© „

\_ \copyright \dag

…

...
£

\ddag \dots \pounds

{ }

\{ \}

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available.

A Table 3: Predefined L TEX 2ε Text-Mode Commands

ˆ ˜
*

\ | { }
ˆ

c O

© „ …

$ ... — – ¡ >

\textasciicircum \textasciitilde \textasteriskcentered \textbackslash \textbar \textbraceleft \textbraceright \textbullet \textcopyright \textdagger \textdaggerdbl \textdollar \textellipsis \textemdash \textendash \textexclamdown \textgreater

<
a o

ª º ¶ ·

¿ “ ” ‘ ’ r O
TM

® § £ —

\textless \textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph \textperiodcentered \textquestiondown \textquotedblleft \textquotedblright \textquoteleft \textquoteright \textregistered \textsection \textsterling \texttrademark \textunderscore \textvisiblespace

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available.

6

Table 4: Non-ASCII Letters (Excluding Accented Letters) ˚ a ˚ A Æ æ

\aa \AA \AE \ae

Ð ð Ð ž

\DH∗ \dh∗ \DJ∗ \dj∗

L l
 ­

\L \l \NG∗ \ng∗

ø Ø Œ œ

\o \O \OE \oe

ß SS
Þ þ

\ss \SS \TH∗ \th∗

Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1.

Ð ž ‡ § · —   € 

\B{D} \B{d} \B{H} \B{h} \B{t} \B{T} \m{b} \m{B} \m{C}

°  ð Ð ¡ ‚ ¢ ƒ £

Table 5: Letters Used to Typeset African Languages \m{c} \m{D} \M{d} \M{D} \m{d} \m{E} \m{e} \M{E} \M{e}

¤ „ † ¦ À à ‰ © ˆ

\m{f} \m{F} \m{G} \m{g} \m{I} \m{i} \m{J} \m{j} \m{K}

¨  ­ ª Š ‘ ± ¬ Œ

\m{k} \m{N} \m{n} \m{o} \m{O} \m{P} \m{p} \m{s} \m{S}

» › º š ® Ž  ¯ ¶

\M{t} \M{T} \m{t} \m{T} \m{u}∗ \m{U}∗ \m{Y} \m{y} \m{z}

–  â Å å

\m{Z} \T{E} \T{e} \T{O} \T{o}

These characters all need the T4 font encoding, which is provided by the fc package. \m{v} and \m{V} are synonyms for \m{u} and \m{U}.

Table 6: Punctuation Marks Not Found in OT1 


\guillemotleft \guillemotright 



\guilsinglleft \guilsinglright 

\quotedblbase \quotesinglbase

"

\textquotedbl

To get these symbols, use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1.

Table 7: pifont Decorative Punctuation Marks — ˜ \ding{123} \ding{124} ™ d \ding{125} \ding{126} e f \ding{161} \ding{162} g \ding{163}

7

¨a A¨ ´a A´ ˙˙ Aa ¯a A¯ ˆa Aˆ

\"{A}\"{a} \’{A}\’{a} \.{A}\.{a} \={A}\={a} \^{A}\^{a} 
Aa
∗ †

`a A` Aa ¯¯ Aa ¸¸ Aa ..

Ÿa AŸ

Table 8: Text-Mode Accents ˝a \‘{A}\‘{a} A˝ \H{A}\H{a} \b{A}\b{a} ¡ \k{A}\k{a}† ˚a \r{A}\r{a} \c{A}\c{a} A˚   \d{A}\d{a} Aa \t{A}\t{a} ¼a \G{A}\G{a}‡ A¼ \U{A}\U{a}‡ A a OO

˘a A˘ ˇa Aˇ ˜a A˜

\u{A}\u{a} \v{A}\v{a} \~{A}\~{a}

\newtie{A}\newtie{a}∗

\textcircled{A}\textcircled{a}

Requires the textcomp package. Not available in the OT1 font encoding. Use the fontenc package to select an alternate font encoding, such as T1. Requires the T4 font encoding, provided by the fc package. Also note the existence of \i and \j, which produce dotless versions of “i” and “j” (viz., “ı” and “”). These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot. For example, “na\"{\i}ve” produces a correct “na¨ ıve”, while “na\"{i}ve” would yield the rather odd-looking “na¨ ive”. (“na\"{i}ve” does work in encodings other than OT1, however.)

Table 9: tipa Text-Mode Accents

¡¡ ©a A© ¡§ §a A¡ Aa 00 A` `a ¨a ©¨ A© ›a A› ¢¢  Aa Ÿa AŸ  ¨a A¨

\textacutemacron{A}\textacutemacron{a} \textacutewedge{A}\textacutewedge{a} \textadvancing{A}\textadvancing{a} \textbottomtiebar{A}\textbottomtiebar{a} \textbrevemacron{A}\textbrevemacron{a} \textcircumacute{A}\textcircumacute{a} \textcircumdot{A}\textcircumdot{a} \textdotacute{A}\textdotacute{a} \textdotbreve{A}\textdotbreve{a} \textdoublegrave{A}\textdoublegrave{a} \textdoublevbaraccent{A}\textdoublevbaraccent{a} \textgravecircum{A}\textgravecircum{a} \textgravedot{A}\textgravedot{a} \textgravemid{A}\textgravemid{a} \textinvsubbridge{A}\textinvsubbridge{a} \textlowering{A}\textlowering{a} \textmidacute{A}\textmidacute{a} \textovercross{A}\textovercross{a} \textoverw{A}\textoverw{a} 

a A a A šš Aa ža Až ™a A™ Aa  Aa )) ˜a A˜ $ A$ "a " Aa

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8

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Aa  Aa (( Aa 11 ¦© ©a A¦ a A Aa ## Aa  Aa ©© Aa  Aa  Aa !! Aa '' Aa Aa ¦¦ Aa  Aa ££ Aa ¤¤ Aa "" Aa §§ A8 8a Aa 4 4 £a  A£ bb Aa

\textpolhook{A}\textpolhook{a} \textraising{A}\textraising{a} \textretracting{A}\textretracting{a} \textringmacron{A}\textringmacron{a} \textroundcap{A}\textroundcap{a} \textseagull{A}\textseagull{a} \textsubarch{A}\textsubarch{a} \textsubbar{A}\textsubbar{a} \textsubbridge{A}\textsubbridge{a} \textsubdot{A}\textsubdot{a} \textsublhalfring{A}\textsublhalfring{a} \textsubplus{A}\textsubplus{a} \textsubrhalfring{A}\textsubrhalfring{a} \textsubring{A}\textsubring{a} \textsubsquare{A}\textsubsquare{a} \textsubtilde{A}\textsubtilde{a} \textsubumlaut{A}\textsubumlaut{a} \textsubw{A}\textsubw{a} \textsubwedge{A}\textsubwedge{a} \textsuperimposetilde{A}\textsuperimposetilde{a} \textsyllabic{A}\textsyllabic{a} \texttildedot{A}\texttildedot{a} \texttoptiebar{A}\texttoptiebar{a} \textvbaraccent{A}\textvbaraccent{a}

œa Aœ

tipa defines shortcut sequences for many of the above. See the tipa documentation for more information.

Table 10: wsuipa Text-Mode Accents Aa gg Aa  \dental{A}\dental{a} \underarch{A}\underarch{a}

9

Table 11: wsuipa Diacritics

s k u m p

\ain \corner \downp \downt \halflength

v n q { z

\leftp \leftt \length \midtilde \open

x ~ w o i

\overring \polishhook \rightp \rightt \secstress

h j r y |

\stress \syllabic \underdots \underring \undertilde

} t l

\underwedge \upp \upt

The wsuipa package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents. However, it does provide \diatop and \diaunder commands, which are used to compose diacritics with other characters. For example, \diatop[\overring|a] produces “x”, and \diaunder[\underdots|a] produces “r”. See the wsuipa documentation a a for more information.

Table 12: textcomp Diacritics
‚ ´ €

\textacutedbl \textasciiacute \textasciibreve

 ¨ `

\textasciicaron \textasciidieresis \textasciigrave

¯ ƒ ~

\textasciimacron \textgravedbl \texttildelow

The textcomp package defines all of the above as ordinary characters, not as accents.

Table 13: textcomp Currency Symbols
š ¢ ‹  ¤

\textbaht \textcent \textcentoldstyle \textcolonmonetary \textcurrency

$
Š – ¿ Œ

\textdollar \textdollaroldstyle \textdong \texteuro \textflorin

 ’  ‘ £

\textguarani \textlira \textnaira \textpeso \textsterling

Ž ¥

\textwon \textyen

Table 14: marvosym Currency Symbols ¢  \Denarius \Ecommerce ¤ d \EUR \EURcr D c \EURdig \EURhv e ¦ \EURtm \EyesDollar £ ¡ \Pfund \Shilling

Note that:
ˆ ˆ

\Deleatur is another macro name for \Denarius. The different euro signs are meant to be compatible with different fonts— Courier (\EURcr), Helvetica (\EURhv), Times (\EURtm), and the marvosym digits listed in Table 63 (\EURdig).

10

Table 15: textcomp Legal Symbols
­ «

\textcircledP \textcopyleft

c O r O

© ®

\textcopyright \textregistered

Ÿ
TM

—

\textservicemark \texttrademark

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available.

Table 16: textcomp Old-Style Numerals
0 1 2 3

\textzerooldstyle \textoneoldstyle \texttwooldstyle \textthreeoldstyle

4 5 6 7

\textfouroldstyle \textfiveoldstyle \textsixoldstyle \textsevenoldstyle

8 9

\texteightoldstyle \textnineoldstyle

Rather than use the bulky \textoneoldstyle, \texttwooldstyle, etc. commands shown above, consider using \oldstylenums{. . .} to typeset an old-style number.

Table 17: wasysym Phonetic Symbols D Þ \DH \Thorn \dh \inve þ \openo \thorn

Table 18: tipa Phonetic Symbols

È ˜ ™ d é g Ü I ª V Ý H ì f ò 2 ˆ Å

\textbabygamma \textbarb \textbarc \textbard \textbardotlessj \textbarg \textbarglotstop \textbari \textbarl \textbaro \textbarrevglotstop \textbaru \textbeltl \textbeta \textbullseye \textceltpal \textchi \textcloseepsilon

€ Y » 5 á ê Á â ä r Ê Î Ò Ó É Ö ÿ Û

\textglotstop \texthalflength \texthardsign \texthooktop \texthtb \texthtbardotlessj \texthtc \texthtd \texthtg \texthth \texththeng \texthtk \texthtp \texthtq \texthtscg \texthtt \texthvlig \textinvglotstop

í ï ó ù ú ü 6 À à £ å Ë d s ¨ Ï ð ×

\textrtaill \textrtailn \textrtailr \textrtails \textrtailt \textrtailz \textrthook \textsca \textscb \textsce \textscg \textsch \textschwa \textsci \textscj \textscl \textscn \textscoelig

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11

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Ñ Æ Þ ”   ¡ g è Û « 2 g ¢ ¢ý ³ t ­ µ µg ¸ ý dý ƒ } a G { “ ” à dz i ƒ ‚ ¤ q — –

\textcloseomega \textcloserevepsilon \textcommatailz \textcorner \textcrb \textcrd \textcrg \textcrh \textcrinvglotstop \textcrlambda \textcrtwo \textctc \textctd \textctdctzlig \textctesh \textctj \textctn \textctt \textcttctclig \textctyogh \textctz \textdctzlig \textdoublebaresh \textdoublebarpipe \textdoublebarslash \textdoublepipe \textdoublevertline \textdownstep \textdyoghlig \textdzlig \textepsilon \textesh \textfishhookr \textg \textgamma \textglobfall \textglobrise

u Ì « X ´ ¥ ¦ Ô ½ w ñ ë Ð ® Í ¬ ° • y 7 p | 4 ¼ § U ¿ ’ W Q  ¹ Ç Ä ~ ¾ ã

\textinvscr \textiota \textlambda \textlengthmark \textlhookt \textlhti \textlhtlongi \textlonglegr \textlptr \textltailm \textltailn \textltilde \textlyoghlig \textnrleg \textObardotlessj \textOlyoghlig \textomega \textopencorner \textopeno \textpalhook \textphi \textpipe \textprimstress \textraiseglotstop \textraisevibyi \textramshorns \textrectangle \textrevapostrophe \textreve \textrevepsilon \textrevglotstop \textrevyogh \textrhookrevepsilon \textrhookschwa \textrhoticity \textrptr \textrtaild

± ² ö e † Ú ‰  º  tg Ù „ þ ¶ S ¯ R © Õ ‡ î ô õ T Ø P û v … • ’ § · ß 

\textscomega \textscq \textscr \textscripta \textscriptv \textscu \textscy \textsecstress \textsoftsign \textstretchc \texttctclig \textteshlig \texttheta \textthorn \texttslig \textturna \textturncelig \textturnh \textturnk \textturnlonglegr \textturnm \textturnmrleg \textturnr \textturnrrtail \textturnscripta \textturnt \textturnv \textturnw \textturny \textupsilon \textupstep \textvertline \textvibyi \textvibyy \textwynn \textyogh

tipa defines shortcut characters for many of the above. It also defines a command \tone for denoting tone letters (pitches). See the tipa documentation for more information.

Table 19: wsuipa Phonetic Symbols

3

\babygamma

V

\eng

R

\labdentalnas

!

\schwa

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12

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¦  9 F ` e C ˆ „ Y  ‚ c ' ¥  5 Q  x — ” @  e

\barb \bard \bari \barl \baro \barp \barsci \barscu \baru \clickb \clickc \clickt \closedniomega \closedrevepsilon \crossb \crossd \crossh \crossnilambda \curlyc \curlyesh \curlyyogh \curlyz \dlbari \dz \ejective

" w  h ˜ ¨  ) 6 7 & 4   D d 8 s S q u £ ¤  ’ 2

\er \esh \eth \flapr \glotstop \hookb \hookd \hookg \hookh \hookheng \hookrevepsilon \hv \inva \invf \invglotstop \invh \invlegr \invm \invr \invscr \invscripta \invv \invw \invy \ipagamma

G T i I ¢ © ‘ $ 1 A P b g y ƒ † U d a # f % ™ 0

\latfric \legm \legr \lz \nialpha \nibeta \nichi \niepsilon \nigamma \niiota \nilambda \niomega \niphi \nisigma \nitheta \niupsilon \nj \oo \openo \reve \reveject \revepsilon \revglotstop \scd \scg

B X t ¡ ( ‰ ‡ “ §   …  r H W p v € •  f E –

\sci \scn \scr \scripta \scriptg \scriptv \scu \scy \slashb \slashc \slashd \slashu \taild \tailinvr \taill \tailn \tailr \tails \tailt \tailz \tesh \thorn \tildel \yogh

Table 20: Miscellaneous textcomp Symbols
* † O ¦ ˆ „ …  œ  ” • n ›

\textasteriskcentered \textbardbl \textbigcircle \textblank \textbrokenbar \textbullet \textdagger \textdaggerdbl \textdblhyphen \textdblhyphenchar \textdiscount \textestimated \textinterrobang \textinterrobangdown \textmusicalnote \textnumero

ž
a o

ª º ¶ · ˜ ‡ ™ '  “ ¸ §  

\textopenbullet \textordfeminine \textordmasculine \textparagraph \textperiodcentered \textpertenthousand \textperthousand \textpilcrow \textquotesingle \textquotestraightbase \textquotestraightdblbase \textrecipe \textreferencemark \textsection \textthreequartersemdash \texttwelveudash

A Where two symbols are present, the left one is the “faked” symbol that L TEX 2ε provides by default, and the right one is the “true” symbol that textcomp makes available.

13

3

Mathematical symbols

Most, but not all, of the symbols in this section are math-mode only. That is, they yield a “Missing $ inserted” error message if not used within $. . .$, \[. . .\], or another math-mode environment. Operators marked as “variable-sized” are taller in displayed formulas, shorter in in-text formulas, and possibly shorter still when used in various levels of superscripts or subscripts. Alphanumeric symbols (e.g., “L ” and “ ”) are usually produced using one of the math alphabets in Table 66 rather than with an explicit symbol command. Look there first if you need a symbol for a transform, number set, or some other alphanumeric. The various text-mode symbols defined by the textcomp package are made available in math mode through the mathcomp package.

Table 21: Binary Operators ∗ \amalg \ast \bigcirc \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \bullet \cap \cdot \circ ∪ † ‡ ÷ \cup \dagger \ddagger \diamond \div \lhd∗ \mp \odot \ominus ⊕ ⊗ ± \ \oplus \oslash \otimes \pm \rhd∗ \setminus \sqcap \sqcup \star × \times \triangleleft \triangleright \unlhd∗ \unrhd∗ \uplus \vee \wedge \wr

• ∩ · ◦

∨ ∧

A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

Table 22: Variable-sized Math Operators \bigcap \bigcup \bigodot \bigoplus \bigotimes \bigsqcup \biguplus \bigvee \bigwedge \coprod \int \oint \prod \sum

Table 23: AMS Binary Operators \barwedge \boxdot \boxminus \boxplus \boxtimes \Cap \centerdot \circledast \circledcirc \circleddash \Cup \curlyvee \curlywedge \divideontimes \dotplus \doublebarwedge \intercal \leftthreetimes \ltimes \rightthreetimes \rtimes \smallsetminus \veebar

14

Table 24: stmaryrd Binary Operators \baro \bbslash \binampersand \bindnasrepma \boxast \boxbar \boxbox \boxbslash \boxcircle \boxdot \boxempty \boxslash \curlyveedownarrow \curlyveeuparrow \curlywedgedownarrow \curlywedgeuparrow \fatbslash \fatsemi \fatslash \interleave \leftslice \merge \minuso \moo \nplus \obar \oblong \obslash \ogreaterthan \olessthan \ovee \owedge \rightslice \sslash \talloblong \varbigcirc \varcurlyvee \varcurlywedge \varoast \varobar \varobslash \varocircle \varodot \varogreaterthan \varolessthan \varominus \varoplus \varoslash \varotimes \varovee \varowedge \vartimes \Ydown \Yleft \Yright \Yup

Table 25: Variable-sized stmaryrd Math Operators \bigbox \bigcurlyvee \bigcurlywedge \biginterleave \bignplus \bigparallel \bigsqcap \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup

Table 26: Variable-sized wasysym Math Operators \iiint \iint \oiint \varint \varoint

Table 27: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Operators \circledbar \circledbslash \circledvee \circledwedge \invamp \medbullet \medcirc \sqcapplus \sqcupplus

15

Table 28: Variable-sized txfonts/pxfonts Math Operators \bigsqcapplus \bigsqcupplus \fint \idotsint∗ \iiiint∗ \iiint∗,† \iint∗,† \oiiintclockwise \oiiintctrclockwise \oiiint \oiintclockwise \oiintctrclockwise \oiint†
∗ †

\ointclockwise \ointctrclockwise \sqiiint \sqiint \sqint \varoiiintclockwise \varoiiintctrclockwise \varoiintclockwise \varoiintctrclockwise \varointclockwise \varointctrclockwise \varprod

Also defined by amsmath. Also defined by wasysym.

