+
+
= (time for upstream and back)
2. The Null Experiment of MichelsonMorley
The electromagnetic theory of Maxwell, one side, has succeeded to explain wave
phenomena, include light, thoroughly. However, the other side, it appeared two problem,
namely (1) every wave in its propagation need medium, and what the medium of sun light
propagates toward the earth?, and (2) which reference the speed of light (3x10
8
m/s) is
measured from?. At that time, ether, a hypothetic medium, was proposed as medium for light
propagation. Absolutely, ether is regard at rest in solar system from where the speed of light
(3x10
8
m/s) was observed.
Michelson Morley was interested to study the existence of ether in our nature. They
developed simply optic apparatus as shown in figure 1.1.
21
Figure 1.1 MichelsonMorley Experiment Equipment
The difference in times for rays L// and L will be
) ( ) ( //
2 2 2 2
v c
L
v c
L
v c
L
v c
L
t t t
+
+
= = A
2
2
2
2
1
/ 2
) 1 (
/ 2
c
v
c L
c
v
c L
t
= A
3
2
c
Lv
t ~ A (Hint: nx x
n
+ ~ + 1 ) 1 ( )
3. Postulate of The Special Theory of Relativity
The resolution of the difficulties in explaining the null experiment of Michelson
Morley, Albert Einstein (1905 proposed two postulate, namely:
1. The principle of relativity: All laws of physics have the same mathematical form in all
inertial reference frames (invariance).
2. The constancy of the light speed: the speed of light at vacuum has the same value of
c=3x10
8
m/s in all inertial systems.
22
The first postulate essentially asserts us that there is no experiment by which we can
measure velocity with respect to absolute space, thats why, the result, is the relative speed of
two inertial system. The second postulate merely asserts that the speed of light is the same for
all observers at every inertial frame of reference. In the other word, the speed of light is
absolute value at every inertial frame of reference. It will change our understanding of the
time. If we adapt the absolute of the speed of light, the implication, that the time is relative for
observers at every inertial of reference.
4. Lorentz Transportation
Since c is constant for all observer in both O and O and is the same in all direction, all
observer in both frames of reference must detect a spherical wave front expanding from their
origin, as shown in figure 1,2. Light in free space is regard isotropic. The spherical equation
can be written:
2 2 2 2 2
t c z y x = + + 1.11
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
'
2
'
t c z y x = + + 1.12
s m x c c / 10 3
8 '
= = 1.13
Figure 1.2. The isotropic of light
23
The transformation matched with the postulate Einstein, especially respect to the isotropic of
light is Lorentz transformation. Lorentz proposed set of transformation, that is:
) (
'
ut x x = 1.14
y y = ' 1.15
z z =
'
1.16
) (
'
x
c
t t

= 1.17
The Inverse Lorentz transformation, that is ,
) (
'
ut x x + = 1.18
y y = ' 1.19
z z =
'
1.20
) ' ( x
c
t t

