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72418559 61607777 04 GSM BSS Network KPI TCH Call Drop Rate Optimization Manual

72418559 61607777 04 GSM BSS Network KPI TCH Call Drop Rate Optimization Manual

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GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual

INTERNAL

Product Name G3BSC Product Version

Confidentiality Level INTERNAL Total 44 pages

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual
(For internal use only)

Prepared by

WCDMA & GSM Network Performance Research Dept. Su Shi

Date 2008-6-28 Date Date Date

Reviewed by Reviewed by Granted by

Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
All rights reserved

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual

INTERNAL

Contents
1 Overview of the TCH Call Drop Rate....................................6
1.1 Meaning.................................................................................................................................................6 1.2 Recommended Formulas.......................................................................................................................6 1.3 Signaling Procedure and Measurement Points......................................................................................8

2 Factors That Affect the TCH Call Drop Rate........................11
2.1 Hardware Failure.................................................................................................................................11 2.2 Transmission Problem.........................................................................................................................11 2.3 Version Upgrade..................................................................................................................................12 2.4 Parameter Setting.................................................................................................................................12 2.5 Intra-Network and Inter-Network Interference...................................................................................13 2.6 Coverage Problem..............................................................................................................................13 2.7 Antenna System Problem....................................................................................................................14 2.8 Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink..........................................................................................14 2.9 Repeater Problem................................................................................................................................14

3 Analysis of and Solutions to High TCH Call Drop Rate.........15
3.1 Solutions to High TCH Call Drop Rate...............................................................................................18 3.1.1 Checking the Hardware.................................................................................................................18 3.1.2 Checking the Transmission............................................................................................................19 3.1.3 Checking the BSC and BTS Version Upgrade..............................................................................20 3.1.4 Checking the Parameter Settings...................................................................................................20 3.1.5 Checking the Interference..............................................................................................................25 3.1.6 Checking the Coverage..................................................................................................................26 3.1.7 Checking the Antenna System.......................................................................................................27 3.1.8 Checking the Balance Between Uplink and Downlink.................................................................28 3.1.9 Checking the Repeaters.................................................................................................................29

4 Test Methods....................................................................30 5 Remarks About the Signaling Analysis of the TCH Call Drop Rate....................................................................................30 6 Cases for TCH Call Drop Rate Optimization.........................33
6.1 Case 1: Call Drop Due to Interference................................................................................................33 6.2 Case 2: Call Drop Due to Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink................................................34 6.3 Case 3: Call Drop Due to Repeater Problem.......................................................................................34 6.4 Case 4: Call Drop Due to Coverage....................................................................................................35

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual

INTERNAL

6.5 Case 5: Reduction of Call Drops by Optimizing Handover Parameters.............................................36 6.6 Case 6: Call Drop Due to Inappropriate Parameter Setting................................................................36 6.7 Case 7: Call Drop Due to TRX Board Fault........................................................................................37 6.8 Case 8: Call Drop Due to Antenna System Problem...........................................................................38 6.9 Case 9: Call Drop Due to Transmission Problem...............................................................................38 6.10 Case 10: Call Drop Rate Doubled in a CoBCCH Network After Upgrade from V9R1 to V9R3.....39 6.11 Case 11: Increase in Call Drop Rate Due to Inactivity of T305 and T308........................................40 6.12 Case 12: Increase in Call Drop Rate Due to Change of TR1N on the MSC Side.............................40

7 Feedback Form for the TCH Call Drop Rate ........................41

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual

INTERNAL

Figures
Figure 1.1Immediate assignment procedure............................8 Figure 1.2Assignment procedure............................................8 Figure 1.3 Intra-BSC handover procedure................................9 Figure 1.4 Incoming BSC handover procedure..........................9 Figure 1.5Procedures for analyzing high TCH call drop rate....16

0 Change Description Draft completed.20050311-A-1. The document is modified according to review comments.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Revision Record Date 2008-6-28 2008-7-26 Revision Version 0.8 1.0 GSM BSS Network KPI (Network Coverage) Optimization Manual GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Baseline GSM BSS Network KPI (Uplink and Downlink Balance) Optimization Manual Guide to Solving Call Drop Problems Author Chen Baolin Xie Haibin Wu Zhen Yang Jixiang Yang Bin Date 2005-3-11 2008-6-18 2007-6-22 2008-3-26 2002-3-7 . Author Su Shi Su Shi References S N 1 2 3 4 5 Document Name G-Guide to Eliminating Interference .

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual Keywords: TCH call drop rate. Acronyms: The following table lists the acronyms and their expansion: Acronym TCH MS BSC KPI Expansion Traffic Channel Mobile Station Base Station Controller Key Performance Indicator . KPI Abstract: This document provides the definition and describes the test method and optimization method of TCH call drop rate.

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 1   Overview of the TCH Call Drop Rate 1. It indicates the probability of call drops due to various reasons after MSs access TCHs. is related to retainability. 1. The TCH call drop rate can be measured from the following aspects: TCH call drop rate (including handover) TCH call drop rate (excluding handover) The TCH call drop rate. one of the most significant KPIs for telecom operators. A too high TCH call drop rate adversely affects the user's experience.2 Recommended Formulas BSC32: TCH call drop rate (including handover) = (Number of TCH call drops + Number of TCH call drops during very early assignment)/Number of successful TCH seizures x 100% TCH call drop rate (excluding handover) = Number of call drops on TCH/(Number of successful TCH seizures + Number of successful incoming internal inter-cell handovers + Number of successful incoming external inter-cell handovers – Number of successful outgoing internal inter-cell handover] – Number of successful outgoing external inter-cell handovers) x 100% BSC6000: TCH call drop rate (including handover) = Number of call drops on TCH/(Number of successful TCH seizures (signaling channel) + Number of successful TCH seizures (TCH) + Number of successful TCH Seizures in TCH handovers (TCH)) .1 Meaning The TCH call drop rate refers to the ratio of call drops to successful TCH seizures after the BSC successfully assigns TCHs to MSs.

The number of call drops on TCH is small during the very early assignment procedure. you can find out that the TCH call drop rate (including handover) is lower than the TCH call drop rate (excluding handover) irrespective of the BSC model (BSC32 or BSC6000). the difference between the numerator of the formula for the TCH call drop rate (including handover) and that of the formula for the TCH call drop rate (excluding handover) can be omitted. Therefore. refer to the GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Baseline.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL x 100% TCH call drop rate (excluding handover) = Number of call drops on TCH/Number of successful TCH seizures (TCH) x 100% Through the analysis of each pair of formulas. . Including the TCH seizures in the case of handovers. the denominator of the formula for the TCH call drop rate (including handover) is greater than the denominator of the formula for the TCH call drop rate (excluding handover). For details. Therefore. The following takes the formulas for the BSC32 as an example. the result of the formula for the TCH call drop rate (including handover) is smaller than that of the formula for the TCH call drop rate (excluding handover).

