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SHORT QUESTIONS UNIT-1 Wave Mechanics Q.1. What is de Broglie hypothesis? A.1. According to de Broglie hypothesis, each particle in motion behaves as waves and that the wavelength associated with any moving particle of momentum p (mass m and velocity v) is given by = h/p = h/mv; where h is Plancks constant. The waves associated with moving material particles are called the matter waves or the de Broglie waves. Q.2. Explain the concept of de Broglie matter waves. A.2. It is well known that light exhibits the phenomena of interference, diffraction, polarization, photoelectric effect and discrete emission and absorption. The phenomena of interference, diffraction and polarization can only be explained on the basis of wave theory of light. These phenomena show that light possesses wave nature. On the other hand the phenomena of Photoelectric Effect, Compton Effect and discrete emission and absorption can only be explained ion the basis of quantum theory of light, according to which light is propagated in small packets or bundles of energy. These packets are called photons or quanta and behave like corpuscles. These phenomena indicate that light possesses corpuscular (or particle) nature. Thus, the light possesses dual nature. Q.3. Name the experiment which shows wave nature of material particles. A.3. The first experimental evidence that the beam of material particles show wavelike properties was given by Davisson & Germer (1927), who succeeded also in measuring the de Broglie wavelength for slow electrons, accelerated by a potential difference ranging from 30 to 100 volts, by diffraction methods.

Q.4. What is de Broglie concept of stationary orbits? Are the de Broglie stationary orbits different than Bohrs stationary orbits? A.4. According to de Broglie concept of stationary orbit is that only those orbits are allowed as stationary orbits whose circumference is integral multiple of wavelength associated with electron. i.e. 2r = n, where r is the radius and is the de Broglie wavelength of electron given by = h/p = h/mv (p is linear momentum). The equation give so that L = mvr = nh/2, which is same as Bohr postulated in explaining the observed spectrum of hydrogen. Q.5. Why is wave nature not observed in our daily experience? A.5. The wave nature of matter is not apparent to our daily observations. The reason is that in our daily life we come across macroscopic objects for which the de Broglie wavelength is much smaller than the size of object. For example the de Broglie wavelength of a bullet of mass 1 g moving with velocity of 103 m/s is given by = h/mv = 6.625X10 -34 J.s/(10-3 kg)X(103 m/s) = 6.625X10-34 m. This wavelength is too small t show any effect. Q.6. A particle of charge q and mass m is accelerated from rest through a potential difference V. Find the de Broglie wavelength. A.6. The energy of the particle of charge q and mass m accelerated from rest through a potential difference V is qV. Therefore mv2 = qV or mv = p = (2mqV) and therefore the de Broglie wavelength associated = h/(2mqV). Q.7. What is the quantum picture of a material particle? A.7. From the experiments of Davisson & Germer, GP Thomson, H Dukers two-slit interference experiment, straight edge diffraction pattern with electrons show that electrons behave as waves. Bragg reflection of Helium and neutrons suggested that Helium atoms and neutrons behave as waves. From these experiments we conclude that (a) all particles behave like waves (b)the wavelength of the wave associated with any material particle is given by de Broglie formula = h/mv

Q.8. What is the difference between phase velocity & group velocity? A.8. When a single wave of a definite wavelength travels in a medium, its velocity of propagation in the medium is called the wave velocity or the phase velocity. If, however, a number of waves of different wavelengths are moving with different velocities in a medium, then the observed velocity is the velocity of the wave packet (or wave group) formed by the waves. This is called the group velocity and is less than the wave velocities. Q.9. In light waves the electromagnetic field varies in space and time; in sound waves the pressure varies in space and time; what is whose variation constitutes de Broglie waves. A.9. The height of water surface varies periodically in water waves, the pressure of gas varies periodically in sound waves and the electric and magnetic fields vary periodically in light waves but what is the quantity which varies periodically in case of matter waves? Answer is the wave function, the quantity whose variations make up the matter waves. Q.10. Show that de Broglie wavelength is a function of wavelength even in free space. A.10. If we consider a photon as a particle then p = h/p = hc/pc Since photon travels with velocity of light, its total energy according to the relativistic consideration can be given as E = [(m0c2)2+p2c2]; For photon, m0=0 (mass-less particle) hence E = pc Thus we get Further, P = hc/E E = h = hc/