+ = 1.21
where
2
2
1
1
c
v
= ; and
c
v
= 
By using above transformation, we can relate the result of observation an event at inertial
frame of reference O(x,y,z,t) to another O(x,y,z,t). The coordinate system of Lorentz
transformation is wellknown as 4dimensional space (x,y,z) and time (t) coordinate system.
24
y y
*A
u
x=x
O (x,y,z,t) O (x,y,z,t)
z z
Lorentz transformation formulae as shown below:
2
2
1
'
c
u
ut x
x
= 1.22
y y =
'
1.23
z z = ' 1.24
2
2
2
1
) (
'
c
u
x
c
u
t
t
= 1.25
Verify that the velocity transform to xaxis:
2
'
.
1
c
v u
u v
v
+
= 1.26
The inverse Lorentz formulae
2
2
'
1
c
u
ut x
x
+
= 1.27
y y =
'
1.28
25
z z = ' 1.29
2
2
2
'
1
) (
c
u
x
c
u
t
t
+
= 1.30
2
'
.
1
c
v u
u v
v
+
+
= 1.31
Problem 1.2
Observers on an asteroid measure a spaceship to zip by at speed of 0.60c, as figure 1.3. All
bridge and asteroid clocks are started when the bridge of the ship passed, the asteroid
observers measure a laser flash to occur at a position having coordinates (3.0, 0.5, 0.2) km
respect to them. At what position and time does the spaceship captain measure that the laser
flash occurred?
Solution:
Fix O in the asteroid, and fix O
=
c
v
The asteroid observer are in O, so m x x
3
1
10 0 . 3 = ; m x y
3
1
10 5 . 0 = ; m x z
3
1
10 2 . 0 = ;
s x t
6
1
10 0 . 5
= . The spaceship captain is in O
, as
shown in figure 1.4.
28
Figure 1.4 . Time dilation
Both ticks occur at the same position in O
: x
2=
x
2
A
= A = A 1.43
time interval relative
'
= At
time interval proper = A
o
t
At
is always greater than At for v geater than zero but less than c. The measured increase in
time intervals of a moving object is called time dilation.
29
Problem 1.3
Mouns are created in a process near the top of a mountain 4630 m above sea level. The mean
muon traveling at v=0.99c downward with =7.1 will decay at sea level. What is the mean
muon lifetime when is at rest?
Solution:
In our frame of reference, the mean muon travels 4630 m at 0.99c=2.97x10
8
m/s in a time of
about 4630m/(2.97x10
8
m/s)=1.56x10
5
s=15.6 s. Since the muon is moving in our frame of
reference, 15.6 s=At, then At
o
=At/=2.2 s
That is, At
o
=2.2 s is the mean lifetime when the muon is at rest.
Problem 1.4
Jack and Jill are 25yearold twins. Jack must stay on earth with a head injury, but astronaut
Jill travels at 0.98c to a star 24.5 light years away and return immediately. Ignoring the end
point acceleration times, find the twins ages when she returns. (One light year =1c. year, the
distance light travels in one year).
Solution:
From the earthbound frame of reference, Jill travels a total of 49 light years (out and back)
at 0.98c in a time interval of 50 years=49c x years /0.98c. Therefore 50 years of earth time
have passed, so Jack is (25+50) years=75 years old. This 50 years is dilated time, however,
Jills time interval is At
0
. Since =5.0 for v=0.98c, At
0=
At/=50 years/5.0=10 years. Jill
therefore has only aged 10 years, so he is (25+10) years old. She is 40 years younger that her
twin!
30
Question that might come to the problem 1.4, since the choice of frame of reference is
relative, why dont we place Jill in O? She then sees the earth move away and returns, and
therefore it is Jack who has traveled out and back at 0,98c. He should be the one who is 40
years younger. Since them both cant be 40 years younger. Each twin expects the other to be
younger. Does this prove relativity wrong? This apparent contradiction is called the twin
paradox. Recall, however, that are dealing with the special theory of relativity, which refers to
inertial reference frames. In the twin paradox, the earth is an approximately inertial reference
frame, but Jills spaceship isnt. It must be accelerated to start the trip, be decelerated when it
turning to earth. The choice of frames of reference is relative in special Theory of relativity
only if the frames of reference are all inertial. Therefore an attempt to use the special theory in
a no inertial frame of reference invites incorrect result. Jack does age more rapidly than Jill.
Experiments confirm this prediction.
3. Length Contraction
Suppose that an observer at rest in O, and want to measure the length of an object
moving past him. First, fix O in the object. Then, find the distance to the two object ends of
the object, x
2
and x
1
. Correctly, x
2
and x
1
are measured at the same time t
2
=t
1
, as show in
figure 1.5.
X
1
X
2
O
O
31
Applying the Loretz coordinate transformation,
) (
2 2
'
2
ut x x = and ) (
1 1
'
1
ut x x =
Subtracting, yield: ) ( ) (
1 2
'
1
'
2
x x x x =
Note that ) ' (
2 2
x x is the length as measured in O. Since the object is at rest with respect to
O, lets call this length L
o
, where the subscript zero refer to zero speed (proper length),
then ) (
1 2
x x represent the length L of the moving object measured by O. This give:
2
2
1
c
v
L
L
L
o
o
= =
1.44
length relative = L
length proper =
o
L
time) s simultaneu (
2 1
t t =
Equation 1.19 tells that L is always less than L
o
. The decrease in the measured lengths of
moving objects is called length contraction.
Problem 1.4.
A 0.125 m
3
cubical box is placed in the cargo hold of a spaceship, which then flies past us at
0.80c. If some edges of the box are parallel to the motion of the spaceship, determine the
boxs dimensions as wed measure them.
Solution:
A 0.125 has sides of (0.125 m
3
)
1/3
=0.5. Also, v=0.80c gives
2
2
1
c
v
=0.60=1/. The lengths of
those edges perpendicular to the direction of motion would be changed. The length of those
32
edges parallel to the motion would be L= (0.50)(0.60)=0.30 m. (With the y and z
dimensions unchanged and the dimension contracted, the volume would be (0.50 m)
2
(0.30
m)=0.075 m
3
. Of course a person in the cargo measures the volume of the box 0.125 m
3
, since
the box at rest with respect to that person.
4. Relativistic Mass and Momentum
Suppose that the following situation: Observer in S1 and S2are given identical balls that
will make a perfectly elastic collision with each other. When the observers move past one
another, each will throw a ball with v
x
=0 and v
y
=
In the symmetric collision, the momentum is equal and opposite, so:
) ( 1
2
2
0 y y
v
c
v
m v m =
This gives:
o
o
m
c
v
m
m =
=
2
2
1
1.45
Equation (1.45) is the relativistic mass transformation. It tells that measurement of the mass
of an object gives a mass that increases as relative speed v increase. Since mv P = and m
increase with v, linier momentum is no longer directly proportional to velocity, as shown in
equation (1.46).
2
2
1
c
v
v m
P
o
= 1.46
Problem 1.5
If a spaceship were to move past the earth at 0.60c, what would the crew measure for the
standard kilogram (which is at rest on earth)?
Solution:
When at rest, the standard kilogram has a mass of exactly 1 kg by definition. The relative
speed of the standard kilogram with respect to the spaceship is 0.60C, which gives
34
2 2
/ 1 / 1 c v ==1.25. Therefore m=m
o
=(1.25)(1 kg)=1.25 kg. The mass m
o
is called rest
mass. It is the smallest mass an object has because as the object speeds up, the mass increase.
Problem 1.6
What is the momentum of a proton moving at speed of v=0.86c?
Solution:
2
2
1
c
v
m
P
o
=
=
2
8 27
) 86 . 0 ( 1
) / 10 00 . 3 )( 86 . )( 10 67 . 1 (
s m x o kg x
= s m kg x / . 10 44 . 8
19
5. The Equivalent Mass and Energy
Work may be done on a body to increase it kinetic energy (E
k
) In classical physics,
2
2 / 1 mv Ek = . In relativistic physics, that expression is not generally correct, even if m is the
relativistic mass. To obtain the correct expression lets start an object from rest with a net
external force F in the +x direction. Then the work done by F will be stored in the form of
kinetic energy, dx
dt
dP
Fdx E
k
} }
= =
= dx
dt
dm
v
dt
dv
m ) ( +
}
= dv
c v
m
vd dv
c v
m
o o
)]
/ 1
( )
/ 1
[(
2 2 2 2
}
= vdv c v m
v
o
2 / 3
0
2 2
) / 1 (
}
35
2
2
2
2
1
c m
c
v
c m
E
o
o
k
= 1.47
2 2
c m mc E
o k
= 1.48
o k
E E E = 1.49
2
mc E
k
A = 1.50
where
o
m m m = A is the relativistic mass increase.
Equation 1.49 tells us that when an object at rest in can be assigned a rest energy E
o
, when an
object is in motion, it will have a total energy:
k o
E E E + =
The formulae
2
mc E = is wellknown the mathematical statement of the
equivalence of mass and energy.
Problem 1.7
A t
0
meson (m
o
=2.4x10
28
kg) travels at a speed v=0.80c. What is its kinetic energy?
Compare to a classical calculation.
Solution:
The mass of the t
0
meson at v=0.8c is
28
2 2
28
2
2
10 0 . 4
/ 1
10 4 . 2
1
= x
c v
kg x
c
v
mo
m kg
Thus its E
k
is
2
) ( c m m E
k
=
36
J x
11
10 4 . 1
=
6. The Relativistic Law of Conservation of massenergy
The total relativistic energy is given by equation:
k o
E E E + = 1.51
In interaction of particles at relativistic speeds, can be replaced classical principle of energy
with one based on the total relativistic energy. The relativistic law of conservation of mass
energy, namely:
In an isolated system of particles, the total relativistic energy
remains constant.
Beside that, the relationship between relativistic energy (E) and momentum (P) can be
analyzed as below:
2
2
1
c
v
m
m
o
=
In this experiment, the terminal speeds were reached almost immediately, and the drops
drifted a distance L upward or downward at a constant speed.
) (
r f
f
n
v v
Ev
mg
q + =
)
1 1
(
r f
f
n
T T E
mgT
q + = 2.3
Where,
f f
v L T / = is the fall time, and
r r
v L T / = is the rise time.
Based on the equation 2.3, Millikan succeeded to determine the value of electron, that is,
42
e=1.60217733x10
19
C
It can be concluded that the matter is formed by quanta of elementary particle whose charge
1.60217733x10
19
C, and mass 9.1x10
31
kg.
2. Blackbody Radiation and Its Empirical Laws
A blackbody is a body that absorbs or emits all the radiation falling on it. Empirically,
the spectrum of light emitted by a hot dense object is shown by figure 2.1. The spectrum
contains a continuous range of frequencies. One of an ideal blackbody in our nature is sun.
Sun radiates energy to the earth over empty space, in the form of electromagnetic wave. The
form of energy is heat. All life on earth depends on the energy from the sun. The suns
temperature is much higher 6000
o
K than the earths, and is referred to as radiation.
The rate at which an object radiates energy has been found to be proportional to the
fourth power of the Kelvin temperature, T. The rate of energy transfers every area and time
unit, empirically, is shown in equation 2.1.
4
.
T e W
t A
Q
o = =
A A
A
2.4
Here o is a universal constant called the StefanBoltzman which has the value
4 2 8
. / 10 67051 . 5 K m W x
= o . The factor e is called the emissivity, and is a is number between
0 and 1 that is characteristic of the material. Very black surfaces have emissivity close to 1,
whereas shiny surfaces have e close to zero. Based on this fact, it can be concluded that all
object emit radiation whose total intensity is proportional to the fourth power of the Kelvin
temperature ( )
4
T o . At normal temperature, we are not aware of this electromagnetic
radiation because of its low intensity.
43
Problem 2.1
An ideal blackbody radiates 548 J at room temperature (20
0
C) in one day. How much energy
would it emit in a day at 1000
0
C?
Solution:
The StefanBoltzmant law tells us that energy is proportional to T
4
. Since T is the absolute
temperature, the given Ts are (20+273) K=293 K, and (1000+273)K= 1273 K. Then
J K W 547 ) 293 ( = , and
4
4
) 293 (
) 1273 (
) 293 (
) 1273 (
K
K
K W
K W
=
So J x j K W
5
4
10 950 . 1
293
1273
) 548 ( ) 1273 ( =
(
=
The 6000
o
K curve in figure 2.1, corresponding to the temperature of the sun, peaks in
the visible part of the spectrum. For lower temperatures the total radiation drops considerably
and peak occurs at higher wavelengths. Hence, the blue of the visible spectrum and the UV is
relatively weaker.
Figure 2.1 Spectrum of frequencies emitted by a blackbody
at two different temperatures.
44
It is found that the wavelength at the peak of the spectrum,
max
, is related to the Kelvin
temperatures T by:
K m x T . 10 90 . 2 .
3
max
= 2.5
This is known as Wiens displacement law. For the suns temperature it
gives nm K x K m x 500 ) 10 0 . 6 )( . 10 90 . 2 (
3 3
max
= =
, which is in the visible spectrum.
A mayor problem facing scientist in the 1980s was to explain blackbody radiation.
Maxwells electromagnetic theory had predicted that oscillating electric charges produce
electromagnetic waves, and the radiation emitted by a hot object could be due to the
oscillation of electric charges in the molecules of material. Although this theory could explain
where the radiation came from, however, it is incorrectly to predict the spectrum of emitted
light.
Problem 2.2
At what wavelength is the greatest amount of energy emitted at both room temperature and
1000
0
C for the ideal blackbody?
Solution
T=293 K (room temperature)
m
K
K m x
89 . 9
293
. 10 898 . 2
3
max
= =
T=1273 (1000
0
C)
m
K
K m x
26 . 2
1273
. 10 898 . 2
3
max
= =
45
3. RaleighJeans Theory
Lord RayleighJeans tried to derive the expression of the characteristic of spectrum of
frequencies emitted by a blackbody. Suppose that the electromagnetic waves are in cubic
cavity of side L, in which no energy transfers for standing waves. The number of possible
oscillation between u and u+du per volume equals (8tu
2
/c
3
) du. Classically, the energy for
each kind of oscillation equals kT, where k is Boltzmans constant, that is, k= 1.3807x10
23
J/K=8.61x10
5
eV/K. Therefore the energy per volume between u and u+du is
u
u t
u u
d
c
kT
d E
3
2
8
= 2.6
Based on RayleighJeans theory, the relation (2.3) only fits well at the very low frequency
(higher wave length), however in shorter wave length, the energy transfer is very high without
limit wellknown as the ultraviolet catastrophe. It is very dangerous for our nature.
4. MaxPlanck Theory
The break came in late 1900 when Max Planck proposed his two postulates to explain
spectrum of frequencies emitted by a blackbody. Plancks Postulate
1. Energy of electromagnetic oscillators were quantized and could
have only allowed energies of u nh E
n
= , ....... 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 = n .; u is the
oscillators energy. It is known Planks quantum postulate, and h is
Planks constancy valued h=6.623x10
34
J.s.
2. The average energy of an oscillator is
1
=
kT
h
e
h
E
u
u
46
Planck, explicitly, declared that energy of the molecular oscillators is thus quantized, then
when light is emitted by a molecular oscillator, its energy of nhu must decrease by at least an
amount hu to another integer times hu. The to conserve energy, the light ought to be emitted
in packet or quanta, each with an energy E=hu. If the number of possible oscillation between
u and u+du per volume equals (8tu
2
/c
3
) du, so the energy of a blackbody per volume
between u and u+du is
u
u
tu
u u
d
kT h
c
d E
1 ) / exp(
) / 8 (
3 2
= 2.7
The revolutionary thought of Planck on his postulate gave a final equation that fit the
experimental results. Another word, Max Plancks quantization assumption did produce an
equation that agreed with the experimental result, as shown in figure 2.2. Consequently, it
would change our perception that light (wave) doesnt merely show continuous phenomenon
in the point of view of classical physics, however, it is quantized. It exists only in discrete
amounts. The smallest amount light (wave) energy is called the quantum of energy (modern
physics). Max Plancks quantization is regard as milestone of the quantum physics.
Figure 2.2 Comparison of the RayleighJeans and theories to that of empiric.
47
Problem 2.3
Find the amount of energy per volume in the cavity at 2000K for light within the frequency
range of from 5.00x10
14
Hz to 5.04x10
14
Hz.
Solution
Since the frequency range is small compared to the actual frequency, we can replace u d by
Hz x Hz x Hz x
14 14 14
10 04 . 0 10 00 . 5 10 04 . 5 = = Au and v by Hz x v
14
10 02 . 5 =
= A
kT h
h
E
u
u t
u
u
=1.84x10
6
J/m
3
With h=6.625x10
34
J.s
c=3.00x10
8
m/s
k=1.38x10
23
J/K
T=2000K
TASK3
1. If all object radiate energy, why cant we see them in the dark?
2. Consider a point of source light vary with distance from the source according to (a) wave
theory, (b) particle (photon) theory? Would this help to distinguish the two theories?
3. Why do we say that light has wave properties? Why do we say that light has particle
properties?
4. Why do we say that electrons have wave properties? Why do we say that electrons have
particle properties?
48
5. (a) At what temperature will the peak of a blackbody spectrum be at 1.0 nm? (b) What is
the wavelength at the peak of a blackbody spectrum if the body is at temperature of 800K?
COURSE 4
I. Basic Competency:
Students are able to understand the theory of quantum and its implication in physics.
II. Indicators:
1. Able to explain the quantum property of wave.
2. Able to derive the Photoelectric effect of Einstein.
3. Able to derive the Compton Effect.
4. Able to derive pair production
5. Able to explain De Broglie Hypothesis to the wave of particle.
6. Able to explain the uncertainty of Heisenberg.
7. Able to derive Schrodinger equation to the waveparticle duality
III. Subject Matter
1. The Photoelectric Effect
In 1864, Maxwell predicted that oscillating electric currents would produce
electromagnetic waves that would move through a vacuum at the speed of light. In 1887,
Heinrich Hertz was attempting to confirm this prediction when he notices that a spark could
more easily be induced to jump a gap when the gap was illuminated. Continuing this research,
other workers showed that when light is incident on a metal surface, electrons are emitted
from the surface. This phenomenon is called the photoelectric effect.
49
Figure 2.3 Experimental arrangements for studying the photoelectric effect
As shown in figure 2.3, monochromatic light of one frequency of variable intensity
from source S shines on a clean metal surface in vacuum tube. Electrons, called
photoelectrons, are emitted from that electrode with some kinetic energy and travel to the top
electrode. This action produces a small current, which can be measured by a very sensitive
galvanometer, G. The battery is connected across a voltage divider circuit so that the potential
difference is measured by the voltmeter, V.
When the voltage is zero, the photoelectrons can easily travel to the collecting
electrode. However, giving the collecting electrode a negative charge will set up an electric
field to oppose the motion of the photoelectron. In moving against this field, the
photoelectrons do work. The total work done is equal to the charge, e, times potential
difference. This work comes from the kinetic energy of the photoelectrons. As the retarding
potential difference is increased, fewer and fewer electrons will have sufficient kinetic energy
to reach the top electrode. Therefore the current decreases as the retarding potential difference
increase. The current will drop to zero when the work done, (e)(Vo), equals the maximum
kinetic energy of the photoelectrons, Ek
maxs
. Therefore
eVo Ek =
max
2.8
50
Where Vo is the absolute value of the potential difference measured by the voltmeter when
the current drops to zero (if both electrodes are made of the same material) and is called the
stopping potential.
Classical physics runs into many difficulties when trying to explain various result of
photoelectric experiment, such as:
1. For a constant light frequency,u, Vo is independent of the light intensity, I, as shown
in figure 2.4. Classical physics would suggest that light of greater intensity (energy per
area per time) should give electrons greater kinetic energy, so that Ek
max
and therefore
Vo increase with I.
Figure 2.4 For a constant light frequency, the stopping potential is
independence of the intensity.
2. Even at extremely low intensity, photoemission occurs with essentially no delay as
soon as the light source is turned on. Classical physics would say that energy is spread
over the entire wavefront. Thus a particular electron would have to gather energy in
from a certain rather small surrounding area until the electron finally had enough
energy to break free from the surface. For extremely weal light, this occurrence could
take days in the classical point of view
3. For a given frequency,u, and retarding potential, V, the photocurrent measured by G is
directly proportional to the light intensity. Since the power output is proportional to
51
the photocurrent and the power input is proportional to the intensity, classical physics
will agree with this result.
4. The maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons is linearly related to the frequency of
the light. Below a certain threshold frequency, no photoelectrons will be emitted.
Classical physics has no explanation for this behavior, as shown in figure 2.5.
Figure 2.5. The stopping potential and the maximum kinetic energy of the
photoelectrons increase linearly with the light frequency
In 1905 , Einstein made a bold extension of the quantum idea by proposing a new
theory of light. Planks work suggested that the vibrational energy molecules in a radiating
object is quantized with energy E=nhu. Einstein reasoned that if the energy of the molecular
52
oscillators is thus quantized, then the light is emitted by a molecular oscillator, its energy
must decrease by at least an amount hu.
u h E = 2.9
Since all light ultimately comes from a radiating source, this suggests that light is transmitted
as tiny particles, or photons, rather than as wave, as shown in figure 2.6.
Figure 2.6 For an electromagnetic harmonic oscillator, (a) classical physics said that can have a continuous range
of possible values; (b) Planck said that E=nhu, so that E can have only certain allowed values, and
(c) Einstein said that photons with E=hu are emitted in transition between adjacent energy levels.
Problem 2.4
Calculate the energy of a photon of blue light, nm 450 = .
Solution
Since u / c = , we have
J x
m x
s m x s J x hc
h E
19
7
8 34
10 4 . 4
) 10 5 . 4 (
) / 10 0 . 3 )( . 10 63 . 6 (
= = = =
u
eV eV J x J x E 7 . 2 ) / 10 6 . 1 /( ) 10 4 . 4 (
19 19
= =
53
Einstein suggested that the photoelectric effect occurred when a photon gave up all its
energy, hu, to an electron near the surface of the metal. The electron would then have to do
some work in overcoming the forces binding it to the surface. Any remaining energy would
be the electrons kinetic energy when free of the surface. The maximum kinetic energy of a
photoelectron thus becomes
o k
W h E = u
max
2.10
The term
o
W is called the work function. It is the minimum amount of work that must be done
to free an electron from the surface. This quantum idea of Einstein then explains the result of
the photoelectric effect experiments:
1. At constant u, Ek
max
and therefore Vo dont depend on the intensity of the light. That
is, they dont depend on how many photons per time per area are arriving.
2. As soon as a photon reaches the surface, it can be absorbed and an electron emitted.
3. The intensity is directly proportional to the number of photons per time, as it the
number of electrons emitted per time. Therefore the photocurrent is directly
proportional to the intensity.
Problem 2.5
What is the maximum kinetic energy (E
k
) and speed of an electron ejected from a sodium
surface whose work function is W
0
= 2.28 eV when illuminated by light of wavelength (a) 410
nm; (b) 550 nm?
Solution:
(a) For nm 410 = , J x hc h
19
10 85 . 4 /
= = u or 3.03 eV
E
k max
=3.03 eV2.28 eV=0.75 eV or 1.2 x 10
19
J. Since E
k max
=1/2 mv
2
where
m=9.1 x10
31
kg,
m
E
v
k max
2
= =5.1x10
5
m/s
54
(b) For , 550nm = hu=3.60 x10
19
J=2.25 eV. Since this photon energy is less than the work
function, no electron are rejected.
2. The Compton Effect
A number of other experiments were carried out in the early twentieth century which
also supported the photon theory. One of these was the Compton effect (1923). Compton
scattered shortwavelength light (Xray) from various of material. He found the scattered light
had slightly lower frequency that did the accident light, indicating a loss energy. This
experience could only be explained on the basis of the photon theory as incident photons
colliding with electrons of the material. He applied the laws of conservation of energy and
momentum to such collision and found that the predicted energies of scattered photons were
in accord with experimental results.
Figure 2. Compton effect
55
In order to analyze the Compton Effect, firstly, consider that the photons is truly a relativistic
particle due to its speed. Thus, we must use relativistic formulas for dealing with its mass,
energy, and momentum. The mass m of any particle is given by
2 2
/ 1 / c v m m
o
= . Since
v=c for a photon, the denominator is zero. So the rest mass, m
o
, of a photon must also be zero,
or its energy E=mc
2
would be infinite. Of course a photon is never at rest. The momentum of
a photon with m
o
=o, is
c
E
P = 2.11
Since u h E = , the momentum of a photon is related to its wavelength by
u h
c
h
P = = 2.12
Problem 2.6
An xray photons has a wavelength of 100 pm. Calculate its momentum in SI and eV/c units.
Solution
s N x
m x
s J x h
P . 10 6 . 6
10 100
. 10 6236 . 6
24
12
34
= = =
We can then convert the result directly into eV/c units. Another way to
solve the problem would be to first find the frequency:
Hz x
m x
s m x c
18
10
8
10 00 . 3
10 00 . 1
/ 10 00 . 3
= = =
u
Then
c eV x c Hz x s eV x
c
h
P / 10 24 . 1 / ) 10 00 . 3 )( . 10 136 . 4 (
4 18 15
= = =
u
56
If the incoming photon in figure 2.7 has wavelength , then its total energy and momentum
are
u
hc
h E = = and
h
P =
After the collision, the photon scattered at the angle  has a wavelength which we call
. Its
energy and momentum are
'
'
hc
E = and
'
'
h
P =
The electron, assumed at rest before the collision, is scattered at angle u as shown. Its kinetic
energy is
2
2
2
1
1
1
c m
c
v
E
o ke





.

\

=
Where m
o
is the rest mass of the electron and v is speed. The electrons momentum is
v m
c
v
P
o e
2
2
1
1
=
We apply conservation of energy to the collision:
2
2
2
'
1
1
1
c m
c
v
hc hc
o





.

