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transport. 2)The Railways is divided into zones,which is sub-divided into divisions .3)There are total 16 zones,and each zone is headed by a GM who reports directly to the Railway Board. 4)The zones are further divided into divisions headed by DRM¶s.
y 5)The East central Railway is one of the 16 Railway
zones. y 6)It is headquartered at Hajipur and comprises of Sonpur,Samastipur,Danapur,Mugalsarai and Dhanbad divisions. y 7)This zone came into existence on 8th September,1996.
y Signalling is one of the most important aspects of Railway Communication. y In the early days there was no fixed system of signalling. y Earlier systems used Time Interval Technique. y In the Mid 19th century Mechanical Interlocking came into existence. y However,the most interlocking is SSI.
y It s first trial installation was provided at Srirangam station in 1987.
.or y The interlocking has to be designed to protect the operator from inadvertently sending trains along conflicting routes. is therefore Interlocking. y However.distribution of trains and other signalling equipment.so a control panel displays the current status of signals. the network can be operated with more security if the operators have a broad overview about the distribution of trains.SOLID STATE INTERLOCKING y Train drivers know little of the overall topology of the network through which they pass. y Safety invested in the Control system.
OPERATION OF SOLID STATE INTERLOCKING .
y There are seven main signals shown here.then pressing the button at the exit signal-the consecutive main signal. When the computer receives a panel request it evaluates the availability conditions. The operator can select a route by pressing the button at the entrance signal(say s7). This sequence of events is interpreted as a panel route request and is forwarded to the controlling computer for evaluation. These conditions are known as Geographic Data. If these conditions are met the system responds by highlighting the track sections along the selected route on display.being the entrance signal for the next route(s5).and three sets of y y y y y points. .
that the filaments in the signal lamps are drawing current. y A driver approaching the signal will see it change from red to green or yellow. y Secondly. .the route must be proved. y This includes checking that the points are correctly aligned.the entrance signal can be switched off.y At this point the route is said to be locked. y Once the route is locked the interlocking will automatically set the route.and that signals controlling conflicting routes are on(i.this involves calling the points along the route into correct alignment. y Firstly.e red) y Finally.
y Thereafter. The operation of SSI follows polling cycle. During this period the controlling computer will exchange messages with each piece of signalling equipment to which it is attached. .an indicator on the control panel will be y y y y illuminated to notify the operators. Signalling equipment is interfaced with SSI through Track-side functional modules. A points module will report whether the switch is detected normal or reverse.
y Track circuits are identified with the help of track sections.TSR modules report the current positions of trains.y Other than conveying status information about points and signals. . y If the low voltage applied across the rails can be detected.this indicates there is no train in the section y Atrain entering the section will short the circuit causing the voltage to drop and the track section will be recorded as occupied at the control centre.
OVERALL SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE .
y The central interlocking processors are responsible for executing all signalling commands and producing correct system outputs.a diagnostic processor.and other systems.and three central interlocking processors.y SSI is a multicomputer system y It consists of two panel processors. .the display. y The panel processors are responsible for tasks which are not safety critical such as interfacing with the signal control panel. y The diagnostic processor is accessible from a maintainence terminal through which the system s performance and fault status can be monitored.
y A maximun of 63 tfm s can be connected to one SSI. y In each minor cycle the central interlocking will decode one incoming message(data telegram) from data highway.y The operation of SSI is organised around the concept of a major cycle. y During this period the central interlocking will address each of the TFM s. . y The major cycle is divided into 64 minor cycles. y The cable used is screened twisted pair.and expect a reply from each in turn.and process one outgoing command telegram.
y Motorola 6800 microprocessors used in SSI have a 16bit address space. y Due to this reason generic software is known as the control interpreter . .GENERIC SSI SOFTWARE y SSI has been designed to be data driven with a generic program operating on rules held in a geographic database . y The relationship between generic program and the data is one in which the former acts as an interpreter for the latter.
which is about 20 kbytes and the Geographic Data. y The RAM is used to hold the system s record of the state of railway-generally referred to as the image of railway or the internal state. . y The SSI is organised on a cyclic basis with the major cycle determining the rate at which track side equipment receives fresh command.y 60-80 kbytes are EPROM which hold the generic program.and the rest is used for I/P and O/P devices. y 2 kbytes are RAM.
and minimum major cycle time 0f 608 ms. y The initialization software compares the internal state of each of the three interlocking processors. . y The minor cycle has a minimum duration of 9.self-test and error recovery procedures.5 ms.y The minor cycle performs all redundancy management.
y It is constructed of a transparent core made of nearly pure Sio2.through which light travels. .guiding the light along the core. y The core is surrounded by a cladding layer that reflects light.OPTICAL FIBRE COMMUNICATION y In order to achieve a large information capacity with a wide system bandwidth which can support a high data bit rate optical fibre came into being. y Since its advent optical fibres have increasingly replaced copper cables for LAN.