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 1.3 Signaling Procedure and Measurement Points Figure 1.2 Assignment procedure .1 Immediate assignment procedure Figure 1.

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Figure 1.4 Incoming BSC handover procedure The meanings of the measurement points in the these figures are as follows: TCH-SUCC-A: indicates the number of successful TCH seizures. .3 Intra-BSC handover procedure Figure 1. TCH-SUCC-B: indicates the number of successful incoming internal inter-cell handovers plus the number of successful internal intra-cell handovers.

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL TCH-SUCC-C: indicates the number of successful incoming external inter-cell handovers. TCH-SUCC: indicates the number of successful TCH seizures during the very early assignment procedure. .

1 Hardware Failure When a TRX or a combiner is faulty. the major factors that affect the TCH call drop rate are as follows: Hardware failure Transmission problem Version upgrade Parameter setting Intra-network and inter-network interference Coverage problem Antenna system problem Imbalance between uplink and downlink Repeater problem 2. seizing the TCH becomes difficult.  .2 Transmission Problem The TCH call drop rate increases in the following conditions:  The transmission quality on the A or Abis interface is poor for various reasons. and thus the TCH call drop rate increases. Transmission links are unstable. 2.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 2          Factors That Affect the TCH Call Drop Rate According to user complaints and network optimization experience.

The parameters Software Parameter 13 and MAX TA are set to too small values. the parameter Directly Magnifier Site Flag is set . The length of timer T3109 (this timer is set to wait for a Release Indication message) is set to a too small value. If a repeater is used.3 Version Upgrade After the BTS version or BSC version is upgraded. 21. 16.Access Level is set to a too small value. The parameter TCH Traffic Busy Threshold is set to a too small value. The length of timer T3111 (this timer specifies the connection release delay) is set to a too small value. The parameter TR1N is set to a too small value. the BTS version may be incompatible with the BSC version. 13.4 Parameter Setting The settings of some parameters on the BSC and MSC sides may affect the TCH call drop rate. 2. 6. In this case. 17.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 2. 3. 12. the TCH call drop rate increases. the TCH call drop rate may increase: 1. The parameters related to edge handover are inappropriately set. The parameters SACCH Multi-Frames and Radio Link Timeout are set to too small values. The parameters related to BQ handover are inappropriately set. The length of timer T3103 (this timer is set to wait for a Handover Complete message) is set to a too small value. The parameter RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is set to a too small value. Some neighboring cell relations are not configured. 2. 14. The parameters related to concentric cell handover are inappropriately set. 8. 9. 10. T200 and N200 are set to too small values. The parameter MAIO is inappropriately set. and the parameters and algorithms in the new version may be changed. The parameter Call Reestablishment Forbidden is set to Yes. 11. 4. 5. If the following situations occur. 15. 19. 7. 22. 18. The length of timer T305/T308 is set to an invalid or too great value. The parameter RACH Min. The parameters related to power control are inappropriately set. The parameters Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell and Min Access Level Offset are inappropriately set. The parameters related to interference handover are inappropriately set. 20. The parameter Disconnect Handover Protect Timer is set to a too small value.

2. 4. call drops occur. In this case. This adversely affects the TCH call drop rate.6 Coverage Problem The following coverage problems may affect the TCH call drop rate. In complex terrains such as mountainous regions. Inter-network interference from scramblers or privately installed antennas Interference from the CDMA network of China Unicom Repeater interference Intermodulation interference from BTSs Intra-network co-channel and adjacent-channel interference 2. 2. 3. which causes call drops. Cross coverage (isolated BTS) The serving cell causes cross coverage due to various reasons (such as excess power). call drops may occur on TCHs because of poor QoS. 3. 2.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL to No. The following types of interference may occur: 1. the signal level becomes low and the voice quality of the MS deteriorates.5 Intra-Network and Inter-Network Interference If inter-network interference and repeater interference exist. the signals are blocked and thus the transmission is discontinuous. call drops may occur because of discontinuous coverage. Thus. Insufficient coverage If the signal from an antenna is blocked or the BCCH TRX is faulty. An MS cannot be handed over to another cell due to no suitable neighboring cells. leading to call drops. Discontinuous coverage (blind areas) The voice quality at the edge of an isolated BTS is poor and calls cannot be handed over to other cells. 4. call drops may occur. . In this case. 1. Poor indoor coverage Densely distributed buildings and thick walls cause great attenuation and low indoor signal level. 5. or if severe intra-network interference occurs because of tight frequency reuse.

If a directional cell has main and diversity antennas. call drops may occur at the edge of the BTS coverage area. If the two antennas have different pitch angles or azimuths. the network quality is adversely affected and the TCH call drop rate increases. Thus. or the feeder and the connector are not securely connected. The antenna and the connector are not securely connected. the TCH call drop rate increases. when a call is made. the coverage areas of the two antennas are different. In this case. 2. Therefore. BTS coverage problems may occur in the case that the repeater is faulty or that the uplink and downlink gain is inappropriately set. call drops are likely to occur at places far away from the BTS.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 2. Therefore.9 Repeater Problem If a cell is installed with a repeater. 3. The tower mounted amplifier (TMA) or BTS amplifier does not work properly. the BCCH and SDCCH of the cell may be transmitted from different antennas. water leaks in the feeder. If the feeder is damaged. the uplink signal level in each cell is much lower than the downlink signal level in the cell. the MS cannot seize the SDCCH transmitted by the other antenna and thus a call drop occurs. call drops may occur.8 Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink The difference between the uplink signal level and the downlink signal level may be great in the following conditions:    The transmit power of the BTS is high. If a wide-frequency repeater is used and the gain is set to a great value.7 Antenna System Problem The following antenna system problems may affect the TCH call drop rate 1. 2. the following result may occur: An MS can receive the BCCH signals from one antenna. 2. strong interference may be caused. both the transmit power and receiver sensitivity of the antenna are reduced. As a result. . If the transmit antennas of two cells are improperly connected. As a result.

.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 3 Analysis of and Solutions to High TCH Call Drop Rate 3 shows the procedures for analyzing high TCH call drop rate.

