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INTRODUCTION The emergence of Communicative Language Teaching approach which was
“motivated by the new science of sociolinguistics believes that communicative competence consists of more than the knowledge of the rule of grammar” (Thornbury, 2009). Communicative Language Approach suggests that communicative competence is a competence that “involves knowing how to use the grammar and the vocabulary of the language to achieve communicative goal and knowing how to do this in socially appropriate way” (Thornbury, 2009). The practice of teaching grammar is a vital section that must be taught because it actually interrelated with the other language skills teaching such as writing, reading, listening and speaking. So, without learning the rule that governs a language which is the grammar of that language is difficult. Therefore, there are many issues discussed concerning the most appropriate method or approach in teaching grammar. Until now, there are many researches and studies have been conducted in regards of the teaching of grammar in language classroom. There are claims that go against the use of traditional approach in grammar teaching such as by Halphin. Halphin, an academician at the University of York stated that teachers are actually “wasting their time explaining the meaning of nouns, verbs and pronouns to pupils as part of the national literacy strategy in primary schools.”, (Halpin, 2005). This statement shows that the traditional way of teaching grammar that emphasizes too much on the part of speech, the meaning and the function is a waste of time and less effective for the empowerment of students’ communicative competence. In this case, there are two different views that look at this issue. One view claims that traditional language teaching in no longer relevant and another view claims that it is still relevant. However, the teaching must be suitable with the types of the learner and the situation. In relation to the second claim, Halpin (2005) added that “I am not saying that
but there is no evidence over 100 years to show that there is a strong connection between the teaching of formal grammar and improvement in writing.” Therefore. This is because there are many claims that Communicative Language Teaching is the most suitable approach for the teaching and learning of second language acquisition. this review will look into two major point which are.” he said.grammar is not interesting in its own right. . what is Communicative Language Teaching and the benefits of implementing Communicative Language Teaching in English as a Second Language Classroom. “There will be better ways of teaching writing and our findings suggest that the teaching of sentence combining may be one of the more effective approaches.
& Choon. “Communicative Language Teaching has gradually become a teaching idea which has been confirmed by the language educators all over the world” (Zhong-Guo & Min-yan. . Due to that factor. two important chapters which are. give information and solve a problem” (Chitravelu. Sithamparam. & Choon. classroom goals are focus on all components of communicative competence.1. 2005).1 COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING Communicative Language Teaching is best referred as an approach not method (Brown. In order to make sure that this aim is achievable. many language practitioners change their approach of teaching grammar to this type of approach. It is claimed that. but also because they need to use it in order to seek information. (Chitravelu. language techniques are designed to engage learner in functional use of language for meaningful purpose. Sithamparam. 2005). Since the existence of Communicative Language Teaching in early 1980s. fluency may be more important than accuracy and communicative classroom students have to use language productively and receptively in unrehearsed context. “the students will be put under situations where they are using the language not only to response to the teacher’s instructions. Communicative Language Teaching is aimed to get students “to use the language to communicate efficiently”. fluency and accuracy are seen as complementary but sometimes. For better understanding on Communicative Language Teaching. the two schools of thought and task-based approach in Communicative Language Teaching must be known. 2000). As there are too many definitions of Communicative Language Teaching offered by many researchers. Brown (2000) listed four simple interconnected characteristics to define Communicative Language teaching which are. 2007). 2000). This approach has unified but broadly based on theoretical position about the nature of language and the nature of language learning and teaching (Brown.