\

+ =
And we apply conservation of momentum to the x and y components of momentum:
2
2
'
1 / cos cos
c
v
v m
h h
o
+ = u 
(The x component of momentum)
2
2
'
1 / sin sin 0
c
v
v m
h
o
= u 
= = =
Which is 0.0012 nm. Thus the wavelength must be very short. Such photon are in the gamma
ray ( or very short Xray) region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The photoelectric effect, the Compton Effect, and pair production have placed the
particle theory of light on a firm experimental basis. The other side, the classical experiments
of Young and others on interference and diffraction which showed that the wave theory of
light also rest on affirm experimental basis. Some experiments indicate that light behaves like
a wave, and others indicate that it behaves like a stream particles. These two theories seem to
be incompatible but both have been shown to have validity. Finally, physicist come to the
conclusion that light referred to as the waveparticle duality. The wave description and the
particle description of light are complimentary, called the principle of complementarity as
proposed by Niels Bohr in 1928. It is used to explain the nature phenomenon of light
separately.
60
4. De Broglies WaveNature of Matter Hypothesis
In 1923h , Louis de Broglie extended the idea of the waveparticle duality. He sensed
deeply the symmetry in nature and argued that if light sometimes behaves like a wave and
sometimes like a particle, then perhaps those things in nature thought to be particles, such as
electrons and other material objects, might also have wave properties. De Broglie proposed
that the wavelength of a particle would be related to its momentum in the same way as for a
photon. That is, for particle of mass m traveling with speed v, the wavelength is given by
mv
h
= 2.15
The equation 2.11 is sometimes called the de Broglie wavelength of a particle.
Problem 2.9
Determine the wavelength of an electron that has been accelerated through a potential
difference of 100 V.
Solution
We assume that the speed of the electron will be much less than c so we use nonrelativistic
mechanics.
s m x kg x V C x m eV v / 10 9 . 5 ) 10 1 . 9 /( ) 100 )( 10 6 . 1 )( 2 ( / 2
6 31 19
= = =
Then
nm m x
s m x kg x
s J x
mv
h
12 . 0 10 2 . 1
) / 10 9 . 5 )( 10 1 . 9 (
) . 10 6 . 6 (
10
6 31
34
= = = =
In order to verify the de Broglies wave nature of matter hypothesis, C.J. Davisson and
L.H. Germer performed the crucial experiment; they scattered electrons from the surface of a
metal crystal and, observed that the electrons came off in regular peaks. When they
61
interpreted these peaks as a diffraction pattern, the wavelength of the diffracted electron wave
was found to be just that predicted by de Broglie.
Figure 2.9 Diffraction pattern of electron scattered from aluminum foil, as
recorded on film.
5. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Whenever a measurement is made, some uncertainty or error is always involved. For
example, we can not make an absolute exact measurement of the length of table, how good
the measuring device. But, at the point view of the duality of waveparticle, the uncertainty
appeal naturally due to the unavoidable interaction between the system observed and the
observing instrument. If we use light of wavelength , the position can be measured at best to
an accuracy of about . That is, the uncertainty in the position measurement, Ax is
approximately
= Ax
Supposed that the object can be detected by a single photon. The photon has a momentum
/ h P = , and when it strikes our object it will give some or all of this momentum to the
object. Therefore, the final momentum of our object will be uncertainty in the amount
62
h
P ~ A
Since we cant tell beforehand how much momentum will be transferred? The product of
these uncertainty
h P x ~ A A ) )( (
Of course, the uncertainty could be worse than this, depending on the apparatus and the
number of photons needed for detection. In Heisenbergs more careful calculation, he found
that at the very best
t 2
) )( (
h
P x > A A 2.16
This is a mathematical statement of Heisenbergs uncertainty principle. It tell us that we can
not simultaneously measure both the position and momentum of an object precisely. The
more accurately we try to measure the position, so that Ax is small, the greater will be the
uncertainty in momentum, AP. And vice versa, if we try to measure the momentum very
precisely, then the uncertainty in the position becomes large.
Problem 2.10
An electron moves in a straight line with a constant speed=1.10x10
6
m/s which has been
measured to a precision of 0.1 percent. What is the maximum precision with which its
position could be simultaneously measure?
Solution
The momentum of the electron is ) / 10 10 . 1 )( 10 11 . 9 (
6 31
s m x kg x mv P
= =
s m kg x / . 10 00 . 1
24
= . The uncertainty in the momentum is 0.1 percent of this, or
63
s m kg x P / . 10 00 . 1
27
= A
From the uncertainty principle, the best simultaneous position measurement will have an
uncertainty of
P
h
x
A
= A
t 2 /
= m x
s m kg x
s J X
27
27
34
10 06 . 1
) / . 10 00 . 1 )( 2 (
. 10 62 . 6
=
t
or about 100 nm. This about 1000 times the diameter of an atom.
Another useful form of uncertainty principle relates energy and time. The object to be
detected has an uncertainty in position ~ Ax . Now the photon used to detect it travels with
speed c, and it takes a time c c x / / ~ A to pass through the distance of uncertainty. Hence,
the measured time when our object is at given position is uncertain by about
c
t
~ A
Since the photon can transfer some or all of its energy ( u / hc h E = = ) to our object, the
uncertainty in energy of our object as a result is
hc
E ~ A
The product of these two uncertainties is
h t E ~ A A ) )( (
Heisenbergs more careful calculation gives
t 2
) )( (
h
t E > A A 2.17
This form of the uncertainty principle tell us that the energy of an object can be uncertain, or
may even be nonconserved, by an amount E A for a time ) 2 /( E h t A ~ A t .
Problem 2.11
64
The lifetime of a typical atomic state is 10
8
s. What is the uncertainty in the energy of such a
state?
Solution
eV x
s
eV x
t
h
E
7
8
15
10 4
10
10 136 . 4
= =
A
> A
Therefore the spread in energy of the state is at least 4x10
7
eV.
6. The Schrodingers Equation
As we know that the important properties of any wave are its wavelength (),
frequency(u), and amplitude (A) or displacement (y) at any point. The other side, the
important properties of any particle is its position (x), momentum (P) and mass (m).
Generally, we can analyze the dynamic of wave from its displacement by using Maxwell
theory, and the dynamic of particle from its position by using Newton laws. Because of the
waveparticle duality, early, there is no theory can derive the dynamic of system whose has
duality property, neither Newton Laws nor Maxwell theory.
It is de Broglie dared to reveal idea that particle characterized by momentum also
brought wave property characterized by wavelength, P h/ = .
Although, de Broglie could able to predict the wavelength () of particle, but he cannot derive
the wave of particle dynamically. Physicist, then, expressed that the state of waveparticle
duality, such as electron, can be represented by the wave function (). The wave function
() depends on time (t) and position (x), and the has physics meaningless, however, in
order that it be physically meaningful, Max Born stated that dV t x
2
) , ( at certain point in
space and time represent the probability of finding the particle within volume dV about the
65
given position at that time. Thus,
2
) , ( t x is often referred to as probability density or
probability distribution, since it is the probability of finding the particle per unit volume.
Then, the sum of the probabilities over all spacethat is, the probability of finding the particle
at one point or anotherbecomes
1
2
space
=
}
dV
all
2.18
This is called the normalization condition, and the integral is taken over whatever region of
space in which the particle has a chance of being found, which is often all of space, from
= x to = x .
De Broglie hypothesa gave a basic affect in deal with microscopic physis system. For
a particle of mass m and velocity v, the de Broglie wavelength is P h/ = , where P=mv is
the particles momentum. Hence
P
h
P
k = = =
t
t 2 2
t 2
h
= 2.19
Generally, in one dimension, the equation of wave can be formulated
2
2
2 2
2
1
t v x c
c
=
c
c
2.20
The solution of the wave equation above is
) . (
) , (
t x k i
o
e t x
e
= 2.21
Where
P
k = and
E
= e 2.22
Equation 2.18 substitute to 2.17 yields
66
) (
) , (
Et Px
i
o
e t x
= 2.23
The dynamic of particle can be analyzed from its conservation of energy, its e expressed by
E U E
k
= +
E U
m
P
= +
2
2
If both side multiplied by ) , ( t x , we get
) , ( ) , ( ) , (
2
2
t x E t x U t x
m
P
= + 2.24
It can be proved that:
2
2
2 2
) , (
) , (
x
t x
t x P
c
c
=
and
t
t x
i t x E
c
c
=
) , (
) , (
2.25
Substituted 2.21 to 2.20, it yields
t
t x
i t x x U
t
t x
m c
c
= +
c
c
) , (
) , ( ) (
) , (
2
2
2 2
2.26
It is Time Dependence nonrelativistic Schrodingers equation, regarded as wave equation
for particle, in which ) , ( t x figures the quantum state of particle from where all
information about the particle can be accessed from the quantum state. The wave function
67
) , ( t x is a complex function like iy x + , 1 = i . ) , ( t x may have both real and imaginary
part, so ) , ( t x is not an observable quantity.
Problem 2.12
If
iwt
e x t x
= ) ( ) , ( , show that the probability of finding the particle in an infinitesimal
volume dvis independent of time.
Solution
The probability desired is
dv dv
*
2
=
dv e x e x
t i t i
) ) ( )( ) ( (
* e e
=
dv x x ) ( ) (
*
=
Since
*
, , and dv are independent of time, the probability desired independent of time.
In many physics problem, generally the function of U (potential energy) is only depend on
position, ) (x U U = . Hence, it is possible to write the wave function as a product of separate
function of space and time.
) ( ) ( ) , ( t f x t x = 2.27
Substituting 2.23 into the timeindependent Schrodinger equation,
dt
t df
x i t f x x U
dx
x d
t f
m
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) (
) (
2
2
2 2
= +
68
We divide both sides of this equation by ) ( ) ( t f x and obtain an equation that involves only x
on one side and only t on the other:
dt
t df
t f
i x U
dx
x d
x m
) (
) (
1
) (
) (
) (
1
2
2
2
= +
This separation of variable is very convenient. Since the left side is a function only of x, and
the right side is a function only of t, the quality can be valid for all values of x and all values
of t only if each side is equal to a constant, which we call E, so
E x U
dx
x d
x m
= + ) (
) (
) (
1
2
2
2 2
Then,
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
2
2
2 2
x E x x U
dx
x d
m
= +
2.28
The other side:
E
dt
t df
t f
i =
) (
) (
1
dt
E
i
t f
t df
=
) (
) (
t E i
e t f
) / (
) (
= 2.29
Thus, the total wave function is
t E i
e x t x
) / (
) ( ) , (
= 2.30
69
Problem 2.13
Show that
) ( t kx i
Ae
e
= + is a correct wave function for a free particle (V=0) in one dimension,
where t / 2 = k .
Solution
Substituting the given + into
t E i
e
) / (
= + yields
t E i t i ikx
e e Ae
) / (
=
e
. The expression
/ E = e is correct because e = E , leaving .
ikx
Ae =
Now
ikx ikx
ikAe dx Ae d = / ) ( so
2 2 2 2
) ( / ) ( / k Ae ik dx ikAe d dx d
ikx ikx
= = =
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
2
2
2 2
x E x x U
dx
x d
m
= +
) ( ) ( 0 ) ( )( 2 / (
2 2
x E x x k m = +
m
k
E
2
2 2
=
Since 0 + = + =
k k
E V E E , so that
m
k
E
k
2
2 2
=
Recall that t 2 / h = and t / 2 = k , then we have / h k = . But P h = / , so
2 2
2 / 1 2 / mv m P E
k
= = , which is the correct nonrelativistic relation.
TASK4
1. Emission of electrons from a given surface is 380 nm. What will be the maximum kinetic
energy of ejested electrons when the wavelength is changed to (a) 480 nm, (b) 280 nm?
70
2. Xrays of wavelength 120 . 0 = nm are scattered from a carbon block. What is the
Compton wavelength shift for photons detected at angles (relative to the incident beam) of
(a) 45
0
, (b) 90
0
, and (c) 180
0
?
3. In what ways is Newtonian mechanics contradicted be quantum mechanic?
4. If an electron position can be measured to an accurate of 1.6 x 10
8
m, how accurately can
its velocity be known?
5. An electron with E
k
=100 eV in free space passes over a potential well 50 eV deep that
stretches from x=0 to x= 5.0 nm. What is the electrons wavelength (a) in free space, (b)
when over the well? (c) Draw a diagram showing the potential energy and total energy as
a function of x, and on the diagram sketch a possible wave function!
COURSE 5
I. Basic competency:
Able to understand the theory models of atom and its implication in Physics
II. Indicators:
1. Able to explain the J.J. Thomson models of the atom
2. Able to explain atomic spectra of the atom
3. Able to explain the Rutherford models of the atom
III. Subject matter
1. Early Models of the Atom
The idea that matter is made up atoms was accepted by most scientist by 1900. J. J.
Thomson visualized the atom as a homogeneous sphere of positive charge inside of which
there were the negatively charged electrons, a little like plums in a pudding, soon after his
71
discovery of the electron in 1897, argued that the electron in this model should be moving.
The Thomson model of atom is shown in figure 3.1.
Figure 3.1 Thomsons model of the atom
Ernest Rutherford (1937) performed experiment whose result contradicted Thomsons
model of the atom. In these experiments a beam of positively charge alpha (o) particle was
directed at a thin sheet of metal foil such as gold. It was expected from Thomsons model that
alpha particle would not be deflected significantly since electron are so much lighter than
alpha particle. The experimental result completely contradicted these predictions. It was found
that most of the alpha particles passed through the foil unaffected, as if the foil were mostly
empty space. A few were deflected at very large angles, some evening nearly the direction
from which they had come.
Figure 3.2 Rutherfords Experiments
72
Rutherford reasoned, only if the positive charged alpha particles were being repelled
by a massive positive charge concentrated in a very small region of space. Then, Rutherford
theories that the atom must consist of a tiny but massive positively charged nucleus,
containing over 99.9% of the mass of atom, surrounded by electrons some distance away. The
electrons would be moving in orbits about the nucleus, much like the planets move around the
sun, because if they were at rest they would fall into the nucleus due to electrical attraction.
The motion of electron encircle the nucleus can be derived from
Newtons law. The attractive Coulomb force (F
e
) between electron and nucleus works as
centripetal force (F
c
) that keeps electron on the track.
C e
F F = 3.1
r
mv
r
e
k
2
2
2
=
mr
ke
v
2
= and
2
2
mv
ke
r = 3.2
The total energy of electron can be derived as below:
p k t
E E E + =
=
2
2
1
mv +
r
e
k
r
e
k
r
e
k E
t
2 2
2
1
= =
r
e
k
2
2
1
3.3
where
o
k
tc 4
1
=
The Rutherfords model of the atom fails, theoretically, to explain the stability of atom.
According to Maxwell theory, electron orbits the nucleus with accelerating, consequently,
electron radiate energy continuously. Consequently, because of losing energy, electron will be
73
predicted to be captured by nucleus. However, it is never happen. The other side, empirically,
The Rutherfords model can not explain the line of atomic spectra.
Figure 3.3 Rutherfords Model of the Atom
2. Atomic Spectra
Empirically, if gas heated, it emits light. The radiation is assumed to be due to
oscillation of atoms. The radiation from exited gases had been observed, and it was found that
the spectrum was not continuous, but discrete in the form of line spectrum. The line spectrum
can be used to study the structure of the atom. Any theory of atomic structure should able to
explain why atom emits light only of discrete wavelength.
Figure 3.4 Gas discharge tube
74
Hydrogen is the simplest atom worthy to be studied. It has only one electron orbiting its
nucleus. J.J. Balmer (1885) shown that the four visible lines in the hydrogen spectrum that
would fit the following formula
)
1
2
1
(
1
2 2
n
R =
, 4 , 3 = n . 3.1
R is called the Rydberg constant whose value R=1.097 x 10
7
m
1
. Later it was found that this
Balmer series of line extended into the UV region, as shown figure 3.5
Figure 3.5 Balmer series of lines for hydrogen
Later experiment on hydrogen showed that there were other series of lines in the UV and IR
and these had a pattern just like the Balmer series, but at different wavelengths, namely
1. Lyman series: 
.

\

=
2 2
1
1
1 1
n
R
n=2, 3,
2. Balmer series: )
1
2
1
(
1
2 2
n
R =
n=3, 4,.
3. Paschen series: )
1
3
1
(
1
2 2
n
R =
n=4, 5, .
75
4. Bracket series : )
1
4
1
(
1
2 2
n
R =
n=5,.
5. Pfund series : )
1
5
1
(
1
2 2
n
R =
n=
Problem 2.1
What is the energy of the ultraviolet photon absorbed by the atom for which the values of n
i
and n
f
are 1 and 5, respectively?
Solution
Hz x
s m x c
15
2 2
8
10 16 . 3
1
1
5
1 / 10 8
=

.