5 Procedures for analyzing high TCH call drop rate .GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Figure 1.

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Start Find the cell with high TCH call drop rate Faulty hardware or transmission? No Yes Rectify the hardware and transmission fault Yes Upgraded version ? Check whether the version is faulty Replace the faulty version with a normal one or install a patch No 、 Adjust parameters related to handover and power control No Yes Solve inter-network interference problem Incorrect data configuration? Yes No Intra-network interference? Interference? Yes No Optimize coverage according to the network coverage optimization guide Check the frequency configuration Yes Insufficient coverage? No Yes Adjust the antenna system Faulty antenna system? No Yes Imbalance between uplink and downlink ? No Yes Faulty repeater? No Normal TCH call drop rate? Yes End Solve the imbalance problem according to the guide Solve the repeater problem .

you can perform the procedures shown in 3. seizing the TCH becomes difficult.1 Major BSC alarms related to hardware failure Alarm ID 1000 2204 4414 3606 Alarm Name LAPD_OML Fault Alarm TRX Communication Alarm TRX VSWR Alarm DRU Hardware Alarm . The following table lists the mapping between the traffic measurement counters and the troubleshooting procedures. You can check whether hardware is faulty by viewing BTS alarms or viewing the hardware state on the Site Device Panel of the LMT.1Checking the Hardware 3.1 lists the major BSC alarms related to hardware failures.1 Checking the Hardware If a TRX or a combiner is faulty or if an RF cable is incorrectly connected.1.1. Traffic Measurement Counter M3100A (T200 expiry) M3101A (radio link failure) M3101D (radio resource unavailable) CM333 (Abis terrestrial link failure) M314 (device failure) Troubleshooting Procedure 3.4Checking the Parameter Settings 3.1. and thus the TCH call drop rate increases.1. If no obvious causes are found. you can locate the fault by performing the corresponding procedure. You can analyze the distribution of call drops based on the traffic measurement. 3.2Checking the Transmission 3.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 3.1Checking the Hardware The following sections describe the solutions to high TCH call drop rates. If a certain type of call drop accounts for a large proportion of total call drops. You should also find out the impact of the problems and the related KPIs.1 Solutions to High TCH Call Drop Rate Before analyzing the causes of high TCH call drop rates.1. The traffic measurement counters and KPIs in this document are the same as those in the BSC6000V9R8C01B051 version.4Checking the Parameter Settings 3. Table 1.1. See Case 7: Call Drop Due to TRX Board Fault. 1. you should find out the difference between the actual TCH call drop rate and the expected value.

1 BSC alarms related to transmission Alarm ID 1000 11270 11278 11280 20081 20082 Alarm Name LAPD_OML Fault Alarm LAPD Alarm E1 Local Alarm E1 Remote Alarm Loss of E1/T1 Signals (LOS) E1/T1 Frame Out-of-Synchronization (LOF) . unstable transmission links. you can infer that transmission failure has occurred.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL In addition.2 Checking the Transmission Poor transmission quality. Then. Table 1. Cause Equipmen t failure BSC Level Access Measurement per BSC in BSC Measurement: Available TCHs per BSC Configured TCHs per BSC Available TCHs per BSC Cell Level KPI Measurement per Cell: TCH Availability Available TCHs Configured TCHs TRX Measurement per Cell: Number of configured TRXs in a cell Number of available TRXs in a cell Call Drop Measurement per Cell in Call Measurement: Call Drops due to Equipment Failure (TCH) 3. or insufficient resources on the Abis and A interface may lead to the increase of the TCH call drop rate.1. See Case 9: Call Drop Due to Transmission Problem. If a large number of transmission alarms are generated. You can check the transmission conditions by viewing the alarms related to transmission. you should check the transmission connections. you can locate the fault by checking the traffic measurement related to hardware failures.

1. you should check whether the BTS version is compatible with the BSC version and whether the parameters and algorithms in the new version are changed. you can locate the fault by checking the traffic measurement related to transmission failures.3 Checking the BSC and BTS Version Upgrade If TCH call drop increases after the BSC version or BTS version is upgraded. the BTS regards the radio link as faulty.1. If the new version has defects. See Case 5: Reduction of Call Drops by Optimizing Handover Parameters and Case 12: Increase in Call Drop Rate Due to Change of TR1N on the MSC Side. you should replace it with another version or install the requisite patch. Each time the BTS fails to decode the measurement report on the SACCH from the MS. You should check the settings of the following parameters for a cell with a high TCH call drop rate. SACCH Multi-Frames This parameter determines whether an uplink radio link is faulty. refer to the BSC6000 Upgrade Guide. you can check the version description document and the related documents. To locate the problem. or provide feedback for the R&D department to learn whether the new version has known defects. Cause Transmission failure BSC Level LAPD Measurement in BSC Measurement Cell Level Channel Activation Measurement per Cell in Call Measurement: CHAN ACTIV NACK Messages Sent by BTS Channel Activation Timeouts Call Drop Measurement per Cell in Call Measurement: Measurement of Call Drops Due to Abis Terrestrial Link Failure 3. Each time the BTS successfully decodes the measurement report on the SACCH.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL In addition. For details. 1. 3. When the value of this counter is 0. In the . the counter decreases by 1.4 Checking the Parameter Settings The parameter settings on the BSC side and MSC side may affect the TCH call drop rate. the counter increases by 2. See Case 6: Call Drop Due to Inappropriate Parameter Setting and Case 10: Call Drop Rate Doubled in a CoBCCH Network After Upgrade from V9R1 to V9R3.

