A

SEMINAR REPORT

ON
“Frictionless Compressor Technology”
In the partial fulfillment for award the degree of Bachelor of Engineering From

University of Rajasthan, Jaipur

Guided By:Mr. Kuldeep Sharma Lect. Department of Mechanical Engineering

Submitted By:Akshat Yadav IV Year, Mechanical Engineering

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING JAIPUR ENGINEERING COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTRE Session 2007-2008

JAIPUR ENGINEERING COLLEGE AND RESEARCH CENTRE

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Akshat Yadav, student of VIII Semester, B.E., Mechanical Engineering, has completed the work of seminar and compiled the report entitled “ the submission.

Frictionless Compressor Technology”

under my

guidance and supervision. Report has been found satisfactory and approved for

Date:

Mr. Kuldeep Sharma Lect. Department of Mechanical Engineering

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. Pankaj Sharma, Asst. Professor & Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, who not only inspired me to work on this seminar but also guided me at each and every step so as to bring out this report in the present form. I would also like to thank s Mr. Kuldeep Sharma Lect. Department of Mechanical Engineering for their valuable advices at crucial times. I would also like to thank my friends who provided me with a proper atmosphere of study. Finally I would like to thank the almighty for his blessings without which this work could not have been accomplished.

Akshat Yadav IV Year, Mechanical Engineering

8 Diaphragm compressors 2. Mechanicalcomponents11 5.5 Rotary screw compressors 1.1 Centrifugal compressors 5 1. Advantages 6.2 Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors 1. Applications 7. Frictionless compressor 4. The “Emerging Technology in Centrifugal Compressor 3.Table of Contents 1.7 Scroll compressors 1.6 Rotary vane compressors 1. References 24 25 26 10 9 .3 Axial-flow compressors 1. Types of compressors 1.4 Reciprocating compressors 1.

. the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Centrifugal compressors are used in small gas turbine engines or as the final compression stage of medium sized gas turbines. As gases are compressible. so the main action of a pump is to transport liquids.1. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. A diffuser (divergent duct) section converts the velocity energy to pressure energy. stationary service in industries such as oil refineries. Gas compressor A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. increasing the velocity of the gas. chemical and petrochemical plants and natural gas processing plants.[1][2][3] Their application can be from 100 hp (75 kW) to thousands of horsepower. Liquids are relatively incompressible. they can achieve extremely high output pressures greater than 10. They are primarily used for continuous. They are also used in internal combustion engines as superchargers and turbochargers.000 psi (69 MPa). With multiple staging. Types of compressors The main types of gas compressors are illustrated and discussed below: Centrifugal compressors Centrifugal compressors use a rotating disk or impeller in a shaped housing to force the gas to the rim of the impeller. Many large snow-making operations (like ski resorts) use this type of compressor.

. Axial-flow compressors can be found in medium to large gas turbine engines. Beyond about 5 stages or a 4:1 design pressure ratio. Reciprocating compressors use pistons driven by a crankshaft. tight tolerances and high quality materials. but their numbers are declining as they are replaced by various other types of compressors. Larger reciprocating compressors up to 1000 hp are still commonly found in large industrial applications. Axial compressors can have high efficiencies. with the cross-sectional area of the gas passage diminishing along the compressor to maintain an optimum axial Mach number. four or six cylinders. Reciprocating compressors A motor-driven six-cylinder reciprocating compressor that can operate with two. However. and within certain chemical plants. variable geometry is normally used to improve operation. The arrays of aerofoil are set in rows. The rotating aerofoil’s.[1] Axial compressors are almost always multi-staged. requiring a large number of components. also known as a stators or vanes. The diffuser is often used to turn diagonal flow to the axial direction. such as air compression. and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower (hp) are commonly seen in automotive applications and are typically for intermittent duty. around 90% polytrophic at their design conditions. In certain applications. also known as blades or rotors decelerate and pressurize the fluid. and are typically larger.Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors Diagonal or mixed-flow compressors are similar to centrifugal compressors. and more costly than comparable rotary units. they are relatively expensive. The diagonal compressor has a lower diameter diffuser than the equivalent centrifugal compressor. multi-stage double-acting compressors are said to be the most efficient compressors available. can be single or multi-staged. in natural gas pumping stations. They are used where there is a requirement for a high flows or a compact design. but have a radial and axial velocity component at the exit from the rotor. noisier. The stationary aerofoil’s. turn and decelerate the fluid. They can be either stationary or portable. Axial-flow compressors Axial-flow compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-like aerofoil to progressively compress the working fluid. usually as pairs: one rotating and one stationary. Discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very high pressure (>5000 psi or 35 MPa). preparing and redirecting the flow for the rotor blades of the next stage.

