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Data

Booklet

Chemistry Advanced Subsidiary and Advanced Level

for use from 2OO9 in all papers for the above

syllabus, except practical examinations

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UNIVERSITY o/ CAM BRI DGE

International Examinations

Tables ofGhemieal Dda,

lmportant values, eonstants and standards

molar gas constant

the Faraday constant

the Avogadro constant

the Planck mnstant

speed of light in a vacuum

rest mass of proton, lH

rest mass of neutron, fn

rest mass of electron, -!e

etectronic charge

molar volume of gas

R

F

L

h

= 8.31 J lfl

mol-1

= 9.65 x 10aC mol-1

= 6.02 x 1023 mol-l

=6.63x10+Js

c

= 3.00 x 10s m s-r

mp

= 1.67 x 10-27 kg

mn

= 1.67 x 10-27 kg

me

= 9.11 x 10{1 kg

e

= -1.60 x 1O-le C

Ym = 22.4dm3 mol-l at s.t.p.

ym

= 24 dmsmot*1 under room conditions

(where s.t.p. is expressbd as 101 kPa, approximately, and273 K (0'C))

ionic product of water

l(fl

specific heat capacity of water

= 1.00 x 10-14 mol2 dm{

(at 29s K [25'C])

= 4.18 kJ ko-r K-l (= 4.18 J g-r tc')

lonisation energies (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th) of setected elements, in kJ mol-l

Proton

Number

First

Second

Fourth

H

1

1310

He

2

2370

5250

Li

3

519

7300

11800

Be

4

900

1760

14800

21000

B

5 799

2420

3660

2s000

c

6 1090

2350

4610

6220

N

7 1400

2860

4590

7480

o

I 1310

3390

5320

7450

F

I 1680

3370

6040

8410

Ne

10

2080

39s0

6150

9290

Na

11

494

4560

6940

9540

Mg

12

736

1450

7740

10500

A/

13

577

1820

2740

1 1600

Si

14

786

1580

3230

4360

P

15

1060

1900

2924

4960

S

16

1000

2260

3390

4540

ct

17

1260

2300

3850

5150

Ar

18

1520

2660

3950

5770

K

19

4',18

3070

4600

5860

Ca

20

590

1 150

4940

6480

Sc

21

632

1240

2390

7110

Ti

22

661

1310

2720

4170

V

23

648

't370

2870

4600

Cr

24

653

1590

2990

4770

Mn

25

716

1510

3250

5190

Fe

26

762

1560

2960

5400

Co

27

757

1640

3230

5100

Ni

28

736

1750

3390

5400

Cu

29

745

1960

3350

5690

Zn

30

908

1 730

3828

5980

Ga

31

577

1 980

2960

6190

Ge

32

762

1540

3300

4390

Br

35

1 140

2080

3460

4850

Sr

38

548

1060

4120

5440

Sn

50

707

1410

2940

3930

I

53

1010

1840

2040

4030

Ba

56

542

966

3390

Pb

82

716

1450

3080

4080

Bond energies

{a)

Platomio molecules

Bond

EnagyllrJ mol-r

436

D--O

M2

N=N

990

O=O

496

H

158

crcI

2M

Br-4r

193

I-I

157

FH

562

FH/

431

Fl4r

366

t-H

2e9

(b)

Polyatomicmoleeules

Bond

EnerglkJ mol-r

c-4

350

C=C

610

C=C

840

Ct*C (benzene)

52\

c--+l

410

4t

C-4r

340

2W

c-I

c-{

C=O

2N

360

740

CJ{

305

e=N

610

C=N

890

l.l-{'l

390

Nl-l.l

160

N=N

410

o-l{

H

si--c,

su) s+t

i$60

150

3be

320

4M

si--€i

222

s-G'

250

S-H

347

s-s

2M

Standard electrode potential and redox potentials, Ec at 298 K (25'C)

For ease of reference, two tabulations are given:

(a) an extended list in alphabeticalorder;

(b)

a shorter list in decreasing order of magnitude, i.e. a redox series.

(a) f

in alphabeticalorder

Electrode reaction

Pw

Ag* * e-

Ag

+0.80

AI 3* + 3e-

AI

-1.66

Baz' + 2e-

Ba

-2.90

Br'+ 29-

zB,,-

+1.OT

Caz* + 2e'

Ca

-2.87

cb+ 2e*

zCt-

+1.36

2HOCI+2H*+2e-

Cl2+ 21119

+1.64

co2' + 2e-

Co

4.28

Co3* + e-

co2t

+1.82

[Co(NH3)u]2. + 2s-

Co + 6NHr

{.43

Cf* + 2e-

Cr

-0.91

Cr3* + 3e-

Cr

4.74

cr3* + e-

cf.

-0.41

CrzAtz- + 14H* + 6e-

2Cr3' + THzO

+1.33

Cu* + e-

Cu

+0.52

cu2* + 2e-

Cu

+0.34

Cuz* + e-

Cu*

+0.15

[Cu(NH3)a]2. + 2s-

Cu + 4NHs

-0.05

Fz+ 2e-

2F-

+2.87

Fez* + 2e-

Fe

-0.44

Fe3* + 3e-

Fe

-0.04

Fe3* + e-

Fe2*

+0.77

[Fe(CN)6]] + 6-

tFe(cN)sf

+0.36

Fe(OH)3 + s-

Fe(OH)2 + OH-

-0.56

2H' + 2e-

H2

0.00

lz+ 2e'

2t-

+0.54

K*+e-

K

-2.92

Li* + e-

Li

-3.04

Mg't * 2e-

Mg

-2.38

Mnz* + 2e-

Mn

-1.18

Mn3* + e-

Mn2*

+1.49

MnO2+4H*+2e-

Mn2* + 2HzO

+1.23

MnOa- + s-

MnO+2-

+0.56

MnOa-+4H*+3e-

MnO, + 21119

+1.67

MnOa +8H*+5e-

Mn2* + 4HzO

+1.52

NO' + 2H'+ e-

NO2 + 11rg

+0.81

NOs+3H"+2e-

HNO, + 11rg

+0.94

NO3-+10H*+8e-

NHa'+ 31119

+0.87

Na'+ e-

Na

-2.71

Electrode reaction

Ni2* + 2e-

Ni

[Ni(NHr).12. + 2s-

Ni+ 61111.

