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Vedic M athematics

Click on underscored words to open paragraph What is Vedic Mathematics? Books on Vedic Maths Tutorial Vedic Maths Tutorial Vedic Mathematics (Preface, introduction and foreward from the original book on Vedic Mathematics) Revered Guruji used to say that he had reconstructed the sixteen mathematical formulae from the Atharvaveda after assiduous research and ‘Tapas’ (austerity) for about eight years in the forests surrounding Sringeri. Obviously these formulae are not to be found in the present recensions of Atharvaveda. They were actually reconstructed, on the basis of intuitive revelation, from materials scattered here and there in the Atharvaveda. History of Mathematics in India Indic Mathematics: India and the Scientific Revolution By Dr. David Gray The following contributions are By Kevin O'Connor Vedic Maths - Tips & Tricks Converting Kilos to pounds Adding Time Temperature Conversions Decimals Equivalents of Fractions Converting Kilometres to Miles Is it divisible by four? Multiplying by 12 - shortcut ___________________________________
Vedic Mathematics

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What is Vedic Mathematics?

Vedic Mathematics is the name given to the ancient system of Mathematics which was rediscovered from the Vedas between 1911 and 1918 by Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji (1884-1960). According to his research all of mathematics is based on sixteen Sutras or word-formulae. For example, 'Vertically and Crosswise` is one of these Sutras. These formulae describe the way the mind naturally works and are therefore a great help in directing the student to the appropriate method of solution. Perhaps the most striking feature of the Vedic system is its coherence. Instead of a hotch-potch of unrelated techniques the whole system is beautifully interrelated and unified: the general multiplication method, for example, is easily reversed to allow one-line divisions and the simple squaring method can be reversed to give one-line square roots. And these are all easily understood. This unifying quality is very satisfying, it makes mathematics easy and enjoyable and encourages innovation. In the Vedic system 'difficult' problems or huge sums can often be solved immediately by the Vedic method. These striking and beautiful methods are just a part of a complete system of mathematics which is far more systematic than the modern 'system'. Vedic Mathematics manifests the coherent and unified structure of mathematics and the methods are complementary, direct and easy. The simplicity of Vedic Mathematics means that calculations can be carried out mentally (though the methods can also be written down). There are many advantages in using a flexible, mental system. Pupils can invent their own methods, they are not limited to the one 'correct' method. This leads to more creative, interested and intelligent pupils. Interest in the Vedic system is growing in education where mathematics teachers are looking for something better and finding the Vedic system is the answer. Research is being carried out in many areas including the effects of learning Vedic Maths on children; developing new, powerful but easy applications of the Vedic Sutras in geometry, calculus, computing etc. But the real beauty and effectiveness of Vedic Mathematics cannot be fully appreciated without actually practising the system. One can then see that it is perhaps the most refined and efficient mathematical system possible.
The Vedic Mathematics Sutras

This list of sutras is taken from the book Vedic Mathematics, which includes a full list of the sixteen Sutras in Sanskrit, but in some cases a translation of the Sanskrit is not given in the text and comes from elsewhere. This formula 'On the Flag' is not in the list given in Vedic Mathematics, but is referred to in the text.
The Main Sutras

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By one more than the one before. All from 9 and the last from 10. Vertically and Cross-wise Transpose and Apply If the Samuccaya is the Same it is Zero If One is in Ratio the Other is Zero By Addition and by Subtraction By the Completion or Non-Completion Differential Calculus By the Deficiency Specific and General The Remainders by the Last Digit The Ultimate and Twice the Penultimate By One Less than the One Before The Product of the Sum All the Multipliers

The Sub Sutras

Proportionately The Remainder Remains Constant The First by the First and the Last by the Last For 7 the Multiplicand is 143 By Osculation Lessen by the Deficiency Whatever the Deficiency lessen by that amount and set up the Square of the Deficiency Last Totalling 10 Only the Last Terms The Sum of the Products By Alternative Elimination and Retention By Mere Observation The Product of the Sum is the

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Sum of the Products On the Flag
Try a Sutra

Mark Gaskell introduces an alternative system of calculation based on Vedic philosophy At the Maharishi School in Lancashire we have developed a course on Vedic mathematics for key stage 3 that covers the national curriculum. The results have been impressive: maths lessons are much livelier and more fun, the children enjoy their work more and expectations of what is possible are very much higher. Academic performance has also greatly improved: the first class to complete the course managed to pass their GCSE a year early and all obtained an A grade. Vedic maths comes from the Vedic tradition of India. The Vedas are the most ancient record of human experience and knowledge, passed down orally for generations and written down about 5,000 years ago. Medicine, architecture, astronomy and many other branches of knowledge, including maths, are dealt with in the texts. Perhaps it is not surprising that the country credited with introducing our current number system and the invention of perhaps the most important mathematical symbol, 0, may have more to offer in the field of maths. The remarkable system of Vedic maths was rediscovered from ancient Sanskrit texts early last century. The system is based on 16 sutras or aphorisms, such as: "by one more than the one before" and "all from nine and the last from 10". These describe natural processes in the mind and ways of solving a whole range of mathematical problems. For example, if we wished to subtract 564 from 1,000 we simply apply the sutra "all from nine and the last from 10". Each figure in 564 is subtracted from nine and the last figure is subtracted from 10, yielding 436.

This can easily be extended to solve problems such as 3,000 minus 467. We simply reduce the first figure in 3,000 by one and then apply the sutra, to get the answer 2,533. We have had a lot of fun with this type of sum, particularly when dealing with money examples, such as £10 take away £2. 36. Many of the children have described how they have challenged their parents to races

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at home using many of the Vedic techniques - and won. This particular method can also be expanded into a general method, dealing with any subtraction sum. The sutra "vertically and crosswise" has many uses. One very useful application is helping children who are having trouble with their tables above 5x5. For example 7x8. 7 is 3 below the base of 10, and 8 is 2 below the base of 10.

The whole approach of Vedic maths is suitable for slow learners, as it is so simple and easy to use. The sutra "vertically and crosswise" is often used in long multiplication. Suppose we wish to multiply 32 by 44. We multiply vertically 2x4=8. Then we multiply crosswise and add the two results: 3x4+4x2=20, so put down 0 and carry 2. Finally we multiply vertically 3x4=12 and add the carried 2 =14. Result: 1,408.

We can extend this method to deal with long multiplication of numbers of any size. The great advantage of this system is that the answer can be obtained in one line and mentally. By the end of Year 8, I would expect all students to be able to do a "3 by 2" long multiplication in their heads. This gives enormous confidence to the pupils who lose their fear of numbers and go on to tackle harder maths in a more open manner. All the techniques produce one-line answers and most can be dealt with mentally, so calculators are not used until Year 10. The methods are either "special", in that they only apply under certain conditions, or general. This encourages flexibility and innovation on the part of the students.

squaring numbers and finding square roots (to several significant figures) is all performed with relative ease and reinforces the methods that they would have recently learned. This works equally well for numbers above the base: 105x111=11. because 200 is 2x100.655. we double the first part of the answer. With the introduction of a non-calculator paper at GCSE. This is the first part of the answer and multiplying the "differences" vertically 4x8=32 gives the second part of the answer. the Vedic Maths Tutorial Mark Gaskell is head of maths at the Maharishi School in Lancashire . There is a unity and coherence in the system which is not found in conventional maths. which can be better because we write and pronounce numbers from left to right. 96 by 92.000 etc).255.com/ to remove this watermark. 96 is 4 below the base and 92 is 8 below. For 205x211=43. Here we add the differences. for example. Multiplication can also be carried out starting from the left. We can cross-subtract either way: 96-8=88 or 92-4=88. The techniques are so simple they can be used when conventional methods would be cumbersome.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. When the children learn about Pythagoras's theorem in Year 9 we do not use a calculator. 100. more efficient and more readily acquired than conventional methods. Vedic maths offers methods that are simpler. Here is an example of doing this in a special method for long multiplication of numbers near a base (10.verypdf. For many more examples. We regularly practise the methods by having a mental test at the beginning of each lesson. It brings out the beauty and patterns in numbers and the world around us. try elsewhere on this page. 1.

A5 in size. 1965 (various reprints). ISBN 81 208 0163 6 (cloth) ISBN 82 208 0163 4 (paper)/p MATHS OR MAGIC? This is a popular book giving a brief outline of some of the Vedic Mathematics methods.vedicmaths. www.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Inspiration Books.tes. 2 Oak Tree Court. Saturday school for primary teachers at Manchester Metropolitan University on October 7. guaranteed! www. 'The Cosmic Computer' by K Williams and M Gaskell.verypdf.vedic-maths-ebook. 367 pages. Pamphlet. division and lots more! We recommed you check out this ebook. Paperback. 1979. (also in an bridged edition). Tel: 01695 727 986.com A PEEP INTO VEDIC MATHEMATICS Mainly on recurring decimals. See website.co.com/ to remove this watermark. 1976 ISBN 0722401434 Currently out of print./p INTRODUCTORY LECTURES ON VEDIC MATHEMATICS Following various lecture courses in London an interest arose for printed material containing the course material. Skelmersdale. Author: B R Baliga. it's packed with tips. Author: Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji Maharaja.org 19th May 2000 Times Educational Supplement (Curriculum Special) http://www. Lancs WN8 6SP.uk/ copyright to the ACADEMY OF VEDIC MATHEMATICS ______________________________________________________ Books on Vedic Maths VEDIC MATHEMATICS Or Sixteen Simple Mathematical Formulae from the Vedas The original introduction to Vedic Mathematics. Author: Joseph Howse. This book of 12 chapters was the result covering a range topics from elementary arithmetic to cubic equations. ./p VEDIC MATHEMATICS Master Multiplication tables. tricks and tutorials that will boost your math ability.