Table 29: Relation Symbols ≈ \approx \asymp \bowtie \cong \dashv \doteq \equiv \frown \geq \gg ∈ ≤ | |= \in \Join∗ \leq \ll \mid \models \neq \ni \parallel \perp \prec \preceq \propto \sim \simeq \smile \sqsubset∗ \sqsubseteq \sqsupset∗ \sqsupseteq ⊂ ⊆ \subset \subseteq \succ \succeq \supset \supseteq \vdash

∝ ∼

⊃ ⊇

≡ ≥

A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

16

Table 30: AMS Binary Relations \approxeq \backepsilon \backsim \backsimeq \because \between \blacktriangleleft \blacktriangleright \Bumpeq \bumpeq \circeq \curlyeqprec \curlyeqsucc \doteqdot \eqcirc \eqslantgtr \eqslantless \fallingdotseq \geqq \geqslant \ggg \gtrapprox \gtrdot \gtreqless \gtreqqless \gtrless \gtrsim \leqq \leqslant \lessapprox \lessdot \lesseqgtr \lesseqqgtr \lessgtr \lesssim \lll \pitchfork \precapprox \preccurlyeq \precsim \risingdotseq \shortmid \shortparallel \smallfrown \smallsmile \sqsubset \sqsupset \Subset \subseteqq \succapprox \succcurlyeq \succsim \Supset \supseteqq \therefore \thickapprox \thicksim \trianglelefteq \triangleq \trianglerighteq \varpropto \vartriangleleft \vartriangleright \Vdash \vDash \Vvdash

∴ ≈ ∼

Table 31: AMS Negated Binary Relations \gnapprox \gneq \gneqq \gnsim \gvertneqq \lnapprox \lneq \lneqq \lnsim \lvertneqq \ncong \ngeq \ngeqq \ngeqslant \ngtr \nleq \nleqq \nleqslant \nless \nmid \nparallel \nprec \npreceq \nshortmid \nshortparallel \nsim \nsubseteq \nsucc \nsucceq \nsupseteq \nsupseteqq \ntriangleleft \ntrianglelefteq \ntriangleright \ntrianglerighteq \nvdash \nvDash \nVDash \precnapprox \precnsim \subsetneq \subsetneqq \succnapprox \succnsim \supsetneq \supsetneqq \varsubsetneq \varsubsetneqq \varsupsetneq \varsupsetneqq

Table 32: stmaryrd Binary Relations \inplus \niplus \subsetplus \subsetpluseq \supsetplus \supsetpluseq 17 \trianglelefteqslant \trianglerighteqslant

Table 33: stmaryrd Negated Binary Relations \ntrianglelefteqslant \ntrianglerighteqslant

Table 34: txfonts/pxfonts Binary Relations \boxdotLeft \boxdotleft \boxdotright \boxdotRight \boxleft \boxLeft \boxRight \boxright \circleddotleft \circleddotright \circledgtr \circledless \circleleft \circleright \colonapprox \Colonapprox \coloneq \Coloneq \coloneqq \Coloneqq \colonsim \Colonsim \dashleftrightarrow \Diamonddotleft \DiamonddotLeft \Diamonddotright \DiamonddotRight \Diamondleft \DiamondLeft \Diamondright \DiamondRight \Eqcolon \eqcolon \Eqqcolon \eqqcolon \eqsim \leftsquigarrow \lJoin \lrtimes \Mappedfromchar \mappedfromchar \mmappedfromchar \Mmappedfromchar \mmapstochar \Mmapstochar \multimapboth \multimapbothvert \multimapdot \multimapdotboth \multimapdotbothA \multimapdotbothAvert \multimapdotbothB \multimapdotbothBvert \multimapdotbothvert \multimapdotinv \multimapinv \napproxeq \nasymp \nbacksim \nbacksimeq \nBumpeq \nbumpeq \Nearrow \nequiv \ngg \ngtrapprox \ngtrless \ngtrsim \nlessapprox \nlessgtr \nlesssim \nll \notin \notni \nprecapprox \npreccurlyeq \npreceqq \nprecsim \nsimeq \nsqsubset \nsqsubseteq \nsqsupset \nsqsupseteq \nSubset \nsubseteqq \nsuccapprox \nsucccurlyeq \nsucceqq \nsuccsim \nSupset \nthickapprox \ntwoheadleftarrow \ntwoheadrightarrow \nvarparallel \nvarparallelinv \nVdash \Nwarrow \openJoin \opentimes \Perp \preceqq \precneqq \rJoin \Rrightarrow \Searrow \strictfi \strictif \strictiff \succeqq \succneqq \Swarrow \varparallel \varparallelinv \VvDash

18

Table 35: Arrow Symbols ⇓ ↓ ← → ⇐ ← \Downarrow \downarrow \hookleftarrow \hookrightarrow \leadsto∗ \Leftarrow \leftarrow \leftharpoondown \leftharpoonup \Leftrightarrow \leftrightarrow ←− ⇐= ←→ ⇐⇒ −→ −→ =⇒ → \longleftarrow \Longleftarrow \longleftrightarrow \Longleftrightarrow \longmapsto \longrightarrow \Longrightarrow \mapsto \nearrow \nwarrow \rightarrow ⇒ \Rightarrow \rightharpoondown \rightharpoonup \rightleftharpoons \searrow \swarrow \uparrow \Uparrow \Updownarrow \updownarrow

↑ ⇑

⇔ ↔

A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

Table 36: AMS Arrows \circlearrowleft \circlearrowright \curvearrowleft \curvearrowright \dashleftarrow \dashrightarrow \downdownarrows \downharpoonleft \downharpoonright \leftarrowtail \leftleftarrows \leftrightarrows \leftrightharpoons \leftrightsquigarrow \Lleftarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Lsh \multimap \rightarrowtail \rightleftarrows \rightleftharpoons \rightrightarrows \rightsquigarrow \Rsh \twoheadleftarrow \twoheadrightarrow \upharpoonleft \upharpoonright \upuparrows

Table 37: AMS Negated Arrows \nLeftarrow \nleftarrow \nLeftrightarrow \nleftrightarrow \nRightarrow \nrightarrow

Table 38: stmaryrd Arrows \leftarrowtriangle \leftrightarroweq \leftrightarrowtriangle \lightning \Longmapsfrom \longmapsfrom \Longmapsto ⇐ ← ⇒ \Mapsfrom \mapsfrom \Mapsto \nnearrow \nnwarrow \rightarrowtriangle \rrparenthesis \shortdownarrow \shortleftarrow \shortrightarrow \shortuparrow \ssearrow \sswarrow

⇐= ←− =⇒

19

Table 39: Log-like Symbols \arccos \arcsin \arctan \arg \cos \cosh \cot \coth \csc \deg \det \dim \exp \gcd \hom \inf \ker \lg \lim \liminf \limsup \ln \log \max \min \Pr \sec \sin \sinh \sup \tan \tanh

Calling the above “symbols” may be a bit misleading.1 Each log-like symbol merely produces the eponymous textual equivalent, but with proper surrounding spacing. See Section 7.3 for more information.

Table 40: AMS Log-like Symbols inj lim proj lim \injlim \projlim lim − − → lim \varinjlim \varliminf lim lim ← − − \varlimsup \varprojlim

Load the amsmath package to get these symbols. See Section 7.3 for some additional comments regarding log-like symbols.

Table 41: Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ζ η Γ ∆ Θ \alpha \beta \gamma \delta \epsilon \varepsilon \zeta \eta \Gamma \Delta \Theta θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ Λ Ξ Π \theta \vartheta \iota \kappa \lambda \mu \nu \xi \Lambda \Xi \Pi o π ρ σ ς Σ Υ Φ o \pi \varpi \rho \varrho \sigma \varsigma τ υ φ ϕ χ ψ ω Ψ Ω \tau \upsilon \phi \varphi \chi \psi \omega

\Sigma \Upsilon \Phi

\Psi \Omega

The remaining Greek majuscules can be produced with ordinary Latin letters. The symbol “M”, for instance, is used for both an uppercase “m” and an uppercase “µ”.

Table 42: AMS Greek Letters \digamma
1 Michael

κ

\varkappa

J. Downes prefers the more general term, “atomic math objects”.

20

Table 43: txfonts/pxfonts Upright Greek Letters α β γ δ ε ζ η \alphaup \betaup \gammaup \deltaup \epsilonup \varepsilonup \zetaup \etaup θ ϑ ι κ λ µ ν ξ \thetaup \varthetaup \iotaup \kappaup \lambdaup \muup \nuup \xiup π ρ σ ς τ υ \piup \varpiup \rhoup \varrhoup \sigmaup \varsigmaup \tauup \upsilonup φ ϕ χ ψ ω \phiup \varphiup \chiup \psiup \omegaup

Table 44: txfonts/pxfonts Variant Latin Letters \varg \varv \varw \vary in

Pass the varg option to txfonts/pxfonts to replace g, v, w, and y with , , , and every mathematical expression in your document.

Table 45: AMS Hebrew Letters \beth \daleth \gimel

\aleph appears in Table 56 on page 23.

( [ {

( [ \{ \lfloor \langle

) ] }

Table 46: Variable-sized Delimiters    ) ↑  \uparrow        ] ↓  \downarrow   \updownarrow   \} \rfloor \rangle \| / \lceil /

⇑ ⇓

\Uparrow \Downarrow \Updownarrow \rceil

\

\backslash

|

|

When used with \left and \right, these symbols expand to the height of the inner math expression.

21

      

                    

\rmoustache \arrowvert

Table 47: Large, Variable-sized Delimiters             \lmoustache   \rgroup                 \bracevert    \Arrowvert      

 

        

\lgroup

These symbols must be used with \left and \right.

Table 48: AMS Delimiters \ulcorner \urcorner \llcorner \lrcorner

Table 49: stmaryrd Delimiters \Lbag \llceil \llparenthesis \Rbag \rrceil \rrparenthesis \lbag \llfloor \rbag \rrfloor

Table 50: Variable-Sized stmaryrd Delimiters \llbracket \rrbracket

Table 51: textcomp Text-Mode Delimiters
< [  

\textlangle \textlbrackdbl \textlquill

> ] ¡

\textrangle \textrbrackdbl \textrquill

Table 52: Math-Mode Accents a ´ a ¯ \acute{a} \bar{a} a ˘ a ˇ \breve{a} \check{a} a ¨ a ˙ \ddot{a} \dot{a} a ` a ˆ \grave{a} \hat{a} a ˜ a \tilde{a} \vec{a}

Also note the existence of \imath and \jmath, which produce dotless versions of “i ” and “j ”. (See Table 56 on the following page.) These are useful when the accent is supposed to replace the dot. For example, “\hat{\imath}” produces a correct “ ı ”, ˆ while “\hat{i}” would yield the rather odd-looking “ ˆ ”. i

22

Table 53: Some Other Constructions abc ←− − abc abc abc √ abc f \widetilde{abc} \overleftarrow{abc} \overline{abc} \overbrace{abc} \sqrt{abc} f’ abc −→ − abc abc abc √ n abc
abc xyz

\widehat{abc} \overrightarrow{abc} \underline{abc} \underbrace{abc} \sqrt[n]{abc} \frac{abc}{xyz}

← − a a ← −

Table 54: AMS Extensible Arrow Accents → \overrightarrow{a} − ← \overleftrightarrow{a} → \overleftarrow{a} a a \underleftarrow{a} a → − \underrightarrow{a} a ← → \underleftrightarrow{a}

These accents are called “extensible” because they stretch to fit their argument. For example, “$\underrightarrow{ABCdef}$” produces “ABCde f ”. −− − − − − −→

Table 55: Punctuation Symbols (Math Mode) ,

,

;

;

:

\colon∗ .

\ldotp

·

\cdotp

While “:” is valid in math mode, \colon uses different surrounding spacing. See A Section 7.3 and the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for more information on math-mode spacing.

A Table 56: Miscellaneous L TEX 2ε Symbols

ℵ ∠ \ ⊥ ··· ♣ .. . ♦

\aleph \angle \backslash \bot \Box∗ \cdots \clubsuit \ddots \Diamond∗ \diamondsuit

∅ ∃ ∀ ♥ ı ∞

\ell \emptyset \exists \flat \forall \hbar \heartsuit \Im \imath \infty

 ...

\jmath \ldots \mho∗ \nabla \natural \neg \partial \prime \Re \sharp

♠ √

¬ ∂

. . . ℘

\spadesuit \surd \top \triangle \vdots \wp

A Not predefined in L TEX 2ε . Use one of the packages latexsym, amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, pxfonts, or wasysym.

23

Table 57: Miscellaneous AMS Symbols ∠ k \angle \backprime \Bbbk \bigstar \blacklozenge \blacksquare \blacktriangle \blacktriangledown \circledS \complement \diagdown \diagup \eth \Finv \Game \hbar \hslash \lozenge \measuredangle \mho \nexists \sphericalangle \square \triangledown \varnothing \vartriangle

ð

Table 58: AMS Commands Defined to Work in Both Math and Text Mode \checkmark \circledR \maltese

Table 59: stmaryrd Extension Characters \Arrownot \arrownot \Mapsfromchar \mapsfromchar \Mapstochar

Table 60: Other wasysym Math-Mode Symbols \apprge \apprle \Box \Diamond \invneg \Join \leadsto \lhd \LHD \logof \mho \ocircle \rhd \RHD \sqsubset \sqsupset \unlhd \unrhd \wasypropto

Table 61: Miscellaneous txfonts/pxfonts Symbols \Diamondblack \Diamonddot \lambdabar ¢ £ \lambdaslash \mathcent \mathsterling \varclubsuit \vardiamondsuit \varheartsuit \varspadesuit

Table 62: textcomp Text-Mode Math and Science Symbols
‰ ° ö _ /  ¬ M

\textcelsius \textdegree \textdiv \textdownarrow \textfractionsolidus \textleftarrow \textlnot \textmho

= µ W ½ ¼ ¹ ± 

\textminus \textmu \textohm \textonehalf \textonequarter \textonesuperior \textpm \textrightarrow 24

» ¾ ³ Ö ² ^

\textsurd \textthreequarters \textthreesuperior \texttimes \texttwosuperior \textuparrow

Table 63: marvosym Math Symbols 0 1 \MVZero \MVOne W = 2 3 \MVTwo \MVThree ÷ p 4 5 \MVFour \MVFive 6 7 P \MVSix \MVSeven 8 9 \MVEight \MVNine

\Anglesign \Corresponds

\Squaredot \Vectorarrow

\Vectorarrowhigh

Table 64: ar Aspect Ratio Symbol

A

\AR

©

\blitza 

Table 65: ulsy Contradiction and Other Symbols \blitzb 

\blitzc 

\blitzd 

\blitze

¨

\odplus

Table 66: Math Alphabets ABCdef123 ABCdef123 ABCde f 123 ABC ABC ABC or ABCdef123 ABC º»¼ \mathrm{ABCdef123} \mathit{ABCdef123} \mathnormal{ABCdef123} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathcal{ABC} \mathscr{ABC} \mathpzc{ABCdef123} \mathbb{ABC} \varmathbb{ABC} \mathbb{ABCdef123} \mathbbm{ABCdef12} \mathbbmss{ABCdef12} \mathbbmtt{ABCdef12} \mathds{ABC1} \mathds{ABC1} \mathfrak{ABCdef123} \textfrak{ABCdef123} \textswab{ABCdef123} Required package none none none none mathrsfs euscript with option: mathcal euscript with option: mathscr none; manually defined∗ amsfonts, amssymb, txfonts, or pxfonts txfonts or pxfonts bbold or mathbbol† bbm bbm bbm dsfont dsfont with option: sans eufrak yfonts yfonts

ABCdef12 ABCdef12
ABCdef12

ABCdef123

ABC1 ABC1

ABCdef123
ABCdef123

ABCdef123

Put “\DeclareMathAlphabet{\mathpzc}{OT1}{pzc}{m}{it}” in your document’s preamble to make \mathpzc typeset its argument in Zapf Chancery. The mathbbol package defines some additional blackboard bold characters: parentheses, square brackets, angle brackets, and—if the bbgreekl option is passed to matbbol—Greek letters. For instance, “<[( )]>” is produced by “\mathbb{\Langle \Lbrack\Lparen\bbalpha\bbbeta\bbgamma\Rparen\Rbrack\Rangle}”.

25

4

Science and technology symbols

This section lists symbols that are employed in various branches of science and engineering (and, because we were extremely liberal in our classification, astrology, too).