if this parameter is set to a too small value. you can infer that the radio propagation conditions are poor. channel resources are wasted and TCH congestion occurs. if many call drops are related to handovers (CM331: Call Drops on Radio Interface in Handover State). Then. You can set this parameter to a great value to reduce the TCH call drop rate. are accordingly affected.Access Level This parameter determines whether an MS can access the network over the RACH. call drops occur. The counters such as call setup success rate and paging success rate. If this parameter is set to a too small value. Radio Link Timeout This parameter determines whether a downlink radio link is faulty. 5. are affected. RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN This parameter specifies the minimum receive level of an MS to access the BSS. 3. an unwanted cell may become the candidate cell. and T8. If this parameter is set to a too great value. The counters such as call setup success rate and the counters related to traffic volume. T3103C. however. RACH Min. some desired cells may be excluded from the candidate cells. you can set this parameter to a greater value. the BTS regards the radio link as faulty. In the traffic measurement. the BSC considers that the radio link in the originating cell is faulty. you can set this parameter to a greater value. 2. you can set this parameter to a greater value. In this case.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL traffic measurement. the counter increases by 2. if there are many call drops (M3101A) related to radio link failure. Each time the BTS successfully decodes the measurement report sent over the SACCH. Timer T3103 series Timer T3101 series consists of T3103A. the BSC releases the channel in the originating cell. When the value of this parameter is 0. if there are many call drops (M3101A) related to radio link failure. In this case. You can set this parameter to a great value to reduce the TCH call drop rate. 4. If this parameter is set to a too great value. Thus. Both conditions may lead to the increase of call drops. you can infer that the radio propagation conditions are poor. These timers are started to wait for a handover complete message. Each time the BTS fails to decode the measurement report sent over the SACCH by the MS. 6. If the lengths of the timers are set to small values. If this parameter is set to a too small value. some MSs with low receive levels may access the network and call drops are likely to occur. probably no message is received when timer T3103 series expires. some MSs with low signal levels may access the network and call drops are likely to occur. however. . In this case. the counter decreases by 1. In the traffic measurement. Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell and Min Access Level Offset The sum of the values of the two parameters specifies the minimum downlink receive level of a candidate neighboring cell for a handover.

10. If this timer is set to a too small value. Timer T3111 This parameter specifies the interval between the time that the main signaling link is disconnected and the time that a channel is deactivated. Thus. a channel may be deactivated too early. Call reestablishment lasts for a long time. It is recommended that this parameter should not be set to a too small value if congestion is unlikely to occur. As a result. 8. The purpose is to reserve a period of time for repeated link disconnections. the TCH call drop rate increases. call drops occur. Timer T308 specifies the period during which the MSC monitors the resource release procedure. It is recommended that timer T3109 be set to 1–2 seconds longer than timer Radio Link Timeout. Therefore. Timer T305 specifies the period during which the MSC monitors the on-hook procedure. This affects user experience. Otherwise. the BSC assigns a full-rate channel to the dualrate-enabled call. the BSC preferentially assigns a half-rate channel to a dualrate-enabled call. 12. call drops increase. To reduce the TCH call drop rate. Timer T3109 This parameter specifies the period for waiting for a Release Indication message after the BSC sends a Channel Release message to the BTS. a half-rate channel has weak antiinterference capabilities. Call Reestablishment Forbidden This parameter specifies whether to allow call reestablishment. the number of call drops is increased and thus the TCH call drop rate is significantly affected. the link may be released before the Release Indication message is received. Timers T305 and T308 Timers T305 and T308 are used on the MSC side.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 7. a call drop occurs. You should set the two parameters when adding BSC data. Parameters related to edge handover When the receive level drops greatly. you can set this parameter to No to allow call reestablishment. After the T3103 and Radio Link Timeout timers expire. TCH Traffic Busy Threshold If the current channel seizure ratio exceeds the value of this parameter. Compared with a full-rate channel. and therefore some subscribers cannot wait and hang up. the MSC clears the call a long time after the MS hangs up. You can set this parameter to a greater value to reduce the TCH call drop rate. If timers T305 and T308 are set to invalid or great values. 11. In certain conditions. allowing call reestablishment greatly reduces the TCH call drop rate. In this case. 9. if a large number of half-rate channels are assigned. If this parameter is set to a too small value. In case of burst interference or radio link failure due to blind areas caused by high buildings. an edge handover cannot be performed in time in any of the following conditions: The parameter Edge . Note that the modification of the data in the timer table does not take effect. MSs can initiate the call reestablishment procedure to restore communication.

As a result. DLQuaLimitAMRHR. the number of handovers due to other causes increases greatly. strong interference may occur. the parameter OtoU HO Received Level Threshold is set to a great value. 15. If the Call Drop Ratio on TCH on the TRX in the Underlaid Subcell (RM330) is high. Parameters related to concentric cell handover A call at the edge of the overlaid subcell cannot be handed over to the underlaid subcell in any of the following conditions: In the case of a normal concentric cell. Threshold. UL Qual. if interference handovers are not performed in time. 16. in the case of an enhanced concentric cell. a BQ handover cannot be performed in time in any of the following conditions: The parameters ULQuaLimitAMRFR. you can appropriately set these parameters so that interference handovers can be performed in time to avoid call drops. thus affecting the handover success rate. the parameter Inter-cell HO Hysteresis is set to a great value. you can set these parameters properly so that the call can be handed over to the overlaid subcell at the earliest. and DL Qual. the parameter Inter-cell HO Hysteresis is set to a great value. . As a result. the parameters Edge HO Valid Time and Edge HO AdjCell Valid Time are set to great values. 13. As a result. a call drop occurs. call drops are likely to occur because of low signal level or bad voice quality. Parameters related to interference handover If the parameters RXQUAL1 to RXQUAL12 are set to great values or if the RXLEVOff parameter is set to a great value. call drops occur. To reduce the TCH call drop rate. Threshold are set to great values. 14. a call drop is likely to occur. Parameters related to power control If the power control level and quality threshold are set to small values. Thus. If the parameters RXQUAL1 to RXQUAL12 are set to small values. call drops occur. If the Call Drop Ratio on TCH on the TRX in the OverLaid Subcell (RM330a) is high. the parameters Edge HO Watch Time and Edge HO AdjCell Watch Time are set to great values.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL HO UL RX_LEV Threshold or Edge HO DL RX_LEV Threshold is set to a small value. a call drop occurs. you can appropriately set these parameters so that edge handovers can be performed in time to avoid call drops. you can appropriately set these parameters so that calls at the edge of the overlaid subcell can be handed over to the underlaid subcell in time. DLQuaLimitAMRFR. In this case. When a call in the underlaid subcell has interference. the call cannot be handed over to the overlaid subcell if the RX_QUAL for UO HO Allowed parameter is set to Yes and the RX_QUAL Threshold parameter is set to a great value. the parameters RX_LEV Threshold and RX_LEV Hysteresis are set to great values. you should appropriately set these parameters so that BQ handovers can be performed in time to avoid call drops. the parameter BQ HO Margin is set to a small value. To reduce the TCH call drop rate. ULQuaLimitAMRHR. To reduce the TCH call drop rate. Parameters related to BQ handover When the signal quality deteriorates.

