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INTRODUCTION The emergence of Communicative Language Teaching approach which was
“motivated by the new science of sociolinguistics believes that communicative competence consists of more than the knowledge of the rule of grammar” (Thornbury, 2009). Communicative Language Approach suggests that communicative competence is a competence that “involves knowing how to use the grammar and the vocabulary of the language to achieve communicative goal and knowing how to do this in socially appropriate way” (Thornbury, 2009). The practice of teaching grammar is a vital section that must be taught because it actually interrelated with the other language skills teaching such as writing, reading, listening and speaking. So, without learning the rule that governs a language which is the grammar of that language is difficult. Therefore, there are many issues discussed concerning the most appropriate method or approach in teaching grammar. Until now, there are many researches and studies have been conducted in regards of the teaching of grammar in language classroom. There are claims that go against the use of traditional approach in grammar teaching such as by Halphin. Halphin, an academician at the University of York stated that teachers are actually “wasting their time explaining the meaning of nouns, verbs and pronouns to pupils as part of the national literacy strategy in primary schools.”, (Halpin, 2005). This statement shows that the traditional way of teaching grammar that emphasizes too much on the part of speech, the meaning and the function is a waste of time and less effective for the empowerment of students’ communicative competence. In this case, there are two different views that look at this issue. One view claims that traditional language teaching in no longer relevant and another view claims that it is still relevant. However, the teaching must be suitable with the types of the learner and the situation. In relation to the second claim, Halpin (2005) added that “I am not saying that
grammar is not interesting in its own right.” he said. “There will be better ways of teaching writing and our findings suggest that the teaching of sentence combining may be one of the more effective approaches. .” Therefore. This is because there are many claims that Communicative Language Teaching is the most suitable approach for the teaching and learning of second language acquisition. but there is no evidence over 100 years to show that there is a strong connection between the teaching of formal grammar and improvement in writing. this review will look into two major point which are. what is Communicative Language Teaching and the benefits of implementing Communicative Language Teaching in English as a Second Language Classroom.
. This approach has unified but broadly based on theoretical position about the nature of language and the nature of language learning and teaching (Brown. It is claimed that.1 COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING Communicative Language Teaching is best referred as an approach not method (Brown. but also because they need to use it in order to seek information. 2007). 2005). (Chitravelu. “the students will be put under situations where they are using the language not only to response to the teacher’s instructions. Brown (2000) listed four simple interconnected characteristics to define Communicative Language teaching which are. “Communicative Language Teaching has gradually become a teaching idea which has been confirmed by the language educators all over the world” (Zhong-Guo & Min-yan. For better understanding on Communicative Language Teaching. 2000). Sithamparam. give information and solve a problem” (Chitravelu. fluency and accuracy are seen as complementary but sometimes. & Choon. Due to that factor. classroom goals are focus on all components of communicative competence. the two schools of thought and task-based approach in Communicative Language Teaching must be known. Sithamparam. & Choon. many language practitioners change their approach of teaching grammar to this type of approach. In order to make sure that this aim is achievable.1. Communicative Language Teaching is aimed to get students “to use the language to communicate efficiently”. 2005). fluency may be more important than accuracy and communicative classroom students have to use language productively and receptively in unrehearsed context. 2000). As there are too many definitions of Communicative Language Teaching offered by many researchers. Since the existence of Communicative Language Teaching in early 1980s. two important chapters which are. language techniques are designed to engage learner in functional use of language for meaningful purpose.