blades slide in and out of the slots keeping contact with the outer wall of the housing. As the rotor turns.. These are usually used for continuous operation in commercial and industrial applications and may be either stationary or portable. with piston compressors one of the oldest of compressor technologies. Diaphragm compressors A diaphragm compressor (also known as a membrane compressor) is a variant of the conventional reciprocating compressor. and reliably than other types of compressors in the lower volume range. The back and forth movement of the membrane is driven by a rod and a crankshaft mechanism. Scroll compressors A scroll compressor. uses two interleaved spiral-like vanes to pump or compress fluids such as liquids and gases. can be single or multi-staged. also known as scroll pump and scroll vacuum pump. This type is also used for many automobile engine superchargers because it is easily matched to the induction capacity of a piston Engine Rotary vane compressors Rotary vane compressors consist of a rotor with a number of blades inserted in radial slots in the rotor.[1] Thus. one of the scrolls is fixed. a series of decreasing volumes is created by the rotating blades. .3 MPa). The rotor is mounted offset in a larger housing which can be circular or a more complex shape. Dry vane machines are used at relatively low pressures (e. Archimedean spiral.g. With suitable port connections. and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. the devices may be either a compressor or a vacuum pump. Often. Only the membrane and the compressor box come in touch with the gas being compressed. instead of an intake element.Rotary screw compressors Rotary screw compressors use two meshed rotating positive-displacement helical screws to force the gas into a smaller space. 2 bars) for bulk material movement whilst oil-injected machines have the necessary volumetric efficiency to achieve pressures up to about 13 bars in a single stage. thereby trapping and pumping or compressing pockets of fluid or gas between the scrolls. The vane geometry may be involutes. Their application can be from 3 hp (2. Rotary Vane compressors are. while the other orbits eccentrically without rotating.24 kW) to over 500 hp (375 kW) and from low pressure to very high pressure (>1200 psi or 8. A rotary vane compressor is well suited to electric motor drive and is significantly quieter in operation than the equivalent piston compressor. They can be either stationary or portable. or hybrid curves. quietly. The compression of gas occurs by the movement of a flexible membrane. They operate more smoothly. They are commonly seen with roadside repair crews powering air-tools.

The “Emerging Technology in Centrifugal Compressor • Refrigerant Compressors .Diaphragm compressors are used for hydrogen and compressed natural gas (CNG) as well as in a number of other applications.

and take advantage of speed control more effectively. The convergence of aerospace and industrially proven magnetic bearings. . By using the smaller shaft. cost effectively. The well-proven energy performance advantages of variable-speed centrifugal Compressors are now brought to mainstream middle-market applications through the use of High-speed. Operations to near zero loads are achievable via an optional. load balancing valve. two-stage centrifugal compression with integral variable-speed drive. Compressor speed is reduced as the condensing temperature and/or heat load reduces. Centrifugal compressors tend to be more efficient than screw or scroll compressors. water-cooled. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVACR) industry. Optimizing energy performance through the entire operating range from 100% to 20% or Below of rated capacity. evaporativecooled and air-cooled HVACR applications. variable-speed centrifugal compression and digital electronic technologies enables the frictionless compressors (nominal 60-150 ton capacity range) to achieve the highest compressor efficiencies. digitally controlled. Ventilation.• • • Primarily used for commercial and industrial comfort and process cooling Extremely efficient operation Oil free design The Frictionless compressor is the world’s first totally Oil-Free compressor specifically designed for the Heating. for middle-market. but they are usually only available in larger sizes. they are able to take advantage of the centrifugal compressor technology in a smaller size than is normally available.