X-Ray Diffraction Q.1. What is Braggs law? A.1. The directions of maxima for X-ray diffracted from the crystal 2d sin = n, (n=1,2,3,4.). If this path difference is an integral multiple of the wavelength , the reflected beams will interfere constructively giving maximum intensity. Thus the strong reflection will be observed in the direction which corresponds to a path difference , 2, 3,. etc between the rays reflected from the consecutive planes, i.e., for strong reflection or reinforcement 2d Sin = n where n is an integer. This result is the famous Braggs equation. Q.2. Derive Braggs equation for reflection of X-rays by crystal planes. A.2. Let a narrow beam of X-rays of wavelength is incident on the planes at the glancing angle . The reflected beam will leave at an angle to the plane. The path difference between the beams reflected at the consecutive planes (separated by distance d) will be 2d Sin. If this path difference is an integral multiple of the wavelength , the reflected beams will interfere constructively giving maximum intensity. Thus the strong reflection will be observed in the direction which corresponds to a path difference , 2, 3, . etc between the rays reflected from the consecutive planes, i.e., for strong reflection or reinforcement 2d Sin = n where n is an integer. This result is the famous Braggs equation. Q.3. What is Compton effect? A.3. When a monochromatic beam of high frequency radiation (e.g. Xrays) is scattered by a substances, the scattered radiation contains the radiation of lower frequency (or greater wavelength) along with the radiation of unchanged wavelength (or frequency). The radiation of unchanged wavelength in the scattered light is called unmodified radiation while the radiation of greater wavelength is called modified radiation. The phenomenon is called the Compton Effect.

Q.4. What do you mean by Comptons wavelength of electron? A.4. As per Compton Effect = - = h/m0c. The quantity h/mec ( 6.6X10-34/9X10-31x3X108 m = 0.02426A) is called Compton wavelength of the electron. Q.5. Comment on the statement that the Compton shift is independent of the wavelength of incident X-rays and the material of target. A.5. From the equation - = (h/m0c) (1-cos ) it is clear that the change in wavelength is independent of the frequency of incident photon as well as of the nature of the scatterer; but depends only on the angle of scattering . Q.6. Explain why Compton Effect is not observed with visible light? A.6. The maximum value of (1-cos ) is 2 for =180, so that the maximum wavelength change possible is 0.04852A or roughly 0.05A only. Therefore from the equation = -=(h/m0c)(1-cos ) it follows that that the Compton Effect can most readily be detected for radiation of wavelength not greater than a few angstrom units. For example for = 5A, the maximum change in wavelength is 1% while for =1A, the effect is 5%. For visible light (mean = 5000A) this suggest that the maximum wavelength change (= 0.05A) is only about 0.001% of the incident wavelength which is undetectable. Hence, Compton Effect cannot be observed for visible light rays. Q.7. Why do modified radiations exist in Compton scattering? A.7. In the theory we have assumed that the electron is so loosely bound to the atom that it can be regarded as free; but if a photon becomes incident on an electron which is tightly bound to the atom a whole recoils as a result of Compton scattering. The conservation equations of energy and momentum remains unchanged except that the rest mass m0 of the electron must be replaced by the rest mass M0 of the atom. For an aluminum target, M0 = 27(mH/M0)M0 = 27X1840m0

