# FORCE CALCULATIONS The clamping action of the die casting machine exerts tremendous forces on the die.

When the metal is injected, forces of similar magnitude are generated within the die. The force applied by the machine must hold the die halves together and must therefore exceed the force generated within the die. The die will then stay closed when the molten metal is injected. These are the die locking considerations. In addition to the die locking force', the die designer must consider also the forces required to hold moving cores, the forces that will act to deflect die components and the forces necessary to withstand thermal warpageof the die components.

Die Locking Early in the analysis of a die casting, die locking requirements should be calculated. These calculations will establish the machine size to be used. If the machine size has been established prior to the analysis (such as during the estimating procedure), these calculations serve as a verification. The analysis might show that the planned machine is inadequate. If so, a larger machine must be selected or the number of cavities reduced. The procedure is to compute the expected internal force that will be generated in the die, during injection of the molten metal, and specify the machine tonnage to equal or exceed the calculated value. The computation is made with equation 6-1. F = CPA [D/d)]2

accumulator discharge pressure drop and rod side back pressure must be factored into this pressure value. (sq. in.) d = Diameter of plunger on molten metal. . psi (kPa) A = Projected area of all cavities.F = CPA [D/d)]2 Where: F = Force required to hold the die closed. in. runners. overflows and sprue or biscuit. tons (kN) C = Constant for unit conversion. ton/2000 lb (1. (mm. m) D = Diameter of injection cylinder. (mm. Intensification.) I = Dimensionless impact/freeze factor. sq. in.0) P = Hydraulic pressure in injection cylinder.

the value of I will be greater than unity for all cavity fill times listed in Table 3-2. If the projected area A is not centered between the tie bars. (150 mm) diameter tie bars on 35-in. 2 and 3. Generally.e. The projected area is not the surface area of the cavity.The impact/freeze factor I in equation 6-1 may be greater than. (900 mm) centers according to the dimensions shown.000 kPa) for aluminum and magnesium castings.e.800 kPa) for zinc and from 5000 psi (34. the loading required of each tie bar must be computed by the sumof-the-moments. In those instances. 6-1 is used to show how the machine tonnage requirements are calculated for off-center situation. P (D / d)2 in equation 6-1) will usually be about 2000 psi (13.000 psi (70. Molten metal pressures (i. The illustration in Fig. The hypothetical cavity is positioned in a machine with 6-in.8 may be used for I. values of 0. view A in Fig. equal to.6 to 0. For brass castings it may be even higher The projected area A is measured in the view of the die which is normal to the direction of die opening. may be partially solidified when the pressure build-up occurs and not transmit the pressure like a hydraulic fluid. The value of I may range from approximately 3 for the shorter cavity fill times to 1.5 for the longer times. Thick castings with fill times approaching I sec. An off-center cavity situation is simulated in the figure by the three rectangles identified by the circled numbers 1. 2-1 and 2-2). or less than unity depending on the injection velocities required. The die designer should be supplied with the value of I to be used for the particular machine in which the die will be run.500 kPa) to 10. . usually the plan view of the ejector die (i.

. indicate an off-center cavity in respect to tie bars A. 2. The solution of this simplified example shows the off-center condition will in-crease the required tonnage by more than 60 percent.Fig. 6-1 The area represented by rectangles 1. B. C and D. and 3.

L. to give the forces shown in Table 6-1. Next. the area of each geometric form is calculated and multiplied by the injection pressure. Then.s.000 p. The injection pressure is assumed to be 4. 6-1) are computed. (30 MPa) or two tons per sq. in. tie bar D in Fig.The fust step is to divide the total projected area into simple geometric forms such as the three rectan-gles in the illustration and to find the center of gravity of each. for the example. .e. both the horizontal and vertical distances from the center of gravity of each geometric form to a tie bar (i.