BASIC STRUCTURE OF OPTICAL FIBRE .
Singlemode is used for intercity cabling and highest speed. There are two types of fibre-singlemode and multimode. Multimode is used for short distances and has a core diameter of 50 to 100 microns. An outer sheath of plastic or Teflon is used for protection.with a core diameter of less than 10 microns. .y A plastic coating covers the cladding to protect the y y y y glass surface.
OPERATION OF OPTICAL FIBRE .
a refracted ray is one that is refracted from the core into the cladding. y As the cladding does not absorb any light from the core. y The light in an optical-fibre cable travels through the core by constantly bouncing from the cladding following the principle of total internal reflection.the refractive index of the core must be slightly higher than that of the cladding.the light wave can travel can travel great distances.y In an optical fibre. . y For the fibre to guide the optical signal.
y Optical Regenerator-it consists of optical fibres with a special coating(doping). y Optical fibre-it conducts the light signals over a distance. y When the degraded signal comes into the doped coating. .The doped portion is pumped with a laser.the energy from the laser allows the doped molecules to become laser themselves.FIBRE-OPTIC RELAY SYSTEM y A fibre-optic relay system consists ofy Transmitter-it receives and directs the optical device to turn the light on and off in correct sequence.
stronger light signal with the same characteristics as the incoming weak light signal. .y The doped molecules then emit a new. y Optical Receiver-It takes the incoming digital light signals.the regenerator is a laser amplifier for the incoming signal.tv or telephone. y The receiver uses a photocell or photodiode to detect the light. y Thus.decodes them and sends the electrical signal to the other user s computer.
y Can be used as sensors to measure strain. y In some high-tech buildings.optical fibre are used to route sunlight from the roof to other parts of the building.APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL FIBRE y Fibres can be used as light guides in medical and other applications. y Used in endoscopes to view objects through a small hole. .temperature.pressure and other parameters.
MICROWAVE COMMUNICATION .
y The chief method of relaying long-distance calls on land is microwave radio transmission.y The international telecommunications system relies on microwave and satellite links for long-distance international calls. y The drawback of long-distance voice communications via microwave radio transmission is that the transmissions follow a straight line from tower to tower.so that over the sea the system becomes impracticable. .
y Thus geostationary satellites(syncoms) came into existence.telephony and television transmissions are carried simultaneously by high-frequency radio waves. .was Syncoms 2 in July 1963.y The solution was proposed by Arthur C Clarke. y Many such satellites are now in use concentrated over heavy traffic areas such as the Atlantic. y Telegraphy. y The first to be successfully launched.by Delta rocket from Cape Canaveral.Pacific oceans.Indian.
A GENERAL MICROWAVE SETUP .
y Vacuum tube devices operate on the ballistic motion of electrons in a vacuum under the influence of controlling electric or magnetic fields and include magnetron. y Solid state devices are based on semiconductors such as silicon & include FET s and BJT s.TWT and gyrotron. .klystron.GENERATION OF MICROWAVE SIGNALS y Microwaves can be generated by a variety of means. y Solid state devices and vacuum-tube based devices.generally divided into two categories.
USES OF MICROWAVE SIGNALS y Used for cooking food. y Wireless LAN protocols.11g specification also use microwaves in the 2. y Used in communication satellite transmissions because microwaves pass easily through the earth s atmosphere with less interference than longer wavelengths.4 GHz ISM band. .such as Bluetooth and the IEEE 802. y Used in Radar.
NETWORKING SYSTEM OF RAILWAYS y PRS-Passenger Reservation System y This is the full proof Reservation system used by Railways.Mumbai and Chennai.New Delhi. . y To facilitate hassle free reservation Indian Railway has divided the entire network into 5 hubsSecunderabad.Kolkata. y UTS-Un-Reserved Ticketing System y UTS is the complete solutin to provide computerized unreserved tickets to railway passengers.
y ICMS-Integrated Coach Management System y COAS-Control Office Application System y It is concerned with the controlling of train movement.y FOIS-Freight Operations Information System. . y CMS-Crew Management System y It is aimed at providing information regarding the main line crew at all times.
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