Authors: A. astronomy etc. Pickles. Pickles first published 1984). simple harmonic motion. P. A4. The easy text fully explains this method which has applications in trigonometry (you do not need any of those complicated formulae). 78 pages. transcendental and differential equations. Nicholas.K. elegant system for combining these triples gives unexpected and powerful general methods for solving a wide range of mathematical problems.. new edition 1999. ISBN 81 208 0944 0/p THE NATURAL CALCULATOR This is an elementary book on mental mathematics. K. 1988.168 pages.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www./p VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE This is an advanced book of sixteen chapters on one Sutra ranging from elementary multiplication etc. etc. coordinate geometry (2 and 3 dimensions) transformations (2 and 3 dimensions). . 166 pages. Comb bound. A4 size. It has a detailed introduction and each of the nine chapters covers one of the Vedic formulae. Williams (first published 1984). Williams./p TRIPLES This book shows applications of Pythagorean Triples (like 3.5). A4 size. Comb bound. ISBN 1 869932 01 3. Jaipur. starting with simultaneous equations and moving on to algebraic. Hardback. Comb bound.verypdf. J. to the solution of non-linear partial differential equations. Author: K. Paperback. ISBN 1 902517 03 2. A simple. 200 pages. 180 pages.4. P. 1984. J. 139 pages. Williams. Kapoor. Authors: A. Paperback. Williams. The main theme is mental multiplication but addition. 1982. subtraction and division are also covered. It deals with (i) calculation of common functions and their series expansions. A5 in size.com/ to remove this watermark./p ISSUES IN VEDIC MATHEMATICS Proceedings of the National workshop on Vedic Mathematics 25-28 March 1988 at the University of Rajasthan. with far less effort than conventional methods use. K../p DISCOVER VEDIC MATHEMATICS This has sixteen chapters each of which focuses on one of the Vedic Sutras or sub-Sutras and shows many applications of each. Nicholas. A4. ISBN 1 902517 00 8/p VEDIC MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS OF SRI VISHNU SAHASTRANAMA STOTRAM Author: S. Author: K. and (ii) the solution of equations. A4. Also contains Vedic Maths solutions to GCSE and 'A' level examination questions. new edition 1999.

who have mastered the four basic rules including times tables. The main Vedic methods used in his book are for multiplication. Author: K. a Unified Field Chart (showing the whole subject of mathematics and how each of the parts are related). 1997 B./p. R.verypdf. Unkalkar. A5 in size. Dr T. The Teacher's Guide contains a Summary of the Book. Much of the material in Book 1 is suitable for children as young as eight and this is developed from here to topics such as Pythagoras' Theorem and Quadratic Equations in Book 3. Karnataka-581325 THE COSMIC COMPUTER COURSE This covers Key Stage 3 (age 11-14 years) of the National Curriculum for England and Wales. 1997 Pub: Dandeli Education Socety. Williams. Worksheets etc. A4 size. ISBN 1 869932 04 8. Comb bound . It presents direct. introduce new ideas and are carefully correlated with the rest of the course). 1995. Authors: K. the language used and the ability to recognise valid reasoning). Author: A. S. G. immediate and easily understood proofs. Publishing Corporation. Author: J.com/ to remove this watermark. It includes discussion on the relevant philosophy of mathematics and is written both for mathematicians and for a wider audience. Williams and M. Gaskell.102 pages. ISBN 81-208-1318-9. G. Paperback.132 pages. Delhi-110052 INTRODUCTION TO VEDIC MATHEMATICS Authors T. ISBN 1 902517 05 9 . Answer Books are A5. hundreds of Mental Tests (these revise previous work. 1999. Nicholas. Introductions to vulgar and decimal fractions. All Textbooks and Guides are A4 in size. A4 size. P. 100 pages + 31 pages of answers. Games. Paperback. Extension Sheets (about 16 per book) for fast pupils or for extra classwork.T. 1998. GEOMETRY FOR AN ORAL TRADITION This book demonstrates the kind of system that could have existed before literacy was widespread and takes us from first principles to theorems on elementary properties of circles. Seshachala Rao.. It consists of three books each of which has a Teacher's Guide and an Answer Book. Pande. elementary algebra and vinculums are also given. division and subtraction. Revision Tests./p JAGATGURU SHANKARACHARYA SHRI BHARATI KRISHNA TEERTHA An excellent book giving details of the life of the man who reconstructed the Vedic system. These are based on only one assumption (that magnitudes are unchanged by motion) and three additional provisions (a means of drawing figures.Glover. 1991.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. VEDIC MATHEMATICS FOR SCHOOLS BOOK 1 Is a first text designed for the young mathematics student of about eight years of age.

Nicholas. Paperback. Haridas Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. The approach is ideally suited to the twentyfirst century. ISBN 1902517067 VEDIC MATHEMATICS FOR SCHOOLS BOOK 2 The second book in this series. Applications of Vedic Mathematics To include prediction of eclipses and planetary positions. spherical trigonometry etc. Published by Motilal Banarsidass. Author Kenneth Williams. P. thorough and easy to read. 2001 Pub: Dandeli Education Socety. popularised version of "Geometry for an Oral Tradition" described above. Author S.T. 2000. Tirthaji and has plenty of examples and exercises. Author J. Glover . Published by Inspiration Books. 1999. Author: A.com/ to remove this watermark. Published by Motilal Banarsidass. 1999. Part 1 We found this book to be well-written. when audio-visual forms of communication are likely to be dominant. TEACHER’S MANUALS – ELEMENTARY & INTERMEDIATE Designed for teachers (of children aged 7 to 11 years. Author: Kenneth Williams. 9 to 14 years respectively)who wish to teach the Vedic system. INTRODUCTION TO VEDIC MATHEMATICS – Part II Authors T. G.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. A4 size. Author J. 2002. ISBN 1 902517 08 3 Vedic Mathematics. THE COSMIC CALCULATOR Three textbooks plus Teacher's Guide plus Answer Book. Mumbai 400 007. India. Karnataka-581325 VEDIC MATHEMATICS FOR SCHOOLS BOOK 3 The third book in this series. Munshi Marg. It covers a lot of the basic work in the original book by B.T. K. 2002. Kulapati K.verypdf. ISBN 81 208 1670-6 Astronomica. . THE CIRCLE REVELATION This is a simplified.M. 2002. Unkalkar. Glover . 100 pages. Authors Kenneth Williams and Mark Gaskell. These two books make the methods accessible to all interested in exploring geometry.

supplementary exercises and answers may particularly benefit and empower the weaker student. Co Limerick. engaging and eminently 'doable'. clear methodology. to give a feel for how the Vedic Maths system works. Fun with Figures offers several speedy and simple means of solving or double-checking class activities. Each double page shows a neat and quick way of solving some simple problem. Williams' book will help neutralise the 'menace' sometimes associated with maths. The Tutorial below is based on material from this book 'Fun with Figures' Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Link Bar 0 ________________________________________ Vedic M aths T utorial Vedic Maths is based on sixteen Sutras or principles. Principal. Author: Kenneth Williams. These principles are general in nature and can be applied in many ways. the author wisely places them within practical life-related contexts. Author: K. FUN WITH FIGURES (subtitled: Is it Maths or Magic?) This is a small popular book with many illustrations." "Compact. These tutorials will give examples of simple applications of the sutras." Reviewed by Gerard Lennon. TEACHER’S MANUAL – ADVANCED Designed for teachers (of children aged 13 to 18 years) who wish to teach the Vedic system. Williams.verypdf. "Entertaining. examples. Williams' pocket volume reveals many fascinating and useful applications of the ancient Eastern system of Vedic Maths. Published by Inspiration Books. Suitable for any age from eight upwards. size A6. ISBN 1 902517 01 6.com/ to remove this watermark. Tackling many number operations encountered between First and Sixth class. 52 pages. 2003. Paperback. . Focusing throughout on skills associated with mental mathematics. inspiring quotes and amusing anecdotes. In practice many applications of the sutras may be learned and combined to solve actual problems. It's practicality. Please note the Tutorial below is based on material from this book 'Fun with Figures' Book review of 'Fun with Figures' From 'inTouch'. Jan/Feb 2000. cheerful and liberally interspersed with amusing anecdotes and aphorisms from the world of maths.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. the Irish National Teachers Organisation (INTO) magazine. Ardpatrick NS. 1998." "Certainly a valuable investment for parents and teachers of children aged 7 to 12.

000 . The following tutorials are based on examples and exercises given in the book 'Fun with figures' by Kenneth Williams. Tutorial 1 Tutorial 2 Tutorial 3 Tutorial 4 Tutorial 5 Tutorial 6 Tutorial 7 Tutorial 8 (By Kevin O'Connor) Tutorial 1 Use the formula ALL FROM 9 AND THE LAST FROM 10 to perform instant subtractions. For example 1000 .B.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. we recommend you study one of the texts available at www. These tutorials do not attempt to teach the systematic use of the sutras. Similarly 10.verypdf.357 = 643 We simply take each figure in 357 from 9 and the last figure from 10.000 etc.org N. 10.com/ to remove this watermark. 1000.vedicmaths.357 = 643 And thats all there is to it! This always works for subtractions from numbers consisting of a 1 followed by noughts: 100. So the answer is 1000 . which is a fun introduction to some of the applications of the sutras for children. For more advanced applications and a more complete coverage of the basic uses of the sutras.1049 = 8951 .

1011 = 7) 100 .38 = = = = < click Answers to exercise 1 Tutorial 1 Top <To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 2 Using VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE you do not need the multiplication tables beyond 5 X 5.verypdf.000 .283 3) 1000 .000 .000 .083 = 917 Exercise 1 Tutorial 1 Try some yourself: 1) 1000 .Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.57 9) 10.777 2) 1000 .9876 = 6) 10.000 . we simply suppose 83 is 083.321 10) 10.com/ to remove this watermark. in which we have more zeros than figures in the numbers being subtracted. So 1000 .83.57 8) 1000 . Suppose you need 8 x 7 8 is 2 below 10 and 7 is 3 below 10.000 .505 = = = 4) 10. For 1000 .2345 = 5) 10.83 becomes 1000 . Think of it like this: .

The diagram below shows how you get it. The answer is 56.verypdf.2 to get 5. the last figure of the answer. and multiply the deficiencies together.com/ to remove this watermark. And you multiply vertically: 2 x 3 to get 6. subtract one number's deficiency from the other number. Exercise 1 Tutorial 2 Multply These: 1) 8 x 8 = 2) 9 x 7 = 3) 8 x 9 = 4) 7 x 7 = 5) 9 x 9 = 6) 6 x 6 = . the first figure of the answer.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. You subtract crosswise 8-3 or 7 . 7 x 6 = 42 Here there is a carry: the 1 in the 12 goes over to make 3 into 4. That's all you do: See how far the numbers are below 10.

com/ to remove this watermark.you might think.12 = 86: you can subtract either way. So 88 x 98 = 8624 Exercise 2 Tutorial 2 This is so easy it is just mental arithmetic.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Suppose you want to multiply 88 by 98. 88 is 12 below 100 and 98 is 2 below 100. Not easy. you will always get the same answer). And the 24 in the answer is just 12 x 2: you multiply vertically. But with VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE you can give the answer immediately. Try some: 1) 87 x 98 = 2) 88 x 97 = 3) 77 x 98 = 4) 93 x 96 = 5) 94 x 92 = 6) 64 x 99 = 7) 98 x 97 = . You can imagine the sum set out like this: As before the 86 comes from subtracting crosswise: 88 . Answers to exercise 1 tutorial 2 Here's how to use VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE for multiplying numbers close to 100.verypdf. using the same method as above Both 88 and 98 are close to 100.2 = 86 (or 98 .

107 is just 103 + 4 (or 104 + 3). 103 x 104 = 10712 The answer is in two parts: 107 and 12.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. just for mental arithmetic Try a few: 1) 102 x 107 = 2) 106 x 103 = 3) 104 x 104 = 4) 109 x 108 = 5) 101 x123 = 6) 103 x102 = Answers to exercise 3 Tutorial 2 < click Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 3 The easy way to add and subtract fractions. and 12 is just 3 x 4. Similarly 107 x 106 = 11342 107 + 6 = 113 and 7 x 6 = 42 Exercise 3 Tutorial 2 Again.verypdf. Then 10 + 3 = 13. Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 2 < click Multiplying numbers just over 100.com/ to remove this watermark. Use VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISE to write the answer straight down! Multiply crosswise and add to get the top of the answer: 2 x 5 = 10 and 1 x 3 = 3. .