Table 67: wasysym Electrical and Physical Symbols ¬ \AC \VHF ¬¬¬¬ \photon ¬ \HF \gluon

3 8

\FallingEdge \LongPulseHigh

9 6 m w

Table 68: ifsym Pulse Diagram Symbols \LongPulseLow \PulseHigh

7 2
d

\PulseLow \RaisingEdge

4 5 b c
>

\ShortPulseHigh \ShortPulseLow

In addition, within \textifsym{. . .}, the following codes are valid:

l v

l L

m M

h r

h H

d h

D

` a

< <<

>>

This enables one to write “\textifsym{mm<DDD>mm}” to get “ “\textifsym{L|H|L|H|L}” to get “ ”.

v|r|v|r|v V

mm`hhhbmm” or

Finally, \textifsym supports the display of segmented digits, as would appear on an LCD: “\textifsym{-123.456}” produces “ ”. “\textifsym{b}” outputs a blank with the same width as an “ ”.

EIPQFRST

Table 69: wasysym Astronomical Symbols \ascnode \astrosun \descnode \earth \fullmoon \jupiter \leftmoon \mars \mercury \neptune \newmoon \pluto \rightmoon \saturn \uranus ♀ \venus \vernal

Table 70: marvosym Astronomical Symbols Â Ã Ê \Mercury \Venus \Earth Ä Å Æ \Mars \Jupiter \Saturn Ç È É \Uranus \Neptune \Pluto À Á \Sun \Moon

26

Table 71: wasysym Astrological Symbols \aries \taurus \gemini \cancer \leo \virgo \conjunction \libra \scorpio \sagittarius \opposition \capricornus \aquarius \pisces

Table 72: marvosym Astrological Symbols à á â \Aries \Taurus \Gemini ã ä å \Cancer \Leo \Virgo æ ç è \Libra \Scorpio \Sagittarius é ê ë \Capricorn \Aquarius \Pisces

Note that \Aries . . . \Pisces can also be specified with \Zodiac{1} . . . \Zodiac{12}.

Table 73: wasysym APL Symbols \APLbox \APLcomment \APLdown \APLdownarrowbox \APLinput ÷ − \APLinv \APLleftarrowbox \APLlog \APLminus \APLrightarrowbox \APLstar \APLup \APLuparrowbox \notbackslash \notslash

− \ − /

Table 74: wasysym APL Modifiers ◦ \APLcirc{} ∼ \APLnot{} | \APLvert{}

Table 75: marvosym Computer Hardware Symbols Í Ï \ComputerMouse \Keyboard Ñ Ò \ParallelPort \Printer Î Ð \SerialInterface \SerialPort

27

Table 76: ASCII Control Characters (IBM) \SOH \STX \ETX \EOT \ENQ \ACK • \BEL \BS \HT \LF \VT \FF ♪ ♫ \CR \SO \SI \DLE \DCa \DCb ‼ ¶ § \DCc \DCd \NAK \SYN \ETB \CAN ↓ → ← └ ↔ \EM \SUB \ESC \FS \GS \RS ¦ \US \splitvert \DEL

♥ ♦ ♣ ♠

♂ ♀

SOH, STX, ETX, . . ., US are the names of ASCII characters 1–31. DEL is the name of ASCII character 127. \splitvert doesn’t correspond to a control character but is merely the “|” character shown IBM style. These characters require the ascii package and must be entered with the ascii font in effect, for example, “{\ascii\STX}”. See the ascii package documentation for more information.

Table 77: marvosym Communication Symbols k z \Email \Emailct t u \fax \FAX v B \Faxmachine \Letter E H \Lightning \Mobilefone A T \Pickup \Telefon

Table 78: marvosym Engineering Symbols " # › • % – \Beam \Bearing \Circpipe \Circsteel \Fixedbearing \Flatsteel l ’ & L $ ™ \Force \Hexasteel \Lefttorque \Lineload \Loosebearing \Lsteel ‘ ˜ ” ' Ÿ  \Octosteel \Rectpipe \Rectsteel \Righttorque \RoundedLsteel \RoundedTsteel ž — “ œ š \RoundedTTsteel \Squarepipe \Squaresteel \Tsteel \TTsteel

Table 79: marvosym Biological Symbols ~  „ \Female \FEMALE \FemaleFemale … } € \FemaleMale \Hermaphrodite \HERMAPHRODITE ‚ | ƒ \MALE \Male \MaleMale { \Neutral

Table 80: marvosym Safety-Related Symbols h n \Biohazard \BSEfree C J \CEsign \Estatically ` a \Explosionsafe \Laserbeam j ! \Radioactivity \Stopsign

28

5

Dingbats

Dingbats are symbols such as stars, arrows, and geometric shapes. They are commonly used as bullets in itemized lists or, more generally, as a means to draw attention to the text that follows. A The pifont dingbat package warrants special mention. Among other capabilities, pifont provides a L TEX interface to the PostScript Zapf Dingbats font. However, rather than name each of the dingbats individually, pifont merely provides a single \ding command, which outputs the character that lies at a given position in the font. The consequence is that the pifont symbols can’t be listed by name in this document’s index, so be mindful of that fact when searching for a particular symbol.

y {

Table 81: bbding Arrows \ArrowBoldDownRight \ArrowBoldRightCircled

z w

\ArrowBoldRightShort \ArrowBoldRightStrobe

x

\ArrowBoldUpRight

Table 82: pifont Arrows   ¡ £ ¤ Ä ¥ À ¦ § \ding{212} \ding{213} \ding{214} \ding{215} \ding{216} \ding{217} \ding{218} \ding{219} \ding{220} ¨ © ª « ¬ ­ ¢ ® ¯ \ding{221} \ding{222} \ding{223} \ding{224} \ding{225} \ding{226} \ding{227} \ding{228} \ding{229} ° ± ² ³ Á ´ Ç µ È \ding{230} \ding{231} \ding{232} \ding{233} \ding{234} \ding{235} \ding{236} \ding{237} \ding{238} ¶ É · ¸ Å ¹ Â Æ º \ding{239} \ding{241} \ding{242} \ding{243} \ding{244} \ding{245} \ding{246} \ding{247} \ding{248} Ã » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿ \ding{249} \ding{250} \ding{251} \ding{252} \ding{253} \ding{254}

Table 83: marvosym Scissors s r \Cutleft \Cutline q R \Cutright \Kutline S Q \Leftscissors \Rightscissors

§ ¦ ¤ £

Table 84: bbding Scissors \ScissorHollowLeft \ScissorHollowRight \ScissorLeft \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom

¥ ¡   ¢

\ScissorLeftBrokenTop \ScissorRight \ScissorRightBrokenBottom \ScissorRightBrokenTop

Table 85: pifont Scissors ¡ \ding{33} ¢ \ding{34} Ê \ding{35} £ \ding{36}

29

Table 86: dingbat Pencils

W

\largepencil

P

\smallpencil

0 ) 2 1

Table 87: bbding Pencils and Nibs \NibLeft \NibRight \NibSolidLeft \NibSolidRight

$ ( & #

\PencilLeft \PencilLeftDown \PencilLeftUp \PencilRight

' %

\PencilRightDown \PencilRightUp

Table 88: pifont Pencils and Nibs  \ding{46}  \ding{47} i \ding{48}  \ding{49}  \ding{50}

Table 89: dingbat Hands

R D U

\leftpointright \leftthumbsdown \leftthumbsup

L d u

\rightpointleft \rightthumbsdown \rightthumbsup

N

\rightpointright 

 

Table 90: bbding Hands \HandCuffLeft \HandCuffLeftUp \HandCuffRight 



\HandCuffRightUp \HandLeft \HandLeftUp

"  

\HandPencilLeft \HandRight \HandRightUp

Table 91: pifont Hands  \ding{42}  \ding{43}  \ding{44}  \ding{45}

B E R F

Table 92: bbding Crosses and Plusses \Cross \CrossBoldOutline \CrossClowerTips \CrossMaltese

C D 9 @

\CrossOpenShadow \CrossOutline \Plus \PlusCenterOpen 30

8 A

\PlusOutline \PlusThinCenterOpen

Table 93: pifont Crosses and Plusses % & \ding{57} \ding{58} ' ( \ding{59} \ding{60} ¦ § \ding{61} \ding{62} ¨ © \ding{63} \ding{64}

3 4

Table 94: bbding Xs and Check Marks \Checkmark \CheckmarkBold

5 6

\XSolid \XSolidBold

7

\XSolidBrush

Table 95: pifont Xs and Check Marks  \ding{51} \ding{52} ! " \ding{53} \ding{54} # $ \ding{55} \ding{56}

Table 96: wasysym Xs and Check Marks \CheckedBox \Square \XBox

Table 97: pifont Circled Numbers x y z { | } ~  €  \ding{172} \ding{173} \ding{174} \ding{175} \ding{176} \ding{177} \ding{178} \ding{179} \ding{180} \ding{181} ‚ ƒ „ … † ‡ ˆ ‰ Š ‹ \ding{182} \ding{183} \ding{184} \ding{185} \ding{186} \ding{187} \ding{188} \ding{189} \ding{190} \ding{191} Œ  Ž   ‘ ’ “ ” • \ding{192} \ding{193} \ding{194} \ding{195} \ding{196} \ding{197} \ding{198} \ding{199} \ding{200} \ding{201} – — ˜ ™ š › œ  ž Ÿ \ding{202} \ding{203} \ding{204} \ding{205} \ding{206} \ding{207} \ding{208} \ding{209} \ding{210} \ding{211}

Table 98: wasysym Stars \davidsstar \hexstar \varhexstar

31

x e f ˆ g h H G  ƒ ‰ r s p i ‚

Table 99: bbding Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes \Asterisk \AsteriskBold \AsteriskCenterOpen \AsteriskRoundedEnds \AsteriskThin \AsteriskThinCenterOpen \DavidStar \DavidStarSolid \EightAsterisk \EightFlowerPetal \EightFlowerPetalRemoved \EightStar \EightStarBold \EightStarConvex \EightStarTaper \FiveFlowerOpen

€ V Y c U W X ` a b d I † ‡ S T

\FiveFlowerPetal \FiveStar \FiveStarCenterOpen \FiveStarConvex \FiveStarLines \FiveStarOpen \FiveStarOpenCircled \FiveStarOpenDotted \FiveStarOutline \FiveStarOutlineHeavy \FiveStarShadow \FourAsterisk \FourClowerOpen \FourClowerSolid \FourStar \FourStarOpen

P Q y … w  v ‘ q u – ” • “ ’ t

\JackStar \JackStarBold \SixFlowerAlternate \SixFlowerAltPetal \SixFlowerOpenCenter \SixFlowerPetalDotted \SixFlowerPetalRemoved \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal \SixStar \SixteenStarLight \Snowflake \SnowflakeChevron \SnowflakeChevronBold \Sparkle \SparkleBold \TwelweStar

Table 100: pifont Stars, Flowers, and Similar Shapes  ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 \ding{65} \ding{66} \ding{67} \ding{68} \ding{69} \ding{70} \ding{71} \ding{72} \ding{73} 7 8 9 @ A B C D E \ding{74} \ding{75} \ding{76} \ding{77} \ding{78} \ding{79} \ding{80} \ding{81} \ding{82} F G H I P Q R S T \ding{83} \ding{84} \ding{85} \ding{86} \ding{87} \ding{88} \ding{89} \ding{90} \ding{91} U V W X Y ` a b c \ding{92} \ding{93} \ding{94} \ding{95} \ding{96} \ding{97} \ding{98} \ding{99} \ding{100} d e f g h i p \ding{101} \ding{102} \ding{103} \ding{104} \ding{105} \ding{106} \ding{107}

Table 101: wasysym Geometric Shapes \hexagon \octagon \pentagon \varhexagon

32

7  8 & • G 2 5 4 6 3 ) S  ¥ ¦ § T … † € ƒ ‚

Table 102: ifsym Geometric Shapes \BigCircle \BigCross \BigDiamondshape \BigHBar \BigLowerDiamond \BigRightDiamond \BigSquare \BigTriangleDown \BigTriangleLeft \BigTriangleRight \BigTriangleUp \BigVBar \Circle \Cross \DiamondShadowA \DiamondShadowB \DiamondShadowC \Diamondshape \FilledBigCircle \FilledBigDiamondshape \FilledBigSquare \FilledBigTriangleDown \FilledBigTriangleLeft

„  e ¨ © f u v p s r t q – £ ¤ ™ ˜ d — ' o c

\FilledBigTriangleRight \FilledBigTriangleUp \FilledCircle \FilledDiamondShadowA \FilledDiamondShadowC \FilledDiamondshape \FilledSmallCircle \FilledSmallDiamondshape \FilledSmallSquare \FilledSmallTriangleDown \FilledSmallTriangleLeft \FilledSmallTriangleRight \FilledSmallTriangleUp \FilledSquare \FilledSquareShadowA \FilledSquareShadowC \FilledTriangleDown \FilledTriangleLeft \FilledTriangleRight \FilledTriangleUp \HBar \LowerDiamond \RightDiamond

i  p (  y d g f h e 1 B A H   ¡ ¢ Q P R I 0

\SmallCircle \SmallCross \SmallDiamondshape \SmallHBar \SmallLowerDiamond \SmallRightDiamond \SmallSquare \SmallTriangleDown \SmallTriangleLeft \SmallTriangleRight \SmallTriangleUp \SmallVBar \SpinDown \SpinUp \Square \SquareShadowA \SquareShadowB \SquareShadowC \TriangleDown \TriangleLeft \TriangleRight \TriangleUp \VBar

The ifsym documentation points out that one can use \rlap to combine some of the above into useful, new symbols. For example, \BigCircle and \FilledSmallCircle combine to give “ ”. Likewise, \Square and \Cross combine to give “ ”. See Section 7.2 for more information about constructing new symbols out of existing symbols.

7 u

H 

d — p ˜ e ™ s r

\CircleShadow \CircleSolid \DiamondSolid \Ellipse \EllipseShadow \EllipseSolid \HalfCircleLeft \HalfCircleRight

u v t f k m l h

Table 103: bbding Geometric Shapes \Rectangle \RectangleBold \RectangleThin \Square \SquareCastShadowBottomRight \SquareCastShadowTopLeft \SquareCastShadowTopRight \SquareShadowBottomRight

j i g o n

\SquareShadowTopLeft \SquareShadowTopRight \SquareSolid \TriangleDown \TriangleUp

33

Table 104: pifont Geometric Shapes q r s \ding{108} \ding{109} \ding{110} t Ë u \ding{111} \ding{112} \ding{113} Ì v w \ding{114} \ding{115} \ding{116} x  ‚ \ding{117} \ding{119} \ding{120} ƒ „ \ding{121} \ding{122}

Table 105: manfnt Dangerous Bend Symbols \dbend \lhdbend \reversedvideodbend

Note that these symbols descend far beneath the baseline. manfnt also defines nondescending versions, which it calls, correspondingly, \textdbend, \textlhdbend, and \textreversedvideodbend.

Table 106: marvosym Information Symbols ® V U K X \Bicycle \Checkedbox \Clocklogo \Coffeecup \Crossedbox o x I i y \Football \Gentsroom \Industry \Info \Ladiesroom Z w b \Pointinghand \Wheelchair \Writinghand

O C D 
q

Table 107: Miscellaneous dingbat Dingbats \anchor \carriagereturn \checkmark

E

C I

\eye \filledsquarewithdots \satellitedish

S B Z
„ 

\Sborder \squarewithdots \Zborder

Table 108: Miscellaneous bbding Dingbats \Envelope \OrnamentDiamondSolid

! ¨

\Peace \Phone

© 

\PhoneHandset \Plane

\SunshineOpenCircled \Tape

Table 109: Miscellaneous pifont Dingbats ¤ ¥ w \ding{37} \ding{38} \ding{39} v u y \ding{40} \ding{41} \ding{118} h j k \ding{164} \ding{165} \ding{166} l p n \ding{167} \ding{168} \ding{170} m o \ding{171} \ding{169}

34

6

Other symbols

The following are all the symbols that didn’t fit neatly or unambiguously into any of the previous sections. (Do weather symbols belong under “Science and technology”? Should dice be considered “mathematics”?) While some of the tables contain clearly related groups of symbols (e.g., musical notes), others represent motley assortments of whatever the font designer felt like drawing.

Table 110: textcomp Genealogical Symbols
b d

\textborn \textdied

c l

\textdivorced \textleaf

m

\textmarried

Table 111: wasysym General Symbols \agemO \ataribox \bell \blacksmiley \Bowtie \brokenvert \cent \checked ¤ ♀ \clock \currency \diameter \DOWNarrow \female \frownie \invdiameter \kreuz \LEFTarrow \lightning \male \permil \phone \pointer \recorder \RIGHTarrow ☼ ◊ ∴ \smiley \sun \UParrow \varangle \wasylozenge \wasytherefore

¢

Table 112: wasysym Musical Notes \eighthnote \halfnote \twonotes \fullnote \quarternote

See also \flat, \sharp, and \natural (Table 56).