for i = 1) .e. D = 35 in.5 tons) is entered in Table 6-1 in the column under tie bar A and in the row of segment 1.5 tons This value (99. D = Distance between tie bars. The first part is to calculate the load on the left side of the machine (i. tie bars B and D) is computed for the number 1 segment of projected area. on A = 118 tons x [29. hence: Load.5 in.5)/35] = 74 tons A check for the calculations by adding the two results (118 tons + 74 tons = 192 tons). The calculation is simplified by dividing it into several parts.4/35] = 118 tons Then. The total is 192 tons generated by segment 1 of the projected area.e. the load applied on the right side of the machine (i. by using the same general formula.The next step is to use the sum-of-the-moments technique to compute how the force of each section of projected area is applied to each of the four tie bars. Loadl on B + D = 192 tons x [(35-21. The calculation is repeated for tie bar C: which is also entered into Table 6-1. Likewise the 74 ton load on B + D is divided . (Xi = 21. and how the 74 tons is divided between tie bars B and D. Next it is necessary to determine how the 118 tons is divided between tie bars A and C. The formula used has the same general form as before. hence: Load1 on A + C = 192 tons x [21. 2 and 3 (Fi = 192 tons for i = 1) Xi= Distance from center of gravity of segment i to the centerline of Band D tie bars.5/35] = 99. tie bars A and C) using the formula: Load on A+C = Fi + Xi/D where: Fi = Force generated by projected area segment i where i = 1. Loadi on A = (Loadi on A + C) x [yi/D] where:yi= vertical distance between center of gravity of segment 1 to tie bar C.

The procedure is repeated for all segments of the projected area.And the results are duly entered into Table 6-1. .

As expected. the machine tonnage requirements are established.85 tons) of the tie bar with the greatest load A by the number of tie bars. only 344 tons would be required. 6-1 are used. All four tie bars must be "locked" (i. From these calculations. the loads are added for each tie bar. .e. The required machine size is determined by multiplying the load (137. pre-loaded) to 138 tons before the shot is made. If the same projected area could be arranged centrally within the tie bars. with each tie "bar carrying 86 tons. Table 6-1 shows tie bar A with the highest load.Finally. 6-1 and Table 6-1. the computation gives a minimum machine tonnage of 551 tons. For the example in Fig. If the metric sizes shown in Fig. they will yield the metric results shown in Table 6-1.

the deflection of the blocks usually can be ignored. The force acts through the die in line with the ejector box rails. On hot chamber ma-chines the force applied to the nozzle may bend the cover half of the die. the right-hand end of the casting in Fig. at 90°).00)2 A = 3. If the rail deflection is minimized. For example. 6-2. to the direction of core travel.14 sq. (80 sq. These machine force patterns are shown in Fig. the machine clamping force. is applied only in the direction of die opening. 5-3 would have a projected area of: A = p (1. and the maximum compressive deflection will occur in the rails. mm) The forces applied by the injected metal should be computed and recorded for all moving cores. and the actuating and locking mechanisms designed accordingly. Fortunately. The first of these.e. in. The ejector box support pillars should not be expected to support the die clamping forces. The . forces are spre!id through the die holder blocks. the computation is identical to that for die locking except for the selection of the projected area A.Moving Core locking Force The determination of the force required to hold moving cores against the force of the injected molten metal may be of more direct concern to the die designer since he must create the mechanism to achieve it. The amount of rail deflection that will be caused by the machine clamping the die can be calculated by: . The projected area A must be selected in the plane that is normal (i. Deflection of Die Components Both the machine clamping force and the pressure exerted by the injected molten metal will act to bend or deflect the die components.

The practical solution is to place support pillars from the ejector die block. If some areas have more or less support. reducing clamping tonnage and allowing flash to occur.002 in. the thickness and leI1gth of the rails can be found from Fig.). or by solving equation 6-2 for (T x L). Once the ejector box height has been determined. It is important that the ejector box rails support the die evenly. the die should be so designed that it is not only supported evenly. through clearance holes in the ejector plate to the machine platen surface. but that it fIts centrally within the machine platen area regardless of any off-center condition of the cavity. (0. the ejector rail deflection should be kept below 0. . 6-3. The places that deflect the most will permit relaxation in the nearest machine tie bar.For practical purposes.05 mm. The beam ends are secured considerably by the pinching action of the machine clamping force. they will deflect differently. Also. The force of the injected molten metal creates a very complex force pattern throughout the die which most nearly represents a uniformly loaded beam.