The bottom of the fraction is just 3 x 5 = 15.verypdf. So: Subtracting is just as easy: multiply crosswise as before.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. but the subtract: Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 Try a few: Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 < click Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 4 . You multiply the bottom number together.com/ to remove this watermark.

which is 8: so 7 x 8 = 56 Similarly 852 = 7225 because 8 x 9 = 72. The last part is always 25. Diagrammatically: . So we just multiply 3 by 4 (the next number up) to get 12 for the first part of the answer. A quick way to square numbers that end in 5 using the formula BY ONE MORE THAN THE ONE BEFORE. 32 x 38 = 1216 Both numbers here start with 3 and the last figures (2 and 8) add up to 10.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. The answer is in two parts: 56 and 25.verypdf. multiplied by the number "one more". And we multiply the last figures: 2 x 8 = 16 to get the last part of the answer. 752 = 5625 75² means 75 x 75. Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 Try these: 1) 452 = 2) 652 = 3) 952 = 4) 352 = 5) 152 = Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 < click Method for multiplying numbers where the first figures are the same and the last figures add up to 10.com/ to remove this watermark. 7. The first part is the first number.

com/ to remove this watermark. Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 Practise some: 1) 43 x 47 = 2) 24 x 26 = 3) 62 x 68 = 4) 17 x 13 = 5) 59 x 51 = 6) 77 x 73 = Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 5 An elegant way of multiplying numbers using a simple pattern 21 x 23 = 483 This is normally called long multiplication but actually the answer can be written straight down using the VERTICALLY AND CROSSWISEformula.verypdf.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. 23 below 21: There are 3 steps: . And 81 x 89 = 7209 We put 09 since we need two figures as in all the other examples. We first put. or imagine.

c) Multiply vertically on the right: 1 x 3 = 3 This gives the last figure of the answer. There were no carries in the method given above. 21 x 26 = 546 ./p> However. This gives the first figure of the answer. Similarly 61 x 31 = 1891 6 x 3 = 18..verypdf. 6 x 1 + 1 x 3 = 9. there only involve one small extra step. And thats all there is to it. 1 x 1 = 1 Exercise 1 Tutorial 5 Try these.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. just write down the answer: 1) 14 x 21 2) 22 x 31 3) 21 x 31 4) 21 x 22 5) 32 x 21 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 5 Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 Multiply any 2-figure numbers together by mere mental arithmetic! If you want 21 stamps at 26 pence each you can easily find the total price in your head. a) Multiply vertically on the left: 2 x 2 = 4. b) Multiply crosswise and add: 2 x 3 + 1 x 2 = 8 This gives the middle figure.com/ to remove this watermark.

6) 32 x 56 . So 21 stamps cost £5. Practise a few: 1) 21 x 47 2) 23 x 43 3) 32 x 53 4) 42 x 32 5) 71 x 72 Answers to Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 33 x 44 = 1452 There may be more than one carry in a sum: Vertically on the left we get 12. in the middle step. Then vertically on the right we get 12 and the 1 here is carried over to the 144 to make 1452.verypdf. so the 1 is carried over to the left (4 becomes 5). 14.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. The method is the same as above except that we get a 2-figure number.46. Crosswise gives us 24. so we carry 2 to the left and mentally get 144.com/ to remove this watermark.

26 x 11 = 286 Notice that the outer figures in 286 are the 26 being multiplied. 7) 32 x 54 8) 31 x 72 9) 44 x 53 10) 54 x 64 Answers to Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 Any two numbers. can be multiplied in one line by this method.verypdf. no matter how big.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. And the middle figure is just 2 and 6 added up. So 72 x 11 = 792 Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 Multiply by 11: 1) 43 = 2) 81 = 3) 15 = 4) 44 = 5) 11 = Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 77 x 11 = 847 .com/ to remove this watermark. To multiply any 2-figure number by 11 we just put the total of the two figures between the 2 figures. Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 6 Multiplying a number by 11.

This involves a carry figure because 7 + 7 = 14 we get 77 x 11 = 7147 = 847.com/ to remove this watermark. and we add the last pair: 3 + 4 = 7. Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 Multiply by 11: 1) 151 = 2) 527 = 3) 333 = 4) 714 = 5) 909 = Answers to Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 7 . Exercise 2 Tutorial 6 Multiply by 11: 1) 11 x 88 = 2) 11 x 84 = 3) 11 x 48 = 4) 11 x 73 = 5) 11 x 56 = Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 6 234 x 11 = 2574 We put the 2 and the 4 at the ends. We add the first pair 2 + 3 = 5.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.verypdf.

23 / 9 = 2 remainder 5 The first figure of 23 is 2. The remainder is just 2 and 3 added up! 43 / 9 = 4 remainder 7 The first figure 4 is the answer and 4 + 3 = 7 is the remainder . Method for dividing by 9.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 Divide by 9: 6) 232 = 7) 151 = 8) 303 = remainder remainder remainder .verypdf. 4 is the total of the first two figures 1+ 3 = 4. 1 is just the first figure of 134. and 8 is the total of all three figures 1+ 3 + 4 = 8.could it be easier? Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 Divide by 9: 1) 61 / 9 = 2) 33 / 9 = 3) 44 / 9 = 4) 53 / 9 = 5) 80 / 9 = remainder remainder remainder remainder remainder Answers to Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 134 / 9 = 14 remainder 8 The answer consists of 1.com/ to remove this watermark.4 and 8. and this is the answer.

verypdf.com/ to remove this watermark. Since the remainder. 9) 212 = 10) 2121 = remainder remainder Answers to Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 842 / 9 = 812 remainder 14 = 92 remainder 14 Actually a remainder of 9 or more is not usually permitted because we are trying to find how many 9's there are in 842.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. 14 has one more 9 with 5 left over the final answer will be 93 remainder 5 Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 Divide these by 9: 1) 771 / 9 = 2) 942 / 9 = 3) 565 / 9 = 4) 555 / 9 = 5) 2382 / 9 = 6) 7070 / 9 = remainder remainder remainder remainder remainder remainder Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Answers Answers to exercise 1 Tutorial 1 1) 223 2) 717 3) 495 4) 7655 5) 0124 6) 8989 7) 43 8) 943 .

not 6) Return to Exercise 3 Tutorial 2 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 1) 29/30 2) 7/12 3) 20/21 4) 19/30 5) 1/20 6) 13/15 .Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.verypdf.com/ to remove this watermark. like all the others. 9) 9679 10) 9962 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 1 Answers to exercise 1 tutorial 2 1) 64 2) 63 3) 72 4) 49 5) 81 6)216= 36 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 2 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 2 1) 8526 2) 8536 3) 7546 4) 8928 5) 8648 6) 6336 7) 9506 (we put 06 because. we need two figures in each part) Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 2 Answers to exercise 3 Tutorial 2 1) 10914 2) 10918 3) 10816 4) 11772 5) 12423 6) 10506 (we put 06.

com/ to remove this watermark.verypdf.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 3 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 1) 2025 2) 4225 3) 9025 4) 1225 5) 225 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 4 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 1) 2021 2) 624 3) 4216 4) 221 5) 3009 6) 5621 Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 4 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 5 1) 294 2) 682 3) 651 4) 462 5) 672 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 5 Answers to Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 1) 987 2) 989 3) 1696 4) 1344 5) 5112 Return to Exercise 2a Tutorial 5 Answers to Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 6) 1792 7) 1728 8) 2232 .

Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. 9) 2332 10) 3456 Return to Exercise 2b Tutorial 5 Answers to Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 1) 473 2) 891 3) 165 4) 484 5) 121 Return to Exercise 1 Tutorial 6 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 6 1) 968 2) 924 3) 528 4) 803 5) 616 Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 6 Answers to Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 1) 1661 2) 5797 3) 3663 4) 7854 5) 9999 Return to Exercise 3 Tutorial 6 Answers to Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 1) 6 r 7 2) 3 r 6 3) 4 r 8 4) 5 r 8 5) 8 r 8 Return to Exercise 1a Tutorial 7 Answers to Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 1) 25 r 7 2) 16 r 7 3) 33 r 6 .com/ to remove this watermark.verypdf.

com By Kevin O'Connor * Copyright Notice Is it divisible by four? This little math trick will show you whether a number is divisible by four or not.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.com/ to remove this watermark.verypdf. 2 + 1 + 2. this is how it works.Tips & Tricks Courtesy www. Let's look at 1234 Does 4 divide evenly into 1234? For 4 to divide into any number we have to make sure that the last number is even . 4) 23 r 5 5) 235 r 6 (we have 2.vedic-maths-ebook. So. 2 + 1 + 2 + 1) Return to Exercise 1b Tutorial 7 Answers to Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 1) 714 r15 = 84 r15 = 85 r6 2) 913 r 15 = 103 r15 = 104 r6 3) 516 r16 = 61 r16 = 62 r7 4) 510 r15 = 60 r15 = 61 r6 5) 714 r21 = 84 r21 = 86 r3 6) 2513 r15 = 263 r15 = 264 r6 7) 7714 r14 = 784 r14 = 785 r5 Return to Exercise 2 Tutorial 7 copyright to the ACADEMY OF VEDIC MATHEMATICS ____________________________________ Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Tutorial 8 Vedic Maths . 2 + 1.

6 and add it to two times the penultimate number. So what use is this trick to you? Well if you have learnt the tutorial at Memorymentor. Let's try one more. take the last number.com/ to remove this watermark. 4 will not go evenly into 1233 or 1235 Now we know that for 4 to divide evenly into any number the number has to end with an even number. If it is an odd number. Let’s try 4 into 3436546 So. for example.shortcut So how does the 12's shortcut work? Let's take a look. 12 X 7 .Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Therefore 4 into 1234 does not go in completely. So it doesn't go in evenly. Therefore 4 goes into 234436 evenly. there is no way it will go in evenly. 4 into 212334436 6 + (2 X 3) = 12 4 goes into 12 three times with 0 remainder. So.verypdf. the solution: Take the last number and add it to 2 times the second last number If 4 goes evenly into this number then you know that 4 will go evenly into the whole number. Back to the question. from our example.. Multiplying by 12 .com about telling the day in any year. So 4 + (2 X 3) = 10 4 goes into 10 two times with a remainder of 2 so it does not go in evenly. 4 into 1234.. then you can use it in working out whether the year you are calculating is a leap year or not. 4 6 + (2 X 4) = 14 4 goes into 14 three times with two remainder.

Add this to 70 giving 84. To find out more check out our Vedic Maths ebook at www. So 17 X 12 = 204 lets go one more 24 X 12 Multiply 24 X 1 = 24.vedic-maths-ebook. Multiply 24 by 2 = 48. Let’s start off with looking at converting Kilos to pounds. Therefore 7 X 12 = 84 Let's try another: 17 X 12 Remember. So 1 X 7 = 7. Add to 240 giving us 288 24 X 12 = 288 (these are Seriously Simple Sums to do aren’t they?!) Converting Kilos to pounds In this section you will learn how to convert Kilos to Pounds. 86 kilos into pounds: Step one. just double the kilos.verypdf. in this case 7.com Now multiply the 7 by the 2 of twelve giving 14. (Why? We are working with BASES here. Bases are the fundamentals to easy calculations for all multiplication tables. multiply the kilos by TWO. Multiply by 10 giving 240. Multiply 17 by 2 giving 34.com/ to remove this watermark. The first thing is to always multiply the 1 of the twelve by the number we are multiplying by. divide the answer by ten.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. multiplied by 10 giving 170. 86 x 2 = 172 Step two. just put a decimal point one place in from the right. Add 34 to 170 giving 204. . To do this. Multiply this 7 by 10 giving 70. and Vice Versa. multiply the 17 by the 1 in 12 and multiply by 10 (Just add a zero to the end) 1 X 17 = 17. To do this.