MAIO If frequency hopping (FH) is applied in a cell and the MAIO is set inappropriately (for example. 23. When this parameter is set to a too great value. 21. the . call drops are likely to occur in the case of no suitable neighboring cell for handover and progressive deterioration in the voice quality. the following case can be avoided: After being handed over to the target cell. different TRXs serving the same cell have the same MAIO). Therefore. the MS sends the BTS a DISC message to disconnect layer 2 connection. You are advised to set this parameter properly. the TCH call drop rate increases. when a BTS is installed with repeaters. TR1N This parameter should be set on the MSC side. the MS cannot be put on hook because it does not receive a release acknowledgement message. N200 of FACCH/Full rate. 18. After receiving the DISC message. you can increase the values of T200 and N200 properly. If synchronous handovers are performed. the BSC cannot hand over the MS within the period specified by this parameter. Nastar) to minimize the call drops due to no available neighboring cells. 19. the BSC sends a CLEAR REQ message to the MSC and the number of call drops is incremented by one. Neighboring cell relations should be configured completely on the basis of the drive test data and electronic map (for example. Thus. T200 and N200 If the parameters T200 FACCH/F. call drops occur. frequency collision may occur during FH. the BTS sends a REL_IND message to the BSC. 22. and N200 of FACCH/Half rate are set to small values. the handovers may fail and thus many call drops occur. 20.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 17. all drops are likely to occur. It is used to avoid the retransmission of short messages. Therefore. Thus. Neighboring cell relations If the neighboring cells configured in the BA2 table are incomplete. the channel is released when the TA of a call exceeds the MAX TA. the MSC does not send a CLEAR CMD message if the MS receives a short message during link disconnection. Directly Magnifier Site Flag If a BTS is installed with repeaters. As a result. After receiving a DISCONNECT message from an MS. Then. In this case. data links are disconnected too early. the handover between repeaters can only be asynchronous because the distance between repeaters is long. It is recommended that the parameter Software Parameter 13 should not be enabled. T200 FACCH/H. If call drops occur because of T200 expiry. Disconnect Handover Protect Timer This parameter is a software parameter of the BSC. Software Parameter 13 and MAX TA When the parameter Software Parameter 13 is enabled and the parameter MAX TA is set to a too small value.

For details on how to check the intra-network and inter-network interference. you can infer that the uplink has strong interference. You can check whether the data configuration is correct by viewing the traffic measurement results.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL parameter Directly Magnifier Site Flag should be set to Yes to avoid synchronous handovers between cells under the same BTS. This affects the TCH call drop rate. call drops may occur on TCHs due to bad QoS. Cause Parameters Cell Level Call Drop Measurement per Cell in Call Measurement: Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Error Indication) Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Connection Failure) Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Release Indication) Call Drop Ratio on TCH on the TRX in the Underlaid Subcell Call Drop Ratio on TCH on the TRX in the Overlaid Subcell KPI Measurement per Cell: Call Drops in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel) Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel) TRX Level Measurement of Power Control Messages in MR Measurement Radio Link Failure Measurement in MR Measurement 3. The uplink interference information can be obtained on the basis of the interference band distribution in the traffic measurement results. or if severe intra-network interference occurs because of tight frequency reuse. See Case 1: Call Drop Due to Interference. The following table lists the traffic measurement counters related to repeaters. the TCH call drop rate is high. refer to the G-Guide to Eliminating Interference. A large proportion of interference levels belong to interference bands 3–5. You can obtain the downlink interference information by performing drive tests or by analyzing the traffic measurement results related to receive quality. (If a cell has interference.5 Checking the Interference If inter-network interference and repeater interference exist.1. The following table lists the traffic measurement counters related to interference. In .

6 Checking the Coverage You can check the network coverage by conducting outdoor drive tests or indoor dialing tests. and a large proportion of handovers are performed because of weak signal strength. See Case 4: Call Drop Due to Coverage. the TCH call drop rate is high. . a handover cannot be performed because of no suitable neighboring cells and the signal quality gradually deteriorates. In addition. During the tests. The following table lists the traffic measurement counters related to coverage. You can check whether a cell has coverage problems by viewing the traffic measurement results.1.) Cause Interference Cell Level Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Measurement per Cell in Call Measurement: Number of Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests (Signal Quality) Number of Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests (Other Causes) TRX Level Interference Band Measurement per TRX in MR Measurement Mean Number of TCHs in Interference Band 1 Mean Number of TCHs in Interference Band 2 Mean Number of TCHs in Interference Band 3 Mean Number of TCHs in Interference Band 4 Mean Number of TCHs in Interference Band 5 Measurement of Receive Quality in MR Measurement 3.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL addition. If the network coverage in a cell is insufficient. the handover success rate is low. the handover success rate decreases and the handovers due to bad quality account for a large proportion of all handovers. you can infer that the network coverage is insufficient if the following conditions occur: The downlink receive level is low (lower than –110 dBm) so that the test MS cannot access the network or the voice quality is bad.

by analyzing drive test data). 3. both the transmit power and receiver sensitivity of the antenna are reduced. you should check whether the jumpers are improperly connected (for example. Thus. For details. If a jumper is improperly connected. increasing the transmit power. you can solve the problem through the following methods: adjusting the tilt of the antenna. ensure that the tilt and azimuth of one antenna are the same as those of the other antenna. If the antenna system has problems. adding repeaters. or the feeder and the connector are not securely connected. . water runs into the feeder. the TCH call drop rate and handover failure rate are high. If any feeder is faulty. call drops probably occur. In addition. See Case 8: Call Drop Due to Antenna System Problem. You can check whether the antenna system is faulty by viewing the traffic measurement results. the difference between the uplink quality and the downlink quality is great. or both the uplink quality and the downlink quality are bad. You should ensure that the jumpers are connected correctly. refer to the GSM BSS Network Performance KPI (Coverage) Optimization Manual.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Cause Coverage Cell Level Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Measurement per Cell in Call Measurement: Number of Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests (Signal Strength) Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Measurement per Cell in Call Measurement: Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Requests (Uplink Strength) Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Requests (Downlink Strength) TRX Level TCHF Receive Level Measurement per TRX in MR Measurement TCHH Receive Level Measurement per TRX in MR Measurement If a coverage problem exists. you should replace it in time. or changing the combining mode. If the feeder is damaged. the uplink signal level in the cell is significantly lower than the downlink signal level.7 Checking the Antenna System In the case of dual-transmit antennas. The following table lists the traffic measurement counters related to the antenna system.1. In addition. You can locate these problems by checking the VSWR alarms. and call drops are likely to occur at a place far away from the BTS.