Where mH is the mass of hydrogen atom. Then h/M0c = 2.426X10-12/27x1840 = 4.9X10-17 m = 4.9X10-7 A Thus in such case (where electron is tightly bound to the atom) for an incident wavelength of the order of a few angstroms the change in wavelength is negligible for all values of . This explains the presence of unmodified radiation observed by Compton. Q.8. What is Compton effect? Explain the physical significance of the Compton shift given by the expression - = (h/m0c) (1-cos ). A.8. When a monochromatic beam of high frequency radiation (e.g. Xrays) is scattered by a substances, the scattered radiation contains the radiation of lower frequency (or greater wavelength) along with the radiation of unchanged wavelength (or frequency). The radiation of unchanged wavelength in the scattered light is called unmodified radiation while the radiation of greater wavelength is called modified radiation. The phenomenon is called the Compton Effect. Further, from the equation - = (h/m0c) (1-cos ) it is clear that the change in wavelength is independent of the frequency of incident photon as well as of the nature of the scatterer; but depends only on the angle of scattering . UNIT- II Dielectrics Q.1. What do you mean by a dielectric? A.1. Dielectrics. The dielectrics are materials which contain no free electrons, so that no current can flow through them. As a result the electrical conductivity of a dielectric is poor and for an ideal dielectric, it is zero. Q.2. What do you mean by polar and non-polar molecules? Give examples. A.2. Polar Molecules. There are molecules for which the distribution of two kinds of charge is different, so that the positive and negative charges

are centered at points separated by a distance of molecular dimensions, forming an electric dipole. These, therefore, possess a net inherent dipole moment and are called polar molecules; H2O, CHCl3, C6H5Cl etc are some of the common examples. Non-Polar Molecules. A molecule in general may be regarded as having its positive charge concentrated as nuclear point (nuclei in molecules may be considered as point charges because their size is too small to be matter) and the entire electronic structure of the molecule as forming a single cloud of negative charge of smoothly varying density. The shape of the cloud and the variation of chare density within it is different for different molecules. But at the fringes of the cloud the density will always fall off exponentially. A molecule in which the centre of gravity of positive and negative charges coincide, and thus for which the inherent dipole moment is zero is called a non-polar molecule. H2, O2, CO2, CH4, CCl4, C6H6, C6H12 etc are some of the common examples of non-polar molecules. Q.3. Explain the term electric polarization. A.3. Polarization. When a polar or non-polar molecule is placed in an external electrical field, the small displacement of the orbital-electrons will cause the distance between the centers of gravity to alter. Thus non-polar molecules become induced dipoles whereas polar molecules will be oriented by the field and may have resultant dipole moment modified; since they possess (i) permanent dipole moment and (ii) induced dipole moment. The orientation of the induced dipoles or of the permanent dipoles in an external electric field will be such as to set or tend to set the axis of dipole along the line of force. This phenomenon is called electric polarization. Q.4. Write a note on three electric vectors. A.4. Three Electric Vectors. (a) Electric Intensity (or Electric Field Strength E). The electric field strength at any point in an electric field is defined as the force experienced per unit infinitesimal positive charge (q0). If F is the force on small charge

F q0, then E = Lim . The direction of E is along the direction of force. The q 0 q 0

unit of E is newton/coulomb or volt/meter. (b) Electric Polarization P. When a dielectric is placed in an external electric field, its molecules gain electric dipole moment and the dielectric is said to be polarized. The dielectric dipole moment induced per unit volume of the dielectric material is called the electric polarization of the dielectric. It is represented by vector P. The polarization may also be defined as the surface density of charge appearing at faces perpendicular to the direction of applied field. The unit of polarization is coulomb/meter2. (c) Electric Displacement Vector D. Let us consider the polarization of a dielectric slab placed between the plates of a parallel plate capacitor. Let free be the surface density of fee charges on capacitor plates and p that of bound or polarization charges. The electric field strengths due to free and p are given by E = free/0 and E = p/0, these are oppositely directed. The net electric field within the dielectric is E = E0 - E = free/0 - p/0 i.e. 0E = freep or free = 0E + p

But surface charge density p is equal to polarization p = P Therefore equation gives free = 0E + P The quantity (0E + P) is of special significance and is called the electric displacement vector D i.e D = 0E + P Comparing the equations, we note that the magnitude of electric displacement vector is equal to surface density of fee charges D = free. Q.5. Name the types of electric polarization. A.5. Types of Polarization. Polarizations are of four types namely, (i) Electronic Polarization, (ii) Ionic Polarization, (iii) Oriental Polarization and (iv) Space Charge Polarization.