2 = 189. To do this. 100 + 10 = 110 50 Kilos = 110 pounds Adding Time Here is a nice simple way to add hours and minutes together: Let's add 1 hr and 35 minutes and 3 hr 55 minutes together. To do this.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. giving us 355 Now you want to add these two numbers together: 135 355 ___ 490 So we now have a sub total of 490. 100/10 = 10 Step three.2 Step three.2 86 Kilos = 189.com/ to remove this watermark. 3 hours 55 minutes. What you do is this: make the 1 hr 35 minutes into one number. add step two’s answer to step one’s answer. which will give us 135 and do the same for the other number. divide the answer by ten. . 172 + 17. 172 / 10 = 17. 50 x 2 = 100 Step two.2 pounds Let's try: 50 Kilos to pounds: Step one. What you need to do to this and all sub totals is add the time constant of 40. multiply the kilos by TWO.verypdf. add step two's answer to step one's answer. just double the kilos. just put a decimal point one place in from the right.

then add 30 is 90 30 Celsius = 90 Fahrenheit Remember.. and then divide the answer by two. 30 Celsius double it.5 1/3 = . No matter what the hours and minutes are. is 60. Decimals Equivalents of Fractions With a little practice.30 = 44. just add the 40 time constant to the sub total. Example: 74 Fahrenheit .verypdf. This is your answer in Celsius. Celsius to Fahrenheit just do the reverse: Double it.666.. 22 Celsius. Then divide by two. but it will give you an idea of the temperature you are looking at.333.com/ to remove this watermark. The answer you will get will not be an exact one. . 490 + 40 = 530 So we can now see our answer is 5 hrs and 30 minutes! Temperature Conversions This is a shortcut to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius and vice versa.. there are 3 you should know already: 1/2 = . Fahrenheit to Celsius: Take 30 away from the Fahrenheit.25 Starting with the thirds. So 74 Fahrenheit = 22 Celsius. of which you already know one: 1/3 = .333. the answer is not exact but it gives you a rough idea.. 1/4 = .Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. 2/3 = .. it's not hard to recall the decimal equivalents of fractions up to 10/11! First. and then add 30..

. 8/9 = ..625 6/8 = 3/4 = .888.. as they're just smaller steps than 4ths.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. double it.75 7/8 = . find the nearest 4th...666.333. 8ths aren't that hard to learn.444.com/ to remove this watermark.. 3/9 = .125 2/8 = 1/4 = . and stick a decimal in front of it.111..4 3/5 = . 7/9 = . 3/6 = 1/2 = .. so there's only one new one to learn: 1/4 = ..777..666.125 if needed: 1/8 = .555.25 3/8 = .5 3/4 = . If you have trouble with any of the 8ths. and add .2 2/5 = . .1666...222. They're very unique.. 2/6 = 1/3 = .. Take the numerator (the number on top). 5/6 = .verypdf.8 There are only two new decimal equivalents to learn with the 6ths: 1/6 = ..875 9ths are almost too easy: 1/9 = .8333. 6/9 = . 5/9 = ... You also know 2 of the 4ths.5 4/6 = 2/3 = ..6 4/5 = .375 4/8 = 1/2 = .25 2/4 = 1/2 = . 2/9 = . What about 7ths? We'll come back to them at the end.333. as well.. 4/9 = . 1/5 = ......5 5/8 = .75 Fifths are very easy.

.7 8/10 = ..181818. Notice that the 6 digits in the 7ths ALWAYS stay in the same order and the starting digit is the only thing that changes! .. I almost forgot! We haven't done 7ths yet.3 4/10 = . 5/7 = . For now.. 8/11 = ...714285.. 6/11 = ...727272. 3/7 = .8 9/10 = ....857142..1 2/10 = .9 Remember how easy 9ths were? 11th are easy in a similar way. 7/11 = ..... 2/7 = .... just think of one-seventh as: .. 9/11 = .090909.142857 See if you notice any pattern in the 7ths: 1/7 = .363636.5 6/10 = ...6 7/10 = . As long as you can remember the pattern for each fraction. have we? One-seventh is an interesting number: 1/7 = .4 5/10 = . assuming you know your multiples of 9: 1/11 = . 6/7 = .. 3/11 = .272727.454545.545454......285714.verypdf. Just put a decimal in front of the numerator: 1/10 = .909090.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. 4/7 = .. it is quite simple to work out the decimal place as far as you want or need to go! Oh.428571. as well. 10/11 = .571428.com/ to remove this watermark. 4/11 = .818181..636363.142857142857142857.142857. 2/11 = .. 10ths are very easy. 5/11 = ...2 3/10 = .

you'll have to adjust upward by 1: For 4/7.7142857!" Converting Kilometres to Miles This is a useful method for when travelling between imperial and metric countries and need to know what kilometres to miles are. think "(6 * 14) + 1". giving us .28 as the starting point. think "(5 * 14) + 1". The formula to convert kilometres to miles is number of (kilometres / 8 ) X 5 So lets try 80 kilometres into miles 80/8 = 10 multiplied by 5 is 50 miles! Another example 40 kilometres 40 / 8 = 5 5 X 5= 25 miles Vedic Mathematics .verypdf.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. and you know your multiplication tables up to the hundreds for each number 1-9.. If they give you 96 divided by 7.85 as the starting point.71 as the starting point. and you'll have the decimal equivalents of everything from 1/2 to 10/11 at your finger tips! If you want to demonstrate this skill to other people.57 as the starting point. For 3/7. giving us .42 as the starting point. work out where to begin the decimal number. the closest multiple of 7 is 91. giving us . think "(4 * 14) + 1". giving us . giving us . then give them a calculator and ask for a 2-digit number (3-digit number. or: 13. 5/14 and 6/14. "Hmm. For 4/14. you can think. For 5/7. giving us . Look at this: For 1/7. think "2 * 14". think "3 * 14". if you're up to it!) to be divided by a 1-digit number. For 6/7.com/ to remove this watermark. If you know your multiples of 14 up to 6. So the answer is 13 and 5/7. For 2/7. for example. Practice these. think "1 * 14".. which is 13 * 7. with 5 left over.14 as the starting point. it isn't difficult to.

it's packed with tips. They were actually reconstructed. at this point draw the earnest attention of every one concerned to the following salient items thereof: .com Copyright Notice This e-book is free! This publication is protected by international copyright laws. nor can you edit its contents. tricks and tutorials that will boost your math ability. Master Multiplication tables. from materials scattered here and there in the Atharvaveda. division and lots more! We recommed you check out this ebook. The author’s contact details must stay intact in both the footer and header pages. on the basis of intuitive revelation.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.vedic-maths-ebook.com/ to remove this watermark. Courtesy www.vedic-maths-ebook.verypdf. You have the author’s permission to transmit this ebook and use it as a gift or as part of your advertising campaign. An extract: Revered Guruji used to say that he had reconstructed the sixteen mathematical formulae from the Atharvaveda after assiduous research and ‘Tapas’ (austerity) for about eight years in the forests surrounding Sringeri. guaranteed! www. Obviously these formulae are not to be found in the present recensions of Atharvaveda. From the Preface by the author Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji Maharaj Extracts: We may however.com By Kevin O'Connor ___________________________________________ Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Vedic Mathematics By Jagadguru Swami Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji Maharaj (1884-1960) Book ref: ISBN 0 8426 0967 9 Published by Motilal Banarasidas From the Introduction by Smti Manjula Trivedi 16-03-1965. However you CANNOT charge for it.

paper. Trigonometry – plane and spherical. there is no part of mathematics. current) Western methods. Calculus – differential and integral etc. tedious and cumbersome ‘steps’ of working) can be easily and readily solved with the help of these ultra-easy Vedic Sutras (or mathematical aphorisms) contained in the Parisista (the appendix portion) of the Atharvaveda in a few . Geometry – plane and solid. or even a much smaller fraction of the time required according to modern (i. Algebra. And then we proceed to substantiate and prove the correctness of this reply of ours! As regards the time required by the students for mastering the whole course of Vedic Mathematics as applied to all its branches. The Sutras are easy to understand. the doctors. sums requiring 30. slate etc. It is magic until you understand it.com/ to remove this watermark. we need merely state from our actual experience that 8 months (or 12 months) at an average rate of 2 or 3 hours per day should suffice for completing the whole course of mathematical studies on these Vedic lines instead of 15 or 20 years required according to the existing systems of the Indian and also of foreign universities. The Sutras (aphorisms) apply to and cover each and every part of each and every chapter of each and every branch of mathematics (including Arithmetic. professors and other ‘big-guns’ of mathematics are wonder-struck and exclaim: ‘Is this mathematics or magic’? And we invariably answer and say: ‘It is both.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. And we were agreeably astonished and intensely gratified to find that exceedingly tough mathematical problems (which the mathematically most advanced present day Western scientific world had spent huge amount of time. energy. and money on and which even now it solves with the utmost difficulty and that also after vast labour involving large numbers of difficult.verypdf. that is beyond their jurisdiction. pure or applied. a fourth. and it is mathematics thereafter’. as a matter of fact. Astronomy. And in some very important and striking cases.e. a tenth. each digit automatically yields its predecessor and its successor! And the children have merely to go on tossing off (or reeling off) the digits one after another (forwards or backwards) by mere mental arithmetic (without needing pen or pencil.).) In fact. the time taken by the Vedic method will be a third. On seeing this kind of work actually being performed by the little children. and the whole work can be truthfully summarised in one word ‘Mental’! Even as regards complex problems involving a good number of mathematical operations (consecutively or even simultaneously to be performed). And this is because. 50. easy to apply and easy to remember. 100 or even more numerous and cumbrous ‘steps’ of working (according to the current Western methods) can be answered in a single and simple step of work by the Vedic method! And little children (of only 10 or 12 years of age) merely look at the sums written on the blackboard and immediately shout out and dictate the answers. Conics – geometrical and analytical.

e. simple steps and by methods that can be conscientiously described as mere ‘mental arithmetic’. as regards its assets of fundamental validity and value at least. lexicography etc. Gandharva Veda (the science of art and music) and 4. of diehard believers who think that the Vedas represent an inexhaustible mine of profoundest wisdom in matters of both spiritual and temporal. hygiene. are also inherent parts and subjects of Vedic (i. now fast becoming extinct. Whether or not the Vedas are believed as repositories of perfect wisdom. but was direct gift of revelation to seers and sages who in their higher reaches of Yogic realisation were competent to receive it from a source. they had their varied objective science both pure and applied. not mere ‘navel-gazers’ or ‘nose-tip gazers’. Ayurveda (anatomy. From the Foreward by Swami Pratyagatmananda Saraswati Varanasi.) which according to the Indian cultural conceptions. perfect and immaculate.verypdf. it is unquestionable that the Vedic race lived not as merely pastoral folk possessing a half or a quarter developed culture and civilisation.Dhanurveda (archery and other military sciences). Sthapatya Veda (engineering. sanitary science. The Vedic seers were. are inherent parts of the Vedas i. astronomy. In his deep-layer explorations of cryptic Vedic mysteries relating especially to their calculus of shorthand formulae and their neat and ready application to practical problems. are reckoned as ‘spiritual’ studies and catered for as such therein.e.). 2. With the late Shankaracharya we belong to a race. not for fighting with one another after our transportation to heaven but in order to quell and subdue all invaders from abroad and all insurgents from within. 22-031965 An extract: Vedic Mathematics by the late Shankaracharya (Bharati Krsna Tirtha) of Govardhan Pitha is a monumental work. gathered by the laborious inductive and deductive methods of ordinary systemic enquiry. medical science. . For example. be it noted. Similar is the case with Vedangas (i. grammar. architecture etc.com/ to remove this watermark. religious) study. the late Shankaracharya shows the rare combination of the probing insight of revealing intuition of a Yogi with the analytic acumen and synthetic talent of a mathematician. All these subjects. They proved themselves adepts in all levels and branches of knowledge.e. theoretical and practical. physiology. prosody. again. not for the purpose of achieving perfect health and strength in the after-death future but in order to attain them here and now in our present physical bodies. It is thus in the fitness of things that the Vedas include 1...Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. 3. and that this store of wisdom was not. and all branches of mathematics in general). surgery etc.