. you should check whether such components as the TMA. the immediate assignment success rate and the assignment success rate are low. For details. If the uplink and downlink are imbalanced. the antenna and the connector are not securely connected.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Cause Antenna system Cell Level KPI Measurement per Cell in Call Measurement: Success Rate of Radio Handover Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Measurement per Cell in Call Measurement: Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Requests (Uplink Strength) Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Requests (Downlink Strength) TRX Level Measurement of Receive Quality in MR Measurement Uplink-and-Downlink Balance Measurement per TRX in MR Measurement 3. the tower mounted amplifier (TMA) or BTS amplifier does not work properly. See Case 2: Call Drop Due to Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink. As a result. BTS amplifier. To analyze the balance between the uplink and the downlink. and antenna port that affect downlink receive level have problems. The following table lists the traffic measurement counters related to the balance between the uplink and the downlink.8 Checking the Balance Between Uplink and Downlink The difference between the uplink signal level and the downlink signal level may be great in the following conditions: The transmit power of the BTS is high. the following conditions may occur: The difference between the mean uplink receive level and the mean downlink receive level is great. Then. refer to the GSM BSS Network Performance KPI (Uplink and Downlink Balance) Optimization Manual. call drops may occur at the edge of the BTS coverage area. check whether the transmit power of the BTS is too high.1. the uplink and downlink balance level is high.

you should check whether a repeater is faulty and whether the uplink/downlink gain is set to a too great/small value. If this parameter is set to Yes. Ensure that the amplification coefficient is properly set. Thus. If this parameter is set to No. If repeaters are installed. the coverage area of the BTS changes.9 Checking the Repeaters Check whether the parameter Directly Magnifier Site Flag is set to Yes in the data configuration on the LMT. and whether the uplink/downlink amplification coefficient is too great. If repeater problems exist in a cell. you can infer that the cell is configured with repeaters. In addition. you should switch off the repeater. If a repeater has an impact on the TCH call drop rate. the TA distribution varies greatly in the traffic measurement results. you should check whether they are widefrequency repeaters. If such problems exist.1.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Cause Balance between uplink and downlink Cell Level Assignment Measurement per Cell in Call Measurement: TCH Assignment Success Ratio Success Rate of Call Establishment Immediate Assignment Measurement per Cell in Call Measurement: Success Rate of Immediate Assignments TRX Level Uplink-and-Downlink Balance Measurement per TRX in MR Measurement TCHF Receive Level Measurement per TRX in MR Measurement TCHH Receive Level Measurement per TRX in MR Measurement 3. Cause Repeater Cell Level None TRX Level Number of MRs based on TA per TRX in MR Measurement . The following table lists the traffic measurement counters related to repeaters. See Case 3: Call Drop Due to Repeater Problem. the TCH call drop rate increases. you should check whether other operators' repeaters are installed near the cell.

the formula for the TCH call drop rate varies with device manufacturer and with telecom operator. right-click a piece of signaling and choose Call Trace from the shortcut menu. In addition. thus affecting the value of the TCH call drop rate. you should register the specific counters and use an appropriate formula to calculate the value of the TCH call drop rate. At present. During actual tests. as shown in the following figure. 5 Remarks About the Signaling Analysis of the TCH Call Drop Rate Trace the RSL signaling on the Abis interface. generate the signaling tracing file on the LMT or through the Signal Analyze Tool. which can be obtained through registration of or reporting of the related traffic measurement counters. . Then.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 4 Test Methods The TCH call drop rate is one of retainability KPIs. the TCH call drop rate is one of key drive test counters and it can be obtained through drive tests. Obtain the CONN_FAIL and ERROR_INC signaling from the file. Then.

MS power. From the following figure. such as insufficient downlink coverage and interference. downlink receive level of neighboring cells. as shown in the following figure. . you can view such information as the uplink and downlink receive level of the serving cell. uplink and downlink signal quality of the serving cell. TA. and BTS power.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Then. you can find out the causes of call drops. right-click the signaling of a call and choose Show Chart from the shortcut menu. Based on the information.

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL .

you can find a high ratio of high signal level and low voice quality. and the frequency or timeslot used by the call has interference or is unstable. TCH call drop rate. The check of the device hardware. however. When checking the parameter settings. antenna system. there is a high probability that the non-BCCH TRX and the FH frequency have interference. The SDCCH call drop rate.1 Case 1: Call Drop Due to Interference Symptom description: A certain BTS adopted the 1x3 RF FH mode. Through drive tests. The cause of the fault is frequency collision because the same MAIO is used. Therefore.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 6 Cases for TCH Call Drop Rate Optimization 6. you can find that the MAIO of the new TRX is the same as the MAIO of another TRX. and transmission stability finds no problems. was normal. Cause analysis and handling: In the case of high TCH assignment failure rate. Dialing tests show that the voice quality is bad. In the case of normal SDCCH call drop rate. and handover failure rate. and the TCH drop rate and handover failure rate were high. After the capacity of the BTS was expanded. . the TCH assignment failure rate remained high (because of radio link failure). you can infer that there are two probabilities: Failure occurs during the TCH assignment. there is a low probability that the BCCH TRX and the BCCH frequency have interference.

Check the traffic measurement results. Therefore.14 MHz and the spectrum bandwidth is 300 kHz) exists continuously and it is similar to the signal from an analog spectrum. Find the external interference. the TCH call drop rate in cell 3 reached 10%. Cause analysis and handling: The cause may be the uplink signal level is much lower than downlink signal level. 2. The signal from a certain frequency (the central frequency is 904. it could not make calls. 3. Use a spectrum analyzer to perform frequency scan tests. The strength of the signal at the divider . 4. the probability of co-channel interference and adjacent-channel interference is eliminated. Ensure that the devices are not faulty. 5. and use the MA10 signaling analysis tool to trace the signaling on the BTS side. call drops occurred frequently at a certain distance from the antenna. however.3 Case 3: Call Drop Due to Repeater Problem Symptom description: Under a BTS. The congestion rate in cell 3. Therefore. The tracing result (as shown in the previous figure) shows that the uplink signal level is much lower than the downlink signal level. however. the interference is high during peak traffic hours and is low during low traffic hours. the MS can only receive calls. Change the frequency of cell 3 so that the spacing between the frequency and the original one is at least 1 MHz.2 Case 2: Call Drop Due to Imbalance Between Uplink and Downlink Symptom description: The following symptoms occurred during drive tests: After the test MS camped on a cell.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 6. move the test MS towards the edge of the cell. 6. During drive tests. Cause analysis and handling: 1. the call drop rate and congestion rate in cell 1 and cell 2 remained normal. however. remains high. call drops occur. Block the channels in the cell. a call drop occurred after frequent handovers. The distribution of interference bands is regular. 6. that is. persists. The interference.