Table 113: wasysym Circles \CIRCLE \Circle \LEFTCIRCLE \LEFTcircle \Leftcircle \RIGHTCIRCLE \RIGHTcircle \Rightcircle \leftturn \rightturn

35

Table 114: Miscellaneous manfnt Symbols \manboldkidney \manconcentriccircles \manconcentricdiamond \mancone \mancube \manerrarrow \manfilledquartercircle \manhpennib \manimpossiblecube \mankidney \manlhpenkidney \manpenkidney \manquadrifolium \manquartercircle \manrotatedquadrifolium \manrotatedquartercircle \manstar \mantiltpennib \mantriangledown \mantriangleright \mantriangleup \manvpennib

Table 115: marvosym Navigation Symbols · ¸ ¹ \Forward \ForwardToEnd \ForwardToIndex » º ¶ \MoveDown \MoveUp \Rewind ´ µ ½ \RewindToIndex \RewindToStart \ToBottom ¼ \ToTop

Table 116: marvosym Laundry Symbols Ø Ó Õ Ë « ¾ ¿ ¬ Ý \AtForty \AtNinetyFive \AtSixty \Bleech \CleaningA \CleaningF \CleaningFF \CleaningP \CleaningPP \Dontwash Ü ¯ ° ± Ì ¨ ²  × Ù \Handwash \IroningI \IroningII \IroningIII \NoBleech \NoChemicalCleaning \NoIroning \NoTumbler \ShortFifty \ShortForty Ô Ö Û Ú  ‰ Š ‹ \ShortNinetyFive \ShortSixty \ShortThirty \SpecialForty \Tumbler \WashCotton \WashSynthetics \WashWool

Table 117: Other marvosym Symbols ˆ ý ¥ ‡ ª

\Ankh \Bat \Bouquet \Celtcross \CircledA

† F f § Ž

\Cross \FHBOlogo \FHBOLOGO \Frowny \FullFHBO

Œ ÿ m @ :

\Heart \MartinVogel \Mundus \MVAt \Rightarrow∗

© þ Y

\Smiley \Womanface \Yinyang

A Standard L TEX 2ε defines \Rightarrow to display “⇒”, while marvosym redefines it to display “:” (or “:” in math mode). This conflict can be problematic for math symbols defined in terms of \Rightarrow, such as \Longleftrightarrow, which ends up looking like “⇐ :”.

36

Table 118: ifsym Weather Symbols
& ' 2 3 6 5

\Blitz \Cloud \FilledCloud \FilledRainCloud \FilledSnowCloud \FilledSunCloud

4  $ #  

\FilledWeakRainCloud \Fog \Graupel \Hagel \HalfSun \NoSun

! ( % 1  0

\Rain \RainCloud \Snow \SnowCloud \Sun \SunCloud

" )

\ThinFog \WeakRain \WeakRainCloud

In addition, \Thermo{0}. . .\Thermo{6} produce thermometers that are between 0/6 and 6/6 full of mercury: ¥ ¦ § ¨ ©   Similarly, \wind{ sun }{ angle }{ strength } will draw wind symbols with a given amount of sun (0–4), a given angle (in degrees), and a given strength in km/h (0– 100). For example, \wind{0}{0}{0} produces “  H ”, \wind{2}{0}{0} produces “¢ H ”, and \wind{4}{0}{100} produces “¤ X ”. 

' 1  " ™ ˜

\FilledHut \Flag \HalfFilledHut \Hut \IceMountain

& !   — –

Table 119: ifsym Alpine Symbols \Joch \Mountain \StoneMan \Summit \SummitSign

( ) $ # 0

\Tent \VarFlag \VarIceMountain \VarMountain \VarSummit

%  

\Vermessung \Village

Table 120: ifsym Clocks \StopWatchStart \Taschenuhr

\Interval \StopWatchEnd

› ”

\VarClock \VarTaschenuhr

š

\Wecker

ifsym also exports a \showclock macro. \showclock{ hours }{ minutes } outputs a clock displaying the corresponding time. For instance, “\showclock{5}{40}” produces “ ”. hours must be an integer from 0 to 11, and minutes must be an integer multiple of 5 from 0 to 55.

D

¢   X XX

Table 121: Other ifsym Symbols \FilledSectioningDiamond \Fire \Irritant \StrokeOne \StrokeTwo

  ¤ £ XXX XX

\Letter \PaperLandscape \PaperPortrait \StrokeThree \StrokeFour 

¡ @ Y

\Radiation \SectioningDiamond \Telephone \StrokeFive

In addition, \Cube{1}. . .\Cube{6} produce dice with the corresponding number of spots:

¥¦§¨©

37

7

Additional Information

Unlike the previous sections of this document, Section 7 does not contain new symbol tables. Rather, it provides A additional help in using the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List. First, it draws attention to symbol names used by multiple packages. Then, it provides some guidelines for finding symbols and gives some examples regarding how to construct missing symbols out of existing ones. Next, it comments on the spacing surrounding symbols in math mode. After that, it presents an ASCII and Latin 1 quick-reference guide, showing how to enter all of A the standard ASCII/Latin 1 symbols in L TEX. And finally, it lists some statistics about this document itself.

7.1

Symbol Name Clashes

Unfortunately, a number of symbol names are not unique; they appear in more than one package. Depending A on how the symbols are defined in each package, L TEX will either output an error message or replace an earlierdefined symbol with a later-defined symbol. Table 122 lists the name clashes that appear in this document. The symbol “N/A” is used to indicate that the corresponding package was not available when symbols.tex was compiled. Table 122: Symbol Name Clashes Symbol \angle \baro \bigtriangledown \bigtriangleup \checkmark \Circle \Cross \Letter \lightning \Rightarrow \rightleftharpoons \Square \Sun \TriangleDown \TriangleUp
A L TEX 2ε

AMS ∠

stmaryrd

wasysym

marvosym

bbding

ifsym

dingbat

wsuipa

`

† B ⇒ :

B f o n

S    H  Q I

D

À

Using multiple symbols with the same name in the same document—or even merely loading conflicting symbol packages—can be tricky, but, as evidenced by the existence of Table 122, not impossible. The general procedure is to load the first package, rename the conflicting symbols, and then load the second package. Examine the A L TEX source for this document—especially the \savesymbol and \restoresymbol macros and their subsequent usage—to see one possible way to handle symbol conflicts. txfonts and pxfonts redefine a huge number of symbols—essentially, all of the symbols defined by latexsym, A textcomp, the various AMS symbol sets, and L TEX 2ε itself. The txfonts and pxfonts conflicts are not listed in Table 122 because they are designed to be compatible with the symbols they replace. Table 123 on the next page illustrates what “compatible” means in this context. To use the new txfonts/pxfonts symbols without altering the document’s main font, merely reset the default font families back to their original values after loading one of those packages: \renewcommand\rmdefault{cmr} \renewcommand\sfdefault{cmss} \renewcommand\ttdefault{cmtt}

38

Table 123: Example of a Benign Name Clash Symbol R \textrecipe Default (Computer Modern) txfonts (Times Roman)

R

“

R

7.2

Where can I find the symbol for . . . ?

If you can’t find some symbol you’re looking for in this document, there are a few possible explanations:
ˆ

The symbol isn’t intuitively named. As a few examples, the command to draw dice is “\Cube”; a plus sign with a circle around it (“exclusive or” to computer engineers) is “\oplus”; and lightning bolts in fonts designed by German speakers may have “blitz” in their names. The moral of the story is to be creative with synonyms when searching the index. The symbol is defined by some package that I overlooked (or deemed unimportant). If there’s some symbol A package that you think should be included in the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List, please send me e-mail at the address listed on the title page. The symbol isn’t defined in any package whatsoever.

ˆ

ˆ

A Even in the last case, all is not lost. Sometimes, a symbol exists in a font, but there is no L TEX binding for it. For example, the PostScript Symbol font contains a “↵” symbol, which may be useful for representing a carriage return, but there is no package for accessing that symbol (as far as I know). To produce an unnamed symbol, you A A need to switch to the font explicitly with L TEX 2ε ’s low-level font commands [L T00] and use \char to request a 2 specific character number in the font. A Symbols that do not exist in any font can sometimes be fabricated out of existing symbols. The L TEX 2ε source file called fontdef.dtx contains a number of such definitions. For example, \models (see Table 29 on page 16) is defined in that file with:

\def\models{\mathrel|\joinrel=} where \mathrel and \joinrel are used to control the horizontal spacing. (See The TEXbook [Knu86] for more information on those commands.) With some simple pattern-matching, one can easily define a backward \models sign (“=|”): \def\ismodeledby{=\joinrel\mathrel|} As another example, fontdef.dtx composes the \ddots symbol (see Table 56 on page 23) out of three periods, raised 7 pt., 4 pt., and 1 pt., respectively: \def\ddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise7\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise\p@\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}}
A \p@ is a L TEX 2ε shortcut for “pt” or “1.0pt”. The remaining commands are defined in The TEXbook [Knu86]. To draw a version of \ddots with the dots going along the opposite diagonal, we merely have to reorder the \raise7\p@, \raise4\p@, and \raise\p@:
2 pifont defines a convenient \Pisymbol command for accessing symbols in PostScript fonts by number. “\Pisymbol{psy}{191}” produces “↵”.

For example,

39

\makeatletter \def\revddots{\mathinner{\mkern1mu\raise\p@ \vbox{\kern7\p@\hbox{.}}\mkern2mu \raise4\p@\hbox{.}\mkern2mu\raise7\p@\hbox{.}\mkern1mu}} \makeatother
A (The \makeatletter and \makeatother commands are needed to coerce L TEX into accepting “@” as part of a macro name.) As a final example of creating new symbols out of existing ones, the following code defines a principal value integral symbol, which is an integral sign with a line through it:

\def\Xint#1{\mathchoice {\XXint\displaystyle\textstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\textstyle\scriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% {\XXint\scriptscriptstyle\scriptscriptstyle{#1}}% \!\int} \def\XXint#1#2#3{{\setbox0=\hbox{$#1{#2#3}{\int}$} \vcenter{\hbox{$#2#3$}}\kern-.5\wd0}} \def\ddashint{\Xint=} \def\dashint{\Xint-} \dashint produces a single-dashed integral sign (“− ”), while \ddashint produces a double-dashed one (“= ”). The same technique can be used to produce, for example, clockwise and counterclockwise contour integrals. (Search the comp.text.tex archives for a post by Donald Arseneau that says exactly how.) The preceding code was taken verbatim from the UK TEX Users’ Group FAQ (http://www.tex.ac.uk/faq). Accents are a special case of combining existing symbols to make new symbols. While various tables in this document show how to add an accent to an existing symbol, some applications, such as transliteration from non-Latin alphabets, require multiple accents per character. For instance, the creator of pdfTEX writes his name as “H`n Th´ Th`nh”. The wsuipa package defines \diatop and \diaunder macros for putting one a ˆ e a or more diacritics or accents above or below a given character. For example, \diaunder[{\diatop[\’|\=]}| \textsubdot{r}] produces “´”. See the wsuipa documentation for more information. r ¯  The accents package facilitates the fabrication of accents in math mode. Its \accentset command enables any character to be used as an accent. For instance, \accentset{\star}{f} produces “ f ” and \accentset{e}{X} e produces “X”. \underaccent does the same thing, but places the accent beneath the character. This enables constructs like \underaccent{\tilde}{V}, which produces “V”. accents provides other accent-related features ˜ as well; see the documentation for more information.

7.3

Math-mode spacing

Terms such as “binary operators”, “relations”, and “punctuation” in Section 3 primarily regard the surrounding A spacing. (See the Short Math Guide for L TEX [Dow00] for a nice exposition on the subject.) To use an symbol for a different purpose, you can use the TEX commands \mathord, \mathop, \mathbin, \mathrel, \mathopen, \mathclose, and \mathpunct. For example, if you want to use \downarrow as a variable (an “ordinary” symbol) instead of a delimiter, you can write “$3 x + \mathord{\downarrow}$” to get the properly spaced “3x + ↓” rather than the awkward-looking “3x+ ↓”. See The TEXbook [Knu86] for more information. The purpose of the “log-like symbols” in Tables 39 and 40 is to provide the correct amount of spacing around and within multiletter function names. Table 124 on the following page contrasts the output of the log-like symbols with various, na¨ alternatives. In addition to spacing, the log-like symbols also handle subscripts properly. For ıve example, “\max_{p \in P}” produces “max p∈P ” in text, but “max” as part of a displayed formula.
p∈P

40

Table 124: Spacing Around/Within Log-like Symbols
A L TEX expression

Output r sin θ (best) rsinθ rsinθ

$r \sin \theta$ $r sin \theta$ $r \mbox{sin} \theta$

7.4

ASCII and Latin 1 quick reference

A Table 125 amalgamates data from various other tables in this document into a convenient reference for L TEX 2ε 3 typesetting of ASCII characters, i.e., the characters available on a typical computer keyboard. The first two columns list the character’s ASCII code in decimal and hexadecimal. The third column shows what the character A looks like. The fourth column lists the L TEX 2ε command to typeset the character as a text character. And the A X 2 command to typeset the character within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more fourth column lists the L TE ε generally, when \ttfamily is in effect).

A Table 125: L TEX 2ε ASCII Table

Dec 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 . . . 57 58 59 60 61

Hex 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 30 31 32 . . . 39 3A 3B 3C 3D

Char !
"

Body text ! \textquotedbl \# \$ \% \& ’ ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 . . . 9 : ; \textless =

\texttt ! " \# \$ \% \& ’ ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 . . . 9 : ; < =

Dec 62 63 64 65 66 67 . . . 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 . . . 122 123 124 125 126

Hex 3E 3F 40 41 42 43 . . . 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E 5F 60 61 62 63 . . . 7A 7B 7C 7D 7E

Char > ? @ A B C . . . Z [ \ ] ˆ ‘ a b c . . . z { | } ˜

Body text \textgreater ? @ A B C . . . Z [ \textbackslash ] \^{} \_ ‘ a b c . . . z \{ \textbar \} \~{}

\texttt > ? @ A B C . . . Z [ \char‘\\ ] \^{} \char‘\_ ‘ a b c . . . z \char‘\{ | \char‘\} \~{}

# $ % & ’ ( ) * + , . / 0 1 2 . . . 9 : ; < =

The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 125:
ˆ ˆ

\textquotedbl is not available in the OT1 font encoding. The characters “<”, “>”, and “|” do work as expected in math mode, although they produce, respectively,
for the United States, at least

3 typical

41

“¡”, “¿”, and “—” in text mode.4 Hence, $<$, $>$, and $|$ serve as a terser alternative to \textless, \textgreater, and \textbar. Note that for typesetting metavariables, many people prefer \textlangle and \textrangle to \textless and \textgreater, i.e., “ filename ” instead of “<filename>”.
ˆ

The various \char commands within \texttt are necessary only in the OT1 font encoding. Using other encodings (e.g., T1), commands such as \{, \}, \_, and \textbackslash all work properly. \textasciicircum can be used instead of \^{}, and \textasciitilde can be used instead of \~{}. For typesetting tildes in URLs and Unix filenames, some people prefer \sim (see Table 29 on page 16), which produces a larger symbol. But if you don’t mind the tilde produced by \~{}, you should use the url package to typeset URLs—it has a number of additional nice features. The IBM version of ASCII characters 1 to 31 can be typeset using the ascii package. See Table 76 on page 28. To replace ‘ and ’ with the more computer-like (and more visibly distinct) ` and ' within a verbatim environment, use the upquote package. Outside of verbatim, you can use \char18 and \char13 to get the modified quote characters. (The former is actually a grave accent.)

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

Similar to Table 125, Table 126 on the following page is an amalgamation of data from other tables in this document. While Table 125 shows how to typeset the 7-bit ASCII character set, Table 126 shows the Latin 1 (Western European) character set, also known as ISO-8859-1. The following are some additional notes about the contents of Table 126:
ˆ

A “(tc)” after a symbol name means that the textcomp package must be loaded to access that symbol. A “(T1)” means that the symbol needs the T1 font encoding. The fontenc package can change the font encoding document-wide. Many of the \text. . . accents can also be produced using the accent commands shown in Table 8 on page 8 plus an empty argument. For instance, \={} is essentially the same as \textasciimacron.
A The commands in the “L TEX 2ε ” columns work in both body text and within a \texttt{. . .} command (or, more generally, when \ttfamily is in effect).

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

Microsoft® Windows® normally uses a superset of Latin 1 called “CP1252” (Code Page 1252). CP1252 adds codes in the range 128–159 (hexadecimal 80–9F), including characters such as dashes, daggers, and A quotation marks. If there’s sufficient interest, a future version of the Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List may include a CP1252 table.

7.5

About this document

History David Carlisle wrote the first version of this document in October, 1994. It originally contained all of A the native L TEX symbols (Tables 21, 22, 29, 35, 39, 41, 46, 47, 52, 53 55, and 56) and was designed to be nearly identical to the tables in Chapter 3 of Leslie Lamport’s book [Lam86]. Even the table captions and the order of the symbols within each table matched! The AMS symbols (Tables 23, 30, 31, 36, 37, 42, 45, 48, and 57) and an initial Math Alphabets table (Table 66) were added thereafter. Later, Alexander Holt provided the stmaryrd tables (Tables 24, 25, 32, 33, 38, 49, and 59). In January, 2001, Scott Pakin took responsibility for maintaining the symbol list and has since implemented A a complete overhaul of the document. The result, now called, “The Comprehensive L TEX Symbol List”, includes the following new features:
ˆ ˆ

The addition of a handful of new math alphabets, dozens of new font tables, and thousands of new symbols The categorization of the symbol tables into body-text symbols, mathematical symbols, science and technology symbols, dingbats, and other symbols, to provide a more user-friendly document structure An index, table of contents, and a frequently-requested symbol list, to help users quickly locate symbols
Knuth didn’t think such symbols were important outside of mathematics, so he omitted them from the OT1 font encoding.