and 500 have been identified. Such scales were particularly important in ensuring proper implementation of town planning rules that required roads of fixed widths to run at right angles to each other. 0. 50. The Sutras lay down the shortest and surest lines. 10.com/ to remove this watermark. All had to be perfected so as to produce the desired results effectively and adequately. 2.2.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Numbers in vey early societies were typically represented by groups of lines. e. Suppose in a time of drought we require rains by artificial means. and for homes to be constructed according to specified guidelines. a sexagesimal (base 60) system was in use.367 inches points to the degree of precision demanded in those times. he had developed the six auxiliaries of the Vedas in each of which mathematical skill and adroitness. 20. though later different numbers came to be assigned specific numeral names and symbols (as in India) or were designated by alphabetic letters (such as in Rome). Weights corresponding to ratios of 0. the quadrate of a circle). 100. play the decisive role. called Yajna. In ancient Babylon. the first expression of mathematical understanding appears in the form of counting systems. The Decimal System in Harappa In India a decimal system was already in place during the Harappan period. The modern technician has his logarithmic tables and mechanic’s manuals. 1.g. A particularly notable characteristic of Harappan weights and measures is their remarkable accuracy. For this purpose. 0. the correct configuration of the Yantra (in the making of the Vedi etc. as indicated by an analysis of Harappan weights and measures. The modern scientist has his own theory and art (technique) for producing the result. The old seer scientist had his both also. but different from these now availing. occult or otherwise. Each of these required the calculus of mathematics. the correct time or astral conjunction factor. 0.verypdf.05. He had his science and technique. ____________________________________ Top To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Pages from the history of the Indian sub-continent: Science and Mathematics in India History of Mathematics in India In all early civilizations. the correct rhythams etc.. as have scales with decimal divisions. Let us take a concrete illustration. not all ancient civilizations based their numbers on a ten-base system. we take our decimal system for granted. The old Yajnik had his Sutras. 200. 5. Although today. .1. The correct intonation of the Mantra. The existence of a gradated system of accurately marked weights points to the development of trade and commerce in Harappan society.5. in which Mantra. for drains to be constructed of precise measurements. and other factors must co-operate with mathematical determinateness and precision. A bronze rod marked in units of 0. Yantra.

individual farmers in a village often had their holdings broken up in several parcels to ensure fairness. Apasthamba also looked at the problems of squaring a circle. Mathematical Activity in the Vedic Period In the Vedic period. Modern methods of multiplication and addition probably emerged from the techniques described in the Sulva-Sutras. subtraction. A similar observation pertaining to oblongs is also noted.verypdf. Baudhayana's Sutra displays an understanding of basic geometric shapes and techniques of converting one geometric shape (such as a rectangle) to another of equivalent (or multiple. Apasthamba's sutra (an expansion of Baudhayana's with several original contributions) provides a value for the square root of 2 that is accurate to the fifth decimal place. Since plots could not all be of the same shape . Tax assessments were based on fixed proportions of annual or seasonal crop incomes.C was familiar with the Upanishads and learnt his basic geometry from the Sulva Sutras. His Sutra also contains geometric solutions of a linear equation in a single unknown.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.com/ to remove this watermark. While some of the formulations are approximations. However.the Greek mathematician and philosopher who lived in the 6th C B. In order to ensure that all cultivators had equivalent amounts of irrigated and non-irrigated lands and tracts of equivalent fertility . An early statement of what is commonly known as the Pythagoras theorem is to be found in Baudhayana's Sutra: The chord which is stretched across the diagonal of a square produces an area of double the size. Thus. fractions. It is likely that these texts tapped geometric knowledge that may have been acquired much earlier. or fractional) area (such as a square).local administrators were required to convert rectangular plots or triangular plots to squares of equivalent sizes and so on. Examples of quadratic equations also appear. to some extent early mathematical developments in India mirrored the developments in Egypt. dividing a . records of mathematical activity are mostly to be found in Vedic texts associated with ritual activities. as in many other early agricultural civilizations. Examples of geometric knowledge (rekha-ganit) are to be found in the Sulva-Sutras of Baudhayana (800 BC) and Apasthmaba (600 BC) which describe techniques for the construction of ritual altars in use during the Vedic era. cubes and roots are enumerated in the Narad Vishnu Purana attributed to Ved Vyas (pre-1000 BC). Pythagoras . problems of mensuration came up that required solutions. The system of land grants and agricultural tax assessments required accurate measurement of cultivated areas. squares. multiplication. Arithmetic operations (Ganit) such as addition. Mathematics was thus brought into the service of both the secular and the ritual domains. but could be adjusted upwards or downwards based on a variety of factors. As land was redistributed or consolidated. others are accurate and reveal a certain degree of practical ingenuity as well as some theoretical understanding of basic geometric principles. Babylon and China . the study of arithmetic and geometry was also impelled by secular considerations. This meant that an understanding of geometry and arithmetic was virtually essential for revenue administrators. possibly in the Harappan period.

Others believe that once the scientific method came to be formalized in the Nyaya-Sutras proofs for such results must have been provided. Mahaviracharya further emphasized the importance of mathematics: "Whatever object exists in this moving and non-moving world. or else were transmitted orally through the Gurukul system. mathematics)". . Philosophy and Mathematics Philosophical doctrines also had a profound influence on the development of mathematical concepts and formulations.e mathematics was given considerable importance in the Vedic period. phonology and morphology. Some believe that these results came about through hit and trial as rules of thumb." (Many centuries later. G G Joseph. segment into seven equal parts. Besides expounding a comprehensive and scientific theory of phonetics. Today. Like the Upanishadic world view. Basic elements such as vowels and consonants. in The crest of the peacock argues that the algebraic nature of Indian mathematics arises as a consequence of the structure of the Sanskrit language. Modern-day commentators are divided on how some of the results were generated. but these have either been lost or destroyed.e. Panini's constructions can also be seen as comparable to modern definitions of a mathematical function. Ingerman in his paper titled Panini-Backus form finds Panini's notation to be equivalent in its power to that of Backus . The construction of compound words and sentences was elaborated through ordered rules operating on underlying structures in a manner similar to formal language theory. and a solution to the general linear equation. Jain mathematician from Mysore. the study of Ganit i. parts of speech such as nouns and verbs were placed in classes. or as generalizations of observed examples.com/ to remove this watermark. In any case. The Vedang Jyotish (1000 BC) includes the statement: "Just as the feathers of a peacock and the jewel-stone of a snake are placed at the highest point of the body (at the forehead).verypdf. and only the final results were tabulated in the texts.inventor of the Backus Normal Form used to describe the syntax of modern computer languages. Thus Panini's work provided an example of a scientific notational model that could have propelled later mathematicians to use abstract notations in characterizing algebraic equations and presenting algebraic theorems and results in a scientific format. the position of Ganit is the highest amongst all branches of the Vedas and the Shastras. Jain texts from the 6th C BC such as the Surya Pragyapti describe ellipses. similarly.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.) Panini and Formal Scientific Notation A particularly important development in the history of Indian science that was to have a profound impact on all mathematical treatises that followed was the pioneering work by Panini (6th C BC) in the field of Sanskrit grammar and linguistics. Panini provided formal production rules and definitions describing Sanskrit grammar in his treatise called Asthadhyayi. cannot be understood without the base of Ganit (i.

Infinite numbers were created through recursive formulae. (Ifrah arguing that the use of zero is already implied in Aryabhatta) tangible evidence for the use of the zero begins to proliferate towards the end of the Gupta period. it probably helped in grappling with indeterminate equations and finding numerical approximations to irrational numbers. minus. Trik Aached. square root etc) eventually became the foundation stones of modern mathematical notation. The Indian Numeral System Although the Chinese were also using a decimal based counting system. The Anuyoga Dwara Sutra demonstrates an understanding of the law of indeces and uses it to develop the notion of logarithms.e. and Chatur Aached are used to denote log base 2.verypdf. This led to a deep interest in very large numbers and definitions of infinite numbers. as in the Anuyoga Dwara Sutra. emptiness or the void may have facilitated in the introduction of the concept of zero. In Satkhandagama various sets are operated upon by logarithmic functions to base two. Jain set theory probably arose in parallel with the Syadvada system of Jain epistemology in which reality was described in terms of pairs of truth conditions and state changes. infinite everywhere and perpetually infinite. and along with the symbols denoting various mathematical functions (such as plus. log base 3 and log base 4 respectively. Although scholars are divided about how early the symbol for zero came to be used in numeric notation in India. space and time were considered limitless in Jain cosmology. Terms like Ardh Aached . Since Jain epistemology allowed for a degree of indeterminacy in describing reality. The operations are repeated to produce new sets. Indian numerals developed into their modern form. Buddhist mathematics was classified either as Garna (Simple Mathematics) or Sankhyan (Higher Mathematics). While the zero (bindu) as an empty place holder in the place-value numeral system appears much earlier.com/ to remove this watermark. algebraic definitions of the zero and it's relationship to mathematical functions appear in the mathematical treatises of Brahmagupta in the 7th C AD. in area. Philosophical formulations concerning Shunya . and by raising to finite or infinite powers. the Chinese lacked a formal notational system that had the abstraction and elegance of the Indian notational system. Buddhist literature also demonstrates an awareness of indeterminate and infinite numbers. Asankheya (uncountable) and Anant (infinite). In other works the relation of the number of combinations to the coefficients occurring in the binomial expansion is noted.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.i. Permutations and combinations are listed in the Bhagvati Sutras (3rd C BC) and Sathananga Sutra (2nd C BC). by squaring and extracting square roots. Jain mathematicians recognized five different types of infinities: infinite in one direction. Numbers were deemed to be of three types: Sankheya (countable). and it was the Indian notational system that reached the Western world through the Arabs and has now been . in two directions. Between the 7th C and the 11th C.

as might have the rationalist doctrines and the exacting epistemology of the Nyaya Sutras. The science of astronomy was also spurred by the need to have accurate calendars and a better understanding of climate and rainfall patterns for timely sowing and choice of crops. There was already a long and established history in the use of decimal numbers. Knowledge of astronomy . Panini's studies in linguistic theory and formal language and the powerful role of symbolism and representational abstraction in art and architecture may have also provided an impetus. This is borne out by numerous references in the Jataka tales and several other folk-tales. particularly lending and borrowing demanded an understanding of both simple and compound interest which probably stimulated the interest in arithmetic and geometric series. who in turn received training at universities such as at Kusumpura (Bihar) or Ujjain (Central India) or at smaller local colleges or Gurukuls. accepted as universal. and in China the pictorial script posed as a hindrance.Aryabhatta (born in 476 AD.com/ to remove this watermark. In the Western world. This led to a proliferation of teachers of astronomy. It's simplicity lies in the way it facilitated calculation and placed arithmetic foremost amongst useful inventions. Kusumpura. Virtually every Indian state produced great mathematicians who wrote commentaries on the works of other mathematicians (who may have lived and worked in a different part of India many centuries earlier). the cumbersome roman numeral system posed as a major obstacle. this invention was no accident. Brahmagupta's description of negative numbers as debts and positive numbers as fortunes points to a link between trade and mathematical study. The idea seems so simple nowadays that its significance and profound importance is no longer appreciated.verypdf. Influence of Trade and Commerce. Bihar) provided a systematic treatment of the . Importance of Astronomy The growth of trade and commerce. The young person who wished to embark on a commercial venture was inevitably required to first gain some grounding in astronomy." Brilliant as it was. Sanskrit served as the common medium of scientific communication. This also led to the exchange of texts on astronomy and mathematics amongst scholars and the transmission of knowledge from one part of India to another.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. and philosophical and cosmological constructs encouraged a creative and expansive approach to number theory. Several factors contributed to this development whose significance is perhaps best stated by French mathematician.particularly knowledge of the tides and the stars was of great import to trading communities who crossed oceans or deserts at night. At the same time. But in India. One of the greatest scientists of the Gupta period . religion and astrology also played a role in creating an interest in astronomy and a negative fallout of this irrational influence was the rejection of scientific theories that were far ahead of their time. Laplace: "The ingenious method of expressing every possible number using a set of ten symbols (each symbol having a place value and an absolute value) emerged in India. almost everything was in place to favor such a development. and the innovative abstractions of the Syadavada and Buddhist schools of learning.