This article describes this new compressor technology and its first use in an ARI-certified chiller design. Heating. evaporative cooled. Refrigerating Exposition (AHR Expo). held l January in Chicago.F r i c t i o n. the compressor was awarded the first AHR Expo Innovation Award in the energy category. The compressor is key to a new water cooled centrifugal-chiller design. may have a significant effect on the future of mid-range chillers and rooftop applications in watercooled. and air-cooled chilled water and direct-expansion (DX) systems.l e s s Te c h ngyo lo Compressor A new compressor technology introduced during the 2003 International Air-Conditioning. Designed and optimized to take full advantage of magnetic-bearing technology. as well as Canada’s Energy Efficiency Award for its potential to reduce utility-generated greenhouse-gas emissions. with Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) tests indicating integrated part-load values (IPLVs) not normally seen with conventional chillers in this tonnage range. .

2. 6. Low maintenance costs as there are no wearing parts. Part-load inefficiency costs more for traditional chillers. Oil-lubricated equivalent wastes more on friction and irreversible loss. 4. On / off control costs more. . Solution with Frictionless Compressor 1. Power Management. No COP deterioration with time.Problem with Traditional Technology 1. 3. 3. Soft start and Ramp up. 2. 5. Oil fouling costs more due to higher ∆T. Frictionless oil-free using magnetic bearings. Low noise and smooth Operation. 4.

The First Intelligent Compressor .

.Mechanicalcomponents 1 Magnetic bearings and bearing sensors • Composed of both permanent and electromagnets • Enables precisely controlled frictionless compressor shaft rotation on a levitated magnetic cushion • Bearing sensors located at each magnetic bearing. feedback rotor orbit and thrust/axial information in real time to Bearing control 1 Cross-section of axial bearing .

2 Permanent-magnet synchronous motor • Powered by PWM (pulse width modulated) voltage supply • High-speed variable frequency operation affords high efficiency. compactnes and soft start capability s 2 3 Touchdown bearings • Carbon-lined radially and axially located bearings support the rotor when the compressor is not energized • Prevents contact between the rotor and other metallic surfaces 4 Shaft and impellers • Only one major moving compressor component • Acts as rotor for permanent-magne synch t ronous motor • Impellers are keyed directly to the motor rotor Cross-section of radial bearing .

4 .

3 3 1 5 2 1 6 .

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mechanica and electromechanical l compressor component to assure maximum efficiency s and safe operation 6 Inlet guide vane assembly • Trims compressor capacity and is digitally integrated With the variable-spee control. to optimize energy d Efficiency and compressor performance 6 .4 5 Compressor cooling • Liquid refrigerant flow is controlled electronically. cooling electronic.

1 5 2 3 6 4 6 8 7 9 10 .

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typically up to 500-60 amps 0 Experienced by traditional screw compressor in this tonnage range – truly s redefining soft starts 2 Variable frequency drive • IGBT (Insulate Gate Bipolar Transistor is an inverter d ) That converts a DC voltage into an adjustable three-phas AC voltage e • Signal from the motor/bearing controller determine the inverter output s frequency. voltage and phase. thereby regulating the motor speed converts mechanica energy back into electrical energy. l .11 Electrical Components 1 Soft start module • Significantl reduces high in-rush current at startup y • The startup inrush current is only 2 amps vs. In case of power failure.

it responds to changing conditions and requirements to ensure optimum system performance • Computes the required shaft position signalsthat control the magnetic bearings • Processe motor current information s to control motor speed 11 PWM amplifier • Supplies power to the electromagnetic bearings 5 .This patented control scheme allows for a normal deLevitation and shutdown 3 Three-phase terminal block • Connection point for primary power supply 4 Rectifier • Converts AC line power into a high-voltage DC power source for motor. to ensure rotor shaft levitation through Compressor coast down in the event of an external power loss 6 DC-DC converters • Supplies and electrically isolates the high and low DC voltages required for the control circuits Controls connection Network connection for external control and monitoring Bearing sensor feed through • Hermeticall sealed connection enabling the transfer y s of power to the electromagnetic bearings and shaft position and rotation signals to the control modules 7 8 1 2 3 9 10 Driver Board/EXV Control Compressor and bearing controller • Central processor of the compressor system • Continuousl updated with critical data from the y motor/bearing and external sensor that indicate the s compressor and chiller/rooftop package Operating status • Software enabled. along with motor rotation. bearings and control operations 5 Capacitors • Energy storage and filter for smooth DC voltage • Provide power to the magnetic bearings.