\

= =
u
eV Hz x s eV x h E 06 . 13 ) 10 16 . 3 )( . 10 136 . 4 (
15 15
= = =
u
COURSE 6
I. Basic competency:
Able to understand the theory models of atom and its implication in Physics
II. Indicators:
1. Able to explain the Bohr model of hydrogen atom
2. Able to derive de Broglies Hypothesis of hydrogen atom
3. Able to analyze hydrogen atom in the view of quantum mechanic
III. Subject matter1
1. The Bohr Model
Bohr had studied deeply the Rutherfords model, and believe the planetary model
atom of Rutherford is still valid. But in order to make it work, Bohr proposed two postulate to
mend the Rutherfords model of the atom, namely
76
1. Electrons move about the nucleus in circular orbit, but that only certain
orbits are allowed called stationery orbit without radiating energy. Light is emitted
or absorbed when an electron jumps from one stationer state to another. The amount
of radiating/absorbing energy is
l u
E E h = u 3.2
Where
u
E refers to the energy of the upper state, and E
l
the energy of the lower state.
2. The angular momentum of electron moving in circular r with speed v
n
mvr L = is
quantized by
t 2
h
n . n is called the quantum number
Mathematically,
t 2
h
n mvr L
n
= = 3.3
Figure 3.6 Electric force (Coulomb law) keeps electron in orbit
Here n is an integer and
n
r is the radius of the n
th
possible orbit.
From Newtons second law, ma F = , and r v a /
2
= , then Coulombs law for F can be
derived:
n n o
r
mv
r
Ze
2
2
2
4
1
=
tc
the other side
n
mr nh v t 2 / =
We solve for
n
r and find:
77
2
2 2
mZe
h n
r
o
n
t
c
= 3.4
The smallest orbit has n=1 and for Hydrogen (Z=1) it has the value
m x r
10
1
10 529 . 0
=
r
1
is sometime called the Bohr radius.
Problem 3.2
Calculate the attractive force and the electrons speed in the smallest orbit of the Bohr
hydrogen atom.
Solution
1 = n is the smallest orbit of Bohr hydrogen.
Since Z=1 for hydrogen, r=52.9 pm, then
N x
m x
C x
C
m N
x
r
Ze
F
o
8
2 12
2 19
2
2
9
2
2
10 2 . 8
) 10 9 . 52 (
) 10 60 . 1 ( .
10 0 . 9
4
1
= = =
tc
The speed is
s m x
m x kg x
s J x x
r m
nh
v / 10 19 . 2
) 10 9 . 52 ( 2 ) 10 11 . 9 (
) . 10 26 . 6 ( 1
2
6
12 31
34
1
= = =
t t
The total energy E
n
for an electron in the n
th
orbit of radius r
n
is the sum of its kinetic and
potential energies:


.

\

=
n o
n
r
Ze
mv E
2
2
4
1
2
1
tc

.

\



.

\

=
2 2 2
4 2
1
8 n h
m e Z
E
o
n
c
n=1, 2, 3, 3.5
For hydrogen (Z=1) the lowest energy level (n=1), is:
eV J x E 6 . 13 10 17 . 2
18
1
= =
78
The lowest energy level or energy state, E
1
is called the ground state
,
and the higher states E
2
,
E
3
,.. is called excited state.
Figure 3.7 Possible orbits in the Bohr model of hydrogen
Problem 3.3
Find the principal quantum number, the total energy, the binding energy, and the excitation
energy of the fifth excited state of hydrogen.
Solution
The fifth excited state is the fifth state above n=1, so its principal quantum number is 1+5=6.
The total energy to be eV eV E 38 . 0 6 / ) 60 . 13 ( 1
2 2
6
= = . Then the binding energy equals
eV eV E 38 . 0 ) 38 . 0 (
6
+ = = . It is needed minimum 0.38 eV to separated completely the
electron and proton. Since the ground state energy of hydrogen is 13.6 eV, the excitation
energy is the difference between the excited state energy and the ground state energy: 0.38
eV(13.60 eV)=13.22 eV. In other words, it is needed 13.22 eV to a hydrogen atom in its
ground state to excite it to its fifth excited state.
79
At room temperature , nearly all H atom will be in ground state. At higher
temperatures, or during an electric discharge when there are many collisions between free
electrons and atoms, many electrons can be in excited states. Once in an excited state, an
electron can jump down to a lower state, and give off a photon (light) in the process, as shown
in figure 3.6. The wavelength of the spectral lines emitted in the transition process is:
( )
'
1 1
n
n
E E
hc hc
h
= =
u
or

.

\

=
2 2 ' 3 2
4 2
1 1
8
1
n n c h
m e Z
o
c
3.6
Where n refers to the upper state and n
\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
4
1
2
3.8
In the threedimensional problem of the H atom, the solutions of the Schrodinger equation are
characterized by three quantum numbers. However, four different quantum numbers are
actually needed to specify each state in the H atom, the fourth coming from a relativistic
treatment.
Quantum mechanics predicts exactly the same energy levels for the H atom as does the
Bohr Theory. That is
2
6 . 13
n
eV
E
n
= n=1,2,3 3.9
Where, n is an integer called the principal quantum number. The total energy of a state in
the H atom depends on n.
The orbital quantum number, l, is related to the orbital angular momentum of the
electron. l can take on integer values from 0 to (n1). For the ground state, n=1, l can only be
zero. But for =3, l can be 0,1, or 2. The actual magnitude of the orbital angular momentum L
is related to the quantum number l by
) 1 ( + = l l L 3.10
83
For l=0 s state (sharp); l=1 p state (principal); l=2 d state (diffuse); l=3 f state (fundamental).
The value of l does not affect the total energy of the atom H, only n does to any appreciable
extent. But in atoms with two or more electrons, the energy does depend on l as well as n.
The magnetic quantum number, m
l
, is related to the direction of the electrons angular
momentum, and it can take on integer values ranging from l to +l. For example, if l=2, then
m
l
can be 2,1,0,+1,+2. Since angular momentum is a vector, it is not surprising that both its
magnitude and its direction would be quantized. For l=2, the five directions allowed can be
presented by the figure 3.8
Figure 3.8. Quantization of angular momentum direction for l=2
This limitation on the direction of L is often called space quantization. In quantum mechanics
the direction of the angular momentum is usually specified by giving its component along the
z axis. The L
z
is related to m
l
by the equation
l z
m L = 3.11
It was found that when a gas discharge tube was placed in a magnetic field, the spectral lines
were split into several very closely spaced lines, a phenomenon known as the Zeeman effect,
84
as shown in figure 3.9. This implies that energy levels must be slit, and thus that the energy
of a state depends not only on n but also on m
l
when magnetic field is applied.
Figure 3.9 . Transition can occur between levels n=3;l=2 to levels n=2;l=1, with photons of
several slightly different frequency being given off (the Zeeman effect)
Finally, there is the spin quantum number, m
s
, which can have only two values,
2
1
+ =
s
m or
2
1
=
s
m . The existence of this quantum number did not come out of
Schrodingers origin theory, as did n, l, and m
l
. Instead, it came out of a subsequent
relativistic treatment due to P.A.M Diract. A careful study of the spectral lines of hydrogen
showed that each actually consisted of two (or more) very closely spaced lines even in the
absence of an external magnetic field. It was at first hypothesized that this tiny splitting of
energy levels, called fine structure, might be due to angular momentum associated with a
spinning of the electron. The interaction between the tiny current of the spinning electron and
the magnetic due to the orbiting charge could the cause the small observed splitting of energy
levels. The electron is said to have a spin s=1/2, which produces a spin angular momentum S
given by
) 1 ( + = s s S 3.12
85
This spin can have two different directions, m
z
=1/2 or m
z
=1/2, which are often said to be
spin up and spin down, as shown in figure 3.10.
Figure 3.10. The spin angular momentum S can take on only two directions,
m
s
=1/2 (spin up) and m
s
=1/2 (spin down).
Problem 3.5
Determine (a) the energy and (b) the orbital angular momentum for each of the states n=3
Solution
(a) The energy of a state depends only on n except for the very small corrections from spin
magnetic of electron. Since n=3 for all these states have the same energy,
eV
eV
E
n
51 . 1
) 3 (
6 . 13
2
= =
(b) For l=0, 0 ) 1 ( = + = l l L
For l=1, s J x l l L . 10 49 . 1 2 ) 1 (
34
= = + =
For l=2, 6 ) 1 2 ( 2 ) 1 ( = + = + = l l L
86
TASK6
1. For very large values of n, show that when an electron jumps from the level n to the
leveln1, the frequency of the light emitted is equal to
n
r
v
f
t 2
=
2. Calculate the orbital angular momentum, the allowed z components of the orbital angular
momentum, and the allowed angles with the z axis for an electron in a d state (l=2)!
3. The magnitude of the orbital magnetic dipole moment of an electron in a hydrogen like
atom is 1.3115x10
23
A. m
2
. What state is the electron in?
4. Show that for a particle of rest mass m
0
, if mv h/ = then it cannot be true that u h E =
where E is (a) kinetic energy, or (b) E
k
plus rest mass energy, and u = v is the speed of
the particle.
COURSE 7:
I. Basic competency:
Able to understand nuclear physics, radioactivity and its application
II. Indicators:
1. Able to explain structure and properties of the nucleus
2. Able to explain alpha, beta, gamma decay
3. Able to explain halflife and rate of decay
III. Subject matter
4.1 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus
An important question to physicist in the early nineteen century was whether the
nucleus had a structure, and what structure might be. In 1930 a model of nucleus had been
87
developed. According to the model, a nucleus is considered as an aggravated of two types of
particles: protons and neutrons. A proton is the number of the simplest atom, hydrogen. It has
a positive charge of +e =+1.60x10
19
C and a mass m
p
=1.6726x10
27
kg. The neutron, whose
existence was ascertained only in 1932 by Chadwick, is electrically neutral (q=0). Its mass,
which is almost identical to that of the proton, is m
n
=1.6749x10
27
kg. These two constituent
of a nucleus, neutron and proton, are referred to the collectively as nucleus.
The number of protons in a nucleus is called the atomic number and is designed by
the symbol Z. The total number of nucleons, neutron plus protons, is designed by the symbol
A and is called the atomic mass number. The neutron number N is N=AN. To specify a
given nuclide, we need only A and Z. A special symbol is commonly used which takes the
form
X
A
Z
Where, X is the chemical symbol for the element. A is the atomic mass number, and Z is the
atomic number.
Figure 4.1 Number of neutron and proton for stable nuclides
For a particular type of atom (say carbon), nuclei are found to contain different
number of neutrons, although they all have the same number of protons. Nuclei that contain
the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are call isotopes. Thus
88
C
11
6
, C
12
6
, C
13
6
, C
14
6
, C
15
6
, and C
16
6
are all isotope of carbon. The approximate size of nuclei was
determined originally by Rutherford from the scattering of charge particles. It is found that
nuclei have a roughly spherical shape, with a radius that increase with A according to the
approximate formula
) )( 10 2 . 1 (
3 / 1 15
A m x r
~ 4.1
Since the volume of a sphere is
3
3
4
r V t = , so that the volume is proportional to the number of
nucleons, . A V o
Nuclear masses are specified in unified atomic mass units (u). A neuron has a
measured mass of 1.008665 u, a proton 1.007276 u, and a neutral hydrogen atom,
H
1
1
1.007825 u. Beside that, masses are often specified using the electronvolt energy unit.
This can be done because mass and energy are related, and the precise relationship is given by
Einsteins equation
2
mc E = .
The result is
2
/ 5 . 931 1 c MeV u = 4.2
Just as an electron has an intrinsic spin and angular momentum, so too do nuclei and
their constituents, the proton and neutron. Both the proton and the neutron are spin1/2
particles. A nucleus, made up of protons and neutrons, has a nuclear spin, I, that can be either
integer or half integer, depending on whether it is made up of an even or an odd number of
nucleons. The nuclear angular momentum of a nucleus is given by ) 1 ( + I I . Nuclear
magnetic moments are measured in terms of the nuclear magneton.
p
N
m
e
2
= 4.3
Then,
N P
7928 . 2 =
89
N n
9135 . 1 =
4.2 Binding Energy and Nucleus Forces
The total of a nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of its constituent
protons and neutrons. As we know that the mass of a neutral He
4
2
is 4.002603. The mass of
two neutrons and two protons is
u m
n
017330 . 2 2 =
u m
p
015650 . 2 2 =

= Total u 032980 . 4
Thus, the mass of He
4
2
is measured to be 4.032980 u 4.002603 u =0.030377 u less than the
masses of its constituents. How can this be? Where has this mass gone? The loss mass has
gone into energy of another kind (binding energy). The mass difference in the case of He
4
2
, is
(0.030377 u)(931.5 MeV/u)=28.30 MeV. This difference is referred to as the total binding
energy of the nucleus. The binding energy represents the amount of energy that must be put
into a nucleus in order to break it apart into its constituent protons and neutrons. The average
binding energy per nucleon is defined as the total binding energy of a nucleus divided by A,
the total number of nucleon. For He
4
2
it is 28.3 MeV/4=7.1 MeV.
Nuclei can hold together in nucleus is not only merely explained from the point of
view of energy binding, but also from the point of view of the forces that hold them together.
It is impossible a collection of protons and neutrons to come together spontaneously, since
protons are all positively charged and thus exert repulsive forces on each other. Indeed, the
question arises as to how a nucleus stays together at all in view of the fact that electrostatic
repulsion between protons would tend to break a part. Since stable nuclei do stay together, it
90
is clear that another force must be acting, and it is stronger than the electric force. It is called
the strong nuclear force. The strong nuclear force is an attractive force that act between all
nucleonsprotons and neutron alike. The strong nuclear force is a short range force. Compare
this to electric and gravitational forces, which can act over great distances and are therefore
called longrange forces.
What we mean by a stable nucleus is one that stays together indefinitely. What then is
unstable nucleus? It is one that comes apart, and this result in radioactive decay. The subject
of radioactivity can not be separated with the weak nuclear force.
4.3 Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay
In related to radioactivity, Becquerel made an important discovery, in his studies of
phosphorescence, he found that a certain mineral (which happened to contain uranium) would
darken a photographic plate was wrapped to exclude light. It was clear that the mineral
emitted some new kind of radiation which, unlike X rays, occurred without any external
stimulus. This new phenomena came to be called radioactivity. Then deeply studied was done
by Marie Curie and her husband, isolated polonium and radium, other radioactive elements
were soon discovered as well. The source of radioactivity must be deep within the atom that it
must emanate from the nucleus. The radioactivity is the result of the disintegration or decay,
with the emission of some type of radiation. Rutherford began studying the nature of the rays
emitted in radioactivity. He concluded that there are three types of radiation named alpha (o),
beta (), and gamma (), as shown in figure 4.1
When a nucleus emits an o particle ( He
4
2
), alpha decay, it is clear that the remaining
nucleus will be different from the original, for it has lost two protons and two neutrons. When
alpha decay occurs, a new element is formed, for example:
He Rn Ra
4
2
222
86
226
88
+
91
The daughter nucleus ( Rn
222
86
) is different from the parent nucleus ( Ra
226
88
). This
changing of one element into another is called transmutation of the element.
Figure 4.2 Alpha, beta, and gamma decay
(a) Alpha Decay
Alpha decay occurs because the strong nuclear force is unable to hold very large
together. Because the nuclear force is a shortrange force, it acts only between neighboring
nucleons. But the electric force can act clear across the nucleus. For very large nuclei, the
large Z means the repulsive becomes very large. And, it acts between all protons. The
instability nuclei can be stated in energy (or mass). The mass of the parent nucleus is greater
than the mass of the daughter nucleus plus the mass of the particle. The mass difference as
kinetic energy carried away mainly by the particle. Te total energy is called the
disintegration energy (Q) or the Qvalue defined:
( )
2
c m M M Q
D p o
= 4.4
92
Where
p
M ,
D
M ,
o
m are the masses of the parent nucleus, daughter nucleus, and o particle. If
the parents have less that the daughter plus the particle the decay could not occur, for the
conservation of energy law would be violated.
Problem 4.1
Calculate the disintegration energy when a U
232
92
nucleus (mass=232.03714 u) decays to
Th
228
90
(228.02873 u) with the emission of an o particle.
Solution
Since the mass of a He
4
2
nucleus 4.002603 u, the total mass in the final state is 228.02873 u +
4.002603 u=232.03133 u. The mass lost when the U
232
92
nucleus decays is 232.03714
232.03133 u. This mass appears as kinetic energy. Since 1 u=931.5 MeV, the E
k
released (Q)
is (0.00581 u)(931.5 MeV/u) ~5.4 MeV
We can understand decay using a model of a nucleus inside of which there is an alpha
particle bouncing around. The potential energy seen by the o particle would have a shape
something like that shown in figure 4.2.
Figure 4.3 Model of Alpha decay
93
The approximately square well between r=0 and r=R represent the shortrange attractive
nuclear force. Beyond the nuclear radius, R
o
, the Coulomb repulsion dominates. Since the
potential energy just beyond r=R
o
is greater than the energy of the o particle, so the o particle
could not escape the nucleus according to classical physics. But quantum mechanic allows
that there is a certain probability that the o particle can tunnel through the Coulomb barrier,
from point A and point B.
(b) Beta decay
Transmutation of elements also occurs when a nucleus decays by  decaythat is, with
the emission of an electron or  particle. The nucleus C
14
6
, for example, emits an electron
when it decays:
+ e N C
14
7
12
6
No nucleons are lost when an electron is emitted, and the total number of nucleons, A, is the
same in the daughter has in the parent. But because an electron has been emitted, the charge
of the daughter is different from the parent. The electron decay is not an orbital electron.
Instead, the electron is created within the nucleus itself. Indeed, free neutrons actually do
decay in this fashion:
+ e p n
Problem 4.2
How much energy is released when C
14
6
decays to N
14
7
by  emission.
94
Solution
Assume the parent nucleus has six orbiting electrons so it is neutral and its mass is 14.003242
u. The daughter in this decay N
14
7
is not neutral, however, since it has the same six electrons
circling it, but the nucleus has a charge of +7e. However, the mass of this daughter with its
six electrons, plus the mass of the emitted electron is jus the mass of a neutral nitrogen atom.
That is, the mass in final state is
(mass of N
14
7
nucleus + 6 electrons)+ (mass of 1 electron)
= mass of neutral N
14
7
(includes 7 electrons)
=14.003074 u
Hence the mass before decay is 14.003242 and after decay is 14.003074 u, so the mass
difference is 0.000168 u, which corresponds to 0.156 MeV or 156 keV.
Although the energy conserves in  decay, however, careful experiment also indicated
that, linier momentum and angular momentum too did not seen to be conserved. The trouble
can be resolve after Wolfgang Pauli (1930) proposed an alternative solution: perhaps a new
particle that was very difficult to detect was emitted during  decay in addition to the electron.
The particle hypothesized could be carrying off the energy, momentum, and angular
momentum required maintaining the conservation laws. This new particle was named the
Neutrino, meaning little neutral one by the great Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1934). The
correct way of writing the decay of C
14
6
is then
+ + u e N C
14
7
14
6
The bar (