Aryabhatta had to solve several mathematical problems that had not been addressed before. position of the planets in space. Although Bhaskar I (born Saurashtra. He also did pioneering work on indeterminate equations and considered for the first time quadrilaterals with all the four sides unequal and none of the opposite sides parallel. Andhra ) recognized his genius and the tremendous value of his scientific contributions. Brahmagupta did important work in enumerating the basic principles of algebra. including problems in algebra (beej-ganit) and trigonometry (trikonmiti). Again. and the lunar crescent.verypdf. and discussed in further detail topics such as the longitudes of the planets. In addition to listing the algebraic properties of zero. Nizamabad.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. particularly on those from the Asmaka school. Amongst his most important contributions was his formula for calculating the sine function which was 99% accurate. some later astronomers continued to believe in a static earth and rejected his rational explanations of the eclipses. risings and settings of the planets. Another important astronomer/mathematician was Varahamira (6th C.i. His works on permutations and combinations complemented what had been previously achieved by Jain mathematicians and provided a method of calculation of nCr that closely resembles the much more recent Pascal's Triangle. 6th C. His work on solutions to quadratic indeterminate equations anticipated the work of Euler and Lagrange.com/ to remove this watermark. Aryabhatta had a profound influence on the astronomers and mathematicians who followed him. Emergence of Calculus In the course of developing a precise mapping of the lunar eclipse. His calculations on pi. conjunctions of the planets with each other and with bright stars. he also listed the algebraic properties of negative numbers. Aryabhatta was obliged to introduce the concept of infinitesimals . and like Aryabhatta correctly assessed pi to be an irrational number. and express it in the form of a basic differential equation. In making such calculations. He correctly posited the axial rotation of the earth. He also correctly deduced that the moon and the planets shined by reflected sunlight and provided a valid explanation for the solar and lunar eclipses rejecting the superstitions and mythical belief systems surrounding the phenomenon. But in spite of such setbacks. tatkalika gati to designate the infinitesimal. Bhaskar I continued where Aryabhatta left off. and follower of the Asmaka school of science. Aryabhatta's equations . Mathematics played a vital role in Aryabhatta's revolutionary understanding of the solar system.e. the circumferance of the earth (62832 miles) and the length of the solar year (within about 13 minutes of the modern calculation) were remarkably close approximations. and inferred correctly that the orbits of the planets were ellipses. or near instantaneous motion of the moon. Ujjain) who compiled previously written texts on astronomy and made important additions to Aryabhatta's trigonometric formulas. In the 7th century. these studies required still more advanced mathematics and Bhaskar I expanded on the trigonometric equations provided by Aryabhatta.

Some of these examples involved fairly complicated solutions and his Patiganita is considered an advanced mathematical work. an astronomical text. planetary mean motion. Of particular interest are his trigonometric equations: sin(a + b) = sin a cos b + cos a sin b. The leading light of 12th C Indian mathematics was Bhaskaracharya who came from a long-line of mathematicians and was head of the astronomical observatory at Ujjain. Sridhara (probably Bengal) provided mathematical formulae for a variety of practical problems involving ratios. and broached the fields of infinitesimal calculation and integration. including progressions with fractional numbers or terms. purchase and sale.com/ to remove this watermark. barter. Applied Mathematics. Solutions to Practical Problems Developments also took place in applied mathematics such as in creation of trigonometric tables and measurement units. Mahaviracharya ( Mysore) wrote Ganit Saar Sangraha where he described the currently used method of calculating the Least Common Multiple (LCM) of given numbers. He also discussed astronomical instruments and spherical trigonometry. and filling of cisterns. He also derived formulae to calculate the area of an ellipse and a quadrilateral inscribed within a circle (something that had also been looked at by Brahmagupta) The solution of indeterminate equations also drew considerable interest in the 9th century. whose Karanatilaka was translated by Al-Beruni into Arabic) and Sripati of Maharashtra are amongst the prominent mathematicians of the century.b) = sin a cos b . mixtures. rates of travel. The Spread of Indian Mathematics . Sections of the book were also devoted to arithmetic and geometric progressions. In the 9th C. Yativrsabha's work Tiloyapannatti (6th C) gives various units for measuring distances and time and also describes the system of infinite time measures. wages. and several mathematicians contributed approximations and solutions to different types of indeterminate equations.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Later mathematicians used their intuitive understanding of integration in deriving the areas of curved surfaces and the volumes enclosed by them. He left several important mathematical texts including the Lilavati and Bijaganita and the Siddhanta Shiromani. Vijayanandi (of Benares. simple interest. He was the first to recognize that certain types of quadratic equations could have two solutions. eccentric epicyclical model of the planets. first visibilities of the planets. His Chakrawaat method of solving indeterminate solutions preceded European solutions by several centuries. and in his Siddhanta Shiromani he postulated that the earth had a gravitational force. there are several chapters relating to the study of the sphere and it's properties and applications to geography.cos a sin b. and formulas for the sum of certain finite series are provided. the lunar crescent etc.verypdf. the seasons. sin(a . were elaborated on by Manjula (10th C) and Bhaskaracharya (12th C) who derived the differential of the sine function. In the second part of this treatise. In the late 9th C. Mathematical investigation continued into the 10th C.

Al-Razi (Teheran). Kerala) provided detailed proofs of the theorems and derivations of the rules contained in the works of Madhava and Nilkantha. died Afghanistan). Tirur. and specially remarked on Indian achievements in the sciences and in mathematics. author of Kitab fi al-hisab al-hindi). Rajagopal.verypdf. The study of mathematics appears to slow down after the onslaught of the Islamic invasions and the conversion of colleges and universities to madrasahs. and eventually penetrating all of Europe. Al-Beruni (11th C. Kerala) gave integer solutions to twenty-one types of systems of two algebraic equations. Madhava (14th C. author of The book of Chapters in Indian Arithmetic). Nilkantha (15th C. Of course. Historians of mathematics. Maghreb. Khiva). His series expansion of the cos and sine functions anticipated Newton by almost three centuries. the formula for the sum of an infinite series. Indian algebra and trigonometry reached Europe through a cycle of translations. Arabic and Persian translations of Greek and Egyptian scientific texts became more readily available in India. that of modern classical analysis. Records of the Indian origin of many proofs. Rangachari and Joseph considered his contributions instrumental in taking mathematics to the next stage. and mathematics that anticipated work by later Europeans. It is also notable that Jyesthadeva's Yuktibhasa which contained commentaries on Nilkantha's Tantrasamgraha included elaborations on planetary theory later adopted by Tycho Brahe. using both algebraic and geometric methods in developing his results. Al-Uqlidisi (10th C. Basra). eventually. Kochi) made important mathematical discoveries that would not be identified by European mathematicians till at least two centuries later. Persia). Cordoba) were amongst the many who based their own scientific texts on translations of Indian treatises. Indian mathematical texts played a particularly important role. Greek and some Chinese texts. an 11th C Spanish scholar and court historian was amongst the most enthusiastic in his praise of Indian civilization. Said Al-Andalusi. Chitrabhanu (16th C. Important discoveries by the Kerala mathematicians included the NewtonGauss interpolation formula. Al-Nasawi (Khurasan. Abbasid scholar Al-Gaheth wrote: " India is the source of knowledge. Damascus.com/ to remove this watermark. travelling from the Arab world to Spain and Sicily. Ibn al-Samh (Granada. and . born Khiva. Kerala) extended and elaborated upon the results of Madhava while Jyesthadeva (16th C. The Kerala School Although it appears that original work in mathematics ceased in much of Northern India after the Islamic conquests. concepts and formulations were obscured in the later centuries. Baghdad). 11th C. especially in Spain. Although Arab scholars relied on a variety of sources including Babylonian. Al-Qayarawani (9th C. 11th C. Spain). but the enormous contributions of Indian mathematics was generously acknowledged by several important Arabic and Persian scholars.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Scholars such as Ibn Tariq and Al-Fazari (8th C. Benaras survived as a center for mathematical study. Syrian. Ibn-Sina (Avicenna). Al-Maoudi (956 AD) who travelled in Western India also wrote about the greatness of Indian science. and Ibn-Al-Saffar (11th C. Al-Khwarizmi (9th C. But this was also the time when Indian mathematical texts were increasingly being translated into Arabic and Persian. thought and insight”. Al-Kindi (9th C. and an important school of mathematics blossomed in Kerala. At the same time.

a series notation for pi. Not only did India provide the financial capital for the industrial revolution (see the essay on colonization) India also provided vital elements of the scientific foundation without which humanity could not have entered this modern age of science and high technology. the relationship between geometry and architectural decoration was developed to it's greatest heights by Central Asian. Transmission of the Indian Numeral System: Evidence for the transmission of the Indian Numeral System to the West is provided by Joseph (Crest of the Peacock): Quotes Severus Sebokht (662) in a Syriac text describing the "subtle discoveries" of Indian astronomers as being "more ingenious than those of the Greeks and the Babylonians" and "their valuable methods of computation which surpass description" and then goes on to mention the use of nine numerals. any desired number can be written. Mathematics and Architecture: Interest in arithmetic and geometric series may have also been stimulated by (and influenced) Indian architectural designs .(as in temple shikaras.. published in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland) was one of the first Westerners to recognize that the Kerala school had anticipated by almost 300 years many European developments in the field. Of course. The science of mathematics played a pivotal role not only in the industrial revolution but in the scientific developments that have occurred since. · Quotes from Liber abaci (Book of the Abacus) by Fibonacci (1170-1250): The nine Indian numerals are . author of Chandasutra explored the relationship between combinatorics and musical theory anticipating Mersenne (1588-1648) author of a classic on musical theory.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Kochi is only 70km from Thrissur . No other branch of science is complete without mathematics. Arab and Indian architects in a variety of monuments commissioned by the Islamic rulers.with these nine and with the sign 0 which in Arabic is sifr. gopurams and corbelled temple ceilings). Yet. Turkish. But as this essay amply demonstrates. Persian. few modern compendiums on the history of mathematics have paid adequate attention to the often pioneering and revolutionary contributions of Indian mathematicians.. (Fibonaci learnt about Indian numerals from his Arab teachers in North Africa) Influence of the Kerala School: Joseph (Crest of the Peacock) suggests that Indian mathematical manuscripts may have been brought to Europe by Jesuit priests such as Matteo Ricci who spent two years in Kochi (Cochin) after being ordained in Goa in 1580. Notes: Mathematics and Music: Pingala (3rd C AD). a significant body of mathematical works were produced in the Indian subcontinent.com/ to remove this watermark.verypdf. Charles Whish (1835.