Step 3: Check the data configuration. A cross coverage area is formed on the fifth or above floor of the building. When tests are performed on a rooftop.4 Case 4: Call Drop Due to Coverage Symptom description: Subscribers complained that call drops occurred frequently when calls were made on the fifth or the higher floors of a building. In the BSC data configuration. 6. Therefore. Network engineering parameters are further optimized to eliminate the cross coverage problem. Step 2: Confirm that the cell belongs to BTS B. Defining new neighboring cells for the cross coverage cell . Conclusion: You can use the following methods to solve the cross coverage problem: 1. if both cells 2 and 3 are not the best candidate cells for the handover. When a call drop occurs.14 MHz frequency is the interference source. Call drops occur and interference exists. all the test results are normal. and the signal strength is consistent with the interference level. Subsequent tests show that the call drop problem is solved. the MS may be handed over to a cell under BTS C. but cell 3 of BTS A is not. Cause analysis: Step 1: Perform onsite tests. an emergency handover is required. BA2 (SACCH) table. the signal from a cell under BTS B is reflected by an obstruction and then is received by the MS. cell 2 of BTS A is configured as a neighboring cell of BTS B. Adjusting the antenna of the cross coverage cell to eliminate cross coverage 2. cannot receive signals from BTS C. the MS is located in a cell that does not belong to local BTS A. and neighboring cell relation table in the BSC data configuration. however. When a spectrum analyzer is used to perform drive tests. The signal from cell 2 of BTS B may be reflected multiple times before it is received by the MS. In this case. Handling: Modify the BA1 (BCCH) table. When the MS in the area uses the signal from cell 2 of BTS B. The traffic volume in daytime is greater than that at night. and thus the probability of intermodulation is high. and cell 1 is –27 dBm. the signal from cell 3 of BTS A is stronger than that from cell 2 of BTS B. and –60 dBm respectively. which is about three or four kilometers away from the building. the interference signal is generated by the antenna. Thus. –40 dBm. Ensure that cell 3 under BTS A is a neighboring cell of cell 2 under BTS B.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL port of cell 3. Therefore. cell 2. it is found that the interference is generated by a small antenna of a repeater. If the signal from the antenna is blocked. the interference source cannot be located. If the signal becomes weak suddenly. a call drop occurs. The MS. In this case. It can be concluded that the 904. handovers cannot be performed because cell 3 of BTS A is not a neighboring cell of BTS B.

Parameter Name PBGT Watch Time PBGT Valid Time PBGT HO Threshold UL Qual. the signal level of the target cell was proper (about 80 dBm). the signal level of both the serving cell and the target cell was high. and . Therefore. The causes of all call drops were related to radio frequency. set the parameters properly so that PBGT handovers can be easily performed. and thus a handover was not triggered. Threshold Min DL Power on HO Candidate Cell Before Modification 5 4 72 70 10 After Modification 3 2 68 60 15 You can adjust the handover parameters to reduce call drops in the following ways: 1. Before the MS entered the cave. There was no interference. If there is no frequent audio discontinuity or ping-pong handover. but the signal level of the original serving cell rapidly decreased to below 100 dBm. one BTS that had no capacity change also had a high TCH call drop rate. 2.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 6. The number of call drops in each cell was about 100. Cause analysis and handling: Modify the settings of the related parameters.6 Case 6: Call Drop Due to Inappropriate Parameter Setting Symptom description: After a cutover of five BTSs for capacity expansion. Set the emergency handover threshold properly so that emergency handovers are triggered before call drops occur. After the MS entered the cave. thus minimizing the interference and reducing the call drop rate.5 Case 5: Reduction of Call Drops by Optimizing Handover Parameters Symptom description: During drive tests. Among the five BTSs. 6. the TCH call drop rates in the cells under these BTSs were high (reached 5%). a call drop occurred before the measurement period ended. call drops occurred frequently at a cave entrance near the BTS because handovers were not performed in time.

frequency replanning. and that the measurement report preprocessing function is enabled for the BTS2X. calls are made normally.7 Case 7: Call Drop Due to TRX Board Fault Symptom description: During dialing tests. Check the data configuration again. and 7 and that calls are made normally on timeslots 2. After a large-scale adjustment is performed on the system. It is found that the BTS after capacity expansion adopts the 15:1 multiplexing mode. 6. You should ensure that bi-directional calls can be made on each TCH and that the voice quality is good. BTS cutover. As a conclusion. and cell parameters. The BTS2X in some versions. The remote maintenance terminal shows that one TRX board in the cell is not normal. 6. All the interference bands are normal and no interference exists. Insert a functional TRX board into the slot of the faulty TRX board. Check the versions of each TRX and FPU. patch installation. Cause analysis: The traffic measurement results show that the TCH congestion rate in the cell exceeds 10% and that the incoming handover failure rate is high. 4. Then. upgrade. . each TRX and each timeslot on the TRX should be tested. The problem persists. BTS capacity expansion. Insert a spare board into the slot of the faulty TRX board. BSIC planning. the TRX board is faulty. Summary: When tests are performed on the BTS side. Upgrade the TRX and FPU to ensure that their versions are compatible. It is found that the TRX version is inconsistent with the FPU version. Handling: Use the test MS to make calls repeatedly on only the frequency of the faulty TRX board. but the problem persists. and 8. 3. 5. frequency planning. Special attention should be paid to the BTS version. and traffic measurement results. frequency interference conditions. The problem persists. call drops occurred frequently in cell 2 of a BTS. It is found that call drops occur on timeslots 1. FH parameters. insert the faulty TRX board into another cabinet. Remove the TRX board and then insert it into another slot. Cause analysis and handling: Check the data configuration.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL the BTS hardware was not faulty. for example. do not support the measurement report preprocessing function. Thus. The handover success rate is over 93% and thus handovers are performed normally. the TCH call drop rate is too high. the TRX board may be faulty. however. the related system parameters should be checked completely and adjusted if required. The following parameters should be checked: neighboring cell relations. Therefore. Calls are made normally.