) over the neutrino symbol is to indicate that it is an antineutrino.
95
(c) Gamma Decay
Gamma rays are photons having very high energy. Like an atom, nucleus can be in an
excited state because of a violent collision with another particle, more commonly, the nucleus
remaining after a previous radioactive decay. The nucleus in an excited state is said to be in a
metastable state, and is called an isomer. When, it jumps down to a lower energy state, or to
the ground state, it emits a photon, for example:
+ 
* 12
6
12
5
C B
+ C C
12
6
* 12
6
An exited nucleus can sometimes return to the ground state by another process, known
as internal conversion. In this process, the excited nucleus interacts with one of the orbital
electrons and ejects this electron from the atom with the same E
k
that an emitted ray would
have had. There is difference between a ray and X ray. X ray if the photon is produced by an
electronatom interaction and ray if the photon is produced in a nuclear process.
4.4 Halflife and Rate of Decay
A macroscopic sample of any radioactive isotope consists of a vast number of
radioactive nuclei. These nuclei do not all decay at one time. Rather, they decay one by one
over period of time. This is a random process; we cant predict exactly when a given nucleus
will decay. But we can determine, on a probability basis, approximately how many nuclei in a
sample will decay over a given period. The number of decays N A that occur in a very short
time interval t A is found to be proportional to At and to the total number N of radioactive
present:
t N N A = A 4.5
is a constant of proportionality called the decay constant, which is different for different
isotopes.
96
If we take the limit 0 At , AN will be small compared to N, and we can write the
equation 4.5 in infinitesimal form as
Ndt dN = 4.6
Then dt
dt
dN
=
And then integrating from t=0 to t=t:
}
N
No
dt
dt
dN
t
}
=
0
Where No is the number of parent nuclei present at t=0, and N is the number remaining at
time t. The integration give
t
N
N
o
= ln
Or
t
o
e N N
= 4.7
Equation 4.7 is called the radioactive decay law. The number of radioactive nuclei in a given
sample decreases exponentially in time, as shown in figure 4.3
Figure 4.4 The number of decays per second decreases exponentially
97
The rate of decay, or number of decays per second, in a pure sample is
dt
dN
, which is
called the activity of a given sample.
t
o
e N N
dt
dN
= =
At t=0, the activity is
o
N
dt
dN
=

.

\

0
Hence
t
o
e
dt
dN
dt
dN

.

\

= 4.8
The rate of decay of any isotope is often specified by giving its halftime rather than the decay
constant . The halflife of an isotope is defined as the time it takes for half the original
amount of isotope in a given sample to decay. The precise relation is:
2
1
2
T
o
o
e N
N
=
693 . 0 2 ln
2
1
= = T 4.9
Problem 4.3
The isotope C
14
6
has a halflife of 5730 year. If at some time a sample contains 1.0x10
22
carbon 14 nuclei, what is the activity of the sample
Solution
First we calculate the decay constant and obtain
1 12
7
2
1
10 83 . 3
/ 6x10 year)(5.15 5730 (
693 . 0 693 . 0
= = = s x
year s T
Since there are (60)(60)(3651/4)=3.156 x 10
7
s in a year. The activity or rate of decay is:
98
) 10 0 . 1 )( 10 83 . 3 (
22 1 12
x s x N
dt
dN
= =
s decays x / 10 8 . 3
10
=
TASK7
1. What do different isotopes of a given element have in common? How are they different?
2. What are the similarities and the differences between the strong nuclear force and the
electric force?
3. Use the uncertainty principle to argue why electrons are unlikely to be found in the
nucleus!
4. Co
60
27
in an exited state emits a 1.33 MeV ray as it jumps to the ground state. What is the
mass of the excited cobalt atom?
5. The activity of a sample of S
35
16
(T
1/2
=7.5x10
6
s) is 5.2 x 10
6
decays per second. What is the
mass of sample present?
COURSE 9: MID TERM TEST
COURSE 10
Able to understand nuclear physics, radioactivity and its application
II. Indicators:
1. Able to explain nuclear reaction
2. Able to derive nuclear Fission
3. Able to analyze nuclear Fusion
99
III. Subject matter
1. Nuclear Reaction
The transformation of one element into another, called transmutation, also occur by
means of nuclear reactions. A nuclear reaction is said to occur when a given nucleus is struck
by another nucleus, or by a simpler particle such as a ray or neutron, so that an interaction
takes place. Ernest Rutherford was the first to report seeing a nuclear reaction that some of the
o particles passing through nitrogen gas were absorbed and protons emitted.
H O N He
1
1
17
8
14
7
4
2
+ +
Where He
4
2
is an o particle and H
1
1
is a proton. Nuclear reaction are sometimes written in a
shortened form, O p N
17
8
14
7
) , (o . In any nuclear reaction, both electric charge and nucleon
number are conserved.
Problem 4.4
A neutron is observed to strike an O
16
8
nucleus and a deuteron is given off. Deuteron is the
isotope of hydrogen containing one proton and one neutron ( H
2
1
)
Solution
We have the reaction H O n
2
1
16
8
?+ + . The total number of nucleons initially 16+1=17, and
the total charge is 8+0=8, the same totals to apply to the right side of the reaction. Hence the
product nucleus must have Z=7 and A=15. From the periodic table, we find that it is nitrogen
.
15
7
N The reaction can be written
N d n O
15
7
16
8
) , ( , where d represent deuterium, H
2
1
.
100
Energy and momentum is conserved in nuclear reaction, and this can be used to
determine whether a given reaction can occur or not. If the total mass of products is less than
the total mass of the initial particles, then energy will released by the reactionit will appear as
kinetic energy of the outgoing particle. But if the total mass of the products is greater than the
total mass of the initial reactants, the reaction requires energy. Consider a nuclear reaction of
the general form
b Y X a + +
Where a is a projectile particle or small nucleus that strikes nucleus X, producing nucleus Y
and particle b typically p, n, . We define the reaction energy or Q value, in terms of the
masses involved, as
2
) ( c M M M M Q
b x a
+ = 4.10
Since energy is conserved, Q is equals to the change in kinetic energy
kX ka k kb
E E E E Q + =
4.11
For Q>0, the reaction is said to be exothermic or exoergic: energy is released in the reaction,
so the total E
k
is greater after the reaction than before. If Q<0, the reaction is said to be
endothermic or endoergic: energy is required to make the reaction happen.
Problem 4.5
The nuclear reaction He Li B n
4
2
7
3
10
5
+ + is observed to occur even when very slowly moving
neutrons (M
n
=1.0087 u) strike a boron atom at rest. For a particular reaction in which
Ek
n
~0, the helium (M
He
=4.0026 u) is observed to have a speed of 9.30x10
6
m/s. Determine (a)
the Ek of the Lithium (M
Li
=7.0160 u), and (b) the Q value of the reaction.
101
Solution
(a) Since the neutron and boron are both essentially at rest, the total momentum before the
reaction is zero, and afterward is also zero. Therefore,
He He Li Li
v M v M =
Hence
Li
He He
Li
He He
Li
Li
Li Li
M
v M
M
v M
M v M Ek
2 2
1
2
1
2 2
2
2
=


.

\

= =
) / u)(1.66x10 0160 . 7 ( 2
) / 10 30 . 9 ( ) / 10 66 . 1 ( u) 0026 . 4 (
27 
2 6 2 27 2
u kg
s m x u kg x
=
MeV J x 02 . 1 10 64 . 1
13
= =
Where we have used 1u=1.66x10
27
kg and 1 MeV=1.60x10
13
J
(b) We set Ek
a
=Ek
x
=0; so
He Li
Ek Ek Q + = , where
2 6 27 2
) / 10 30 . 9 )( / 10 66 . 1 )( 0026 . 4 (
2
1
2
1
s m x u kg x u v M Ek He
He He
= =
MeV J x 78 . 1 10 84 . 2
13
= =
Hence MeV MeV MeV Q 80 . 2 78 . 1 02 . 1 = + =
2. Nuclear Fission
Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann (1938) made an amazing discovery, because of their
founding that uranium bombarded by neutrons sometimes produced smaller nuclei which
were roughly half the size of the original uranium nucleus. The uranium nucleus, after
absorbing a neutron, had actually split into two roughly equal pieces. This phenomenon was
named nuclear fission because of its resemble to cell division. A typical fission reaction is
n Kr Ba U n 3
92
36
141
56
235
92
+ + +
102
A tremendous amount of energy is released in a fission reaction because the mass of U
235
92
is
considerably greater than that of the fission fragments. The neutrons released in fission could
be used to create a chain reaction, as shown in figure 4.4
Figure 4.5 Chain reaction
3. Nuclear Fusion
The mass of every stable nucleus is less than the sum of the masses of its constituent
protons and neutrons. Thus, if two protons and two neutrons were to come together to form a
helium nucleus there would be a loss of mass. This mass loss is manifested in the release of a
large amount of energy. The process of building up nuclei by bringing together individual
protons and neutrons, or building larger nuclei by combining small nuclei, is called nuclear
fusion. Nuclear fusion is continually taking place within the stars, including our sun,
producing the prodigious amounts of radiant energy they emit. The energy output of our sun
is believed to be due principally to the following sequence of fusion reactions:
2
1
1
1
1
1
u + + +
+
e H H H (0.42 MeV)
3
2
2
1
2
1
+ + He H H (5.49 MeV)
H H He He He
1
1
1
1
4
2
3
2
3
2
+ + + (12.86 MeV)
103
where, the Q values of each reaction are given in parentheses. The net effect of this sequence,
which is called the protonproton cycle, is for four protons to combine to form one He
4
2
nucleus plus two positron, two neutrinos, and two gamma rays:
u 2 2 2 4
4
2
1
1
+ + +
+
e He H 4.12
Problem 4.6
One of the simplest fusion reaction involves the production of deuterium, H
2
1
, from a neutron
and a proton: + + H n H
2
1
1
1
. How much energy is released in this reaction?
Solution
The initial rest mass is 1.007825 u + 1.008665 u = 2.016490 u and after the reaction the
mass is that of the H
2
1
, namely 2.014102 u. The energy released is thus (0.002388 u)(931.5
MeV/u)=2.22 MeV, and is carried off by the H
2
1
nucleus and the ray.
TASK10
1. A proton strikes a Ne
20
10
nucleus, and an o particle is emitted. What is the residual
nucleus? Write down the reaction equation!
2. (a) Can the reaction He p Li
4
2
7
3
) , ( o occur if the incident proton has Ek=1500 keV?(b) If so,
what is the total kinetic energy is released?
3. Calculate the energy released in the fission reaction
n Xe Sr U n 12
136
54
88
38
235
92
+ + +
Assume the initial Ek of neutron is very small.
4. What is the average kinetic energy of protons at the centre of a star where the
temperature is 10
7
K?
5. Show that the energy released in the fusion reaction
104
n He H H + +
4
2
3
1
2
1
is 17.59 MeV!
COURSE 11
I. Basic competency:
Able to understand elementary physics, and its reaction
II. Indicators:
1. Able to explain highenergy particles and particle accelerator
2. Able to explain The Yukawa particle
3. Able to explain particles and antiparticle
4. Able to explain particle interactions and conservation laws
.
III. Subject matter
In the years after World War II, it was found that if the incoming particle in a nuclear
reaction has sufficient energy, new types of particles can be produced. In order to produce
highenergy particles, various of particle accelerator have been constructed. These high
energy accelerators have been used to probe the nucleus more deeply, to produce and study
new particles.
5.2 HighEnergy Particles and Particle Accelerator
Particles accelerated to high speeds are projectile which can probe the interior of nuclei
and nucleon that they strike. One of particle accelerator is Cyclotron developed by E.O.
Lawrence (1930). The prototype of cyclotron is shown in figure 5.1. It uses a magnetic field
to maintain the charge of particles, such as proton or heavy ion. The protons move within two
Dshave cavities. Each time they pass into the gap between the metal dees, a voltage is
applied that accelerates them. The voltage applied the dees to produce the acceleration must
be alternating. The increases their speed and also increases the radius of curvature of their
105
path. After many revolutions, the protons acquire high kinetic energy and reach the outer edge
of the cyclotron. Then, they either strike a target placed inside the cyclotron, or leave the
cyclotron with the help of carefully placed bending magnet and are directed to an external
target. The frequency u of the applied voltage must be equal to that of the circulating protons;
m
qB
f
t 2
= 5.1
Where, q and m are the charge and mass of the particles moving in the magnetic field B.
Figure 5.1 The Cyclotron
An interesting aspect of the cyclotron in the frequency of the applied voltage, equation 5.1,
does not depend on the radius As the mass increases, the frequency of the applied voltage
must be reduced. To achieve large energies, complex electronic is needed to decrease the
frequency as a packet of protons increase in speed and reaches larger orbit.
Another way to deal with the increase in mass with speed is to increase the magnetic
field B as the particles speed up. Such a device is called a synchrotron. Synchrotron can
accelerate protons to energies of 500 GeV. The synchrotron do not use enormous magnets 1
km in radius. Instead, a narrow ring of magnet is used which are all place at the same radius
from the center of the circle. The magnets are injected, then must then move in a circle of
106
constant radius. This is accomplished by giving them considerable energy initially in a much
smaller accelerator, and then slowly increasing the magnetic field as they speed up in the
large synchrotron. One problem of any accelerator is that accelerating electric charge radiate
electromagnetic energy.
Problem 5.1
A small cyclotron of maximum radius R= 0.25 m accelerate protons in a 1.7 T magnetic field.
Calculate (a) what frequency is needed for the applied alternating voltage, and (b) the kinetic
energy of protons when they leave the cyclotron.
Solution
(a) Hz x
kg x
T C x
m
qB
f
7
27
19
10 6 . 2
) 10 67 . 1 )( 28 . 6 (
) 7 . 1 )( 10 6 . 1 (
2
= = =
t
(b) The protons leave the cyclotron at r=R=0.25 m then, since m qBr v / =
m
R B q
mv E
k
2
2 / 1
2 2 2
2
= =
J x
kg x
m T C x
12
27
2 2 2 19
10 4 . 1
) 10 67 . 1 )( 2 (
) 25 . 0 ( ) 7 . 1 ( ) 10 6 . 1 (
= =
5.3 The Yukawa particle
At first, we recognized that all atoms can be considered to be made up of neutron,
protons, and electrons. The basic constituent of the universe were no longer considered to be
atoms but rather the proton, neutron, and electron. Beside these three elementary particles,
several others were also known the positron, the neutrino, and the particle, for a total of six
elementary particles. But then, in the decades that followed, hundreds of other subnuclear
particles were discovered.
107
Figure 5.2 Feynman Diagram, showing how a photon acts as carrier of
electromagnetic force between two electrons.
Hideki Yukawa (1935) had predicted the existence of a new particle that would in
some way mediate the strong nuclear force. To understand Yukawa ideas, first look at the
electromagnetic force. Firstly, we know that electric force acts over a distance, without
contact, but how a force can act over a distance. Faraday introduced the idea of field. The
force that one charged particle exerts on a second can be said to be due to the electric field (E)
set up by the first. Similarly, the magnetic field (B) can be said to carry the magnetic force.
Later, we know that electromagnetic field can travel through space as waves. But, then,
electromagnetic radiation can be considered as either a wave or a collection of particles called
photons. Because of the waveparticle duality, it is possible to imagine that the
electromagnetic force between charged particle is due (1) to the EM fields set up by one and
felt by the other, or (2) to an exchange of photons or particle between them. At the end, It
can be stated that the electromagnetic force between two charged particles, it is photon that
are exchanged between the two particles that give rise to the force, as shown in figure 5.2, the
Feynman diagram in his quantum electrodynamic (QED).
108
In analogy to photon exchange to mediate the electromagnetic force, Yukawa argued
that there ought to be a particle that mediates the strong nuclear force, the force that holds
nucleons together in the nucleus. Just as the photon is called the quantum of the
electromagnetic force, so the Yukawa particle would represent the quantum of the strong
nuclear force. Yukawa predicted that this new particle have a mass intermediate between that
of electron and proton. Hence it was called a meson, meaning in the middle, as shown in
figure 5.3, a Feynman diagram of meson exchange.
Figure 5.3 Meson exchange when proton and neutron interact via
strong nuclear force
The mass of the meson, approximately, can be determined as follows. Suppose the
proton is at rest. For it emit a meson would require energy (to make the mass) which would
have to come from nowhere, such a process would violate conservation of energy. But the
uncertainty principle allows nonconservation of energy by an amount AE if it occurs only for
a time At given by t 2 / ) )( ( h t E ~ A A . Let set AE equal to the energy needed to create the mass
m of the meson:
2
mc E = A . Now conservation energy is violated only as long as the meson
exist, which is the time At required for the meson to pass from one nucleon to the other.
109
Assume the meson travels at relativistic speed, close to the speed of light c, then At will be at
most about At=d/c, where d is the maximum distance that can separate the interacting
nucleon, thus
t 2
h
t E ~ A A
t 2
2
h
c
d
mc ~