(0.004 in. in. and its ejector box rails needed to be 8-in. 175 tons (1. (25. it was planned for a 400 ton (3600 kN) machine. ton (3600 kN) line is -then projected down to find that 100 sq. Four pillars.10 mm) is built into the support pillars so their area can be 22 sq. (200 mm) high.).These pillars are made 0. each of 2.500 kN) with the 8-in.10 mm.000 sq.75-in.line with the ejector box rails. Fig. higher than the ejector box rails (H). (63 mm) diameter located near the center of the die should suffice for the example discussed.500 kN)). The intersection with the 400. The tonnage (force).000 sq. mm) is required. 6-3 at the 8 in. (0. in.).500 sq. lines are interpolated to determine the area required to support 175 tons (1. Assume for example that a die was calcu-lated from equation 6-1 to require 350 tons (3000 kN) of clamping force. to insure pre-loading. Then to find the necessary area of the support pillars. 6-2 The machine clamping force (arrows).004-in. From the graph it is apparent that 44 sq. mm). (200 mm) height. (60. (0. A line is drawn across the graph in Fig.000 kN) is halved (Le. mm) of rail area is required. the actual force of 350 tons (3.05 mm) deflection and O. (200 mm) level. allowance.002-in.10 mm.004 in. the graph is made for 0. and they are sized to carry half of the expected force computed from equation 6-1 when compressed to reduce their length by the 0. (0. in. is transmitted through the die in . However. . (12.

Fig. there is a common tendency to overload the die with nozzle clamping force.Fig. . (0. the cut-out areas can weaken the die considerably. if the machine platen has holes for clamping bolts located around the nozzle clearance.002 in. First. If not designed carefully. Also. 6-3 This graph shows the minimum area of ejector box rail support for a maximum compres-sive deflection of 0. the cavity pockets and sprue bushing hole should be so arranged that ribs of holder block steel criss-cross the die to the full thickness of the holder block. In practice however. the die should be drilled and tapped to accept the bolts. The die designer should be aware of this hazard and do what he can to insure that. within limits. it will be accommodated by his die design.05 mm). The force applied to the extension nozzle in hot-chamber machines should be so little that no special die design considerations are required. 6-4 shows such an arrangement. Finally. adequate holder block thickness must be provided between the bottom of the cavity pockets and the machine platen.

5-15. it must be constrained. 6-4 This plan view section through the stationary platen of a die casting machine shows how the die can be bolted through the platen to counteract the nozzle force Thermal Warpage Counterforces The natural thermal gradients in a die casting die tend to warp the die steel as discussed in Chapter 5 and illustrated in Fig. The amount of warpage of unrestrained blocks of steel is shown in Fig. 5-15. the thermal deformation will be something less than shown in Fig. "5-14 and 6-5. The required force F is calculated by equation 6-3. and in metric units .Fig. If the amount of warpage exceeds desirable or allowable limits. Since the various blocks of steel that make up a real die are always constrained to some extent.

000 lb. However. (150 kN). There is a natural tendency for designers to locate cavity block retaining screws in the comers of the blocks. Each 0.The solutions to equation 6-3 for several deflections y and thickness to width ratios T / W are shown in. screw will hold 33. (90 kN) and each 1 in. . it is obvious that a substantial amount of thermal deflection can be counteracted. When the screw loading. dia. screw can be stressed to about 20.000 lb.75-in. It is obvious that extremely large forces are required to overcome minute deflections. Table 6-2. From the preceding discussion it can be seen that the screws should be near the block center. values are compared with the forces required as shown in Table 6-2. clamps or other means may be required to apply an adequate force to keep the blocks flat. 6-5 Blocks of die steel deform (phantom lines) due to the thermal gradients within them. Screws. Fig. dia. screws used to counter thermal deflections must be placed Near the center of the block to be restrained and must be tightened adequately.