the number of TCH call drops in both cell 1 and cell 2 in busy hours reached 20. the traffic measurement results showed that the value of the counter SDCCH Seizure Request was not normal: The maximum number of SDCCH seizure requests reached 9000. the TCH traffic volume is small and the TCH call drop rate is high. On the night of the replacement. After a week of operation.000. Compared with the similar SDCCH counters. The traffic measurement results within a period of 15 minutes showed that MS-originated and MS-terminated calls were made normally and handovers were performed normally. the MOTO BTS was replaced by the Huawei BTS and the cell configuration was S2/2/2. the number of Successful SDCCH Seizure Requests was over 7000. TRX 2 (main BCCH TRX) and TRX 6 (main BCCH TRX) are connected to the TXA channel of the DDPU in cell 1 and cell 2 respectively. they are connected to the TXB channel of the DDPU in the corresponding cell. 2. TRX 3 and TRX 7 are the second TRX in cell 1 and cell 2 respectively.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 6. therefore. Thus.9 Case 9: Call Drop Due to Transmission Problem Symptom description: At a certain site. 6. It is found that the number of abnormal radio links on both TRX 3 (TRX 2 and TRX 3 are configured for cell 1) and TRX 7 (TRX 6 and TRX 7 are configured for cell 2) is great. Cause analysis and handling: Analyze the traffic measurement results of TRX-level radio link performance in busy hours. The jumpers of the two non-BCCH TRXs may be improperly connected. Analyze the traffic measurement results related to the uplink and downlink balance performance. . Rectify the misconnection and find that the TCH call drop rate and SDCCH call drop rate in both cell 1 and cell 2 become normal. call drops occur. the number of SDCCH call drops in cell 3 in busy hours reached 1.8 Case 8: Call Drop Due to Antenna System Problem Symptom description: A new BTS3012 was deployed at a site and the cell configuration was S2/2/2. and the number of Failed SDCCH Seizures due to Busy SDCCH was over 900. This indicates that the downlink loss is too great or the downlink transmit power is too low. and 3 account for a large proportion of all imbalance levels for both TRX 3 and TRX 7. It is found that uplink and downlink imbalance levels 1. These counters in cell 3 were normal. When calls are assigned with the channels on the non-BCCH TRX. After the BTS3012 was put into operation. calls were made normally and drive tests showed that all performance counters were normal. transmit power decreases sharply because the feeders of TRX 3 and TRX 7 are improperly connected.

Thus. power control may be performed improperly. Cause analysis and handling: Compare V9R1 with V9R3. some subscribers complained that it was difficult to make calls after the replacement. . In addition. As a consequence. the transmission is normal. when a subscriber makes a call. It is found that making a call is difficult on site. During the initialization of the BTS. As a result. In this case. Some parameters of the BTS cannot be initialized. A detailed check shows that the E1 connector on top of the BTS cabinet is made improperly. After the replacement. the 900 MHz frequency band may be mistakenly regarded as the 1800 MHz frequency band. Before the replacement. After obtaining the consent from the customer. the power control amplitude becomes large and the signal level is adjusted to a low level. Manually set the HW_Concentric Attribute of the main BCCH to Underlay cell. after the BSC was upgraded from V9R1 to V9R3. a message is displayed. For example. if power control is performed. 6. It is found that the function of configuring the BCCH in the overlaid subcell is added to V9R3 and that a new TRX-level parameter HW_Concentric Attribute (with the default value None) is add. the onsite engineers power off the BTS and load the data again.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Cause analysis and handling: Check the hardware on site. The problem is solved and the call drop rate becomes normal. the number of call drops in the CoBCCH network doubled. the E1 connector may be made improperly so that the transmission bit error rate is high and that the BTS cannot be completely initialized. After a proper E1 connector is used. The BTS hardware is normal and the cable connections are proper. Huawei engineers replace only the transmission cable between the transmission equipment room and the Huawei BSC and use a new E1 connector to fix the DDF transmission cable to the E1 port on top of the BTS cabinet. the problem is solved.10 Case 10: Call Drop Rate Doubled in a CoBCCH Network After Upgrade from V9R1 to V9R3 Symptom description: In the Egypt 3rd license project. indicating that the process is disrupted and that the communication is timed out. assigning a TCH is difficult. It is found that if the parameter HW_Concentric Attribute is set to None. the operating frequency band of the MS may be wrongly determined. Check the code. call drops increase. Therefore. most of the transmission cables are the original ones.

the number of call drops increases greatly. In urban areas.7%. Cause analysis and handling: Analyze the signaling on the A interface. A version change is found. the MSC does not send a CLEAR CMD message to release the terrestrial resources and the TCH. the BTS sends a REL_IND message to the BSC.1%. timers T305 and T308 must be set during the addition of the BSC data. the TCH call drop rate increased from 0. the number of call drops with the cause value Release Indication increased greatly. After the settings of the two parameters are modified. As a result. and the data modification in the timer table does not take effect. in suburban areas. the following signaling flow takes place: After the MS sends a DISCONNECT message to the network.12 Case 12: Increase in Call Drop Rate Due to Change of TR1N on the MSC Side Symptom description: The value of the TR1N parameter was changed from 20s to 60s to avoid retransmission of short messages and to improve user experience. After the TR1N parameter is set to 20s again.7% to 1. . the BSC sends a CLEAR REQ message to the MSC and the number of call drops is incremented by one. After the value of TR1N is changed. After the change. that is. 6. Cause analysis and handling: Analyze the A interface signaling and the version change. therefore.11 Case 11: Increase in Call Drop Rate Due to Inactivity of T305 and T308 Symptom description: After a replacement was performed in Hainan Mobile project. Timer T305 and T308 are inactive.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 6. the MSC does not initiate the call release procedure. it increased from 0. the call drop rate becomes lower than that in the original network. the MS sends the BTS a DISC message to disconnect layer 2 connection. Then. the TCH call drop rate increased.4% to 0. the TCH call drop rate decreases greatly and returns normal. After receiving the DISC message. In this case. The problem is solved.

Check the causes of call drops.GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL 7 Feedback Form for the TCH Call Drop Rate If the TCH call drop rate is high and technical support is required. and transmission (selfcheck) Traffic measurement Traffic measurement results related to the voice quality and the balance between uplink and downlink RSL signaling tracing data *. determine whether interference or coverage problems exist. Check whether the network optimization parameters and power settings are proper.cell site) or *. check whether interference and imbalance between uplink and downlink exist.dat file Description Check whether the software version is faulty. Based on traffic measurement results. fill in the following form.ant file Signaling Drive test data . Check whether alarms related to the hardware. clock. Based on the drive test data. Hardware. clock. and transmission are generated in a cell with a high TCH call drop rate. Check Item Software version Data configuration table Alarm information Example BSC and BTS software versions *.log (*.

GSM BSS Network KPI (TCH Call Drop Rate) Optimization Manual INTERNAL Check Item Others Example Engineering parameter table and electronic map Description The NASTAR software can be used to import the electronic map to facilitate the geographical information check. .

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