Q.6. Explain the term electric susceptibility. How it is related to dielectric constant? A.6. Electric Susceptibility. When a dielectric material is placed in an electric field, it becomes electrically polarized. For most materials, the polarization is proportional to electric field E i.e. P E or P = 0e E Where e is a constant, characteristic of material, called the electric susceptibility. From equation e = P/0E That is the electric susceptibility may be defined as the ratio of polarization to permittivity of free space times electric field strength in dielectric. According to the definition dielectric susceptibility is dimensionless. The susceptibility of polar dielectrics depends on temperature while for nonpolar dielectrics, it is independent of temperature. Q.7. State Gausss law in dielectrics. A.7. Gausss Law in Dielectrics. The surface integral of displacement vector over a closed surface is equal to the net free charge enclosed within the surface

D.dS = q

s

free

Q.8 State Clausius-Mossotti relation. A.8. Clausius - Mossotti Equation. C-M equation relates macroscopic dielectric constant with the microscopic polarizability of non-polar dielectric. The equation is

=

3 0 N r 1 + 2 , Where is the polarizability, 0 the permittivity, r the r

relative permittivity, and N the number of molecules per unit volume This equation is valid for non-polar solids having cubic crystal structure. Q.9. How does Gausss law change in presence of dielectric?

10

Q.9. The electric field in an "empty" capacitor can be obtained using Gauss' law. Consider an ideal capacitor. The area of each capacitor plate is A and the charges on the plates are +/-Q. The charge enclosed by the integration surface is equal to +Q. Gauss' law states that the electric flux [Phi] through the surface of the integration volume is related to the

= E.dS = Q / 0 enclosed charge:

If a dielectric is inserted between the plates, the electric field between the plates will change (even though the charge on the plates is kept constant). Obviously, Gauss' law does not hold in this case. The electric field E

0 between the capacitor plates is related to the dielectric-free field E0: E =

where is the dielectric constant of the material between the plates. Gauss' law can now be rewritten as

E0 = E.dS = .dS =Q / 0

Gauss' law in vacuum is a special case with = 1. Q.10. What is ferroelectricity? A.10. It is found that below a certain temperature some materials spontaneously acquire an electric dipole moment. These materials are called ferroelectrics and this phenomenon is called ferroelectricity. Q.11. What is piezo-electric effect? A.11. Certain crystals when stressed externally become electrically polarized. In other words the electric charges appear on the surfaces of cryslas when they are stressed. This phenomenon was discovered by Curie and is called piezo-electric effect Q.12. What is meant by dielectric loss? A.12. When the capacitor is discharged, the dipoles (or molecules) of dielectric medium return in their unstressed state immediately. At the time

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of their returning in normal or initial state, the dipoles (or molecules) suffer internal friction and a part of their energy is lost. That is known as dielectric loss.

2. Depict how the displacement current led to the modification of Amperes law.

3. 4.

Give the physical significance of the first and second Maxwells equations. Give the physical significance of the third and fourth Maxwells equations.

5.

Show that E, H and the direction vector form a set of orthogonal vectors.

6.

7. Discuss the work energy theorem for the flow of energy in an electromagnetic field. 8. State pointing theorem. Give its physical significance for EM wave in free space. 9.

10.

Define depth of penetration. State the equation of continuity. Give its physical significance.

UNIT 4

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2. 3.

What is the difference between type 1 and type II superconductors. What do you mean by Meissner effect? How are cooper pairs formed. Give the significance of high transition temperature superconductor. Write a note on transition temperature. Write a note on Energy gap Write a note on Critical field. Write a note on Penetration depth. What is nano technology. What are bucky balls. What is the difference between single walled and multiwalled nano Give some important applications of nanotechnology. What is chemical vapour deposition technique. Discuss in brief the properties of nano technology.

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