(Siwan) 18 (3) (1984). B5-B13. 10. S S Demidov. Bhaskara I and his works III. 3. G Kumari: Some significant results of algebra of pre-Aryabhata era. 1998). Bhaskara I and his works II. Cavalieri and Wallis spent time). and it is not inconceivable that Jesuit monks may have also taken copies to Pisa (where Galileo. K Shankar Shukla: Bhaskara I.G G Joseph: The crest of the peacock (Princeton University Press. MahaBhaskariya (Sanskrit) (Lucknow. "Nauka" (Moscow. 137. 5. Sci. 1960). L C Jain and Km Meena Jain: System theory in Jaina school of mathematics. B Datta: The science of the Sulba (Calcutta. R C Gupta: The first unenumerable number in Jaina mathematics. F A Medvedev and E I Slavutin: Studies in the history of mathematics. 220-222. P Z Ingerman: 'Panini-Backus form'. Math. K Shankar Shukla: Bhaskara I. Hist. 8. 13. Ganita Bharati 14 (1-4) (1992). 98-107. R P Kulkarni: The value of pi known to Sulbasutrakaras. or Padau (where James Gregory studied) or Paris (where Mersenne who was in touch with Fermat and Pascal. 31-65. Sci. 11-24. 24 (3) (1989). 9. 1932). 6. acted as an agent for the transmission of mathematical ideas). 1963). Ed.com/ to remove this watermark. 32-41. Communications of the ACM 10 (3)(1967). 14 (1) (1979). G Ifrah: A universal history of numbers: From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London. 7. 1974). 9b. Sci. 2000). Ed.A P Juskevic. II. 302. Math. Indian J. 163-180 12. 4. 11.Studies in the History of Science in India (Anthology edited by Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya) 2.P Jha: Contributions of the Jainas to astronomy and mathematics. 13 (1) (1978). (Trichur) which was then the largest repository of astronomical documents. Hist. LaghuBhaskariya (Sanskrit) (Lucknow.two European mathematicians obtained their copies of works by the Kerala mathematicians from Thrissur.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. Indian J.verypdf. (Siwan) 14 (1) (1980). . L C Jain: System theory in Jaina school of mathematics. Whish and Hyne . References: 1. Indian Journal Hist.

T. Bag: Mathematics in Ancient and Medieval India (1979. B Datta: On Mahavira's solution of rational triangles and quadrilaterals. 45-49. K S Shukla: Hindu mathematics in the seventh century as found in Bhaskara I's commentary on the Aryabhatiya. History Exact Sci. Bull. Calcutta Math. Sci. Singh: Foundations of Logic in Ancient India.A. A Rahman. B S Jain: On the Ganita-Sara-Samgraha of Mahavira (c. B67-B70 24. 1959). (Indian National Science Academy) 30. 17. 1984. of Science.N.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. S Parameswaran: Madhavan. 19. C T Rajagopal and M S Rangachari: On an untapped source of medieval Keralese mathematics. Ganita Bharati 14 (1-4) (1992).an analytical appraisal. K Shankar Shukla: The Patiganita of Sridharacarya (Lucknow. 35 (1986). 12 (1) (1977). Arch. 15. 267-294.K. and S Hariharan: Yuktibhasa of Jyesthadeva : a book of rationales in Indian mathematics and astronomy . Subarayappa: Concise History of Science in India. Soc. 67-70.). Technology and Development Studies. History Exact Sci. Sen. Ganita-Bharati 18 (1-4) (1996). 91-99. 1972). 18. 23. 14. R C Gupta: The Madhava-Gregory series. A. 28. 27. Ganita 22 (1) (1971). Sci.verypdf. Suter: Mathematiker 20. 16.com/ to remove this watermark. Saraswati: Geometry in Ancient and Medieval India (1979. 115-130. Bose. R C Gupta: Varahamihira's calculation of nCr and the discovery of Pascal's triangle. ed. K V Sarma: A History of the Kerala School of Hindu Astronomy (Hoshiarpur. Varanasi) 29. Indian J. Suter: Die Mathematiker und Astronomen der Araber 21. K V Sarma. Delhi) 31.D. H. C T Rajagopal and M S Rangachari: On medieval Keralese mathematics. Education 7 (1973). Hist. 25. Linguistics and Mathematics ( Science and technology in Indian Culture. New Delhi. 185-207 26. National Instt. Indian J. 850 A. 26 (2) (1991). Die philosophischen Abhandlungen des al-Kindi. NISTAD) . Munster. the father of analysis. 18 (1978). 1897 22. 20 (1932). Math. Hist. Arch. 89-102. 17-32.

a bias which most often manifests not in explicit racism.com/indianhistory. and to deny India one of its greatest contributions to world civilization. go back to the earliest epoch of the "Western" scientific tradition. and to India in particular. 1985) 33. 229-44. The debt owed by the West to other civilizations.com/ to remove this watermark. Brahmagupta.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www." -Indic Mathematics Related Essays: The following essays can be found at http://india_resource.) ______________________________________ Top <To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] Another view on Indian Mathematics: Indic Mathematics: India and the Scientific Revolution (1) Dr.tripod.verypdf. Bhaskara and Maadhava. and continued up until the dawn of the modern era. Singh: "The so-called Fibonacci numbers in ancient and medieval India. Mahavira." Dr Gray goes on to list some of the most important developments in the history of mathematics that took place in India. the renaissance. Chin Keh-Mu: India and China: Scientific Exchange (History of Science in India Vol 2. To do so is to distort history. but in a tendency toward undermining or eliding the real contributions made by non-Western civilizations. P. (Historia Mathematica. when Europe was awakening from its dark ages. He concludes by asserting that "the role played by India in the development (of the scientific revolution in Europe) is no mere footnote.html Development of Philosophical Thought and Scientific Method in Ancient india Philosophical Development from Upanishadic Theism to Scientific Realism History of the Physical Sciences in India ________________________________ . David Gray writes: "The study of mathematics in the West has long been characterized by a certain ethnocentric bias. easily and inconsequentially swept under the rug of Eurocentric bias. the age of the classical Greeks. 32. 12. summarizing the contributions of luminaries such as Aryabhatta.

contributions. Indic Mathematics India and the Scientific Revolution(2) By David Gray.e. to the Greeks." argued that "the standard treatment of the history of non-European mathematics is a product of historiographical bias (conscious or otherwise) in the selection and interpretation of facts. despite the fact that the Greeks lacked not only mathematic notation. devaluing or distorting contributions arising outside European mathematical traditions. without which advanced mathematical calculation is impossible. one which fails to . or. the exploitation of which was ideologically justified through a doctrine of racial superiority. This tendency has not only led to the devaluation of non-Western mathematical traditions. results in ignoring. but has distorted the history of Western mathematics as well. Greek. but in a tendency toward undermining or eliding the real contributions made by non-Western civilizations. who transmitted to Europe both their own lost heritage as well as the advanced mathematical traditions formulated in India. but an inadequate history as well. The debt owed by the West to other civilizations. the tendency of some math historians to jump from the Greeks to renaissance Europe results not only in an ethnocentric history. the age of the classical Greeks. which were actually introduced to Europe over a millennium later by the Arabs. Such ethnocentric revisionist history resulted in the attribution of more advanced algebraic concepts. as Sabetai Unguru has argued. considered inferior or irrelevant to Western mathematical traditions." (1987:14) Due to the legacy of colonialism. in that they were often misattributed as European. even distorted. toward a tendency to read more advanced mathematical concepts into the relatively simplistic geometrical formulations of Greek mathematicians such as Euclid. in an important article entitled "Foundations of Eurocentrism in Mathematics. there is the problem of accounting for the development of mathematics purely within the Western cultural framework. when Europe was awakening from its dark ages. George Ghevarughese Joseph. go back to the earliest epoch of the "Western" scientific tradition.verypdf. they were typically devalued. Math and Ethnocentrism The study of mathematics in the West has long been characterized by a certain ethnocentric bias. and when their contributions were so great as to resist such treatment. PhD 1. This awakening was in part made possible by the rediscovery of mathematics and other sciences and technologies through the medium of the Arabs. as a consequence. which. and to India in particular. In so far as the contributions from non-Western civilizations are ignored. but even the place-value system of enumeration.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. as Joseph argued.com/ to remove this watermark. This has led. and continued up until the dawn of the modern era. a bias which most often manifests not in explicit racism. the contributions of nonEuropean civilizations were often ignored. the renaissance. And while the contributions of the Greeks to mathematics was quite significant. i.

where 10. This knowledge was further elaborated in the kalpa sutras. it is quite possible that both the Greeks and the Indians developed geometry. transmitted via the Persians who traded both with the Greeks and the Indians. the theory that the Greeks were the source of Geometric algebra is untenable. Zero and the Place Value System Far more important to the development of modern mathematics than either Greek or Indian geometry was the development of the place value system of enumeration. Several of these treat the topic of altar construction. Vedic Altars and the "Pythagorean theorem" A perfect example of this sort of misattribution involves the so-called Pythagorean theorem. The Yajurveda Samhitaa.verypdf. As this text was composed about a century before Pythagoras. shows that the thesis that Greece was the origin of geometric algebra was incorrect. that both seem to have developed geometry out of the practical problems involving their construction of elaborate sacrificial altars. in fact. whose largest unit of enumeration was the myriad (10. (See Seidenberg 1962 and 1983 3. Nor was it developed by the Arabs. a text dated to circa 600 BCE.000) or in China. Knowledge of mathematics. The oldest and most complete of these is the previously mentioned Shulva Sutra of Baudhaayana. Despite the scarcity of evidence backing this attribution. and mathematics was thus one of the topics covered in the brahmanas. written centuries later. despite the fact that this numeral system is commonly called the Arabic numerals in Europe. where it evidently was of quite ancient origin. "for geometric algebra existed in India before the classical period in Greece. one of the Vedic texts predating ." (1978:323) It is now generally understood that the so-called "Pythagorean theorem" was understood in ancient India. perhaps due to the mantra-like frequency with which it is repeated. which gave more detailed instructions concerning Vedic ritual. Seidenberg. This system of enumeration was not developed by the Greeks. the well-known theorem which was attributed to Pythagoras who lived around 500 BCE. where this system was first introduced by the Arabs in the thirteenth century. in his 1978 article. and was in fact proved in Baudhayana's Shulva Sutra. but which was first proven in Greek sources in Euclid's Geometry. while the hypothesis that India was have been a source for Greek geometry.com/ to remove this watermark. On the other hand. Seidenberg has argued. which is by no means a purely European development. However.000 was also the largest unit of enumeration until recent times. the base ten system of calculation which uses nine numerals and zero to represent numbers ranging from the most minuscule decimal to the most inconceivably large power of ten. and geometry in particular. looks increasingly plausible. take into account the full history of the development of modern mathematics. Rather. this system was invented in India. was necessary for the precise construction of the complex Vedic altars. 2. (1978:323). it is not often questioned.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.