H2O2+2H'+2e-

2HzA

Oz+4H++4e-

&HzO

02+!f{rQ+{s-

40H-

az+2{'+2e-

HzOz

2HzQ + 2€

Hz + 2OH-

Pb2* + 2e-

Pb

Pb4* + 2e-

Pb2'

PbO2+4H'+2€

Pb2* + ZHzO

SOa2-+ 4H'+2e-

SO2 + 211rp

SzOa2-+ 2e-

2sof-

SaO52-+ 2s-

2$eOsF :

sn2* + 2e-

Sn

Sna* + 2e-

V2* + 2e-

V

V3* + e-

v2*

VOz*+2H*+e-

V3* + HzO

VO2*+2H*+e-

VOz* + HzO

VOt+4H*+e-

VO2* + 2HzO

zn2* * 2{

Zn

seA/

-0.25

-0.51

+1.77

+1.23

+0.40

+0.68

-0.83

{.13

+1.69

+1.47

+0.17

+2.O1

+0.09

-0.14

+0.15

-1.20

*0.26

+0.34

+1.00

+1.00

{.76

t

I

I

ldl ionic states refer to aqueous ions but other state symbols have been omitted.

(b) E'h decreaslng order of oxidi*ing power

(see also the extended alphabetical list on the previous pages) Electrode reaction

Fz+ 2{

SaO r'-* 2€

H2O2+2H*+2€

=

*

rF

2f-

2SO42-

ZHzO

MnOr-+8H*+5e- Mn2'+ 4HzO

PbO2+4H.+2{

Clz+2{

Pb2* + 2HzO

zct'

ArzAf-+14H*+6e- 2Cr3* +7HzO

Br2+ 2et'

2Br

NOt+2H*+e- NQz + HzO

Ag* * e-

Fe3* + d

lz+ 2d

02+2H,Q+4e-

cu3* + 2e.

SO1'z-+4H*+2e-

sn4* +2d

SnOo?'+ 2e-

+Ag

+

,*2f

*

i=

Fg2*

4OH-

Cu

= SO2 + 21'1.6

*

+

Sn2*

2SzOs2-

211+ + 2{

!t

Ht

Pbz* +2{

=Pb

Sne + 2e-

=Sn

Fe2* + 2e-

r*

Fe

Znz* +2d

+Zn

Mg'* * 2e-

+Mg

Ca2'+2€

+Ca

K+d

r=K

6

Ee.N

+2.87

+2.A1

+1.7V

+1.52

+'|-.47

+1.36

+1-33

+1.O7

+0.81

+0.80

+a.77

+0.01

+0-40

+0.34

+0.17

+0;15

r0.@

.oI,o

4.fll

{:14

{r.44

{:?t

rzs

-2-87

-zf;z

Atomic and ionic radii

(a)

Period 3

metallic

atomic/nm

Na

Ar

0.186

Mg 0.160

0.143

ionic/nm

Na* o.ogs

Mo2* o.o6s

Af. o.oso

single covalent

Si

o.117

si4*

0.041

P

0.110

P3- 0.212

S

0.1M

s2-

0.184

ct

0.099

cr

0.181

van der Waals

Ar

0.192

Group ll

metallic

Be

0.112

Be2*

0.031

Mg

0.160

Mo2t

0.065

Ca

0.197

c;2'

sl.

0.099

Sr

0.215

0.113

Ba

o217

Ba2*

0.135

Ra

0.220

Ra2*

0.140

Group lV

single covalent

c

0.077

Si

0.117

si4*

Ge

o.122

Ge2*

metallic

Sn

0.162

Sn2*

Pb

0.175

Pb2*

0.041

0.093

0.112

0.120

Group Vll

single covalent

F

cl

 

Br

I

At

First row transition elements

single covalent

Sc

o.o72

F- 0.136

0.099

cr

0.181

0.114

Br-

0.195

0.133

I-

0.216

0.140

0.144

sc3*

0.081

Ti

0.132

Ti2*

0.090

V

0.122

v3*

o.o74

Cr

0.117

cr3*

0.069

Mn

0.117

Mn2*

0.080

Fe

0.116

Fe2*

0.076

 

Fe3*

0.064

Co

0.116

c02*

0.078

Ni

0.115

Ni2*

0.078

Cu

0.117

cu2*

0.069

Zn

o.12s

Znz*

0.074

Typical proton chemical shift value (6) relative to T'M'S.=O

Type of proton

R-CH3

R-CH2-R

R3CH

c*.-c<:R

R-"'cH'

il

o

.CH,

R-C=C-H

R-CHr-Hal

R-O-CH3

R-O_H

R,C:CH-

Go*

G,

R-Clo

\H

2,o

R-C- \o_H

R-NH2

G*,,

"-{o \NH-

*Sensitive.to solvent, concentration

Chemicalshift (ppm)

8

0.9

1.3

1.4-1.7

2.O

2.1

2.3

1.8-3.1

3.2-3.7

3.3-4.0

0.5-6.0.

4.5-6.0

4.5-7.0*

6.0-9.0

9.0-10.0

9.0-'13.0*

1.0-5.0*

3.0-6.0"

5.0-12.0*

o

t

o

o

ll

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