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Yap, Mary Christine You
Carboxylic acids are mainly organic compounds containing at least one carboxyl group. Its general formula is represented by the formula R-COOH. Its derivatives, on the other hand, is defined as organic compounds containing a carbonyl group with an electronegative atom (oxygen, nitrogen or halogen) attached to the carbonyl carbon. Among these carboxylic acid derivatives, acyl halides are the most reactive and amides the least. Reactions of carboxylic acides also yield esters, salts and acyl chlorides. The experiment done is to test whether the substance is positive for carboxylic acid and derivatives. The reagents used are acyl chloride representing acyl halides; acetic anhydride representing acid anhydrides; ethyl acetate representing esters and acetanamide and benzamide representing amides. Specific tests were performed to specific compounds. Yielding a positive results indicate the presence of the carboxylic acid group.
Carboxylic acids derivatives are simply groups of compounds that contain a carbonyl group but with an electronegative atom attached to the carbon. The difference in the structure leads to a major change in reactivity. The reactions of these groups of compounds involve nucleophilic substitution. Although there are abundant kinds of carboxylic acid derivatives, the experiment only focuses on the common ones: acid halides, acid anhydrides, esters and amides. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives are usually seen in industrial processes and most biological pathways. Esters can be seen as fats and within the cell membrane. Esters are also present in pleasant smelling liquids that are responsible with the fragrant odor of fruits and flowers. Amides are also present in animal protein and also in industrial products such as nylon. Acid chlorides and acid anhydrides are used in the synthesis of carboxylic derivatives. These are not usually found in nature because of its high reactivity property. One property of carboxylic acids is that they are acidic. Because of these, carboxylic acids are mostly made to react with bases such as NaOH to yield a water soluble metal carboxylates. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives react with nucleophiles which yields a formation of alcohol. The initially formed intermediate product expels one of its substituents which is originally bonded to the carbonyl carbon forming a new carbonyl compound. The reaction is called nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction. The procedure for acyl halides, acid anhydrides, esters and amides is hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is simply the reaction with water to yield a carboxylic acid. Also for acetyl chloride is alcoholysis: Schotten-Bauman Reaction. It is the reaction with an alcohol to yield an ester. The alcohol used here was ethanol. Again for acetyl chloride and acetic anhydride, the reaction used
was aminolysis: anilide formation. Aminolysis is the reaction with ammonia or amine to yield an amide. In this case, aniline was the ammonia and anilide, an amide, was produced. Hydroxamic acis test was used for ethyl acetate and acetamide. Through this experiment, students are able to visualize, through the different reactions, the necleophilic acyl substitution reaction for carboxylic acids and it derivatives. The different classification tests for such are also observed.
A. Hydrolysis of Acid Derivatives Acyl halides and Acid anhydrides 1 ml of water was placed in a test tube. 10 drops of the sample, in this case acetyl chloride and acetic anhydride, was added in a drop wise manner. A warming effect was noted. The first resulting mixture was divided into two portions. To the 1st, 1 ml of 2% AgNO3 was added. Precipitation was observed. To the second mixture, 1 ml of saturated NaHCO3 was added. An evolution of gas was observed. Esters 2ml of 25% NaOH solution was added to 1 ml of ethyl acetate. The mouth of the test tube was covered and the test tube was heated in a boiling water bath for about 5 minutes. The mixture was then neutralized with 10% HCL solution. With a wafting motion, the odor of the solution was noted. Amides 1ml of benzamide was treated with 5ml of 10% NaOH solution. The solution was then heated to boiling. While heating, the test for the reaction of gas evolution was done by holding a piece of moist red litmus paper over the heated test tube. B. Alcoholysis: Schotten-Baumann Reaction A mixture of 10 drops of acetic acid, 1ml ethanol and 5 drops of conc. was warmed over a water bath for 2 minutes. The odor of the ester formed was noted.