ˆ

4 Donald

42

A Table 126: L TEX 2ε Latin 1 Table

Dec 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208

Hex A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 AA AB AC AE AF B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 BA BB BC BD BE BF C0 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 CA CB CC CD CE CF D0

Char ¡
¢ £ ¤ ¥ ¦ § ¨ © ª 

A L TEX 2ε

Dec (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

Hex D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 DA DB DC DD DE DF E0 E1 E2 E3 E4 E5 E6 E7 E8 E9 EA EB EC ED EE EF F0 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 FA FB FC FD FE FF

Char ˜ N ` O ´ O ˆ O ˜ O ¨ O
Ö

A L TEX 2ε

¬ ® ¯ ° ± ² ³ ´ µ ¶ ·

¸
¹ º 

¼ ½ ¾

¿ ` A ´ A ˆ A ˜ A ¨ A ˚ A Æ C ¸ ` E ´ E ˆ E ¨ E ` I ´ I ˆ I ¨ I
Ð

!‘ \textcent \pounds \textcurrency \textyen \textbrokenbar \S \textasciidieresis \textcopyright \textordfeminine \guillemotleft \textlnot \textregistered \textasciimacron \textdegree \textpm \texttwosuperior \textthreesuperior \textasciiacute \textmu \P \textperiodcentered \c{} \textonesuperior \textordmasculine \guillemotright \textonequarter \textonehalf \textthreequarters ?‘ \‘{A} \’{A} \^{A} \~{A} \"{A} \AA \AE \c{C} \‘{E} \’{E} \^{E} \"{E} \‘{I} \’{I} \^{I} \"{I} \DH

(T1) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc) (tc)

Ø ` U ´ U ˆ U ¨ U ´ Y
Þ

(tc)

(tc) (tc) (tc)

ß a ` a ´ a ˆ a ˜ a ¨ ˚ a æ c ¸ ` e ´ e ˆ e ¨ e ` ı ´ ı ˆ ı ¨ ı
ð

n ˜ o ` o ´ o ˆ o ˜ o ¨
ö

ø u ` u ´ u ˆ u ¨ y ´
þ

(T1)

y ¨

\~{N} \‘{O} \’{O} \^{O} \~{O} \"{O} \texttimes \O \‘{U} \’{U} \^{U} \"{U} \’{Y} \TH \ss \‘{a} \’{a} \^{a} \~{a} \"{a} \aa \ae \c{c} \‘{e} \’{e} \^{e} \"{e} \‘{ı} \’{ı} \^{ı} \"{ı} \dh \~{n} \‘{o} \’{o} \^{o} \~{o} \"{o} \textdiv \o \‘{u} \’{u} \^{u} \"{u} \’{y} \th \"{y}

(tc)

(T1)

(T1)

(tc)

(T1)

43

ˆ ˆ ˆ

Symbol tables rewritten to list the symbols in alphabetical order
A Appendices to provide additional information relevant to using symbols in L TEX

Tables showing how to typeset all of the characters in the ASCII and Latin 1 font encodings

Furthermore, the internal structure of the document has been completely altered from David’s original version. Most of the changes are geared towards making the document easier to extend, modify, and reformat. Build characteristics Table 127 lists some of this document’s build characteristics. Most important is the list A of packages that L TEX couldn’t find, but that symbols.tex otherwise would have been able to take advantage of. Complete, prebuilt versions of this document are available from CTAN (http://www.ctan.org/ or one of its many mirror sites) in the directory tex-archive/info/symbols/comprehensive. Table 127: Document Characteristics Characteristic Source file: Build date: Symbols documented: Packages included: Value symbols.tex July 2, 2001 2266 textcomp latexsym amssymb stmaryrd euscript wasysym pifont marvosym manfnt bbding ifsym tipa wsuipa ulsy ar txfonts fclfont ascii dingbat yfonts accents mathrsfs zapfchan bbold dsfont bbm none

Packages omitted:

References
A [Dow00] Michael Downes. Short math guide for L TEX, July 19, 2000. Version 1.07. Available from http:// www.ams.org/tex/short-math-guide.html.

[Knu86] Donald E. Knuth. The TEXbook, volume A of Computers and Typesetting. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986.
A [Lam86] Leslie Lamport. L TEX: A document preparation system. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, USA, 1986. A [L T00] A A L TEX3 Project Team. L TEX 2ε font selection, January 30, 2000. Available from http://www.ctan.org/ tex-archive/macros/latex/doc/fntguide.ps (also included in many TEX distributions).

44

Index
If you’re having trouble locating a symbol, try looking under “T” for “\text. . .”. Many text-mode commands begin with that prefix. Symbols ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ \Anglesign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Ankh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APL modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLcirc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLcomment . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLdownarrowbox . . . . . . . . . \APLinput . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLinv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLleftarrowbox . . . . . . . . . \APLlog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLminus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLnot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLrightarrowbox . . . . . . . . \APLstar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \APLuparrowbox . . . . . . . . . . \APLvert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \apprge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \apprle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \approx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \approxeq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Aquarius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \aquarius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \AR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, \arccos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \arcsin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \arctan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \arg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Aries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \aries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ArrowBoldDownRight . . . . . . \ArrowBoldRightCircled . . . . \ArrowBoldRightShort . . . . . \ArrowBoldRightStrobe . . . . \ArrowBoldUpRight . . . . . . . . \Arrownot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \arrownot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arrows . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 29, extensible . . . . . . . . . . . negated . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Arrowvert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \arrowvert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arseneau, Donald . . . . . . . . . ASCII . . . . . . 5, 7, 28, 41–42, table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ascii . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28, 42, \ascnode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . aspect ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 36 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 24 24 16 17 27 27 25 44 20 20 20 20 27 27 29 29 29 29 29 24 24 39 23 19 22 22 40 44 41 44 26 25 14 \Asterisk . . . . . . . . . . . . \AsteriskBold . . . . . . . . \AsteriskCenterOpen . . . \AsteriskRoundedEnds . . asterisks . . . . . . . . . . . . . \AsteriskThin . . . . . . . . \AsteriskThinCenterOpen astrological symbols . . . . . astronomical symbols . . . . \astrosun . . . . . . . . . . . . \asymp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ataribox . . . . . . . . . . . . \AtForty . . . . . . . . . . . . \AtNinetyFive . . . . . . . . \AtSixty . . . . . . . . . . . . B \B . . . . . . . . . \b . . . . . . . . . \babygamma . . \backepsilon \backprime . . \backsim . . . \backsimeq . . \backslash . . \bar . . . . . . . \barb . . . . . . \bard . . . . . . \bari . . . . . . \barl . . . . . . \baro . . . . . . \barp . . . . . . \barsci . . . . \barscu . . . . \baru . . . . . . \barwedge . . . \Bat . . . . . . . \bbalpha . . . \bbbeta . . . . \Bbbk . . . . . . bbding . . . . . \bbgamma . . . bbgreekl . . . . bbm . . . . . . . bbold . . . . . . \bbslash . . . \Beam . . . . . . \Bearing . . . \because . . . \BEL . . . . . . . \bell . . . . . . \beta . . . . . . \betaup . . . . \beth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 27 26 26 16 35 36 36 36

\" \# \$ \% \& \’ ( ) , \. / ; [ ] \^ \_ \‘ \~

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

... 8 6, 41 6, 41 6, 41 6, 41 ... 8 . . 21 . . 21 . . 23 ... 8 . . 21 . . 23 . . 21 . . 21 8, 42 6, 42 ... 8 8, 42

A \AA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \aa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 abz¨glich . . see \textdiscount u \AC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 accents . . . . . . . 8–10, 22, 23, 40 any character as . . . . . . . 40 multiple per character . . 40 accents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 44 \accentset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \ACK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 acute . . . . . . . . . . . see accents \acute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \AE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \ae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \agemO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \ain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \aleph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 23 \alpha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 alphabets African . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Greek . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 21 Hebrew . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 math . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 phonetic . . . . . . . . . 11–13 \alphaup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 alpine symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \amalg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 AMS . . . 5, 14, 17, 19–24, 38, 42 amsfonts . . . . . 14, 16, 19, 23, 25 amsmath . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 20 amssymb 5, 14, 16, 19, 23, 25, 44 \anchor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \angle . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 24, 38

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........ 7 ........ 8 . . . . . . . 12 . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . 24 . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . 17 . . . . 21, 23 . . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . 13 . 13, 15, 38 . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . . 36 . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . 24 29–34, 38, 44 . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . 25, 44 . . . . . 25, 44 . . . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . . . 20 . . . . . . . . 21 . . . . . . . . 21

45

\between . . . . . . . . . \Bicycle . . . . . . . . . \bigbox . . . . . . . . . . \bigcap . . . . . . . . . . \bigcirc . . . . . . . . . \BigCircle . . . . . . . . \BigCross . . . . . . . . . \bigcup . . . . . . . . . . \bigcurlyvee . . . . . . \bigcurlywedge . . . . \BigDiamondshape . . . \BigHBar . . . . . . . . . \biginterleave . . . . \BigLowerDiamond . . . \bignplus . . . . . . . . . \bigodot . . . . . . . . . \bigoplus . . . . . . . . . \bigotimes . . . . . . . . \bigparallel . . . . . . \BigRightDiamond . . . \bigsqcap . . . . . . . . . \bigsqcapplus . . . . . \bigsqcup . . . . . . . . . \bigsqcupplus . . . . . \BigSquare . . . . . . . . \bigstar . . . . . . . . . \BigTriangleDown . . . \bigtriangledown . . . \BigTriangleLeft . . . \BigTriangleRight . . \BigTriangleUp . . . . \bigtriangleup . . . . \biguplus . . . . . . . . . \BigVBar . . . . . . . . . \bigvee . . . . . . . . . . \bigwedge . . . . . . . . . \binampersand . . . . . binary operators . . . . binary relations . . . . . negated . . . . . . . \bindnasrepma . . . . . \Biohazard . . . . . . . . biological symbols . . . blackboard bold . . . . \blacklozenge . . . . . \blacksmiley . . . . . . \blacksquare . . . . . . \blacktriangle . . . . \blacktriangledown . \blacktriangleleft . \blacktriangleright \Bleech . . . . . . . . . . \Blitz . . . . . . . . . . . \blitza . . . . . . . . . . \blitzb . . . . . . . . . . \blitzc . . . . . . . . . . \blitzd . . . . . . . . . . \blitze . . . . . . . . . . \bot . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . 17 . . . . . 34 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 14 . . . . . 14 . . . . . 33 . . . . . 33 . . . . . 14 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 33 . . . . . 33 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 33 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 14 . . . . . 14 . . . . . 14 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 33 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 16 . . . . . 14 . . . . . 16 . . . . . 33 . . . . . 24 . . . . . 33 14, 15, 38 . . . . . 33 . . . . . 33 . . . . . 33 14, 15, 38 . . . . . 14 . . . . . 33 . . . . . 14 . . . . . 14 . . . . . 15 . . 14, 15 . . 17–18 . . 17, 18 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 28 . . . . . 28 . . . . . 25 . . . . . 24 . . . . . 35 . . . . . 24 . . . . . 24 . . . . . 24 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 36 . . . . . 37 . . . . . 25 . . . . . 25 . . . . . 25 . . . . . 25 . . . . . 25 . . . . . 23

\Bouquet . . . \Bowtie . . . . \bowtie . . . . \Box . . . . . . . \boxast . . . . \boxbar . . . . \boxbox . . . . \boxbslash . . \boxcircle . . \boxdot . . . . \boxdotLeft . \boxdotleft . \boxdotRight \boxdotright \boxempty . . . \boxLeft . . . \boxleft . . . \boxminus . . . \boxplus . . . \boxRight . . . \boxright . . . \boxslash . . . \boxtimes . . . \bracevert . . breve . . . . . . \breve . . . . . \brokenvert . \BS . . . . . . . . \BSEfree . . . \bullet . . . . \Bumpeq . . . . \bumpeq . . . .

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. . . . . . 36 . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . 16 . . . 23, 24 . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . 15 . . . 14, 15 . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . 22 see accents . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . 17

C \c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 43 \CAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \Cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \cap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \Capricorn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \capricornus . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 cardinality . . . . . . . see \aleph caret . . . . . . . . . . . . see accents Carlisle, David . . . . . . . . . . . 42 carriage return . . . . . . . . 28, 39 \carriagereturn . . . . . . . . . 34 \cdot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \cdotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \cdots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Cedi . . see \textcolonmonetary cedilla . . . . . . . . . . . see accents \Celtcross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \cent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \centerdot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \CEsign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 39 \check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 check marks . . . . . . . . . . 31, 34

\checked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \CheckedBox . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \Checkedbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \Checkmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \checkmark . . . . . . . . 24, 34, 38 \CheckmarkBold . . . . . . . . . . 31 \chi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \chiup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \circ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \circeq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \CIRCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Circle . . . . . . . . . . 33, 35, 38 \circlearrowleft . . . . . . . . . 19 \circlearrowright . . . . . . . . 19 circled numbers . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \CircledA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \circledast . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \circledbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \circledbslash . . . . . . . . . . 15 \circledcirc . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \circleddash . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \circleddot . . . . . . . see \odot \circleddotleft . . . . . . . . . 18 \circleddotright . . . . . . . . . 18 \circledgtr . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \circledless . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \circledminus . . . . see \ominus \circledotleft . . . . . . . . . see \circleddotleft \circledotright . . . . . . . . see \circleddotright \circledplus . . . . . see \oplus \circledR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \circledS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \circledslash . . . . see \oslash \circledtimes . . . . see \otimes \circledvee . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \circledwedge . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \circleleft . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \circleright . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–35 \CircleShadow . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \CircleSolid . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Circpipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Circsteel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 circumflex . . . . . . . . see accents \CleaningA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \CleaningF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \CleaningFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \CleaningP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \CleaningPP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \clickb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \clickc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \clickt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 clock symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Clocklogo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \closedniomega . . . . . . . . . . 13 \closedrevepsilon . . . . . . . . 13

46

\Cloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 clovers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 clubs (suit) . . . . . . . . 23, 24, 34 \clubsuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Coffeecup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Colonapprox . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \colonapprox . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Coloneq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \coloneq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Coloneqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \coloneqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Colonsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \colonsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 communication symbols . . . . . 28 comp.text.tex . . . . . . . . . 5, 40 \complement . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 complex numbers . see alphabets, math Comprehensive TEX Archive Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . see CTAN computer hardware symbols . . 27 \ComputerMouse . . . . . . . . . . 27 \cong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \conjunction . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 contradiction symbols . . . . . . 25 control characters . . . . . . . . . 28 \coprod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \copyright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 \corner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \Corresponds . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \cos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \cosh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \cot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \coth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Courier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 CP1252 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \CR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Cross . . . . . . . . . 30, 33, 36, 38 \crossb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \CrossBoldOutline . . . . . . . . 30 \CrossClowerTips . . . . . . . . . 30 \crossd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Crossedbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 crosses . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31, 36 \crossh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \CrossMaltese . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \crossnilambda . . . . . . . . . . 13 \CrossOpenShadow . . . . . . . . . 30 \CrossOutline . . . . . . . . . . . 30 crucifixes . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31, 36 \csc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 CTAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1, 5, 44 \Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 39 \Cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \cup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \curlyc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \curlyeqprec . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

\curlyeqsucc . . . . . . \curlyesh . . . . . . . . . \curlyvee . . . . . . . . . \curlyveedownarrow . \curlyveeuparrow . . . \curlywedge . . . . . . . \curlywedgedownarrow \curlywedgeuparrow . \curlyyogh . . . . . . . . \curlyz . . . . . . . . . . \currency . . . . . . . . . currency symbols . . . . \curvearrowleft . . . \curvearrowright . . . \Cutleft . . . . . . . . . \Cutline . . . . . . . . . \Cutright . . . . . . . . .

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17 13 14 15 15 14 15 15 13 13 35 10 19 19 29 29 29

D \d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \dag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 \dagger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \daleth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 dangerous bend symbols . . . . 34 \dasharrow see \dashrightarrow \dashint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \dashleftarrow . . . . . . . . . . 19 \dashleftrightarrow . . . . . . 18 \dashrightarrow . . . . . . . . . 19 \dashv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \davidsstar . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \DavidStar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \DavidStarSolid . . . . . . . . . 32 \dbend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \DCa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \DCb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \DCc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \DCd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \ddag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 \ddagger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \ddashint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \ddot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \ddots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 39 \deg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 degrees . . . . . . see \textdegree \DEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Deleatur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 delimiters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 variable-sized . . . . . . 21, 22 \Delta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \delta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \deltaup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Denarius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \dental . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \descnode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \det . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \DH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 11 \dh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 11 diacritics . . . . . . . . . see accents

diæresis . . . . . . . . . see accents \diagdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \diagup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Diamond . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 24 \diamond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \Diamondblack . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \Diamonddot . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \DiamonddotLeft . . . . . . . . . 18 \Diamonddotleft . . . . . . . . . 18 \DiamonddotRight . . . . . . . . . 18 \Diamonddotright . . . . . . . . . 18 \DiamondLeft . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Diamondleft . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \DiamondRight . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Diamondright . . . . . . . . . . . 18 diamonds . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 34 diamonds (suit) . . . . . 23, 24, 34 \DiamondShadowA . . . . . . . . . 33 \DiamondShadowB . . . . . . . . . 33 \DiamondShadowC . . . . . . . . . 33 \Diamondshape . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \DiamondSolid . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \diamondsuit . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \diatop . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 40 \diaunder . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 40 dice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37, 39 dictionary symbols . see phonetic symbols \digamma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 digits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 circled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 old-style . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 segmented . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \dim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \ding . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 29–32, 34 dingbat . . . . . . . . . 30, 34, 38, 44 dingbats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \div . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \divideontimes . . . . . . . . . . 14 \DJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \dj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \dlbari . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \DLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Dontwash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \dot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Doteq . . . . . . . . see \doteqdot \doteq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \doteqdot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \dotplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \dots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 \doublebarwedge . . . . . . . . . 14 \doublecap . . . . . . . . . see \Cap \doublecup . . . . . . . . . see \Cup \DOWNarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Downarrow . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 21 \downarrow . . . . . . . . 19, 21, 40 \downdownarrows . . . . . . . . . 19 Downes, Michael J. . . . . . 20, 44

47

\downharpoonleft . \downharpoonright \downp . . . . . . . . . \downt . . . . . . . . . dsfont . . . . . . . . . . \dz . . . . . . . . . . . .

