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FORMULE TRIGONOMETRICE

0 CI π C II π C III 3π C IV 2π
2 2
sin x 0 + 1 + 0 - -1 - 0
cos x 1 + 0 - -1 - 0 + 1
tg x 0 + ∞|− ∞ - 0 + ∞|− ∞ - 0
ctg x |∞ + 0 - − ∞|∞ + 0 - −∞|

π π π ⎛π ⎞ Formula fundamentala:
sin x sin ⎜ − x ⎟ =cosx
tgx=
cos x 6 4 3 ⎝2 ⎠ sin 2 x+cos 2 x=1
cos x sin 1 2 3 ⎛π ⎞
ctgx= cos ⎜ − x ⎟ =sinx
sin x 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠
1 cos 3 2 1 ⎛ π ⎞
tgx= tg ⎜ − x ⎟ =ctgx
ctx 2 2 2 ⎝2 ⎠
1 tg 1
ctgx= 3 3 ⎛π ⎞
tgx ctgx ⎜ − x ⎟ =tgx
3 ⎝2 ⎠
1 ctg 1
secx= 3 3
cos x
1 3
cosecx=
sin x
Formule provenite din formula fundamentala:
1
cos 2 x=1- sin 2 x sin 2 x=1- cos 2 x tg 2 x sin 2 x=
2
sin x= 1 + ctg 2 x
sin 2 x 1 − cos 2 x 1 + tg 2 x
tg 2 x= tg 2 x= ctg 2 x
1 − sin 2 x cos 2 x 1 cos 2 x=
cos 2 x= 1 + ctg 2 x
1 − sin 2 x cos 2 x 1 + tg 2 x
ctg 2 x= ctg 2 x= 1
sin 2 x 1 − cos 2 x 1 tg 2 x=
ctg 2 x= 2 ctg 2 x
tg x
Funcţii trigonometrice:
f: → [-1,1], f(x) = sinx f:[-1,1] → , f(x)= arcsin x
f: → [-1,1], f(x) = cosx f:[-1,1] → , f(x)= arccos x
⎧π ⎫ π π
f: \ ⎨ + kπ / k ∈ Z ⎬ → , f(x) =tgx f: ⎛⎜ − ; ⎞⎟ → , f(x)= arctg x
⎩2 ⎭ ⎝ 2 2⎠
f: \ {kπ / k ∈ Z } → , f(x)= ctgx f: (0; π ) → , f(x)= arcctg x

Paritatea si imparitatea functiilor trigonometrice: sin(-x) = - sinx arcsin(-x)= -arcsin x


cos(-x) = cosx arccos(-x)= π -arccos x
π π tg(-x) = - tgx arctg(-x)= -arctg x
x ∈ ⎡⎢ − , ⎤⎥ ⇒ arcsin(sinx)=x
⎣ 2 2⎦ ctg(-x) = - ctgx arcctg(-x)= π -arcctg x
⎡ π π⎤
x ∈ ⎢ − , ⎥ ⇒ arccos(cosx)=x Periodicitatea functiilor
⎣ 2 2⎦ x ∈ [-1, 1] ⇒ sin(arcsinx)=x trigonometrice:
π π x ∈ [-1, 1] ⇒ cos(arccosx)=x
x ∈ ⎛⎜ − ; ⎞⎟ ⇒ arctg(tgx)=x sin(x+2k π ) = sinx
⎝ 2 2⎠ x ∈ ⇒ tg(arctgx)=x
x ∈ ⇒ ctg(arcctgx)=x cos(x+2k π ) = cosx
x ∈ (0; π ) ⇒ arcctg(ctgx)=x
tg(x+k π ) = tgx
ctg(x+k π ) = ctgx,
Formule trignometrice 1 k∈ Z
Reducerea la primul cadran: Deplasarea in punctul diametral opus:
x ∈ C II : x ∈ C III : x ∈ C IV : x∈ :
sinx=sin( π - x) sinx = - sin(x - π ) sinx = - sin(2 π - x) sin(x - π ) =sin(x+ π ) = - sinx
cosx= - cos( π - x) cosx = - cos(x - π cosx = cos(2 π - x) cos(x - π ) = cos(x+ π ) = - cosx
tgx = - tg( π - x) ) tgx = - tg(2 π - x) tg(x - π ) = tg(x+ π ) = tgx
ctgx = - ctg( π - x) tgx = tg(x - π ) ctgx = - ctg (2 π - x) ctg(x - π ) = ctg(x+ π ) = ctgx