8 11 .

. were introduced to the HVAC industry.THE BEARINGS Traditional centrifugal compressors use roller bearings and hydrodynamic bearings. The lubrication of these bearings is provided by the refrigerant itself. which avoid issues related to oil and reduce power consumption. The TT300 compressor’s onboard digital electronics manage operation while providing external control and Web-enabled access to a full array of performance and reliability information. Recently. ceramic roller bearings. both of which consume power and require oil and a lubrication system.

When the magnetic bearings are energized. As the levitated assembly moves from the center point.Magnetic-bearing technology is significantly different. A digitally controlled magnetic-bearing system. replaces conventional lubricated bearings. which are keyed directly to the magnetic shaft. FIGURE 1. The frictionless compressor shaft is the compressor’s only moving component. . Magnetic bearings—two radial and one axial— hold the shaft in position (Figure 2). the electromagnets’ intensity is adjusted to correct the position. while digitally controlled electromagnets provide the fine positioning. the motor and impellers. The software has been designed to automatically compensate for any out-of-balance condition in the levitated assembly. Four positioning signals per bearing hold the levitated assembly to a tolerance of 0.00002 in. Electromagnetic cushions continually change in field strength to keep the rotor shaft centrally positioned. Permanent-magnetic bearings do the primary work. These adjustments Occur 6 million times a minute. levitate. consisting of both permanent magnets and electromagnets. It rotates on a levitated magnetic cushion (Figure 1).

Only a very small amount of oil is required to lubricate other system components. Most air-cooled products (including chillers. But with magnetic bearings. however. Coolers. If the magnetic bearings fail. radially located touchdown bearings. The capacitors. this issue is avoided. sumps. heaters. such as seals and valves. The magnetic bearings normally position the rotor in the proper location. compressor-maintenance costs have been cut by more than 50 percent. This feature allows the compressor to see a power outage as a normal shutdown. particularly as it pertains to the lubrication of compressor bearings. OIL-FREE DESIGN Oil management. provide enough power to maintain levitation during coast down. in turn. The compressor uses capacitors to smooth ripples in the DC link in the motor drive. often. Most DX systems allow oil to travel through the refrigeration circuit .” using its angular momentum to create electricity (sometimes known as back EMF) and keeping the capacitors Charged during the brief coast down period.FIGURE 2. as well as the labor and time required to perform oil related Services. SHUTDOWNS AND POWER FAILURES When the compressor is not running. Reports indicate that for many installations. and condensing units) use DX evaporators. the shaft assembly rests on graphite-lined. rooftop units. and oil separators. is a critical issue in refrigeration system design. preventing contact between the rotor and other metallic surfaces. experience shows that even this small amount of oil is not needed. the touchdown bearings (also known as backup bearings) are used to prevent a compressor failure. allowing the motor rotor to stop and delevitate. Instantaneously after a power failure. the motor becomes a “generator. A digitally controlled magnetic-bearing system consisting of two radial and one axial bearing levitate the compressor’s rotor shaft and impellers during rotation. Avoiding oil-management systems means avoiding the capital cost of oil pumps.