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19 19 10 10 44 13

E \Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Ecommerce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \EightAsterisk . . . . . . . . . . 32 \EightFlowerPetal . . . . . . . . 32 \EightFlowerPetalRemoved . . 32 \eighthnote . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \EightStar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \EightStarBold . . . . . . . . . . 32 \EightStarConvex . . . . . . . . . 32 \EightStarTaper . . . . . . . . . 32 \ejective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 electrical symbols . . . . . . . . . 26 \ell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 ellipses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \EllipseShadow . . . . . . . . . . 33 \EllipseSolid . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \EM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Emailct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \emptyset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \eng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 engineering symbols . . . . . 26, 28 \ENQ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Envelope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \EOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \epsilon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \epsilonup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \eqcirc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Eqcolon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \eqcolon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \Eqqcolon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \eqqcolon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \eqsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \eqslantgtr . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \eqslantless . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \equiv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \er . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \ESC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 escapable characters . . . . . . . . 6 \esh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Estatically . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \eta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \etaup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ETB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \eth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 24 \ETX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 eufrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \EUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \EURcr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

\EURdig . . . . . . \EURhv . . . . . . . euro signs . . . . . \EURtm . . . . . . . euscript . . . . . . . exclusive or . . . . \exists . . . . . . \exp . . . . . . . . . \Explosionsafe extensible arrows extensions . . . . . \eye . . . . . . . . . \EyesDollar . . .

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10 10 10 10 44 39 23 20 28 23 24 34 10

F \fallingdotseq . . . . . . . . . \FallingEdge . . . . . . . . . . . \fatbslash . . . . . . . . . . . . . \fatsemi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \fatslash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \FAX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \fax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Faxmachine . . . . . . . . . . . . fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fclfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \FEMALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \female . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \FemaleFemale . . . . . . . . . . \FemaleMale . . . . . . . . . . . . \FF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \FHBOLOGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \FHBOlogo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \FilledBigCircle . . . . . . . . \FilledBigDiamondshape . . . \FilledBigSquare . . . . . . . . \FilledBigTriangleDown . . . \FilledBigTriangleLeft . . . \FilledBigTriangleRight . . \FilledBigTriangleUp . . . . \FilledCircle . . . . . . . . . . \FilledCloud . . . . . . . . . . . \FilledDiamondShadowA . . . \FilledDiamondShadowC . . . \FilledDiamondshape . . . . . \FilledHut . . . . . . . . . . . . . \FilledRainCloud . . . . . . . . \FilledSectioningDiamond . \FilledSmallCircle . . . . . . \FilledSmallDiamondshape . \FilledSmallSquare . . . . . . \FilledSmallTriangleDown . \FilledSmallTriangleLeft . \FilledSmallTriangleRight \FilledSmallTriangleUp . . . \FilledSnowCloud . . . . . . . . \FilledSquare . . . . . . . . . . \FilledSquareShadowA . . . . \FilledSquareShadowC . . . .

. 17 . 26 . 15 . 15 . 15 . 28 . 28 . 28 7, 8 . 44 . 28 . 28 . 35 . 28 . 28 . 28 . 36 . 36 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 37 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 37 . 37 . 37 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 33 . 37 . 33 . 33 . 33

\filledsquarewithdots . . . . 34 \FilledSunCloud . . . . . . . . . 37 \FilledTriangleDown . . . . . . 33 \FilledTriangleLeft . . . . . . 33 \FilledTriangleRight . . . . . 33 \FilledTriangleUp . . . . . . . . 33 \FilledWeakRainCloud . . . . . 37 \fint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Finv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \Fire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \FiveFlowerOpen . . . . . . . . . 32 \FiveFlowerPetal . . . . . . . . . 32 \FiveStar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \FiveStarCenterOpen . . . . . . 32 \FiveStarConvex . . . . . . . . . 32 \FiveStarLines . . . . . . . . . . 32 \FiveStarOpen . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \FiveStarOpenCircled . . . . . 32 \FiveStarOpenDotted . . . . . . 32 \FiveStarOutline . . . . . . . . . 32 \FiveStarOutlineHeavy . . . . 32 \FiveStarShadow . . . . . . . . . 32 \Fixedbearing . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Flag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \flapr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \flat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 35 \Flatsteel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 flowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Fog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 fontdef.dtx . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 fontenc . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 7, 8, 42 \fontencoding . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 \Football . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \forall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Forward . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \ForwardToEnd . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \ForwardToIndex . . . . . . . . . 36 \FourAsterisk . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \FourClowerOpen . . . . . . . . . 32 \FourClowerSolid . . . . . . . . . 32 Fourier transform see alphabets, math \FourStar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \FourStarOpen . . . . . . . . . . . 32 fraktur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \frown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \frownie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Frowny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \FS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \FullFHBO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \fullmoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \fullnote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 G .. .. .. ..

\G . . . . \Game . \Gamma \gamma

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\gammaup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \gcd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \ge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \geq \Gemini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \gemini . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 genealogical symbols . . . . . . . 35 \Gentsroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 geometric shapes . . . . . . . 32–34 \geq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \geqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \geqslant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \gets . . . . . . . . see \leftarrow \gg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \ggg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \gggtr . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ggg \gimel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \glotstop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \gluon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \gnapprox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \gneq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \gneqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \gnsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Graupel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 grave . . . . . . . . . . . see accents \grave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Greek . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 21, 25 \GS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \gtrapprox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \gtrdot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \gtreqless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \gtreqqless . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \gtrless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \gtrsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \guillemotleft . . . . . . . . 7, 43 \guillemotright . . . . . . . 7, 43 \guilsinglleft . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \guilsinglright . . . . . . . . . . 7 \gvertneqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 H \H . . . . . . . . . . . . h´ˇek . . . . . . . . . ac \Hagel . . . . . . . . \HalfCircleLeft \HalfCircleRight \HalfFilledHut . \halflength . . . . \halfnote . . . . . . \HalfSun . . . . . . \HandCuffLeft . . \HandCuffLeftUp \HandCuffRight . \HandCuffRightUp \HandLeft . . . . . . \HandLeftUp . . . . \HandPencilLeft \HandRight . . . . . \HandRightUp . . . hands . . . . . . . . .

\Handwash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \hat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \HBar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \hbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 24 \Heart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 hearts (suit) . . . . . . . 23, 24, 34 \heartsuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Hebrew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Helvetica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \HERMAPHRODITE . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Hermaphrodite . . . . . . . . . . 28 \hexagon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Hexasteel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \hexstar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 \HF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Hilbert space see alphabets, math Holt, Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \hom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \hookb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hookd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hookg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hookh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hookheng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \hookleftarrow . . . . . . . . . . 19 \hookrevepsilon . . . . . . . . . 13 \hookrightarrow . . . . . . . . . 19 \hslash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \HT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Hungarian umlaut . . see accents \Hut . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \hv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 I \i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28, 42 \IceMountain . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \idotsint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \iff . see \Longleftrightarrow ifsym . . . . . . . . 26, 33, 37, 38, 44 \iiiint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \iiint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 16 \iint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 16 \Im . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 imaginary numbers see alphabets, math \imath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 23 \impliedby . see \Longleftarrow \implies . see \Longrightarrow \in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \inf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Info . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 information symbols . . . . . . . 34 \infty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \injlim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \inplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \int . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 integers . . . . see alphabets, math integrals . . . . . . . . . . 14–16, 40

\intercal . . . \interleave . \Interval . . . \inva . . . . . . \invamp . . . . \invdiameter \inve . . . . . . \invf . . . . . . \invglotstop \invh . . . . . . \invlegr . . . \invm . . . . . . \invneg . . . . \invr . . . . . . \invscr . . . . \invscripta . \invv . . . . . . \invw . . . . . . \invy . . . . . . \iota . . . . . . \iotaup . . . . \ipagamma . . . \IroningI . . . \IroningII . . \IroningIII . \Irritant . . . \ismodeledby J \j . . . . . . . . . \JackStar . . . \JackStarBold Jewish star . . \jmath . . . . . \Joch . . . . . . \Join . . . . . . \joinrel . . . \Jupiter . . . \jupiter . . .

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14 15 37 13 15 35 11 13 13 13 13 13 24 13 13 13 13 13 13 20 21 13 36 36 36 37 39

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........ 8 see accents . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . . 37 . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . . 30

K \k . . . . . . . . . . . . \kappa . . . . . . . . \kappaup . . . . . . \ker . . . . . . . . . . \Keyboard . . . . . . Knuth, Donald E. symbols by . . \kreuz . . . . . . . . \Kutline . . . . . .

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L \L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \labdentalnas . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \Ladiesroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Lagrangian . see alphabets, math \Lambda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \lambda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

49

\lambdabar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \lambdaslash . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \lambdaup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Lamport, Leslie . . . . . . . . 42, 44 \land . . . . . . . . . . . see \wedge \Langle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \langle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Laplace transform see alphabets, math \largepencil . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Laserbeam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 A L TEX . . . 1, 5, 23, 29, 38–42, 44 A L TEX 2ε 1, 5, 6, 11, 13, 14, 16, 19, 23, 36, 38, 39, 41–44 latexsym . . 14, 16, 19, 23, 38, 44 \latfric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Latin 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . 5, 42, 44 table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 laundry symbols . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Lbag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \lbag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Lbrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 LCD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \lceil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ldotp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ldots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \leq \leadsto . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 24 \left . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 22 \LEFTarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Leftarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \leftarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \leftarrowtail . . . . . . . . . . 19 \leftarrowtriangle . . . . . . . 19 \LEFTCIRCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \LEFTcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Leftcircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \leftharpoondown . . . . . . . . . 19 \leftharpoonup . . . . . . . . . . 19 \leftleftarrows . . . . . . . . . 19 \leftmoon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \leftp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \leftpointright . . . . . . . . . 30 \Leftrightarrow . . . . . . . . . 19 \leftrightarrow . . . . . . . . . 19 \leftrightarroweq . . . . . . . . 19 \leftrightarrows . . . . . . . . . 19 \leftrightarrowtriangle . . . 19 \leftrightharpoons . . . . . . . 19 \leftrightsquigarrow . . . . . 19 \Leftscissors . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \leftslice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \leftsquigarrow . . . . . . . . . 18 \leftt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \leftthreetimes . . . . . . . . . 14 \leftthumbsdown . . . . . . . . . 30 \leftthumbsup . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \Lefttorque . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \leftturn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

\legm . . . . . . . . . . . . . \legr . . . . . . . . . . . . . \length . . . . . . . . . . . \Leo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \leo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \leq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \leqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . \leqslant . . . . . . . . . . \lessapprox . . . . . . . . \lessdot . . . . . . . . . . \lesseqgtr . . . . . . . . . \lesseqqgtr . . . . . . . . \lessgtr . . . . . . . . . . \lesssim . . . . . . . . . . \Letter . . . . . . . . . . letters . . . . . . . . . . see non-ASCII . . . . . . variant Latin . . . . \LF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lfloor . . . . . . . . . . . \lg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lgroup . . . . . . . . . . . \LHD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lhd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lhdbend . . . . . . . . . . \Libra . . . . . . . . . . . . \libra . . . . . . . . . . . . \Lightning . . . . . . . . . \lightning . . . . . . . . \lim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \liminf . . . . . . . . . . . \limsup . . . . . . . . . . . \Lineload . . . . . . . . . . linguistic symbols . . . . \lJoin . . . . . . . . . . . . \ll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \llbracket . . . . . . . . . \llceil . . . . . . . . . . . \llcorner . . . . . . . . . . \Lleftarrow . . . . . . . . \llfloor . . . . . . . . . . \lll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \llless . . . . . . . . . . . \llparenthesis . . . . . \lmoustache . . . . . . . . \ln . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lnapprox . . . . . . . . . . \lneq . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lneqq . . . . . . . . . . . . \lnot . . . . . . . . . . . . . \lnsim . . . . . . . . . . . . \log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . log-like symbols . . . . . . \logof . . . . . . . . . . . . \Longleftarrow . . . . . \longleftarrow . . . . . \Longleftrightarrow . \longleftrightarrow . \Longmapsfrom . . . . . .

. . . . . 13 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 10 . . . . . 27 . . . . . 27 . . . . . 16 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 17 28, 37, 38 alphabets ...... 7 . . . . . 21 . . . . . 28 . . . . . 21 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 24 . . 14, 24 . . . . . 34 . . . . . 27 . . . . . 27 . . . . . 28 19, 35, 38 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 28 . . 11–13 . . . . . 18 . . . . . 16 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 19 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 17 see \lll . . . . . 22 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 17 see \neg . . . . . 17 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 24 . . . . . 19 . . . . . 19 . . 19, 36 . . . . . 19 . . . . . 19

\longmapsfrom . \Longmapsto . . . \longmapsto . . . \LongPulseHigh \LongPulseLow . \Longrightarrow \longrightarrow \looparrowleft \looparrowright \Loosebearing . \lor . . . . . . . . . \LowerDiamond . \lozenge . . . . . \Lparen . . . . . . \lrcorner . . . . . \lrJoin . . . . . . \lrtimes . . . . . \Lsh . . . . . . . . . \Lsteel . . . . . . \ltimes . . . . . . \lvertneqq . . . . \lz . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . 19 . . . . 19 . . . . 19 . . . . 26 . . . . 26 . . . . 19 . . . . 19 . . . . 19 . . . . 19 . . . . 28 see \vee . . . . . 33 . . . . . 24 . . . . . 25 . . . . . 22 see \Join . . . . . 18 . . . . . 19 . . . . . 28 . . . . . 14 . . . . . 17 . . . . . 13

M \M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 macron . . . . . . . . . . see accents majuscules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \makeatletter . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \makeatother . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \MALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \male . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \MaleMale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \maltese . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \manboldkidney . . . . . . . . . . 36 \manconcentriccircles . . . . 36 \manconcentricdiamond . . . . 36 \mancone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \mancube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \manerrarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \manfilledquartercircle . . . 36 manfnt . . . . . . . . . . . 34, 36, 44 \manhpennib . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \manimpossiblecube . . . . . . . 36 \mankidney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \manlhpenkidney . . . . . . . . . 36 \manpenkidney . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \manquadrifolium . . . . . . . . . 36 \manquartercircle . . . . . . . . 36 \manrotatedquadrifolium . . . 36 \manrotatedquartercircle . . 36 \manstar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \mantiltpennib . . . . . . . . . . 36 \mantriangledown . . . . . . . . . 36 \mantriangleright . . . . . . . . 36 \mantriangleup . . . . . . . . . . 36 \manvpennib . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \Mappedfromchar . . . . . . . . . 18

50

\mappedfromchar . . . . . . . . . 18 \Mapsfrom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \mapsfrom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \Mapsfromchar . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \mapsfromchar . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \Mapsto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \mapsto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \Mapstochar . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \Mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \mars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \MartinVogel . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 marvosym 10, 25–29, 34, 36, 38, 44 matbbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 math alphabets . . . . . . . . . . . 25 math-mode symbols . . . . . . . . 24 \mathbb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathbbm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathbbmss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathbbmtt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 mathbbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathbin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 mathcal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathcal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathcent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \mathclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 mathcomp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \mathds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 mathematical symbols . . . . . . 14 \mathfrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathnormal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathopen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathpunct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \mathpzc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathrel . . . . . . . . . . . . 39, 40 \mathrm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 mathrsfs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 44 mathscr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathscr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \mathsterling . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \max . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \measuredangle . . . . . . . . . . 24 \medbullet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \medcirc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \Mercury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \mercury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \merge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 METAFONTbook symbols . . . . 36 \mho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 24 Microsoft Windows . . . . . . . . 42 \mid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \midtilde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \minuso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 miscellaneous symbols . . . 23, 24, 34–37 Missing $ inserted . . . . . . . 14

\Mmappedfromchar . . . . . . . . . \mmappedfromchar . . . . . . . . . \Mmapstochar . . . . . . . . . . . . \mmapstochar . . . . . . . . . . . . \Mobilefone . . . . . . . . . . . . . \models . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, \moo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Moon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Mountain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MoveDown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MoveUp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \mp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \mu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \multimap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \multimapboth . . . . . . . . . . . \multimapbothvert . . . . . . . . \multimapdot . . . . . . . . . . . . \multimapdotboth . . . . . . . . . \multimapdotbothA . . . . . . . . \multimapdotbothAvert . . . . \multimapdotbothB . . . . . . . . \multimapdotbothBvert . . . . \multimapdotbothvert . . . . . \multimapdotinv . . . . . . . . . \multimapinv . . . . . . . . . . . . multiple accents per character \Mundus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . musical notes . . . . . . 13, 23, \muup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVAt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVEight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVFive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVFour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVNine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVOne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVSeven . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVSix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVThree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVTwo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \MVZero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N \nabla . . . . . . . . \NAK . . . . . . . . . . \napproxeq . . . . . \nasymp . . . . . . . \natural . . . . . . natural numbers . math navigation symbols \nbacksim . . . . . . \nbacksimeq . . . . \nBumpeq . . . . . . \nbumpeq . . . . . . \ncong . . . . . . . . \ne . . . . . . . . . . . \Nearrow . . . . . . \nearrow . . . . . . \neg . . . . . . . . . .