.

\

or
d
hc
mc
t 2
2
~ 5.2
The range of the strong nuclear force is about
15
10 5 . 1
~ x d m, so
MeV J x
m x
s m x s J x
mc 130 10 2 . 2
) 10 5 . 1 )( 28 . 6 (
) / 10 0 . 3 )( . 10 6 . 6 (
11
15
8 34
2
= ~ ~
The mass of the predicted meson that carries the strong force is thus very roughly 130 MeV/c
2
or about 250 times the electron mass of 0.51 meV/c
2
.
Just as proton can be observed as free particle, as well as acting in an exchange, so it
was expected that meson might be observed directly. The particle predicted by Yukawa
(1947). It is called the t or pi meson, or simply the pion. It comes in three charge states, +, 
, or 0. The
+
t and
p ). Many
other particles also have antiparticles. But the photons, the t
0
, and a few other particles do not
have distinct antiparticles.
5.5 Particle Interactions and Conservation Laws
The laws of conservation of energy, of momentum, of angular momentum, and of
electric charge are found to hold precisely an all particle interaction. A study of particle
interaction has revealed a number of new conservation laws, namely the conservation of
111
baryon number. Baryon number is the same as nucleon number. All nucleon have baryon
number B=+1, all antinucleon (antiprotons, antineutrons) have B=1. For example, the
following reaction does conserve B and does occur if the incoming proton has sufficient
energy.
p p n p n p + + + +
1 1 1 1 1 1 + + + = + + = B
Other useful number laws are associated with weak interactions, including decays. In
ordinary  decay an electron or positron is emitted along with a neutrino or antineutrino, as
follow
e
e p n u + +
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 0 0 + + + =
e
L
To explain the nuclear reaction above, the concept of electron lepton number was proposed. If
the electron (e

) and the electron neutrino (
e
u ) are given L
e
=+1, and e
+
andn
e
u are given L
e
=
1, whereas other particles have L
e
=0.
Problem 5.2
Which of the following decay schemes is possible for muon decay:
(a) e e u +
(b)
u u + +
e e
(c)
e
e u +
Solution
A
has L
=+1, and L
e
=0. This is the initial state, and the final state must also have L
=+1,
L
e
=0. In (a), the final state has L
=0+0=0, and L
e
=+11=0; L
=0+0+1=+1 and
112
L
e
=+11+0=0, so both L
and L
e
are conserved. This is in fact
the most common decay mode
of the

. Finally (c) does not occur because L
e
=+2, so it is not conserved.
TASK10
1. What limits the maximum energy attainable by protons in an ordinary cyclotron? How is
this limitation overcome in a synchrotron?
2. If a proton is moving at very high speed, so that its E
k
is much greater that its rest energy,
can it the decay via
+
+ t t p ?
3. Why is it that a neutron decays via the weak interaction even though the neutron and one
of its decay products (proton) are strongly interacting?
4. What is the total energy of a proton whose kinetic energy is 15.0 GeV?
5. If o particles are accelerated by the cyclotron, what must be the frequency of voltage
applied to the dees?
COURSE 11:
I. Basic competency:
Students are able to understand nuclear physics, radioactivity and its application
II. Indicators:
1. Able to derive particle classification
2. Able to analyze strange particle
3. Able to explain Quarks and Charm
4. Able to explain The Standard Model: Quantum Chromo dynamics (QCD) and the
Electroweak Theory
113
III. Subject Matter
1. Particle Classification
A great many other subnuclear particles were discovered after 1940 year. Then, an
important aid to understanding is to arrange the particles in categories according to their
properties, and their interaction. Since not all particles interact by means of all four of the
forces known in nature, this is used as a classification scheme. At the first categories is the
gauge bosons, which include the photons and the W and Z particles that carry the
electromagnetic and weak interaction, respectively.
The second category is the lepton, which are particles that do not interact via the
strong force but do interact via the weak nuclear force ( as well as the much weaker
gravitational force); those that carry electric charge also interact via the electromagnetic force.
The lepton include the electron, the muon, and the tau plus three types of neutrino.
The third category of particle is the hadron. Hadrons are those particles that can
interact via the strong nuclear force. Hence they are said to be strongly interacting particles.
They also interact via the other forces, but the strong force predominant at short distance. The
hadrons include nucleons, pions, and a large number of other particles. They are divided into
to subgroups: The baryon, which are those particles that have baryon number +1 and 1 in the
case of their particle; and the meson. Which have baryon number=0. Notice that, the
baryon O E A and , , , , all decay to lightermass baryons, and eventually to a proton or
neutron. All these process conserve baryon number.
114
Table 5.2 Elementary Particle
2. Quarks and Charm
All observed particles fall into two categories: fermion (which obey the Paulli
exclusion principle) and bosons (which dont obey the Paulli exclusion principle). The
fermions can be further subdivided into two groups: leptons and hadrons. The principal
difference between these two groups is that the hadrons interact via the strong interaction
whereas lepton do not. The lepton are considered to be truly elementary particles since they
do not seem to break down into smaller entities, do not show any internal structure, and have
no measurable size.
115
The hadrons, on the other hand, are more complex. Experiment indicate they do have
an internal structure. GellNman and Zweig (1963) proposed that the hadrons are made up of
combinations of three, more fundamental, pointlike entities called quarks. Quarks, then,
would be considered truly elementary particles, like leptons. The three quarks were labeled u,
d, s and given the names up, down, strange. Each of quarks has antiquark. Meson would
consist of a quark and antiquark. A
+
t meson is considered a d u pair. Netron is ddu n = ,
whereas antiproton is d u u p = . After deeply studied, it was found a fourth quark, based on
the expectation that there exists a deep symmetry in nature, including a connection between
quark and lepton. The fourth quark was said to be charmed. The new charmed quark would
have charm C=+1 and its antiquark C=1.
+
+ D D
d c d c d d c c c c + =
And then, theoretical physicist postulated the existence of a fifth and sixth quark. These were
named top (t) and bottom (b) quarks, since they resemble the up and down quarks.
Although, some physicist prefer that, the names truth (t) and beauty (b) quarks for top and
bottom quark.
3. Quantum Chromo dynamic (QSD) and The Electroweak Theory
Not long after the quark was proposed, it was suggested that quarks have another
proverty (or quality) called color. The distinction between the six quarks (u,d,s,c,b,t) was
referred to as flavor. According to theory, each of the flavors of quark can have three colors,
usually designed red, green, and blue. The antiquark are colored antired, antigreen, and
antiblue. Baryon are made up of three quarks, one of each color. Meson consist of a quark
antiquark pair a articular color and its anticolor. Thus baryon and mesons are white or
colorless. The idea of color soon became, in addition, a central feature of the theory as
116
determining the force binding quarks together in a hadron. Each quark is assumed to carry a
color charge, analogous to electric charge, and the strong force between quarks is often
referred to as the color force. This new theory of the strong force is called quantum
chromodynamics (QCD), to indicate that the force acts between color charges. The strong
force between hadrons is considered to be a force between the quarks that make them up. The
particles that transmit the force are called gluon. There are eight gluons, according to the
QCD Theory, all mass less, and six of them have color charge. Thus gluon have replace
mesons as the particles carrying the strong (color) force.
The weak force is thought to be mediated by the W
+
, W