or calling customer service for help. will be acquired unconsciously” (Thornbury. 1. Shallow-end is practiced through the learning of rules and then applies them in life like communication (Thornbury. According to Zhong-Guo & Minyan ( 2007). task based learning is a very essential way in promoting Communicative Language Teaching in the classroom. This is because the students basically learn to communicate through the communicating. it is believed that in Communicative Language Teaching actually promotes the students more on the fluency . deductive approach of teaching is selected because deductive teaching focuses on the rule first. The two ways of approaches are through the shallow-end approach and the deep-end approach. 2009). This is to say that. There are two main focuses in Communicative Language Teaching which are accuracy and fluency. deep-end approach takes an experiential view of learning (Thornbury. “task based teaching is an important way of Communicative Language Teaching in which the original impetus for task-based teaching comes from Bangalore Project. in order to promote Communicative Language Teaching. Such tasks can include interesting activities such as meting a counselor.1. In aiming for accuracy. Both focuses have their own target that relate to Communicative Language Teaching.1 THE TWO SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT Two schools of thought have emerge as the best means to promote Communicative language Teaching. These two approaches are the sub-approaches that lie under communicative approach which is considered as the best means to achieve the objective of Communicative Learning Teaching practices. Both emphasize on the putting the language to the communicative use but they are different in the matter of when we should use this. conducting an interview with relative. 2009).1. In contrast.1. However.2 TASK BASED INSTRUCTION Task-based instruction is also known as task-based learning focuses on the use of authentic language by asking students to do meaningful task using target language. which acted both against the traditional form of English as a Foreign language used in India and the type of communicative language teaching then practiced”. 2009). It has been said that by “means of activities that engage the learner in life-like communication.
Inductive teaching is the appropriate practice in order to incorporate better Communicative Language Teaching instructions inside the language classroom.and the usage of the language first without focusing on the rule and concept because Fluency is a skill which uses the ability to process language speedily and easily” (Thornbury. 2009).2 THE BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTING COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE CLASSROOM . 1. Therefore.
Communicative Competence deals with the ability of the learner on how “to use the grammar and vocabulary of the language to achieve communicative goals. Students are required to participate in the listening and reading activities to observe and understand the structure and function of the grammar. It means that. ZhongGuo and Min-yan (2007) suggested that the relationship between grammar competence and communicative competencies that between “absorbing” and “practicing”.2. That is to say that. It is believed that Communicative Language Teaching provides learners to real situations of the usage of language because it promotes the learners to learn through their own discovery with guidance from the teacher. but appropriately based on the situation. he further added that grammar will be acquired virtually and unconsciously by means of activities that engage the learners in life-like communication”. In fact. it is actually every learner’s goal to achieve communicative competence in order to become an advance user of the targeted language or a competent user at least so that the learners will be able to use the targeted language not only in the correct form. 1. the teacher’s role will be more like a facilitator who facilitates the students through . it is discovered that there are many benefits that both teachers and students can gain from the implementation on Communicative Language Teaching in English as a Second Language classroom. By promoting Co-operative learning in Communicative Language Teaching.1 COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING As what has been suggested by Thornbury (2009). deep-end approach proponents take this way of learning based on Communicative Language Teaching by experiential learning where the students learn to communicate by communicating. 2009). (Thornbury. Therefore. the objective mentioned above can be achieved as the learners will actually learn the language in the ‘life-like’ situation where in co-operative learning. and knowing how to do this in a socially appropriate way”. (Thornbury. students will be able to attentively involve in ‘real situations’ made by the teacher during the class because Communicative Language Teaching and Communicative Competence theory are interrelated thus providing the students towards preparation in learning and acquiring the targeted language proficiently. 2009).
Reflecting on Communicative Language Teaching and grammar teaching. The students are allowed to practice and help each other during the lesson and that is how the ‘life-like’ situation can be created in Communicative Language Teaching classes when the learners communicate among one another using the targeted language with guidance and assistance from the teacher. “with a specific instruction method or environment.activities conducted. Volume 1. competency-based. varied in methodology and not always constrained by time or place”. audio. it is the teacher’s responsibility on how he or she will ensure that the instructions are effective and able to cater different learning styles especially when it involves Communicative Language Teaching as approach in teaching grammar. it ultimately provides a basis for learning throughout life. It therefore places the responsibility for learning on the student. This approach strives to be individualistic. and kinesthetic are some of the types that usually. It continues with the instructor evaluating the student's progress towards learning objectives.2 LEARNER-CENTRED CLASSROOM According to Arizona Board of Regence (2002). (Volume 1. some people will learn more effectively than others due to their individual learning style” (Gilbert & Swanier. By helping the student acquire the basic skills to learn.2. flexible. while the instructor assumes responsibility for facilitating the student’s education. “Teaching methods . 1.3 HOW DOES COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING CATER DIFFERENT LEARNING STYLES? There are several types of learning styles.2. Fall 2008). Fall 2008). It caters to all types of situation by enabling the teacher to always suit the content with the basis for ‘learning throughout life’ as what Arizona Board of Regence (2002) suggests. 1. “Learner-centred education places the student at the centre of education. It begins with understanding the educational contexts from which a student comes. Visual. Communicative Language Teaching provides all the elements in learnercentred classroom practices. Felder and Silverman stated as cited in Gilbet and Swanier.