18 18 18 18 28 39 15 26 37 36 36 14 20 19 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 40 36 35 21 36 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

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. . . . . . . . 23 . . . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . . . 18 . . . . . 23, 35 see alphabets, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 . . . . 18 . . . . 18 . . . . 18 . . . . 18 . . . . 17 see \neq . . . . . 18 . . . . . 19 . . . . . 23

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\Neptune . . . . . . . . . \neptune . . . . . . . . . \neq . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nequiv . . . . . . . . . . \Neutral . . . . . . . . . \newmoon . . . . . . . . . \newtie . . . . . . . . . . \nexists . . . . . . . . . \NG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeq . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeqq . . . . . . . . . . . \ngeqslant . . . . . . . . \ngg . . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngtr . . . . . . . . . . . . \ngtrapprox . . . . . . . \ngtrless . . . . . . . . . \ngtrsim . . . . . . . . . \ni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nialpha . . . . . . . . . \nibeta . . . . . . . . . . \NibLeft . . . . . . . . . \NibRight . . . . . . . . . nibs . . . . . . . . . . . . . \NibSolidLeft . . . . . \NibSolidRight . . . . \nichi . . . . . . . . . . . \niepsilon . . . . . . . . \nigamma . . . . . . . . . \niiota . . . . . . . . . . \nilambda . . . . . . . . . \niomega . . . . . . . . . \niphi . . . . . . . . . . . \niplus . . . . . . . . . . \nisigma . . . . . . . . . \nitheta . . . . . . . . . \niupsilon . . . . . . . . \nj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nLeftarrow . . . . . . . \nleftarrow . . . . . . . \nLeftrightarrow . . . \nleftrightarrow . . . \nleq . . . . . . . . . . . . \nleqq . . . . . . . . . . . \nleqslant . . . . . . . . \nless . . . . . . . . . . . \nlessapprox . . . . . . \nlessgtr . . . . . . . . . \nlesssim . . . . . . . . . \nll . . . . . . . . . . . . . \nmid . . . . . . . . . . . . \nnearrow . . . . . . . . . \nnwarrow . . . . . . . . . \NoBleech . . . . . . . . . \NoChemicalCleaning \NoIroning . . . . . . . . \NoSun . . . . . . . . . . . \notbackslash . . . . . \notin . . . . . . . . . . .

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26 26 16 18 28 26 . 8 24 . 7 . 7 17 17 17 18 17 18 18 18 16 13 13 30 30 30 30 30 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 17 13 13 13 13 19 19 19 19 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 17 19 19 36 36 36 37 27 18

51

\notni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \notowns . . . . . . . . see \notni \notslash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \NoTumbler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \nparallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \nprec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nprecapprox . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \npreccurlyeq . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \npreceq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \npreceqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nprecsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nRightarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \nrightarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \nshortmid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nshortparallel . . . . . . . . . 17 \nsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nsimeq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nsqsubset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nsqsubseteq . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nsqsupset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nsqsupseteq . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nSubset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nsubseteq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nsubseteqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nsucc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nsuccapprox . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nsucccurlyeq . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nsucceq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nsucceqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nsuccsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nSupset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nsupseteq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nsupseteqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nthickapprox . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \ntriangleleft . . . . . . . . . . 17 \ntrianglelefteq . . . . . . . . . 17 \ntrianglelefteqslant . . . . 18 \ntriangleright . . . . . . . . . 17 \ntrianglerighteq . . . . . . . . 17 \ntrianglerighteqslant . . . . 18 \ntwoheadleftarrow . . . . . . . 18 \ntwoheadrightarrow . . . . . . 18 \nu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 number sets see alphabets, math numbers . . . . . . . . . . . see digits numerals . . . . . . . . . . . see digits \nuup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \nvarparallel . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nvarparallelinv . . . . . . . . . 18 \nVDash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nVdash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nvDash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \nvdash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Nwarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \nwarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 O \O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

\o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \obar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \oblong . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \obslash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \ocircle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \octagon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \Octosteel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \odot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \odplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \OE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \oe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 ogonek . . . . . . . . . . see accents \ogreaterthan . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \oiiint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \oiiintclockwise . . . . . . . . . 16 \oiiintctrclockwise . . . . . . 16 \oiint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15, 16 \oiintclockwise . . . . . . . . . 16 \oiintctrclockwise . . . . . . . 16 \oint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \ointclockwise . . . . . . . . . . 16 \ointctrclockwise . . . . . . . . 16 old-style digits . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \oldstylenums . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \olessthan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \Omega . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \omega . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \omegaup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \ominus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \oo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \openJoin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \openo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 13 \opentimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 operators binary . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 15 \oplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 39 \opposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 options bbgreekl . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 mathcal . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 mathscr . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 sans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 varg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \OrnamentDiamondSolid . . . . 34 \oslash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \otimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \ovee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \overbrace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \overleftarrow . . . . . . . . . . 23 \overleftrightarrow . . . . . . 23 \overline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \overrightarrow . . . . . . . . . 23 \overring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \owedge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \owns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . see \ni

P \P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 43 \p@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 packages accents . . . . . . . . . . . 40, 44 amsfonts . 14, 16, 19, 23, 25 amsmath . . . . . . . . . 16, 20 amssymb 5, 14, 16, 19, 23, 25, 44 ar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 44 ascii . . . . . . . . . . 28, 42, 44 bbding . . . . . . 29–34, 38, 44 bbm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 44 bbold . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 44 dingbat . . . . . 30, 34, 38, 44 dsfont . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 44 eufrak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 euscript . . . . . . . . . . 25, 44 fclfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 fc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 8 fontenc . . . . . . . 5, 7, 8, 42 ifsym . . . . 26, 33, 37, 38, 44 latexsym 14, 16, 19, 23, 38, 44 manfnt . . . . . . . . 34, 36, 44 marvosym . 10, 25–29, 34, 36, 38, 44 matbbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 mathbbol . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 mathcomp . . . . . . . . . . . 14 mathrsfs . . . . . . . . . . 25, 44 pifont . . 7, 29–32, 34, 39, 44 pxfonts . . . 14–16, 18, 19, 21, 23–25, 38 stmaryrd . . 15, 17–19, 22, 24, 38, 42, 44 textcomp 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 22, 24, 35, 38, 42, 44 tipa . . . . . . . 8, 9, 11, 12, 44 txfonts . . . 14–16, 18, 19, 21, 23–25, 38, 39, 44 ulsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 44 upquote . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 url . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 wasysym . . 11, 14–16, 19, 23, 24, 26, 27, 31, 32, 35, 38, 44 wsuipa . 9, 10, 12, 38, 40, 44 yfonts . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 44 zapfchan . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Pakin, Scott . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \PaperLandscape . . . . . . . . . 37 \PaperPortrait . . . . . . . . . . 37 \parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \ParallelPort . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \partial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Peace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \PencilLeft . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \PencilLeftDown . . . . . . . . . 30 \PencilLeftUp . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \PencilRight . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

52

\PencilRightDown . . . . . . . . . 30 \PencilRightUp . . . . . . . . . . 30 pencils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \pentagon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \permil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Perp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \perp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Pfund . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \Phi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \phi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \phiup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \PhoneHandset . . . . . . . . . . . 34 phonetic symbols . . . . . . . 11–13 \photon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 physical symbols . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Pi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \pi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Pickup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 pifont . . . . . 7, 29–32, 34, 39, 44 \Pisces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \pisces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \Pisymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 \pitchfork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \piup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \Plus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \PlusCenterOpen . . . . . . . . . 30 \PlusOutline . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 plusses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30, 31 \PlusThinCenterOpen . . . . . . 30 \Pluto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \pluto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \pm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \pointer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Pointinghand . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \polishhook . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 polygons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 PostScript . . . . . . . . . . . . 29, 39 \pounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 43 \Pr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \prec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \precapprox . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \preccurlyeq . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \preceq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \preceqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \precnapprox . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \precneqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \precnsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \precsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \prime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 prime numbers . . see alphabets, math \Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \prod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \projlim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 pronunciation symbols . . . . . see phonetic symbols

\propto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Psi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \psi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \psiup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 pulse diagram symbols . . . . . . 26 \PulseHigh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \PulseLow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . 7, 23 pxfonts 14–16, 18, 19, 21, 23–25, 38 Q \quarternote . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 quaternions . see alphabets, math \quotedblbase . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \quotesinglbase . . . . . . . . . . 7 R \r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Rain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \RainCloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \RaisingEdge . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \Rangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \rangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 rational numbers . see alphabets, math \Rbag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \rbag . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \Rbrack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \rceil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \Re . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 real numbers see alphabets, math \recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \RectangleBold . . . . . . . . . . 33 rectangles . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 34 \RectangleThin . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Rectpipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Rectsteel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 registered trademark . . . . . . see \textregistered relational symbols . . . . . . . . . 16 binary . . . . . . . . . . . 17–18 negated binary . . . . . 17, 18 \restoresymbol . . . . . . . . . . 38 \restriction . . . . . . . . . . . see \upharpoonright \revddots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \reve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \reveject . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \revepsilon . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \reversedvideodbend . . . . . . 34 \revglotstop . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Rewind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \RewindToIndex . . . . . . . . . . 36 \RewindToStart . . . . . . . . . . 36 \rfloor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

\rgroup . . . . . . . . . . \RHD . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rhd . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rho . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rhoup . . . . . . . . . . . \right . . . . . . . . . . . \RIGHTarrow . . . . . . . \Rightarrow . . . . . . . \rightarrow . . . . . . . \rightarrowtail . . . \rightarrowtriangle \RIGHTCIRCLE . . . . . . \RIGHTcircle . . . . . . \Rightcircle . . . . . . \RightDiamond . . . . . \rightharpoondown . . \rightharpoonup . . . \rightleftarrows . . . \rightleftharpoons . \rightmoon . . . . . . . . \rightp . . . . . . . . . . \rightpointleft . . . \rightpointright . . . \rightrightarrows . . \Rightscissors . . . . \rightslice . . . . . . . \rightsquigarrow . . . \rightt . . . . . . . . . . \rightthreetimes . . . \rightthumbsdown . . . \rightthumbsup . . . . \Righttorque . . . . . . \rightturn . . . . . . . . ring . . . . . . . . . . . . \risingdotseq . . . . . \rJoin . . . . . . . . . . . \rlap . . . . . . . . . . . . \rmoustache . . . . . . . \RoundedLsteel . . . . \RoundedTsteel . . . . \RoundedTTsteel . . . \Rparen . . . . . . . . . . \rrbracket . . . . . . . . \rrceil . . . . . . . . . . \rrfloor . . . . . . . . . \Rrightarrow . . . . . . \rrparenthesis . . . . \RS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Rsh . . . . . . . . . . . . . \rtimes . . . . . . . . . . S \S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . safety-related symbols \Sagittarius . . . . . . \sagittarius . . . . . . sans . . . . . . . . . . . . . \satellitedish . . . . \Saturn . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . 22 . . . . . 24 . . 14, 24 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 21 . . 21, 22 . . . . . 35 19, 36, 38 . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . 35 . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . 19 . . . 19, 38 . . . . . . 26 . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . 29 . . . . . . 15 . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . 10 . . . . . . 14 . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . 30 . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . 35 see accents . . . . . . 17 . . . . . . 18 . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . 22 . . . . . . 18 . . . 19, 22 . . . . . . 28 . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . 14

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6, . . . . . .

43 28 27 27 25 34 26

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\saturn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \savesymbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 \Sborder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \scd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \schwa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \sci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 scientific symbols . . . . . . . . . . 26 \ScissorHollowLeft . . . . . . . 29 \ScissorHollowRight . . . . . . 29 \ScissorLeft . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \ScissorLeftBrokenBottom . . 29 \ScissorLeftBrokenTop . . . . 29 \ScissorRight . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \ScissorRightBrokenBottom . 29 \ScissorRightBrokenTop . . . . 29 scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 \scn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Scorpio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \scorpio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \scr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 script letters see alphabets, math \scripta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scriptg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scriptv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \scy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \Searrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \searrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \sec . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \secstress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \SectioningDiamond . . . . . . . 37 segmented digits . . . . . . . . . . 26 \selectfont . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 \SerialInterface . . . . . . . . . 27 \SerialPort . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 \setminus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \sharp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23, 35 \Shilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \shortdownarrow . . . . . . . . . 19 \ShortFifty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \ShortForty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \shortleftarrow . . . . . . . . . 19 \shortmid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \ShortNinetyFive . . . . . . . . . 36 \shortparallel . . . . . . . . . . 17 \ShortPulseHigh . . . . . . . . . 26 \ShortPulseLow . . . . . . . . . . 26 \shortrightarrow . . . . . . . . . 19 \ShortSixty . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \ShortThirty . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \shortuparrow . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \showclock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \SI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Sigma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \sigma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \sigmaup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \sim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 42

\simeq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \sin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \sinh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \SixFlowerAlternate . . . . . . 32 \SixFlowerAltPetal . . . . . . . 32 \SixFlowerOpenCenter . . . . . 32 \SixFlowerPetalDotted . . . . 32 \SixFlowerPetalRemoved . . . . 32 \SixFlowerRemovedOpenPetal 32 \SixStar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \SixteenStarLight . . . . . . . . 32 \slashb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \slashc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \slashd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \slashu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \SmallCircle . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \SmallCross . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \SmallDiamondshape . . . . . . . 33 \smallfrown . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \SmallHBar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \SmallLowerDiamond . . . . . . . 33 \smallpencil . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 \SmallRightDiamond . . . . . . . 33 \smallsetminus . . . . . . . . . . 14 \smallsmile . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \SmallSquare . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \SmallTriangleDown . . . . . . . 33 \SmallTriangleLeft . . . . . . . 33 \SmallTriangleRight . . . . . . 33 \SmallTriangleUp . . . . . . . . . 33 \SmallVBar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \smile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Smiley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \smiley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Snow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \SnowCloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Snowflake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \SnowflakeChevron . . . . . . . . 32 \SnowflakeChevronBold . . . . 32 snowflakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \SO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \SOH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 spades (suit) . . . . . . . 23, 24, 34 \spadesuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Sparkle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \SparkleBold . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 sparkles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 special characters . . . . . . . . . . 6 \SpecialForty . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \sphericalangle . . . . . . . . . 24 \SpinDown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \SpinUp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \splitvert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \sqcap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \sqcapplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \sqcup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \sqcupplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \sqiiint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \sqiint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

\sqint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \sqrt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \sqsubset . . . . . . . . . 16, 17, 24 \sqsubseteq . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \sqsupset . . . . . . . . . 16, 17, 24 \sqsupseteq . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \Square . . . . . . . . . . 31, 33, 38 \square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \SquareCastShadowBottomRight . . . . . . . . . 33 \SquareCastShadowTopLeft . . 33 \SquareCastShadowTopRight . 33 \Squaredot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \Squarepipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 squares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33, 34 \SquareShadowA . . . . . . . . . . 33 \SquareShadowB . . . . . . . . . . 33 \SquareShadowBottomRight . . 33 \SquareShadowC . . . . . . . . . . 33 \SquareShadowTopLeft . . . . . 33 \SquareShadowTopRight . . . . 33 \SquareSolid . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \Squaresteel . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \squarewithdots . . . . . . . . . 34 \SS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \ss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \ssearrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \sslash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 \sswarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \star . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 40 Star of David . . . . . . . . . 31, 32 stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 31, 32 stmaryrd 15, 17–19, 22, 24, 38, 42, 44 \StoneMan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Stopsign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \StopWatchEnd . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \StopWatchStart . . . . . . . . . 37 \stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \strictfi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \strictif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \strictiff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \StrokeFive . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \StrokeFour . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \StrokeOne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \StrokeThree . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \StrokeTwo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \STX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \SUB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Subset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \subset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \subseteq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \subseteqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \subsetneq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \subsetneqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \subsetplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \subsetpluseq . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \succ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \succapprox . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

54

\succcurlyeq . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \succeq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \succeqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \succnapprox . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \succneqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \succnsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \succsim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \sum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \Summit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \SummitSign . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26, 37, 38 \sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \SunCloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \SunshineOpenCircled . . . . . 34 \sup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \Supset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \supset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \supseteq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 \supseteqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \supsetneq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \supsetneqq . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \supsetplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \supsetpluseq . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \surd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \Swarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 \swarrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \syllabic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Symbol font . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 symbols alpine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 APL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 astrological . . . . . . . . . . 27 astronomical . . . . . . . . . 26 biological . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 body text . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 communication . . . . . . . . 28 computer hardware . . . . . 27 contradiction . . . . . . . . . 25 currency . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 dangerous bend . . . . . . . 34 dictionary . . . see symbols, phonetic electrical . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 engineering . . . . . . . 26, 28 genealogical . . . . . . . . . . 35 general . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 information . . . . . . . . . . 34 Knuth’s . . . . . . . . . . 34, 36 laundry . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 linguistic . . . . . . . . . 11–13 log-like . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 math-mode . . . . . . . . . . 24 mathematical . . . . . . . . . 14 METAFONTbook . . . . . . 36 miscellaneous . 23, 24, 34–37 navigation . . . . . . . . . . . 36 phonetic . . . . . . . . . 11–13 physical . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

pulse diagram relational . . . safety-related scientific . . . technological TEXbook . . . variable-sized weather . . . . zodiacal . . . . \SYN . . . . . . . . . .

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. . 26 . . 16 . . 28 . . 26 . . 26 34, 36 14–16 . . . 37 . . . 27 . . . 28

T \T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \taild . . . . . . . . . . . . \tailinvr . . . . . . . . . . \taill . . . . . . . . . . . . \tailn . . . . . . . . . . . . \tailr . . . . . . . . . . . . \tails . . . . . . . . . . . . \tailt . . . . . . . . . . . . \tailz . . . . . . . . . . . . \talloblong . . . . . . . . tally markers . . . . . . . . \tan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \tanh . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Tape . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Taschenuhr . . . . . . . . \tau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \Taurus . . . . . . . . . . . \taurus . . . . . . . . . . . \tauup . . . . . . . . . . . . technological symbols . \Telefon . . . . . . . . . . \Telephone . . . . . . . . . \Tent . . . . . . . . . . . . . \tesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEXbook, The . . . . . . . symbols from . . . . \textacutedbl . . . . . . \textacutemacron . . . . \textacutewedge . . . . \textadvancing . . . . . \textasciiacute . . . . \textasciibreve . . . . \textasciicaron . . . . \textasciicircum . . . . \textasciidieresis . . \textasciigrave . . . . \textasciimacron . . . \textasciitilde . . . . \textasteriskcentered \textbabygamma . . . . . \textbackslash . . . . . \textbaht . . . . . . . . . . \textbar . . . . . . . . . . \textbarb . . . . . . . . . . \textbarc . . . . . . . . . . \textbard . . . . . . . . . .