1 ml of 95% ethanol and 1M HCL. another test was conducted as follows: 2 drops of the sample was added to 2ml of alcoholic NH2OH HCL and 1ml of KOH. the test cannot be used. This is seen in the reaction: . the more readily it reacts with nucleophiles. Reactions involving carboxylic acid derivatives include hydrolysis. For acetic anhydride. indicating the presence of acetanilide. Aminolysis: Anilide Formation When0. These different behaviors towards the reactions are because of the difference in structure. The mixture was cooled. 1ml of water and 0. When the addition of nucleophile occurs. there was no precipitate but there was an evolution of gas. Otherwise. usually acid chlorides are the most reactive compounds because of its electronegative ion. It is similar with the reaction of aldehydes and ketones but their difference is that in the product. The test tube was covered with paraffin wax and was shook for several minutes. If a color other than yellow was obtained. no substitution takes place but only addition. Hydrolysis is the addition of water to form carboxylic acids. In carboxylic acid derivatives. The difference of carboxylic acid derivative substitution and aldehyde addition is that aldehydes don’t have leaving groups.5ml of aniline. therefore. aminolysis. The usual nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction begins with the addition of a polar bond to give an intermediate. A drop of 5% FeCl3 solution was added to the mixture and the color produced was noted. the reaction is termed as nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction. A deep burgundy precipitate was observed. indicating that it was a basic solution. D. the intermediate forms expels a living group to give a new carbonyl compound. leading to a new carbonyl compound. C. The formation of a precipitate was noted. carboxylic acids and derivatives. Amides. the group leaves and a new carbonyl compound is formed. a mixture of 0. Having said this. on the other hand are the least reactive compound. in the addition of NaOH and when the mixture was heated. D. 1ml water. For benzamide. chlorine. Hydroxamic Acid Test The preliminary test was done by mixing 2 drops of the sample. But the addition step is usually the rate determining step.2ml of acetyl chloride was prepared. the alkoxide ion. a white crystalline precipitate was observed. a fruity odor and a solution with layers was noted. The rate of the overall reaction involves the addition step and the elimination step. With ethyl acetate.5ml of aniline was added to the sample. when reacted with a nucleophile. Alcoholysis: Schotten-Baumann Reaction When 0. As said. Results and Discussions A. an alcoholic scent was observed when added with NaOH and then the odor was gone when neutralized with HCL. 2ml of 20% NaOH solution was then added. and 0. The mixture was transferred to a new test tube containing 5ml water. An odor of the formed ester and a formation of two layers were noted.In another test tube. Hydroxamic Acid Test The preliminary test was no longer performed because the reagents used in this experiment were already given. The intermediate formed is protonated to give an alcohol. 1ml of %5 FeCl3 was then added. An intermediate product normally forms and it expels one of its substituents originally bonded with the carbonyl carbon. Doing a preliminary test will surely yield a positive result for the two reagents. an evolution of gas was noted and the red litmus paper tested turned to blue. both ethyl acetate and acetamide yielded a deep burgundy precipitate which was an indication of a positive result. Aminolysis: Anilide Formation A few drops of acetyl chloride or acetic anhydride was added to 0. a white precipitate was formed and there was no evolution of gas. These differences in reactivity usually result to the conversion of a more reactive acid into a less reactive one. B. reduction and Grignard reaction. The more the electron poor the C=O is. with the addition of 20% NaOH solution. For the actual test. The solution was heated in a boiling water bath for 2 minutes. alcoholysis.5ml of ethanol.2ml of acyl halide or acid anhydride was prepared. C. Hydrolysis of Acid Derivatives With the addition of AgNO3 to acetyl chloride. Carboxylic acid derivatives have an acyl carbon bonded to a group –Y that can leave as a stable anion.5ml ethanol.
. Sarile A.S. The reaction is as follows: These are the reactions involve in the experiments for the classification of carboxylic acids and derivatives.. Lampa F. (2005) Intriduction to Oragnic Laboratory Techniques. Refferences Bayquen A. Cengage Learning Asia Pte..L.com Aminolysis is the reaction of amines to yield amides. which involves conversion of the acid to the acid chlorides: Pavia D. Manila Philippines: UST Publishing House.. A Small Scale Approach. Lampman G. amides and acid chlorides. 2nd ed.. McMurry J. Ltd. Torres P.csudh. The reaction is as follows: Reduction is the reaction with hydride reducing agent to yield an alcohol.. De Guia R.There is an intermediate product in which undergoes loss of HCL to yield the product. The amine used in the experiment is aniline and the product formed was anilide. This is seen in acyl chloride reactions.M. Alcoholysis is the reaction with an alcohol to yield amides. The best known method is the Schotten-Baumann reaction. Esters are usually involved here which has a primary alcohol as a product. The reaction is as follows: Gringard reaction is the reaction of an organomagnesium reagent to yield an alcohol. Pena G.wikipedia.V. Kriz G.. Positive observations in these tests are usually in the form of precipitates.edu/rpendarvis/carb oxder.. This is seen in esters. (2010) Foundations of Organic Chemistry. (2008) Laboratory Manual in Organic Chemistry. Esters are also the ones involved here converting them into tertiary alcohols.html#struct www. Cruz C.. Some exhibit evolution of gas. Australis: Brokkes/Cole http://chemistry2. .
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