, and Z
0
particles. It acts
between the weak charge that each particle has. Each elementary particle thus has electric
charge, weak charge, color charge, and gravitational mass, although one or more of these
could be zero. The latest theory consider the truly elementary particles to be the leptons, the
quarks, and the gauge bosons. One important aspect of new theoretical work is the attempt to
find a unified basis for the different forces in nature. Weinberg, Glashow, and Salam (1960)
proposed gauge theory that unifies the weak and electromagnetic interaction. In this
electroweak theory, the weak and electromagnetic forces as two different manifestation of a
single, more fundamental, electroweak interaction. So, the electroweak theory and QCD for
the strong interaction are often referred to today as the standard model.
With the success of unified electroweak theory, attempts have recently been made also
to incorporate it and OCD for the strong force into a socalled Grand Unified Theory (GUT).
One type of such a grand unified theory of the electromagnetic, weak, and strong forces has
been worked ot in which there is only one class of particle: leptons and quarks belong to the
same family and are bale to change freely from one type to the other, and the three forces are
different aspect of a single underlying force.
117
TASK11
1. What magnetic field intensity is needed at the 1.0 km radius synchrotron for 400 GeV
protons? Use the relativistic mass.
2. Show that the energy of a particle (charge e) in a synchrotron, in the relativistic limit
(v~c), is given by E (in eV)=Brc, where B is magnetic field strength and r the radius of the
orbit.
3. How much energy is released when an electron and a positron annihilate each other?
How much energy is released when a proton and an antiproton annihilate each other?
4. Which of the following decays are possible? For those that are forbidden, explain which
laws are violated.
(a)
+
+ E t
0
(b) u t + + E O
0
(c) + + A E
5. (a) What are the quark combinations that can form (a) a neutron, (b) an
antineutron, (c) a
0
A , (d) a
0
(b) What particles do the following quark combinations produce? (a) uud, (b)
u u u , (b) s u u , (c) s u , (d) u d , (e) s c ?
COURSE 12:
I. Basic competency:
Students are able to understand experimental, and applied nuclear physics
118
II. Indicators:
1. Able to explain any kind of experimental nuclear physics
2. Able to explain applied fission nuclear physics
3. Able to explain applied fusions nuclear physics
4. Able to understand nuclear reactors
.
III. Subject Matter
1. Overview
The most important terrestrial applications of nuclear physics and some of the
experimental methods used to detect nuclear particles and to study nuclear reactions. Beside
that, the basic physics of nuclear fission and the nuclear reactions at present has the most
prominent applications. Fission provides the energy in nuclear reactors and some of the
energy in atomic weapons. Nuclear reactors, which apply the fission reaction to the
production of usefull power and of new nuclides. The energetic charge particles and photos
emerging from nuclear reactions interact strongly with matter.
2. Nuclear Fission
Nuclear fission is the splitting of a nucleus into two nearly equal parts, illustrated
schematically in figure 6.1. The nucleus at (a) is nearly spherical in shape, but if this nucleus
is excited (e.g., by particle bombardment) it can excute violent vibrations. It should be
recalled that the list of stable nuclides terminates at the high Z end because of the electrostatic
repulsion of the protons. In a fissionable nucleus this repulsion is very powerful when a
configuration like (b) or (c) is reached. The two parts are restrained from flying apart,
however, bby the surface energy, since the surface to volume ration of the shape (b) and (c) is
119
than that of the sphere (a). The surface energythereby provides a barrier, and it is this barrier
that is responsible for the existence in nature of nuclide with A>~110.
Figure 6.1 Nuclear fission
Nuclides with A of the order of 250 have such a small barrier that the spontaneous
oscillation of the nucleus can surmount it with a short halflife, but this spontaneous fission
process becomes unmeasurably fission, fission excited by an external particle. Suppose, for
example, that a thermal neutrons is incident upon U
235
92
. It adds its kinetic energy(negligible)
and its binding energy (6.3 MeV) to the nucleus, and the compond nucleus U
236
92
then has
enough energy to surmount the barrier. Once past the configuration (c), the surface energy
rapidly decrease by necking as in the breakup of a large water drop. The nearly spherical
fragment in (d) fly apart, acclerated by the coulomb repulsion. Two or three neutrons are
typically ejected, presumbly during the (c) (d) stage of the process.
Many nuclides are fissionable by fast particles, which add their kinetic energies as well
as their binding energies to nuclei, but ot the naturally occuring nuclides, only
235
U
undergoes fission by slow neutrons. This is the only natural nuclide with a barrier low enough
to be overcome by the neutron binding energy alone. Two other nuclides in which fissions can
be induced by slow neutrons are U
233
92
and Pu
239
94
, which can be produced in nuclear reactors
by neutrons capture in Th
232
90
and U
238
92
, respectively, and subsequent  decay.
120
It should be clear from the foregoing sketch of the fission process that there is not a
unique reaction equation for a given fissionable nuclide and a given incoming particle. The
fission fragments vary in A and Z, with a considerable preference for somewhat unequal
distribution of mass between them.
3. Detectors of Radioactivity
Many different types of devices are used to detect charged particles and uncharged
particles (including photons). Modern detectors now rely heavily on electronics. In many
types of these devices the detection process begins when particle first creates directly or
directly some kind of an electrical signal. This electrical signals is then detected and may tell
the energy of the particle, as well as indicating its presence. Other types of detectors utilize a
track created by the particle to gain information.
Scintilation detectors use the light emitted when particles strike a sensitive material
called a phosphor. The electrons of the phosphor atoms are knocked into excited states by the
collision. As they drop back toward their ground states, they emit photons, as shon in figure
6.2. You are familiar with this effect when the particles are electrons and the phosphore coats
the screen of a cathoderay tube in a television set, an oscilloscope, or computer terminal. In
flourescent lihts, the incident particles include ultraviolet photons.
Figure 6.2 Scintillation detectors
121
A photomultiflier tube is used to increase the sensitivity of a scintilation detector well
past that of the human eye. In a photomultiflier tube, as shown in figure 6.3, an incident
photon is absorbed at the cathode, causing the emission of photoelectron. This photoelectron
is then accelerated through a potential difference of about 100V to strike the first dynode. At
the first dynode, the accelerated photoelectrons is then accelerated through 100 V to strike a
second dynode. Each again knocks out several more electrons and the process continues. With
ten dynodes, a greatly increased pulse of current is produced. This current pulse is nearly
proportional to the energy of the particle detected. Therefore the particle energy can be
determined with proper calibration.Other advantages of the scntillation detector include the
ability to detect at high counting rates and high efficiency. If the light from the scintillation is
adequate, photodiodies may be used in place of the photomultiplier tube.
Figure 6.3 A photomultiflier tube
EXAMPLE 6.1
What two methods of removing electrons from a material are used in the photomultiplier
tube?
122
Solution: The photoelectric effect at the cathode and secondary emission at the dynodes.
Gasfilled detectors include ionization chambers, proportional counters,and GeigerMuller
(GM) counters. In these devices, charged filled chamber. The particles or photons then knock
electrons of gas atoms, creating ion pair is created for each 30 or so eV of energy deposited in
the chamber. The actual average ionization energy depends on the gas in the chamber.The
electrons of the ion pairs are then attracted to a positive electrode and the ions are attracted to
a negative electrode. This motion of charges gives a current pulse through a resistor, R,
external to the detector, as shown in Fig.6.4. The resulting voltage pulse across R is detected
by electronic circuit.
Figure 6.4 Gasfilled detector
In the lowvoltage region 1 in Fig.6.5, many of the ion pairs simply recombine,
decreasing the charge collected. In region 2 ( typically les than 300 V), the electric field is
sufficien to prevent recombination of the ion
Figure 6.5 The charge collected at the electrodes
123
The charge collected at the electrodes ( on a log scale) for alpha particles and electrons
as a fuction of the voltage applied to a gas filled detecor. Recall that one ion pair is created on
the average for every 30 or so eV of energy deposited in the chamber. Therefore the charge
collected in an ionization chamber is ameasure of the energy deposited in it.
EXAMPLE 6.2
An average of 35 eV is required to create an ion pair in air. How much charge will be
collected in an airfilled ionization chamber if a 0.60MeV electron loses all its energy in the
chamber and negligible recombination occurs?
Solution
Treating the units as algebraic quantities, we get
(0.60 x 10
6
eV)/(35 eV/ion pair)=1.71 x 10
4
ion pairs.
Since negligible recombination occurs, all 1.71 x 10
4
ion pairs are colected at the electrodes.
Each ion and electron has [q]=e=1.60 x10
19
C, so (1.71x10
4
ion pairs)/(1.60x10
19
C/ion
pair)=2.7x10
15
C is collected.
In region 3 (typicaly between 300V and 900V) the stringer electric field will accelerate
the electrons of the ion pairs to the energy that enables them to create more ion pairs. Then the
electrons from these ion pairs can create even more ion pairs, and so on. This multiplication
of ion pairs in region 3 may give up to million times the charge collected for the same
incident particle in region 2.
A gas filled detector operating in region 3 is called a proportional counter. Examplel 6.2
gave about 10
15
C for an ionization chamber, but the charge collected could be more like 10
9
C for a proportional counter. The word proportional is part of the name because the carge
collected is region 3. However, the voltage applied must be held quite constant. Otherwise,
124
the charge collected will vary widely fir the same energy deposited because of the steepness
of the curve of figure 6.5.
Example 6.3
A 1.33 MeV gammab ray gives 2.04 x 10
9
C of charge collectedin a proportional counter.
Another gamma ray gives 1.79 x 10
9
C. What is the energy of the second ray?
Solution:
The carge collected is directly proportional to the energy deposited, so q1/q2=E1/E2, or
E2=E1q2/q1= 1.33 MeV(1.79 x10
9
C)/(2.04x10
9
)=1.17 MeV.
The assumtions we made in example 34.3 are that the potential difference constant, that all the
gammaray energy is deposited in the chamber, and the counter is being operated in the
strictly proportional part of region 3.
At higher voltage (typically in the region of 1000 V), there is a plateau region. If the
chamber is being operated in the plateau region, any ionizing radiation will trigger a large
momentary breakdown in the gas that start near the central electrode (where the electric field
is the greates). The gasfilled detector acts as aGeigerMuller (GM) counter in this voltage
region. For GM counter, the charge collected does no depend on the energy of the particle.
Therefore this type of counter is used as a relatively simple methode of counting photons or
the particle of certain types of ionizing radiation.
Example 6.4.
A GeigerMuller doesnt require a wellregulated power supply. Why not.
Solution:
Figure 6.4 shows that changing V along the plateau region result in little change of the charge
collected. The charge collected doesnt give the energy of the particle, any way.
125
If the voltage is increased even farther nto region 5 in figure 34.4. the electric field a the
central electrode will exceed the dielectric strength \of the gas. Therefore the gas in the tube
will break down and conduct even without ionizing radiation. The result is a continous
discharge in the detector. Semiconductor detectors act mush like solar cell. Ionizing radiation
creates electronhole paors in the semiconductor. If these pairs are sufficiently energetic, they
may lose energy in collisions that create other electronhole pars. The process continues until
the average energy deposites per pair is a few times the width of the energy gap of the
semiconductor.
In the junction region, the built inelectric field and any applied field sweep these pairs
apart so that the charge collected is proportional to the particle energy deposited. Diffusing Li
into the junction increases its width. The Si(Li) and Ge(Li) detectors are lithiumdrifted Si and
Gedetectors. (they are humorously called silly and Jelly detectors). Their resolution is
much better than that of proportional counters. Better resolution means that they might
distinguish two different particle energies that are very close to one another, while the
proportional counter would see just one comparatively smearedout energy. The Si(Li) and
Ge(li) detectors also have a short response time.
An airplane moving through air faster that the speed of sound creates a shock wave of
air, which we hear as a sonic boom Similarly, a charge particle moving through a
transparent medium faster that the speed of light in that medium creates an electromagnetic
shock wave in that medium. The energy in this electromagnetic shock wave is called
Cerenkov radiation. A detector having a photomultiflier tube or other device to detect a
particle by means of this radiation is called a Cerenkov detector.
Examle 6.5.
The speed of light in water is 2.25 x 10
8
m/s. Within what speed range will electrons create
Cerekov radiation while moving through water?
126
Solution:
The electron, a charged particle, must move faster that the speed of ligth in the water to create
Cerenkov radiation. However, the electron cannot move at or greater that c, the speed of light
in a vacumm. Therfore the range of the speed v is 3.00 x 10
8
m/s >v>2.25 x10
8
m/
4. Particle Track Recorders
The particle of nuclear an subnuclear physics are much too small for us to see, even
though the finest microscope. However, we can use a number of different devices to display
the tracks of submicroscopic charged particles. These tracks often pass through a known
applied magnetic field, . We can then apply qvB=mv
2
/r to the measured track, obtaining
information about the particles charge and momentum.
A nuclear emulsion is simply thicker and more sensitive that the photographic emulsion
used in ordinary camera film. The passage of charged particle expose the grains of the
emulsion along its path. The emulsion is later developed and examined by microscope.
Because of its light weight and simplicity, a nuclear emulsion is often used for high altitude
rocket or ballon studies of cosmic rays.
Conceptually, plastic track detectors are similar to nuclear emulsions. Some plastic are
easily damaged by the passage of energetic charged particles, especially heavy ions. Chemical
etches can the be used to enlarge the damaged areas, making them clearly visible. The size of
each resulting etch pit depends on the charge and the energy, so stacked sheets of these
plastics can be used as track detectors.
The cloud chamber, first developed by C.T.T Wilson in 1911, is basically a countainer
filled with s supersaturated vapor. When a charge paticle moves through the vapor, it creates
ions along its path. The ions then act as condensation centers droplets of liquids. Wee see this
127
trail of droplets in Fig. 6.6, not the particle itself. (This effect is mucj like seeing a highflying
planess costrail but not being able to see the plane itself). Wilson originally began work on
the chamber in 1895 to reproduce in his lab some beautiful effects of sunlight on mist that
hed noticed.
Donald Glaser developed the bumble chamber in 1952 for studying highenergy
interactions. It is basically a container filled with a superheated liquid. The liquid is three
orders of magnitude denser that the vapor in the cloud chamber. Highenergy particles are
thus much more likely to interact within the chamber. When a charged particle moves through
the superheated liquid, it creates ions along its path. These local additions of energy cause
small volumes of boiling. That, is, a track of vapor bubbles appears in the superheated liquid,
as shon in figure 6.6. Despite the wellknownbut aporcryphalstory, Glaser didnt get the idea
for the device while watching the bubbles rise from the bottom of a glass of beer. However,
he did study the properties of that energy of that beverage as a superheated liquid during his
development of the bubble chamber.
Example 6.6.
The bubble chamber has been called the inverse of the cloud chmber. Explain why?
Solution:
In both types of chambers, ionizing particles leave a track through a metastable medium. In
the cloud chamber, the track is of liquid in a vapor. In a bubble chamber, the track is of vapor
in a liquid.
128
Figure 6.6. A bubble chamber photograph.
In a spark chamber and a streamer chamber a high electric field is set up in a gas so that
the gas is almost ready to break down and conduct.Passing a charged particle through creates
ion pairs in the gas. These ion pairs then multifly, creating a spark along the track of the
particle. The positions of the sparks can be detected photographically or electronically and
used to study the track.
Figure 6.7. Streamer Chamber Photograph
129
A drift chamber, represented in figure 6.7, contains an array of closely spaced ( a few
mm apart) wires and a lowpressure gas. Charged particles ionoze the gas and ions drift to the
wires, depositing their charge. The charge collected and time information from each wire is
the processed on a computer to reconstruct the trajectories.
Beside those we have discussed, there are various other types of particle track recorders.
The type used for a particular experiment depends on such variable as energy, charge, time
between events, massm lifetime, and, of course budget.
TASK12
1. If five electrons are knocked of the first dynode, and these five each knock five move
off the second dynode, and this process continues until the tent dynode, how many
electrons will be knocked of the tenth?
2. A beam of 0.50 Mev protons is lossing all its energy in an ionizaton chamber filled
with a 32 eV/ion pair gas. A current of 4.7A is collected. Assuming negligible
recombination, calculate the beam current!
3. In a proportional counter, a 0.975 MeV gamma gives 1.236x10
9
C of charge collected.
How much charge is collected for 0.585 MeV and 0.390 MeV rays?
4. A 0.438 MeV electron gives 3.7x10
10
C of charge collected when stopped in a
proportional counter filled with 35 eV/ion pair gas. a) How much charge would a
0.278 MeV ray give? b) By what factor does the applied voltage cause the charge
collected to increase?
5. In an attempt to make GeigerMuller counter more sensitive , a uranium prospector
decides to double the normal voltage. What will happen?
130
6. The element Si has an energy gap of 1.12 eV and Ge a gap of 0.66 eV. Will a Si or a
Ge semiconductor detector collect more charge from a given particle, all else being
equal? Explain!
7. Approximately how much charger (ignoring recombination)could be collected by a
Si(Li) semiconductor detector (energy gap of 1.12 eV) for a 0.35 MeV 

and a 0.15
MeV if onethird of the energy is used to create electronhole pairs?
8. If 1.00 TeV protons are to move in 1.0 km radius circle, what magnetic field and
frequency are required?
9. A cyclotron is designed to deliver 10MeV protons at a 0.75 m radius.
(a) Calculate the frequency at which the cyclotron will operate.
(b) How long does it take the proton to complete one revolution?
(c) What is the maximum proton speed?
(d) Is this a relativistic problem? Explain, using 10 MeV and also by using the answer
to part (c).
10. (a) Why does a particle getting out of phase with a cyclotron create a problem?
(b) Explain how cyclic accelerators compensate for the relativistic mass change of the
particle.
COURSE 13
I. Basic competency:
II. Indicators:
Able to write a paragraph in English with various kinds of writing versions.
III. Subject Matter
131
1. Linier Accelerators
Particle accelerators are used in nuclear physics to obtain the threshold or resonant
energy needed for some nuclear reactions and to obtain the high momentum ( and
corresponding small de Broglie wavelength) needed to see small structure. Accelerators are
also used for ion implantation for selective doping of semiconductors, for alloying with
minute quantities of rare metals, for surveying for hydrocarbons surrounding well shafts, for
the production of medical isotopes and for selective radiation, for changing the properties of
plastics, for radioactive dating, and for many other purposes. In almost all practice
accelerators, the charged particles move in an excellent vacuum, as low as 10
13
atmosphere.
Otherwise, they would lose energy, be scattered in different directions, or even be absorbed in
collisions before reaching their intented target. Linier accelerators speed up charge particles in
a straight line. The acceleration results from the force applied by an electric field. In a
Cockroft Walton accelerator, the electric field is provided by a large potential difference. A
particle of change q moving through a potential drop V can gain a kinetic energy:
KE = qV 6.1
Example 6.7
The high voltage ( up to about 2 MV) may be obtained by charging capacitors with a voltage
protons. What was the potential drop?
Solution:
The kinetic energy, KE, is 800 keV. For a proton, q = e. Then KE/q = V= 800 keV/e =800kV.
Using KE = qV is almost trivial in eV units, but recall tha Q = +2e for alpha particles.
In 1929, Robert J. Van de Graaf invented an electrostatic generator, which is now called
the Van de Graaff accelerator. It uses a moving belt to carry charge to the inside of a hollow
conductor. Recall that all excess charge resides on the surface of an electrostatic conductor
132
(unless that charge is insulated from the surface). Therefore the charge carried to the inside by
the belt is rapidly conducted to the outside surface of the conductor. Then the excess charge,
external electric field, and potential difference build up and are limited only by the insulating
properties of the surroundings. Potential differences of 30 MV are even possible.
In the ingenious tandem Van de Graff accelerator, ions are first negatively charge and
accelerated toward a positively charged conductor, as shown in Fig. 6.8. Inside the conductor
electrons are stripped off to make the moving ions positive. Acceleraction of the ions then
continues, but away rom the positively charged conductor.
Figure 6.8 Van de Graff accelerator
EXAMPLE 6.8
Describe ho 30MeV protons could be obtained from a tandem Van de Graaf accelerator
operating at 15 MV above ground. Start with H1 atoms.
Solution:
First, an extra electron is added to each hydrogen atom, giving H
ions
. The Hions are then
accelrated from ground to +15MV. Therefore +15MV is the potential rise, so the potential
133
drop is 15MV. For H