1. will be acquired unconsciously” (Thornbury. it is believed that in Communicative Language Teaching actually promotes the students more on the fluency . 2009). Shallow-end is practiced through the learning of rules and then applies them in life like communication (Thornbury. It has been said that by “means of activities that engage the learner in life-like communication. In contrast. According to Zhong-Guo & Minyan ( 2007). 2009). or calling customer service for help. conducting an interview with relative. This is because the students basically learn to communicate through the communicating. task based learning is a very essential way in promoting Communicative Language Teaching in the classroom. 1. The two ways of approaches are through the shallow-end approach and the deep-end approach. However. These two approaches are the sub-approaches that lie under communicative approach which is considered as the best means to achieve the objective of Communicative Learning Teaching practices. Both focuses have their own target that relate to Communicative Language Teaching. deep-end approach takes an experiential view of learning (Thornbury. This is to say that. “task based teaching is an important way of Communicative Language Teaching in which the original impetus for task-based teaching comes from Bangalore Project. Such tasks can include interesting activities such as meting a counselor. 2009). deductive approach of teaching is selected because deductive teaching focuses on the rule first. There are two main focuses in Communicative Language Teaching which are accuracy and fluency.1. which acted both against the traditional form of English as a Foreign language used in India and the type of communicative language teaching then practiced”.1 THE TWO SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT Two schools of thought have emerge as the best means to promote Communicative language Teaching. Both emphasize on the putting the language to the communicative use but they are different in the matter of when we should use this.1. In aiming for accuracy. in order to promote Communicative Language Teaching.2 TASK BASED INSTRUCTION Task-based instruction is also known as task-based learning focuses on the use of authentic language by asking students to do meaningful task using target language.
2 THE BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTING COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING IN ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE CLASSROOM . 1. Therefore.and the usage of the language first without focusing on the rule and concept because Fluency is a skill which uses the ability to process language speedily and easily” (Thornbury. 2009). Inductive teaching is the appropriate practice in order to incorporate better Communicative Language Teaching instructions inside the language classroom.
2. deep-end approach proponents take this way of learning based on Communicative Language Teaching by experiential learning where the students learn to communicate by communicating. (Thornbury. the teacher’s role will be more like a facilitator who facilitates the students through .1 COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING As what has been suggested by Thornbury (2009). It is believed that Communicative Language Teaching provides learners to real situations of the usage of language because it promotes the learners to learn through their own discovery with guidance from the teacher. Students are required to participate in the listening and reading activities to observe and understand the structure and function of the grammar.Communicative Competence deals with the ability of the learner on how “to use the grammar and vocabulary of the language to achieve communicative goals. ZhongGuo and Min-yan (2007) suggested that the relationship between grammar competence and communicative competencies that between “absorbing” and “practicing”. he further added that grammar will be acquired virtually and unconsciously by means of activities that engage the learners in life-like communication”. By promoting Co-operative learning in Communicative Language Teaching. In fact. it is actually every learner’s goal to achieve communicative competence in order to become an advance user of the targeted language or a competent user at least so that the learners will be able to use the targeted language not only in the correct form. (Thornbury. Therefore. 2009). It means that. it is discovered that there are many benefits that both teachers and students can gain from the implementation on Communicative Language Teaching in English as a Second Language classroom. the objective mentioned above can be achieved as the learners will actually learn the language in the ‘life-like’ situation where in co-operative learning. students will be able to attentively involve in ‘real situations’ made by the teacher during the class because Communicative Language Teaching and Communicative Competence theory are interrelated thus providing the students towards preparation in learning and acquiring the targeted language proficiently. but appropriately based on the situation. 1. That is to say that. and knowing how to do this in a socially appropriate way”. 2009).
some people will learn more effectively than others due to their individual learning style” (Gilbert & Swanier. “Learner-centred education places the student at the centre of education. it ultimately provides a basis for learning throughout life.3 HOW DOES COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING CATER DIFFERENT LEARNING STYLES? There are several types of learning styles. It continues with the instructor evaluating the student's progress towards learning objectives.2.2 LEARNER-CENTRED CLASSROOM According to Arizona Board of Regence (2002). and kinesthetic are some of the types that usually. “Teaching methods .activities conducted. varied in methodology and not always constrained by time or place”. “with a specific instruction method or environment. (Volume 1. 1. competency-based. The students are allowed to practice and help each other during the lesson and that is how the ‘life-like’ situation can be created in Communicative Language Teaching classes when the learners communicate among one another using the targeted language with guidance and assistance from the teacher. Fall 2008). This approach strives to be individualistic. Volume 1. 1. Visual. By helping the student acquire the basic skills to learn. flexible. Communicative Language Teaching provides all the elements in learnercentred classroom practices. It begins with understanding the educational contexts from which a student comes. Felder and Silverman stated as cited in Gilbet and Swanier. Reflecting on Communicative Language Teaching and grammar teaching. Fall 2008). It caters to all types of situation by enabling the teacher to always suit the content with the basis for ‘learning throughout life’ as what Arizona Board of Regence (2002) suggests. It therefore places the responsibility for learning on the student. while the instructor assumes responsibility for facilitating the student’s education.2. it is the teacher’s responsibility on how he or she will ensure that the instructions are effective and able to cater different learning styles especially when it involves Communicative Language Teaching as approach in teaching grammar. audio.