4 CONCLUSION: TEACHING PRACTICE . Some instructors lecture. but also because they need to use it in order to seek information. Sithamparam. & Choon. Communicative Language Teaching is able to cater different types of learning styles because in Communicative Language Teaching. 1. Therefore. some emphasize memory and others understanding”.also vary. others demonstrate or lead students to self-discovery. (Chitravelu. Regardless of what type of learning styles the student has. 2005) for instance. “teacher usually put students in situations where they are using the language not merely in response to the teachers’ instructions. Therefore. Although Communicative Language Teaching focuses on the fluency or the practical part of the language. forms and rules are also integrated subconsciously as the students are learning via their own discovery and perhaps through their own style of learning. some focus on principles and others on applications. give information and solve a problem”. the teacher will have to be aware and creative in adjusting the Communicative Language Teaching lesson to ensure that it cater all students and the objective of the lesson is achieved by the end of the lesson. it is vital to realize that actually.
Bibliography . In applying this. in increasing the understanding level in English as a Second Language classroom. With large research regarding the Communicative Language Teaching. Some students may enjoy the teaching method where as some students may not. However. However. teachers must consider its practicality according to students’ learning style as well as students’ proficiency level. combining Communicative Language Teaching with other methods maybe a preferable option. they are aware of the need of accuracy in communication. teachers must be able to adapt to other possibilities of practicing it. the practice is proven to be effective. This should be taken into consideration and teachers must be aware of what suits students the most. This will benefit students to better comprehend to the language better. to gain the benefit of practicing Communicative Language Teaching. teachers can combine Communicative Language Teaching with the traditional Grammar-Translation Method in which students not only able to communicate in language learning but also at the same time.Being a language practitioner. For example. a teacher has to know how to utilize Communicative Language Teaching in the language classroom because Communicative Language Teaching provides wide range of advantages that could benefit the learners.
(2002). Shah Alam. Mustafa.mhhe. The Relationship Between Traditional English Grammar Teaching and Communicative Language Teaching. 62-65. Retrieved October 14.Arizona Boards of Regence..mhhe..ece Larsen-Freeman. Learning Styles: How Do They Fluctuate? Institute for Learning Styles Journal . J. How to teach grammar. (1997). (Volume 1. The Learner-Centered Curriculum: A study in second language teaching. Definition of Learner-Centered Education. T. N. Sithamparam. www. S. T.asu.. (2000). The English Teacher .html Nunan. P. 2010. D.abor. Tornbury. Fall 2007). 2010. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fall 2008). L. (Volume 1. .co. January 19). A. & Min-yan. Effects of Visual and Verbal Learning Styles on Learning. A. Pallapu. ELT Methodology Principles and Practice. & Choon. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of The University Of Cambridge. E.com. (2007). N. 34-39.timesonline. (2002. & Swanier.D. (2005). from Times Online: http://www.htm Brown. Great Clarenderon Street. Grouping in The ESL Classroom. C. (2001). Retrieved October 15. Institute for Learning Styles Journal . Techniques and principles in Language Teaching.edu/4_special_programs/lce/afc-defined_lce. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Pearson Education Chitravelu.com/socscience/foreignlang/conf/grammar. from Learner-Centered Education Website: http://www. from The McGraw-Hill Companies: http://www.uk/tol/news/uk/article414085. Selangor: Oxford Fajar Sdn Bhd. (2009).. Times Online: News. New York. S. S. August). Oxfordshire. Retrieved October 20. D. 2010. Zhong-Guo. (2002). S. Gilbert. Musumeci. Halpin. H. UK: Longman. 29-40. (2005. D. US-China Education Review .
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