Review of Related Literature Pandan leaves come from the Pandanus amaryllifolius shrub, also known as the dwarf

or fragrant screw pine. This sprawling perennial plant is native to Southeast Asia and has been introduced in other tropical regions. It produces spirally arranged leaves about 1 to 1 1/2 inches wide and up to 18 inches in length. This shrubby perennial plant has fan shaped clusters of long, narrow leaves. Pandan leaves also contain compounds that repel some species of cockroaches and are a traditional insect repellent. Pandan leaves contain a number of essential oils and chemicals that cockroaches find unpleasant. Terpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons make up between 6 and 42 percent of the oils in these leaves, according to the National University of Singapore researchers. Pandan leaves contain substances repellent to vermins, they actually discourage these insects at a lower rate than other plants from the same geographical region.

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, though also by some insects such as termites or swallowtail butterflies, which emit terpenes from their osmeterium. They are often strong smelling and thus may have had a protective function. Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers. Pandan leaves also contain volatile oil, an essential oil found in plants, whisch helps to repel vermins. One of the reasons why we did this study is to reduce the use of deet. DEET as we all knows a very effective mosquito repellent but this is what we are trying to avoid. It is highly concentrated toxic that could make us hard to breath, have cough, minimal alertness, seizures, trouble stomach and vomiting. If you accidentally sprayed DEET into your eyes, mouth and nose, you can feel burning sensation and irritation. But if you burnt your eye, you must go for medication. DEET is very hazardous for children. Proper care should be taken once you are using DEET. It is advisable to use a natural based mosquito repellent than coming from synthetic chemicals. Many people's response to fears about West Nile Virus (WNV) and the normal annoyance of mosquito bites is to slather on the insect repellent, especially on their children. The most common choice is a DEET based repellent. A study released last summer showed some DEET based products to be the most effective, in that they lasted longer than other products. But DEET based repellents aren't just hazardous to mosquitoes. From a human health point of view, when mosquito bites are more of a nuisance than a serious health threat, choosing a botanical based repellent makes more sense. DEET is a registered pesticide. DEET is short for N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (also known as N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide). It is a member of the toluene chemical family. Toluene is an organic solvent used in rubber and plastic cements and paint removers. DEET is absorbed through the skin and passes into the blood. The Medical Sciences Bulletin, published by

citing health risks and evidence that increasing the percentage does not do much more to repel insects. -Do not spray in enclosed areas. Health Canada has now banned products with DEET concentrations over 30%. the US EPA made it illegal for any product containing DEET to make any child safety claims. Products with DEET are required to carry instructions that they should not be used at all for children under 6 months. The ban does not take effect until December 2004. The most serious concerns about DEET are its effects on the central nervous system. He found that lab animals exposed to the equivalent of average human doses of DEET performed far worse than untreated animals. a mosquito spray ingredient. Products containing DEET are now required to carry labels which specify: -Do not apply over cuts. or irritated skin. An emergency medicine bulletin notes that DEET may have significantly greater toxicity when combined with ethyl and isopropyl alcohols and freon which are components of some DEET repellents. its best to wear long sleeves and long pants. Repellent-treated clothes should be washed. -Do not use under clothing. wounds. Mohammed Abou-Donia of Duke University studied lab animals' performance of neuro-behavioural tasks requiring muscle co-ordination. Experts recommend that if using DEET. Additional required warnings state that for children 6 months to 2 years. They state DEET based products should only be applied sparingly. but does not eliminate it.Pharmaceutical Information Associates Ltd. For children from 2 -12 years old. In 1998." Blood concentrations of about 3 mg per litre have been reported several hours after DEET repellent was applied to skin in the prescribed fashion. so consumers may want to be careful not to pick up combination products still on store shelves. can lead to motor deficits and learning and memory dysfunction. and apply repellent to clothing rather than skin to reduce exposure. only concentrations of less than 10% DEET should be used. wash treated skin with soap and water. "Up to 56% of DEET applied topically penetrates intact human skin and 17% is absorbed into the bloodstream. and only once a day. DEET repellents should not be inhaled. Dr. Following all these precautions reduces risk. -After returning indoors. or kept outside living areas to reduce exposure. only concentrations fewer than 10% should be used. -Do not allow young children to apply this product. reports. Health Canada has also banned two in one products which combine sunscreen and DEET. Abou-Donia also found that combined exposure to DEET and permethrin. DEET is also absorbed by the gut. . saturation does not increase efficiency. and repellents should not be applied more than 3 times a day. For adults. saying they create the potential for people is exposed to too much DEET. when possible. -Do not apply to hands or near eyes and mouth of young children.

. They need to be applied more frequently than DEET based repellents. Citronella. Stringer smelling leaves offer greater repellant ability.There are a number of effective. particularly the chemically sensitive. Bug shirts or hats are an excellent. a 2% soybean oil formula. tea tree and eucalyptus are volatile oils and may trigger reactions in some people. their concentration of useful aromatic chemicals can vary significantly from one plant to next. which was effective for 95 minutes. and The Citronella Spray. and Bite Blocker for Kids. less toxic insect repellents available. Two botanical repellents which performed particularly well in a Florida study were Repel Lemon Eucalyptus Lotion Insect Repellent ( also marketed as Firebite Plant Based Insect Repellent) which protected for 120 minutes. Pharmacist Peter Ford in Moncton compounds two pesticide-free insect repellents: GUB lotion. tea tree and eucalyptus. but they do not carry the same health risks. Citronella products in the study provided about 30-40 minutes of protection. Since pandan leaves are natural product. which is vanilla based and well tolerated by chemically sensitive people. non-toxic method of protection. Great Ocean Natural Foods in Halifax stocks a selection of repellents based on essential oils including citronella.

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