hundred thousand. who lived circa the first century BCE. the Sanskrit numeral system contained the very key to the discovery of the place-value system. to express a given number.verypdf. In other words.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. etc. providing distinct names where English makes use of auxillary bases such as thousand. became the basis for a classical era renaissance in Indian mathematics. and this system is embedded in the Sanskrit language. which has been definitely dated to Monday 25 August 458 CE. The oldest known text to use zero is a Jain text entitled the Lokavibhaaga. the numeral zero. Ifrah has commented that: By giving each power of ten an individual name. well suited to scientific and mathematical reasoning. Pingala. ten million. or the Greeks and Chinese (whose limit was ten thousand) and even to our own system (where the names thousand. and so forth up to the fifty-third power. who lived roughly fourteen hundred years later. the rule being presented in a natural way and thus appearing self-explanatory. but also ten thousand. (2000:429) As Ifrah has shown at length. the Indians. (See Van Nooten) India is also the locus of another closely related an equally important mathematical discovery. Nor did this system exhaust Indian ingenuity. million. developed a system of binary enumeration convertible to decimal numerals. the Sanskrit system gave no special importance to any number. from a very early date. as van Nooten has shown. lists names for each of the units of ten up to 10 to the twelfth power (paraardha). The Indian numeral system and its place value. expressed them taking the powers of ten and the names of the first nine units individually. Thus the Sanskrit system is obviously superior to that of the Arabs (for whom the thousand was the limit). who lacking a system of enumeration were unable to develop abstract mathematical concepts. continue to act as auxillary bases). far exceeding their Greek contemporaries. vyarbuda). (Ifrah 2000:417-1 9) This concept. Not only are the units ten. Instead of naming the numbers in groups of three. decimal system of enumeration came to the attention of the Arabs in the seventh or eighth . hundred million (ayuta. His system is quite similar to that of Leibniz.com/ to remove this watermark. where each power of ten is given a distinct name. The place value system of enumeration is in fact built into the Sanskrit language. described in his Chandahzaastra. hundred and thousand (daza. That is exactly what is required in order to gain a precise idea of the place-value system. several aspects of which make it a very logical language. million etc. zata. koti. four or eight orders of units. Euclid and the Greek mathematicians by at least a millennium. To put it plainly. (Subbarayappa 1970:49) Later Buddhist and Jain authors extended this list as high as the fifty-third power. sahasra) named as in English. combined by the place-value system of enumeration. one only had to place the name indicating the order of units between the name of the order of units immediately immediately below it and the one immediately above it. lakSa. there is little doubt that our place-value numeral system developed in India (2000:399-409).

i. a development which did not occur in Europe until roughly one thousand years later. represented by figures such as al-Khwarizmi. (See Kak p. trigonometry. With regard to the former. and translated into Arabic. but their eventual adoption of this system led to the scientific revolution that began to sweep Europe beginning in the thirteenth century. being attached to the far less logical roman numeral system.a's mathematics was far ranging. (Pingree 1981:57) In addition." (Ifrah 2000:419) Given the astounding range of advanced mathematical concepts and techniques covered in this fifth century text.iiya. century.1416. 4. It reached Europe in the twelfth century when Adelard of Bath translated al-Khwarizmi's works into Latin. beginning roughly one thousand years before the European Renaissance. the text is notable for its for its awareness of the relativity of motion. Probably the most celebrated Indian mathematicians belonging to this period was Aaryabhat. algebra. With regard to mathematics. and served as the basis for the well known advancement in Arab mathematics. he thus went beyond geometry and contributed to the development of trigonometry. Luminaries of Classical Indian Mathematics Aryabhata The world did not have to wait for the Europeans to awake from their long intellectual slumber to see the development of advanced mathematical techniques. He argued for the diurnal rotation of the earth.a "invented a unique method of recording numbers which required perfect understanding of zero and the place-value system. as the topics he covered include geometry. Aaryabhat. India achieved its own scientific renaissance of sorts during its classical era.a's greatest contributions was the calculation of sine tables.com/ to remove this watermark. when he was only 23 years old. who was born in 476 CE. one of Aaryabhat. He made this suggestion approximately one thousand years before Copernicus. when the Europeans translated Indian influenced Arab mathematical texts. Aaryabhat.e.. whence it . It was studied by the Arabs in the eighth century following their conquest of Sind.a wrote his Aaryabhat. In developing a way to calculate the sine of curves. which no doubt was of great use for his astronomical calculations.verypdf. reached the same conclusion. In 499.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. evidently independently. (Subbarayappa 1970:49) But the Europeans were at first resistant to this system. as an alternate theory to the rotation of the fixed stars and sun around the earth (Pingree 1981:18). 16) This awareness led to the astonishing suggestion that it is the Earth that rotates the Sun. He calculated pi to four decimal places. a text covering both astronomy and mathematics. 3. Aaryabhat.a. He also developed methods of solving quadratic and indeterminate equations using fractions. rather than the cruder method of calculating chords devised by the Greeks. it should be of no surprise that it became extremely well known in India. judging by the large numbers of commentaries written upon it.

(See Kak p. in which he developed a solution for a certain type of second order indeterminate equation.com/ to remove this watermark. developing the world's first consistent system of trigonometry. This text was translated into Arabic in the eighth century. including those involving multiple unknowns. he composed a four-part text entitled the Siddhanta Ziromani. which were in turn highly influenced by these Indian traditions. 14441545). (Pingree 1981. He also wrote on the solution to numerous kinds of linear and quadratic equations. cubes. The best known member of this school Maadhava (c. (See Hayashi 1997:784-786) He also . as well as the so-called "Pell's equation (vargaprakr. (Pingree 1981:60) Bhaaskara Bhaaskara was one of the many outstanding mathematicians hailing from South India. p. 64) In short. His best known work is the Brahmasphuta Siddhanta. written in 628 CE. since much of the Renaissance advances of mathematics in Europe was based upon the discovery of Arab mathematical texts. irrational numbers. and became very influential in Arab mathematics. Primarily an astronomer.verypdf. It contains descriptions of advanced mathematical techniques involving both positive and negative integers as well as zero. These include the mathematics of zero.akaara) method of solving indeterminate equations with continued fractions.ita. 16) Mahavira Mahaaviira was a Jain mathematician who lived in the ninth century.t.ti) dealing with indeterminate equations of the second degree. as well as problems relating to the casting of shadows. It treats at length the "pulverizer" (kut.a's. Brahmagupt Born in 598 CE in Rajastan in Western India. squares. cube-roots. Born in 1114 CE in Karnataka. influenced the development of both Arabic and European mathematical traditions. he made history in mathematics with his writings on trigonometry. and equations involving the product of different unknowns. cosine and arctangent of the circle. who wrote on a wide range of mathematical topics. which became the standard algebra textbook in Sanskrit. and the series extending beyond these. He also wrote on plane and solid geometry. He calculated the sine. Maadhava The Kerala region of South India was home to a very important school of mathematics. square-roots. Brahmagupta founded an influential school of mathematics which rivaled Aaryabhat. Included in this compilation is the Biijagan. he wrote a highly sophisticated mathematical text that proceeded by several centuries the development of such techniques in Europe. who lived in Sangamagraama in Kerala. although it would be better to term this a rediscovery.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www.

via the Arabs. In the case of classical India. 784-786. and Medicine in NonWestern Cultures. correctly calculated the value of p to eleven decimal places. later. 1997. Why. There are in fact. but rather a survey of the highlights of what is. received. unbiased standard. E.verypdf. 2000. 13-28. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science. George Ghevarughese. a history which was truly multicultural. and thus the opportunity to dedicate themselves to intellectual pursuits. Georges. This development thus triggered the scientific and information technology revolutions which swept Europe and. ed. easily and inconsequentially swept under the rug of Eurocentric bias.3. Harding. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Joseph. (Pingree 1981:490) This is by no means a complete list of influential Indian mathematicians or Indian contributions to mathematics. the university scholars. Ifrah. 1987. In both cases. In Race & Class 28. hierarchical societies in which certain elite groups were granted freedom from manual labor. The classical Indian mathematical renaissance was an important precursor to the European renaissance. pp. "Number Theory in India". trans. pp. Works Cited Hayashi. important revolutions in scientific thought occurred in complex. The role played by India in the development is no mere footnote. assimilated and accepted the placevalue system of enumeration developed in India that they were able to free their minds from the concrete and develop more abstract systems of thought. did Europe take over thousand years to attain the level of abstract mathematics achieved by Indians such as Aaryabhat. The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. deriving its inspiration from a variety of cultural roots. one might ask. the world. Inc. these groups included certain brahmins as well as the Buddhist and Jain monks. an illustrious tradition. Sophie Wood and Ian Monk. In Helaine Selin.com/ to remove this watermark. and to ignore this fact is to fail to grasp the history of latter. "The Sanskrit of Science".Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. while in renaissance Europe they included both the monks as well as their secular derivatives. as Frits Staal has suggested in his important (1995) article. .a? The answer appears to be that Europeans were trapped in the relatively simplistic and concrete geometrical mathematics developed by the Greeks. judged by any fair. It was not until they had. Takao. F. David Bellos. profound similarities between the social contexts of classical India and renaissance Europe. "Foundations of Eurocentrism in Mathematics". Technology. important both for its own internal elegance as well as its influence on the history of European mathematical traditions. New York: John Wiley & Sons. To do so is to distort history. and to deny India one of it's greatest contributions to world civilization.

pp. pp.zaastra: Astral and Mathematical Literature. ______. "On the Need to Rewrite the History of Greek Mathematics". http://www. pp. In T. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 21-39. In Archive for History of Exact Sciences 15. In Frits Staal. 1975. Subhash. 4. 1983. B. R. A. pp. pp.Please purchase PDFcamp Printer on http://www. eds. Rao and Subhash Kak. Rao and Subhash Kak. vol. 301-42. Jyotih. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. Computing Science in Ancient India. Unguru. N.html ========================================== Related articles Nature uses maths Oldest Civilisation Speech Science Top <To top of this page Index Alphabetical [Index to Pages] . Staal. 47-66. "The Geometry of Vedic Rituals". 488-527. et al. Kak. 73-127. "India's Contributions to the History of Science". 2.4.infinityfoundation.. Computing Science in Ancient India. In Journal of Indian Philosophy 23. N. eds. 6-21. van Nooten. p. pp.com/ECITmathframeset. "Binary Numbers in Indian Antiquity". In T.verypdf. pp. Sabetai. Agni: The Vedic Ritual of the Fire Altar.com/ to remove this watermark. David. R. pp. V. eds. 95126. In Lokesh Chandra. Subbarayappa. India's Contribution to World Thought and Culture. 67-114. "The Ritual Origin of Geometry". In Archive for History of Exact Sciences 1. 1962. "The Origin of Mathematics". 1978. Frits. "The Sanskrit of Science".1. 1995. In Archive for History of Exact Sciences 18. 1981. 1970. ______. ed. Madras: Vivekananda Rock Memorial Committee. 1986. "An Overview of Ancient Indian Science". B. Pingree. Seidenberg.

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