sin(x+y) = sinxcosy + cosxsiny sin(x-y) = sinxcosy – cosxsiny sin2x = 2sinxcosx


cos(x+y) = cosxcosy – sinxsiny cos(x-y) = cosxcosy + sinxsiny cos2x = cos 2 x-sin 2 x =
tgx + tgy tgx − tgy =2cos 2 x – 1 =
tg(x+y) = tg(x-y) =
1 − tgxtgy 1 + tgxtgy = 1 – 2sin 2 x
ctgx ⋅ ctgy − 1 − ctgxctgy − 1 2tgx
ctg(x+y) = ctg(x-y) = tg2x =
ctx + ctgy ctgx − ctgy 1 − tg 2 x
ctg 2 x − 1
x 1 − cos x ctg2x =
sin 2 = 2ctgx
2 2
x 1 + cos x x
cos 2 = cosx-1 = - 2sin 2 sin3x = 3sinx – 4sin 3 x
2 2 2
cos3x = - 3cosx + 4cos 3 x
x 1 − cos x x
tg 2 = cosx+1 = 2cos 2 3tgx − tg 3 x
2 1 + cos x 2 tg3x =
x 1 + cos x 1 − 3tg 2 x
ctg 2 = ctg 3 x − 3ctgx
2 1 − cos x ctg3x =
3ctg 2 x − 1
Transformarea produselor in sume: Transformarea sumelor in produse: Substitutia
universala:
cos( x + y ) + cos( x − y ) x+ y x− y
cosx cosy = sinx+siny = 2sin cos x
2 2 2 t = tg ⇒
sin( x + y ) + sin( x − y ) x+ y x− y 2
sinx cosy = sinx-siny = 2cos sin 2t
2 2 2 sinx =
cos( x − y ) − cos( x + y ) x+ y x− y 1+ t2
sinx siny = cosx+cosy = 2cos cos
2 2 2 1− t2
cosx =
x+ y x− y 1+ t2
cosx-cosy = - 2sin sin
x ± y 2 2 2t
arctg x ± arctg y = arctg tgx =
1 m xy sin( x + y ) sin( x − y ) 1− t2
tgx+tgy = ; tgx-tgy =
Functiile trigonometrice:
cos x cos y cos x cos y 1− t2
Ecuatii trigonometrice: ctgx =
2t
sinx = a, a ∈ [-1, 1] ⇒ x = (-1) k arcsin a + k π , k ∈ Z π
arcsin x +arccos x =
cosx = a, a ∈ [-1, 1] ⇒ x = ± arccos a + 2k π , k ∈ Z 2
tgx = a, a ∈ R ⇒ x = arctg a + k π , k ∈ Z π
arctg x +arcctg x =
ctgx = a, a ∈ R ⇒ x = arcctg a+ k π , k ∈ Z 2

sinx = sina, a ∈ R ⇒ x = (-1) k a + k π , k ∈ Z sinx = 0 ⇒ x = k π , k ∈ Z


cosx = cosa, a ∈ R ⇒ x = ± a + 2k π , k ∈ Z π
cosx = 0 ⇒ x = + kπ , k ∈ Z
⎧π ⎫ 2
tgx = tga, a ∈ R\ ⎨ + kπ / k ∈ Z ⎬ ⇒ x = a+k π , k ∈ Z tgx = 0 ⇒ x = k π , k ∈ Z
⎩2 ⎭
π
ctgx = ctgx, a ∈ R\ {kπ / k ∈ Z } ⇒ x = a+k π , k ∈ Z ctgx = 0 ⇒ x = + kπ , k ∈ Z
Formule trignometrice 2 2