4 CONCLUSION: TEACHING PRACTICE . give information and solve a problem”. Sithamparam. Some instructors lecture. 2005) for instance. Regardless of what type of learning styles the student has. but also because they need to use it in order to seek information. & Choon. others demonstrate or lead students to self-discovery. the teacher will have to be aware and creative in adjusting the Communicative Language Teaching lesson to ensure that it cater all students and the objective of the lesson is achieved by the end of the lesson.also vary. Communicative Language Teaching is able to cater different types of learning styles because in Communicative Language Teaching. forms and rules are also integrated subconsciously as the students are learning via their own discovery and perhaps through their own style of learning. some focus on principles and others on applications. some emphasize memory and others understanding”. “teacher usually put students in situations where they are using the language not merely in response to the teachers’ instructions. Therefore. Therefore. it is vital to realize that actually. Although Communicative Language Teaching focuses on the fluency or the practical part of the language. 1. (Chitravelu.
Being a language practitioner. they are aware of the need of accuracy in communication. a teacher has to know how to utilize Communicative Language Teaching in the language classroom because Communicative Language Teaching provides wide range of advantages that could benefit the learners. to gain the benefit of practicing Communicative Language Teaching. teachers must consider its practicality according to students’ learning style as well as students’ proficiency level. teachers must be able to adapt to other possibilities of practicing it. For example. Bibliography . However. combining Communicative Language Teaching with other methods maybe a preferable option. However. Some students may enjoy the teaching method where as some students may not. This will benefit students to better comprehend to the language better. With large research regarding the Communicative Language Teaching. in increasing the understanding level in English as a Second Language classroom. This should be taken into consideration and teachers must be aware of what suits students the most. In applying this. teachers can combine Communicative Language Teaching with the traditional Grammar-Translation Method in which students not only able to communicate in language learning but also at the same time. the practice is proven to be effective.
D. www. Learning Styles: How Do They Fluctuate? Institute for Learning Styles Journal . Definition of Learner-Centered Education.uk/tol/news/uk/article414085.asu. L.mhhe. Selangor: Oxford Fajar Sdn Bhd. 2010. Retrieved October 15. Fall 2008).com/socscience/foreignlang/conf/grammar. N.D. D. Zhong-Guo. Oxfordshire.timesonline. (Volume 1.mhhe. & Swanier. Halpin.com. Times Online: News. 2010. ELT Methodology Principles and Practice. The English Teacher . Gilbert. 62-65.. S. Mustafa. 34-39. (2000). S. Fall 2007). from The McGraw-Hill Companies: http://www. UK: Longman. A.. . S. (2009). & Choon. Grouping in The ESL Classroom. & Min-yan. (1997). Shah Alam. How to teach grammar. (Volume 1. Effects of Visual and Verbal Learning Styles on Learning. New York. (2002. August). C. The Learner-Centered Curriculum: A study in second language teaching. The Relationship Between Traditional English Grammar Teaching and Communicative Language Teaching. (2002). Pallapu. T. 2010.Arizona Boards of Regence. from Times Online: http://www. S.htm Brown. Retrieved October 20. (2002). H. Techniques and principles in Language Teaching. Retrieved October 14. (2007).html Nunan. January 19). D. A. Musumeci. Cambridge: The Press Syndicate of The University Of Cambridge. Great Clarenderon Street.. (2005. Pearson Education Chitravelu. Sithamparam.. (2001). T. US-China Education Review . Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. 29-40. Oxford: Oxford University Press. P.ece Larsen-Freeman. E.co. (2005). J. Tornbury. from Learner-Centered Education Website: http://www. N.edu/4_special_programs/lce/afc-defined_lce.abor. Institute for Learning Styles Journal .
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