Two-pole. In a flooded evaporator. Traditional induction motors of this size typicall are in the 92-percent efficienc range. An R-22 version is planned for retrofit applications. The compressor’s capacity ranges from 60 to 90 tons. consume power. and magnetic bearings. VSD. 60-Hz induction motors operate at approximately 3. Alternating current from the inverter energizes the armature windings. when refrigerant flow rates are reduced. a 75-ton compressor weighs 265 lb —about one-fifth the weight of a conventional compressor. Efficienc improvements stem from a combination of the centrifugal compressor. they create noise and vibration. These copper windings are bulky. While gears are a proven technology. and the bearings. A higher number of revolutions per minute can be obtained by increasing the frequency. This y y compressor’s permanent-magnet motor has an efficiencyof 96 to 97 percent. Induction motors have copper windings that. when alternating current is run through them. Magnetic bearings eliminate the need for these systems and oil management in general. compared with 500 to 600 amps for a traditional 75-ton. THE MOTOR Most hermetic compressors use induction motors cooled by either liquid or suction-gas refrigerant. the compressor has an extrem ely low startup in-rush current: le ss than 2 amps. avoiding long leads and allowing key electronic components to be refrigerant-cooled. The VSD varies the frequency between 300 and 800 Hz. the only required regular maintenance of the compressor is the quarterly tightening of the terminal screws.600 rpm. Complete service agreements and extended maintenance contracts can be provided by the manufacturer. the annual blowing off of dust and cleaning of the boards. Water-cooled chillers often use flooded evaporators. With the integration of the motor.and back to the compressor oil sump.000 rpm. the capacitors required for the g motor and drive can be us ed as a backup power source f or the b e a rin gs in the event of a power outage or emergency shutdown. and magnetic-bearin system. 460-v screw compressor with a cross-the-linestarter. This avoids a gear set. particularly at part load. so no specialcooling is required for the VFD or the motor. Efficienc is further y . even small amounts of oil can coat evaporator tubes and significantly diminish chiller performance. which provides a compressor-speed range from 18. efficienc is affected by the y Compressor isentropic efficienc (the efficienc of the wheels) the motor. The stator windings found conventional induction motors are replaced with a permanent-magnet rotor. and the changing of the capacitors every five years. y y . The use of permanent magnets instead of rotor windings makes the motor smaller and lighter than induction motors. permanent y magnet motor. create the magnetic fields that cause the motor to turn. Great care must be taken during design to provide oil return. Using magnetic-bearingtechnology. as a result. The motor and key electronic components are internally refrigerant cooled. The stator (excitation) and rotor (armature) change places. This can lead to an elaborate oil-recovery system. A variable-spee drive (VSD) is d required for the motor to operate. In fact. depending on the operating conditions. C A P A C IT Y D E F F IC IE N C Y AN Among the key parameters affecting performance are capacity (tons) and efficiency (kilowatts per ton). The VSD also acts as a soft starter. and require lubrication. The magnet-bearing compressor features a synchronous permanent-magnet brushless DC motor with a completely integrated variable-frequency drive (VFD). Within the compressor. Compressors that require higher shaft speeds tend to use gears. Plans call for that range to be extended to 150 tons water-coole and 115 tons air-cooled by the end d of 2004 with the use of R-134a refrigerant.000 to 48. adding size and weight to the compressor. The VSD is integrated into the compressor housing.

. The combination offlooded evaporated technology and oil free system has allowed very close approaches and. Conventional bearings can use as much as 10.4 COP). It provides diagnostic and performance information v through Mod.629 KW per ton (5. depending on the head relief. enhanced performance. which avoid the friction of rubbing parts associated with traditional oiled bearings. which further enhances part-load performance.cooled chillers. Tested in accordance with ARI Standard 550/59098.bus to the refrigeration system.375 KW per ton (9. C H IL L E A P P L IC A T IO N R The compressor manufacturer and a major chiller manufacturer teamed up to develop a line of ARIcertified water. while magnetic bearings re. or BACnet.6 COP) and an IPLV of 0. The compressor includes wheels tuned for water-cooledduty in the dual-compressor format.quire only 180 w. near the cube root of the shaft speed. Water Chilling Package Using the Vapor Compressio Cycle. A ll IPLVs are weighted for standard operating conditions and the time spent at those conditions. which then communicates to the building automation system through Modbus.enhanced with the use of magnetic bearings. d CONTROLS The new compressor effecti e ly is a computer. That amounts to 500 times less friction loss. Current development projects are expanding the range and duty of the compressor wheels and promise to offer even greater efficiencyfor water-coole and air-cooled duties and different capacities. The integrated VFD allows excellent part-load y performance as power consumption drops o ff.000 w. a 150-ton (nominal) chiller has a fulls n load performance of 0. which were expected to be introduced in January 2004. LonWorks. subsequentl .