...... 7 ...... 8 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 15 . . . . . 37 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 34 . . . . . 37 . . . . . 20 . . . . . 27 . . . . . 27 . . . . . 21 . . . . . 26 . . . . . 28 . . . . . 37 . . . . . 37 . . . . . 13 . . 39, 40 . . 34, 36 . . . . . 10 ...... 8 ...... 8 ...... 8 . . 10, 43 . . . . . 10 . . . . . 10 . . . 6, 42 . . 10, 43 . . . . . 10 10, 42, 43 . . . 6, 42 . . 6, 13 . . . . . 11 6, 41, 42 . . . . . 10 6, 41, 42 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 11

\textbardbl . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textbardotlessj . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbarg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbarglotstop . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbari . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbarl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbaro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbarrevglotstop . . . . . . 11 \textbaru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbeltl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbeta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textbigcircle . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textblank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textborn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \textbottomtiebar . . . . . . . . . 8 \textbraceleft . . . . . . . . . . . 6 \textbraceright . . . . . . . . . . 6 \textbrevemacron . . . . . . . . . . 8 \textbrokenbar . . . . . . . 13, 43 \textbullet . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 13 \textbullseye . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcelsius . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \textceltpal . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcent . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 43 \textcentoldstyle . . . . . . . . 10 \textchi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcircled . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \textcircledP . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcircumacute . . . . . . . . . . 8 \textcircumdot . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \textcloseepsilon . . . . . . . . 11 \textcloseomega . . . . . . . . . 12 \textcloserevepsilon . . . . . 12 \textcolonmonetary . . . . . . . 10 \textcommatailz . . . . . . . . . 12 textcomp . . 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 22, 24, 35, 38, 42, 44 \textcopyleft . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textcopyright . . . . . 6, 11, 43 \textcorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textcrb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textcrd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textcrg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textcrh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textcrinvglotstop . . . . . . . 12 \textcrlambda . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textcrtwo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textctc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textctd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textctdctzlig . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textctesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textctj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textctn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textctt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textcttctclig . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textctyogh . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textctz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textcurrency . . . . . . . . 10, 43 \textdagger . . . . . . . . . . . 6, 13

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\textdaggerdbl . . . . . \textdbend . . . . . . . . . \textdblhyphen . . . . . \textdblhyphenchar . . \textdctzlig . . . . . . . \textdegree . . . . . . . . \textdied . . . . . . . . . . \textdiscount . . . . . . \textdiv . . . . . . . . . . \textdivorced . . . . . . \textdollar . . . . . . . . \textdollaroldstyle . \textdong . . . . . . . . . . \textdotacute . . . . . . \textdotbreve . . . . . . \textdoublebaresh . . . \textdoublebarpipe . . \textdoublebarslash . \textdoublegrave . . . . \textdoublepipe . . . . \textdoublevbaraccent \textdoublevertline . \textdownarrow . . . . . \textdownstep . . . . . . \textdyoghlig . . . . . . \textdzlig . . . . . . . . . \texteightoldstyle . . \textellipsis . . . . . . \textemdash . . . . . . . . \textendash . . . . . . . . \textepsilon . . . . . . . \textesh . . . . . . . . . . \textestimated . . . . . \texteuro . . . . . . . . . . \textexclamdown . . . . \textfishhookr . . . . . \textfiveoldstyle . . . \textflorin . . . . . . . . \textfouroldstyle . . . \textfractionsolidus \textfrak . . . . . . . . . . \textg . . . . . . . . . . . . \textgamma . . . . . . . . . \textglobfall . . . . . . \textglobrise . . . . . . \textglotstop . . . . . . \textgravecircum . . . . \textgravedbl . . . . . . \textgravedot . . . . . . \textgravemid . . . . . . \textgreater . . . . . . . \textguarani . . . . . . . \texthalflength . . . . \texthardsign . . . . . . \texthooktop . . . . . . . \texthtb . . . . . . . . . . \texthtbardotlessj . . \texthtc . . . . . . . . . . \texthtd . . . . . . . . . .

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. . 6, 13 . . . . 34 . . . . 13 . . . . 13 . . . . 12 . 24, 43 . . . . 35 . . . . 13 . . . . 24 . . . . 35 . . 6, 10 . . . . 10 . . . . 10 ..... 8 ..... 8 . . . . 12 . . . . 12 . . . . 12 ..... 8 . . . . 12 ..... 8 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 24 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 11 ...... 6 ...... 6 ...... 6 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 10 ...... 6 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 10 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 24 . . . . . 25 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 11 ...... 8 . . . . . 10 ...... 8 ...... 8 6, 41, 42 . . . . . 10 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 11

\texthtg . . . . . . . . . \texthth . . . . . . . . . \texththeng . . . . . . . \texthtk . . . . . . . . . \texthtp . . . . . . . . . \texthtq . . . . . . . . . \texthtscg . . . . . . . . \texthtt . . . . . . . . . \texthvlig . . . . . . . . \textifsym . . . . . . . . \textinterrobang . . . \textinterrobangdown \textinvglotstop . . . \textinvscr . . . . . . . \textinvsubbridge . . \textiota . . . . . . . . . \textlambda . . . . . . . \textlangle . . . . . . . \textlbrackdbl . . . . \textleaf . . . . . . . . . \textleftarrow . . . . \textlengthmark . . . \textless . . . . . . . . . \textlhdbend . . . . . . \textlhookt . . . . . . . \textlhti . . . . . . . . . \textlhtlongi . . . . . \textlira . . . . . . . . . \textlnot . . . . . . . . . \textlonglegr . . . . . \textlowering . . . . . \textlptr . . . . . . . . . \textlquill . . . . . . . \textltailm . . . . . . . \textltailn . . . . . . . \textltilde . . . . . . . \textlyoghlig . . . . . \textmarried . . . . . . \textmho . . . . . . . . . \textmidacute . . . . . \textminus . . . . . . . . \textmu . . . . . . . . . . \textmusicalnote . . . \textnaira . . . . . . . . \textnineoldstyle . . \textnrleg . . . . . . . . \textnumero . . . . . . . \textObardotlessj . . \textohm . . . . . . . . . \textOlyoghlig . . . . \textomega . . . . . . . . \textonehalf . . . . . . \textoneoldstyle . . . \textonequarter . . . \textonesuperior . . . \textopenbullet . . . \textopencorner . . . \textopeno . . . . . . . . \textordfeminine . . .

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. . . . 11 . . . . 11 . . . . 11 . . . . 11 . . . . 11 . . . . 11 . . . . 11 . . . . 11 . . . . 11 . . . . 26 . . . . 13 . . . . 13 . . . . 11 . . . . 12 ..... 8 . . . . 12 . . . . 12 . 22, 42 . . . . 22 . . . . 35 . . . . 24 . . . . 12 6, 41, 42 . . . . . 34 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 10 . . 24, 43 . . . . . 12 ...... 8 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 22 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 35 . . . . . 24 ...... 8 . . . . . 24 . . 24, 43 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 10 . . . . . 11 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 24 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 . . 24, 43 . . . . . 11 . . 24, 43 . . 24, 43 . . . . . 13 . . . . . 12 . . . . . 12 6, 13, 43

\textordmasculine . . . 6, 13, 43 \textovercross . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \textoverw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \textpalhook . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textparagraph . . . . . . . . 6, 13 \textperiodcentered . 6, 13, 43 \textpertenthousand . . . . . . 13 \textperthousand . . . . . . . . . 13 \textpeso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textphi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textpilcrow . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 \textpipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textpm . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 43 \textpolhook . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textprimstress . . . . . . . . . 12 \textquestiondown . . . . . . . . . 6 \textquotedbl . . . . . . . . . 7, 41 \textquotedblleft . . . . . . . . . 6 \textquotedblright . . . . . . . . 6 \textquoteleft . . . . . . . . . . . 6 \textquoteright . . . . . . . . . . 6 \textquotesingle . . . . . . . . . 13 \textquotestraightbase . . . . 13 \textquotestraightdblbase . 13 \textraiseglotstop . . . . . . . 12 \textraisevibyi . . . . . . . . . 12 \textraising . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textramshorns . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textrangle . . . . . . . . . . 22, 42 \textrbrackdbl . . . . . . . . . . 22 \textrecipe . . . . . . . . . . 13, 39 \textrectangle . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textreferencemark . . . . . . . 13 \textregistered . . . . 6, 11, 43 \textretracting . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textrevapostrophe . . . . . . . 12 \textreve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textrevepsilon . . . . . . . . . 12 \textreversedvideodbend . . . 34 \textrevglotstop . . . . . . . . . 12 \textrevyogh . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textrhookrevepsilon . . . . . 12 \textrhookschwa . . . . . . . . . 12 \textrhoticity . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textrightarrow . . . . . . . . . 24 \textringmacron . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textroundcap . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textrptr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textrquill . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 \textrtaild . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textrtaill . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrtailn . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrtailr . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrtails . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrtailt . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrtailz . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textrthook . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textsca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

56

\textsce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textsch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textschwa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textsci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscoelig . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \textscomega . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textscq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textscr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textscripta . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textscriptv . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textscu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textscy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textseagull . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsecstress . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textsection . . . . . . . . . . 6, 13 \textservicemark . . . . . . . . . 11 \textsevenoldstyle . . . . . . . 11 \textsixoldstyle . . . . . . . . . 11 \textsoftsign . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textsterling . . . . . . . . . 6, 10 \textstretchc . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textsubarch . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsubbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsubbridge . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsubdot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsublhalfring . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsubplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsubrhalfring . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsubring . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsubsquare . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsubtilde . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsubumlaut . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsubw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsubwedge . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textsuperimposetilde . . . . . 9 \textsurd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \textswab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 \textsyllabic . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \texttctclig . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textteshlig . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \texttheta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textthorn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textthreeoldstyle . . . . . . . 11 \textthreequarters . . . . 24, 43 \textthreequartersemdash . . 13 \textthreesuperior . . . . 24, 43 \texttildedot . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \texttildelow . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \texttimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \texttoptiebar . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \texttrademark . . . . . . . . 6, 11 \texttslig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturncelig . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

\textturnk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnlonglegr . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnmrleg . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnrrtail . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnscripta . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturnw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textturny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \texttwelveudash . . . . . . . . . 13 \texttwooldstyle . . . . . . . . . 11 \texttwosuperior . . . . . . 24, 43 \textunderscore . . . . . . . . . . 6 \textuparrow . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \textupsilon . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textupstep . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textvbaraccent . . . . . . . . . . 9 \textvertline . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textvibyi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textvibyy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textvisiblespace . . . . . . . . . 6 \textwon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \textwynn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textyen . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 43 \textyogh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \textzerooldstyle . . . . . . . . 11 \TH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 \therefore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \Thermo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Theta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \theta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \thetaup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \thickapprox . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \thicksim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \ThinFog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Thorn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 \thorn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 13 tilde . . . . . . . . . . . . see accents \tilde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 40 \tildel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 tildes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 time of day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 tipa . . . . . . . . . . . 8, 9, 11, 12, 44 \to . . . . . . . . . see \rightarrow \ToBottom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \tone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 \top . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \ToTop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \TriangleDown . . . . . . . . 33, 38 \triangledown . . . . . . . . . . . 24 \TriangleLeft . . . . . . . . . . . 33 \triangleleft . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \trianglelefteq . . . . . . . . . 17

\trianglelefteqslant . . . . . 17 \triangleq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 \TriangleRight . . . . . . . . . . 33 \triangleright . . . . . . . . . . 14 \trianglerighteq . . . . . . . . . 17 \trianglerighteqslant . . . . 17 triangles . . . . . . . . . . 24, 33, 34 \TriangleUp . . . . . . . . . . 33, 38 \Tsteel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \TTsteel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 \Tumbler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \TwelweStar . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 \twoheadleftarrow . . . . . . . . 19 \twoheadrightarrow . . . . . . . 19 \twonotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 txfonts 14–16, 18, 19, 21, 23–25, 38, 39, 44 U \U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 \ulcorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 ulsy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25, 44 umlaut . . . . . . . . . . see accents \underaccent . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 \underarch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 \underbrace . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \underdots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \underleftarrow . . . . . . . . . 23 \underleftrightarrow . . . . . 23 \underline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \underrightarrow . . . . . . . . . 23 \underring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \undertilde . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \underwedge . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 unity . . . . . see alphabets, math \unlhd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 24 \unrhd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14, 24 \UParrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \Uparrow . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 21 \uparrow . . . . . . . . . . . . 19, 21 \Updownarrow . . . . . . . . . 19, 21 \updownarrow . . . . . . . . . 19, 21 \upharpoonleft . . . . . . . . . . 19 \upharpoonright . . . . . . . . . 19 \uplus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \upp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 upquote . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 upright Greek letters . . . . . . . 21 \Upsilon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \upsilon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 \upsilonup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 \upt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 \upuparrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 \Uranus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \uranus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 \urcorner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 url . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \US . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

57

\usepackage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 V \v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varangle . . . . . . . . . . . \varbigcirc . . . . . . . . . \VarClock . . . . . . . . . . . \varclubsuit . . . . . . . . \varcurlyvee . . . . . . . . \varcurlywedge . . . . . . \vardiamondsuit . . . . . \varepsilon . . . . . . . . . \varepsilonup . . . . . . . \VarFlag . . . . . . . . . . . varg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . \varheartsuit . . . . . . . \varhexagon . . . . . . . . . \varhexstar . . . . . . . . . variable-sized symbols . . \VarIceMountain . . . . . \varinjlim . . . . . . . . . . \varint . . . . . . . . . . . . \varkappa . . . . . . . . . . . \varliminf . . . . . . . . . . \varlimsup . . . . . . . . . . \varmathbb . . . . . . . . . . \VarMountain . . . . . . . . \varnothing . . . . . . . . . \varoast . . . . . . . . . . . \varobar . . . . . . . . . . . \varobslash . . . . . . . . . \varocircle . . . . . . . . . \varodot . . . . . . . . . . . \varogreaterthan . . . . . \varoiiintclockwise . . \varoiiintctrclockwise \varoiintclockwise . . . \varoiintctrclockwise \varoint . . . . . . . . . . . \varointclockwise . . . . \varointctrclockwise . \varolessthan . . . . . . . \varominus . . . . . . . . . . \varoplus . . . . . . . . . . . \varoslash . . . . . . . . . . \varotimes . . . . . . . . . . \varovee . . . . . . . . . . . \varowedge . . . . . . . . . . \varparallel . . . . . . . . \varparallelinv . . . . .

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... 8 . . 35 . . 15 . . 37 . . 24 . . 15 . . 15 . . 24 . . 20 . . 21 . . 37 . . 21 . . 21 . . 24 . . 32 . . 31 14–16 . . 37 . . 20 . . 15 . . 20 . . 20 . . 20 . . 25 . . 37 . . 24 . . 15 . . 15 . . 15 . . 15 . . 15 . . 15 . . 16 . . 16 . . 16 . . 16 . . 15 . . 16 . . 16 . . 15 . . 15 . . 15 . . 15 . . 15 . . 15 . . 15 . . 18 . . 18

\varphi . . . . . . . . \varphiup . . . . . . . \varpi . . . . . . . . . \varpiup . . . . . . . \varprod . . . . . . . \varprojlim . . . . . \varpropto . . . . . . \varrho . . . . . . . . \varrhoup . . . . . . . \varsigma . . . . . . . \varsigmaup . . . . . \varspadesuit . . . \varsubsetneq . . . \varsubsetneqq . . \VarSummit . . . . . . \varsupsetneq . . . \varsupsetneqq . . \VarTaschenuhr . . \vartheta . . . . . . . \varthetaup . . . . . \vartimes . . . . . . . \vartriangle . . . . \vartriangleleft . \vartriangleright \varv . . . . . . . . . . \varw . . . . . . . . . . \vary . . . . . . . . . . \VBar . . . . . . . . . . \Vdash . . . . . . . . . \vDash . . . . . . . . . \vdash . . . . . . . . . \vdots . . . . . . . . . \vec . . . . . . . . . . . \Vectorarrow . . . . \Vectorarrowhigh . \vee . . . . . . . . . . . \veebar . . . . . . . . \Venus . . . . . . . . . \venus . . . . . . . . . \Vermessung . . . . . \vernal . . . . . . . . \VHF . . . . . . . . . . . \Village . . . . . . . \Virgo . . . . . . . . . \virgo . . . . . . . . . \VT . . . . . . . . . . . . \VvDash . . . . . . . . \Vvdash . . . . . . . .

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20 21 20 21 16 20 17 20 21 20 21 24 17 17 37 17 17 37 20 21 15 24 17 17 21 21 21 33 17 17 16 23 22 25 25 14 14 26 26 37 26 26 37 27 27 28 18 17

\WashSynthetics . . . . . . . . . 36 \WashWool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \wasylozenge . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 \wasypropto . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 wasysym 11, 14–16, 19, 23, 24, 26, 27, 31, 32, 35, 38, 44 \wasytherefore . . . . . . . . . . 35 \WeakRain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \WeakRainCloud . . . . . . . . . . 37 weather symbols . . . . . . . . . . 37 \Wecker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 \wedge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \Wheelchair . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 \widehat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \widetilde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 \Womanface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 \wp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 \wr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 \Writinghand . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 wsuipa . . . . . 9, 10, 12, 38, 40, 44 X \XBox . . . . . . \Xi . . . . . . . . \xi . . . . . . . . \xiup . . . . . . Xs . . . . . . . . \XSolid . . . . \XSolidBold . \XSolidBrush Y ... ... .. ... ... ... ...

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31 20 20 21 34 31 31 31

\Ydown . yfonts . . \Yinyang \Yleft . \yogh . . \Yright \Yup . . .

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15 44 36 15 13 15 15

W \WashCotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Z Zapf Chancery . Zapf Dingbats . . zapfchan . . . . . . \Zborder . . . . . \zeta . . . . . . . . \zetaup . . . . . . \Zodiac . . . . . . zodiacal symbols

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25 29 44 34 20 21 27 27

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