primarily because of . When two magnetic-bearin compressors were g integrated into a chiller. and the noise occurs in the higher octave bands. Method o f Measurin Machine Sound within an Equipment Space g ry .6 2 9KW per ton (5.a 150-tonfrictionless to chiller has a full-loadperform ance 0.3 ft under ARI Standard 575-94. where it is easier to attenuate.6 C O P ) of and an IP L Vof 0 .3 7 5KW per ton (9. SO U N DAN D V IB R A T IO N Because the rotating assembl levitates. refrigerant-gasmovement through the compressor and the rest of the refrigeration system .F IG U R E3. sound levels are extremely low. The program compared an hourly analysis of a 150 ton frictionless chillers with that of a water cooled reciprocating chiller (Phoenix.. and New York to estimate operating costs and payback times.500 and to tree year payback (Table 1) .4 C O P ). such as those found with some screw compressors. There are no tonal issues. Chicago. M O D E L E D N E R G Y V IN G S E SA Chiller applications were modeled for Phoenix. Each city showed an annual energy saving of more than $4. Tampa. Chicago and Tampa) and a water cooled centrifugal chiller (New York). the sound pressure was 77 dBA at 3.there essentiall is no structure-borne vibration. A ccording A R I testing. Fla. The magnetic y y bearings create an air buffer that prevents the only major moving part the motor rotor from transmitting vibration to the structure Similarly.

And because there’s no oil to coat the heat transfer surfaces the unit’s high efficiency can be maintained over the lifetime of . discharge and economizer ports as conventional compressors It mounts in the standard way. Easy on the ears A sound level less than 70 dBA. with virtually no structure-borne vibration. 2. play” solution. Easy to work with Designed for HVACR applications by HVACR engineers the compressor is virtually a “plug-and. The outstanding efficiency of the compressor gives equipment manufacturers the option to offer the highest efficiency/lowes emissions cost effective performance in its tonnage range. It features the same standard suction. 3. and monitoring connection. eliminates the need for expensiveattenuation accessories. . t . Easy on product cost This frictionless magnetic bearing design needs no oil management system. the product.Advantages 1. It can use the same power wiring with a single control .

5. 6. Easy to handle 265 pounds (120 kg) is less than 20% of the weight of competitive compressors with an approximate 50% smaller footprint. Easy on energy The compressor enables chiller and rooftop manufacturers to achieve the necessar product efficiency y levels to meet and exceed ASHRA 90. . you can tap into this intelligence by using control outputs in various for including web-enabled monitoring and control. Easy to control Onboard digital electronics make the compressor “the compressor” with a brain.1 and the California Title 24 requirements for energy E efficiency. the compressor is totally self-correcting and incorporates a system of sophisticated self-diagnostics . environmentally responsible. monitoring and control. refrigerant. Easy refrigeran t choice Since the compressors are optimized for HFC -134a a well known.4. Outside. Inside. . 7.

Application 1 Water-cooled chiller applications 2 Rooftop and packaged system applications 3 Air-cooled chiller applications 4 Multiple compressor applications .

Patent 4875838.W. 10. (1996). (1978). D. Technical Centre Discusses oil-flooded screw compressors including a complete system flow diagram 9. and Green.References 1. ISBN 0-08-022722-8.H. ASME Press.S. Thermodynamics of Turbomachinery. J. Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. Ronald H. J: “Scroll-Type Machine with Axially Compliant Mounting. Utter. R.” U. 4. July 2005 6. Centrifugal Compressors A Strategy for Aerodynamic design and Analysis. R: “Scroll Machine Using Discharge Pressure For Axial Sealing... Patent 4522575. Screw Compressor Describes how screw compressors work and include photographs. Caillat. R. Dixon S. 2. 1989. (Editors) (2007). 3. Noria Corporation. Jr. Hubert: “Scroll Compressor With Orbiting Scroll Member Biased By Oil Pressure.S. 1988. and Hoefner.S. Bloch. Machinery Lubrication.J. 8th Edition. ISBN 0-7918-0093-8. Reciprocating Compressor Basics Adam Davis.L. H. Bush. . Tischer. ISBN 0-07-142294-3. (2000). J.P. 1985. ISBN 0-88415-525-0. Patent 4767293. Gulf Professional Publishing. Pergamon Press.. Aungier.” U. 11. Perry. 5. Operation and Maintenance.” U. Weatherston. Richardson. J. Reciprocating Compressors.. McGraw Hill. Third Edition. 8. Introduction to Industrial Compressed Air Systems 7. Fluid Mechanics.