q = e. Equation34.1 then tell us that the H

ions gain a kinetic energy
of qV = (e)(15MV) = + 15MV.
Then both electrons are stripped off each moving H

ion, leaving bare protons. The charge is
now +e. The protons then continue from +15MV to ground, dropping 15MV. Therefore they
gain an additional qV = (+e)(+15MV) = 15 MeV of kinetic energy for a total KE grain of 30
MeV.
A drifftube linier accelerator (or linac) is composed of a series of coaxial conducting
cylinders( driff tubes), as illustrated in Fig.6.9. The cylinders are alternately connected to an
oscillating voltage source . The electric field inside the conductors will be almost zero, but
between the conductors it will always be in the direction needed to accelerate the Charge
particle.
Figure 6.9 A drifftube linier accelerator
For example, suppose that a proton leaves the ion source.Drift tube 1 is made negative,
attracting the proton into the cylinder. While the proton moves ( drifts) through the tube, the
charge on 1 is made positive and drift tube 2 becomes negative, so that the proton is further
accelerated between 1 and 2. Then 2 is made positive and 3 negative, again accelerating the
134
proton as it passes between 2 and 3. This procces continues for the length of the linac. The
drift tubes are designed with increasing lengths to compensate for the speed increase, but their
lengths soon approach a constant value as V approaches c.
Lowmass charged particles, such as electrons and positrons, are usually accelerated to
high energies in a travellingwave linier accelerator. This type of linier accelerator is basiclly
a long, hollow, evacuated conductor, or wave guide, designed so that electromagnetic waves
traveling down the tube have an electricfield component parallel to its axis. This electric field
accelerates the charge particles. The waveguide is also designed so that the speed of the
electromagnetic wave (which is less than the free vacuum value of c ) matches the increasing
speed of the particles. The Stanford Linier Accelerator Center (SLAC) has a travelingwave
linier accelerator over three kilometers ( two miles) long. Essentially a 2856 MHz waveguide,
it accelerates electrons and positrons to an energy that has exceeded 50 GeV. Like
surfboarders riding a wave, the electron is this accelerator ride an electromagnetic wave down
the waveguide.
EXAMPLE 6.9
Can electrons and positrons be accelerated in the same bunch in a linier accelerator? ( hint: F
=qE)
Solution:
Even if you could figure out a way to keep them annihilating one another, the answer is still
no. In all types of accelerators, an electric field provides the accelerating force. The relation
F = qE tells you that the positive positons are accelerated in the direction of the electric field
but that the negative electrons are accelerated in the opposite direction.
135
In Example 6.9 the phrases in the same bunch provides the main restriction. In drift
tube and travellingwave linier accelerators, the electric field reverses direction every half
cycle. Therefore a bunch of positrons can be accelerated and then, a half cycle later, a bunch
of electrons can follow.
2. Cyclic Accelerators
In cyclic acceleratos, magnetic fields bend charged particles around closed paths and
electric fields speed them up. When a charge particle of mass m and charge q moves in a
circular path of radius r perpendicular to a magnetic field B,F = ma becomes qvB=mv
2
/r.
Solving for the momentum of the charged particle, we obtain
p = mv = qBr 7.2
Example 6.10
Bubble chamber photographs taken with a 0.40T field show a particle with q=e moving in a
15cm radius circle at one point. Calculate the particles momentum at that point if v is
perpendicular to B.
Solution:
We know that q=e=1.60x10
19
C, B=0.40 T, and r=15x10
2
m. Therefore
P=qBr=(1.6x10
19
A.s)(0.40 N/A.m)(15x10
2
m)
=9.6x10
21
N.s (1 MeV/c)/(5.344x10
22
N.s)=18 MeV/c
The tracks in particle track recorders arent simple circles, even if v is perpendicular to B.
Rather, the tracks are decreasing radius spirals, as shown previously in fig. 6.10. Why?
Because the particle loses energy and momentum in creating its track. The expression p=qBr
shows that a decreasing momentum gives a decreasing radius.
136
Figure 6.10 Particle Track Recorders
The time required for a single revolution in acircular cyclic accelerator equals the
circumference divided by the speed, or 2tr/u. Therefore the frequency, u, is the reciprocal,
u/2tr, of that time. Solving mv=qBr for u and substituting into u=v/2tr gives
m
qB
t
u
2
= 7.3
This frequency is called the cyclotron frequency, after the cyclic acceleration shown in figure
34.12.
The cyclotron is composed of two Dshped, hollow conductors (called dess) placed
between the poles of a magnet. The magnetic field is constant and is perpendicular to the
velocity of the charged particles. This configuration makes the charged particles move in
semicircular paths within each dee.
137
Figure 6.11 A Cyclotron
The dees are connected to a source of alternating voltage. The source is synchronized so that
whenever a charged particle is moving from dee 1 to dee 2, the electric field between the
oppsitely charged dees is at a maximum in the direction that will accelerate the particle. One
half cycle later, the charged particle is moving from dee 2 to dee 1 and the electric field has
been reversed to again give the particle a maximum increase in speed. When inside the metal
dees, the charged particle is within a conductor where the electric field is zero.
As the particle gains energy and momentum from its trip between the dees, the radius
will increase, according to the expression p=qBr. If the maximum radius is R anf if KE
max
is
much less the rest energy, E
o
, then KE
max
=p
2
max
/2mo, with p
max
=qBR, gives:
mo
R B q
KE
2
2 2 2
max
= 7.4
Example 6.11.
Designed and built by Ernest Lawrence and M. Stanley Livingston in 1952, the first cyclotron
used a 1.3T magnetic field and had an 11 cm radius
(a) For protons, at what frequency was it operated?
(b) Show that the protons were nonrelativistic
138
Solution:
(a) For protons, q=1.6x10
19
C, and mo=1.67x10
27
kg. We know that B=1.3T and R=0.11
m, then
Hz x
kg x
m A N s A x
m
qB
7
27
19
10 0 . 2
) 10 67 . 1 ( 2
) . / 3 . 1 )( . 10 6 . 1 (
2
= = =
t t
u
(b) The maximum kinetic energy was
) 10 67 . 1 ( 2
) 11 . 0 ( ) . / 3 . 1 ( ) . 10 6 . 1 (
2
27
2 2 2 19 2 2 2
max
kg x
m m A N s A x
mo
R B q
KE
= =
= MeV
J x
MeV
J x 0 . 1
10 60 . 1
1
10 57 . 1
15
13
=
For a proton, Eo=938 Mev, so KE
max
<<E
o
. Therefore the protons were not relativistic
to the precision of the given data.
If the particles kinetic energy begins to become an appreciable fraction of the rest
energy, the mass begin to increase significantly. As a result, the cyclotron frequency, qB/2tm,
will decerease when the particle is sped up at a constant B. In a cyclotron, the particle would
get out of phase with the accelesating electric field.
Electron have a small rest energy, so this relativistic mass change occurs at relatively low
energies. Therefore electrons are not accelerated to high energies by cyclotrons. With a
constant B, the frequency could be changed as m changes to keep the particle anf the electric
field in phase. Alternatively, B may be varied and u may or may not be varied to keep the
particles in phase with the electric field in the class of cyclic accelerators called the
synchrotrons.
Figure 6.12 shows another kind of cyclic accelerator, the betatron., It utilizes an
increasing magnetic filed, which keeps the particle moving in a circular path. Then the change
in the magnetic fieds induces an electric field( by Faradays law of induction), which speeds
139
up the charged particle. A free charged particle radiates electromagnetic energy whenever it is
accelerated. Examples include bremmstrahlung anf transimission from radio and TV
antennas. In s cyclic accelerator, this radiation is often called synchrotron here being used as a
wellcntrolled radiation source. To produce it in a more usable form, groups of magnets called
wigglers and undulators are used to accelarate beams of electrons from side to side.
Figure 6.12 A Betatron Accelerator
If r is small, the acceleration v
2
/r is large. The point could be reachd where every bit of
energy given a charged particle in a cyclic accelerator is radiated right back out. This
possibility is one reason why the large electronpositron (LEP) storage ring anf collider at
what is now called the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) has a radius of 4.3
km fot its eventual goals of over 100 GeV. Well before excessive radiation loss occurs for
particles more massive than electrons, another consideration requires the huge radii of modern
high energy accelerators. The expression p=qBr shows us that increasing the momentum
proportionally increases the radius for a given magnetic field. Therefore high momentum,
high energy cyclic accelerators, such as the 1TeV (1000 GeV) Fermilab Tevatron accelerator
in Illinois shown in figure 6.13 require radii of about a kilometer. The proposed 20 TeV
Superconductor Super Collide will require a radius of 13.5 km.
140
Figure 6.13 Fermilab Tevatron Accelerator
Obviously, no lab can afford a magnet having square kilometers of pole face area. Therefore
hugeradius accelerator keep the path of the charged particles constant and utilize magnets
placed at intervals along that path. Since qr mv/ = u , B must increase as both m and v
increase. The actual radii of these huge accelerators are larger than that calculated from
p
max
=qB
max
r, because dipole bending magnets alternate with quadrupole and other focusing
magnets to keep the particle beams from spreading.
3. Storage Rings and Colliding Beams
In order to collect an increased number of accelerated particles, each output pulse from
an accelerator can be placed in a circular ring where the net energy is not increased further.
This ring, called a storage ring, contains magnetic fields to keep the particles moving in a
circle. Large number of particles per bunch increases the probability that the bunch will cause
some event to occur.
Colliding beam of accelerated particles can yield more energy (for instance, to create
new particles) than collisions in which one particle is at rest. To understand this phenomenon,
recall the classical, completely n elastic collision of a particle of mass m moving at speed v
141
with an identical particle at rest. Conservation of linier momentum requires that the two
particles move together after the collision at a speed v/2. Therefore the kinetic energy
converted to other forms of energy in the collision is 1/2mv
2
1/22m)(v/2)
2
=1/2(1/2mv
2
). Just
onehalf the initial kinetic energy has been converted to some other kind of energy.
On the other hand, if two particles with equal and opposite momentum hit and stick
together, they are motionless after the collision and all the nitial kinetic energy is converted
into other kinds of energy. So if you want to convert 1 MeV of KE into some other form of
energy, you could (classically) hit a rest particle with a 2MeV equalmass particle. Or you
could do it with two MeV equalmass particles in a headon collision. Instead of requiring
a 2MeV accelerator, you could use MeV accelerator and some cleverness. Since MeV/ 2
MeV=1/4, the particle in the colliding beams need only onefourth of the kinetic energy of the
particles bombarding a fixed target in the classical case. In the relativstic case, this ratio
decreases rapidly below onefourth as the required energy increases. Therefore existing
accelerators have been altered, and new ones designed and built, to provide headon collision
and the energy that would otherwise require an accelerator with a much higher energy for
fixedtarget collisions.
To show this difference, we can prove that :
+
=
2 '
'
) (
2
) (
c m m
m
m m
KE
X
th
7.5
Recall that KE
th
is the minimum kinetic energy needed to make a reaction occur when
'
m m is negative and the target particle is at rest. The mass of the target particle is m
X
.
The total rest mass of all the particles before the reaction is
m .
142
Example 6.12.
Consider a hypothetical reaction of the form P p p +
=2.000 TeV/c
2
,
Then,
2 '
/ 002 . 2 c TeV m m = +
and
2 '
/ 998 . 1 c TeV m m =
So, we get:
TeV x TeV
c TeV x
c Tev
KE
th
3
2 6
2
10 13 . 2 ) 998 . 1 (
) / 10 938 ( 2
/ 002 . 2
= =
Based on the fact that physicist would have to provide a 2130 TeV antiproton to obtain
the 1.998 TeV energy increase. Such antiproton would require a circular accelerator
approximately the size of the moon. Or a 0.999 TeV antiproton could collide head on with
and annihilate a 0.999 TeV proton, as in done at Fermilab. From that viewpoint positive
protons are accelerated in a clockwise direction, and negative antiproton are accelerated in a
counterclock wise direction, but the beams are kept separate except a a designated collision
point.
Relying on colliding beams has a major disadvantage: The probability is rather small that
a tiny particle from one lowdensity beam will actually collide headon with a tiny particle
143
from the other, equality tenuous beam. An important parameter of a beam, therefore, is the
number of reactions that will occur per nit time per unit cross section. This quotient of
reaction rate and cross section is called the luminosity. The design goal for the
Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is a luminosity of 10
37
s
1
m
2
.
The huge size of the proposed SC indicates that even higher energy will probably require
quite different designs. Accelerator designs that use highpower laser beams are being
considered, perhaps in conjuction with plasmas. Another line of research is exploring the use
of the electric field from a highcurrent, lowenergy beam of charged particles to accelerated a
second low current beam to high energies, an idea reminiscent of the stepup transformer
concept.
Although we couldnt discuss all the types of detectors and variations and refinements of
accelerators, we did give a reasonably complete introduction to those topics. The detectors we
covered obtain information about radiation by means of an electromagnetic signal, path
visualization, or both. We discussed both linier and cyclic accelerators to provide the final
energy, or linier accelerators in conjunction with storage rings and/or colliding beams.
TAsK13
1. (a) Why do high energy accelerators need such a large radius?
(b) Express B for a constant radius synchrotron in terms of the particle speed and
constant.
(c) Why is the actual r larger that p
max
/qB
max
for large synchrotrons?
2. The SLAC electronpositron collider is able to create groups of particles with a total
rest energy of 100 GeV. Calculate the threshold energy for the production o such a
group of particles by a positron beam incident on a metal terget.
144
3. The luminescence process in solids or liquids is characterized by A Stokes shift, a
different between the wavelength of the emited light and the wavelength of
stimulating light. It might be thought that this fact does not concern us in the
scintillation counter application, where stimulation does not involve visible light, but
the Stokes shifts is vital to the functioning of the counter. Explain!
4. Either scintillation or semiconductor detectors can be used in the following way to
determined the mass spectrum of a beam of heavy chred particles. The particles first
transver a thin detector in which they lose only a small fraction of their energies. The
current pulse for each particle is proportional to dK/dx, which is in turn proportional
to 1/v
2
, where v is the velocity of the particle. The particles then pass into a thick
detector and lose all their energy; the current pulse for each particle is proportional to
K. Explain how to combine these data to obtain the particle masses.
5. A much older device than bubble chamber is the cloud chamber, in which the ions
produced by charged particles serve as nuclei for condensation in a supersaturated
vapor. Although this device gives the same type of track information as the bubble
chamber, the letter is much more popular in high energy physics. Why?
6. How would you construct an electron detector that would count only electrons with
energies greater than 500 MeV?
7. Radionuclides are useful source of small amount of power in space vehicles, remote
communications stations, and similar applications. Calculate the power in wats per
kilogram of Ce
144
, a 

emitter with an average energy of 0.10 MeV and t=285 days,
and of Po
210
, an emitter with an energy of 5.30 MeV and t=138 days.
8. How and why does the effective length of a semiconductor nuclear particle detector
depend on bias voltage? If we wish a large efective length, why must the device be
constructed a very pure, high resistivity semiconductor?
145
9. Why is the use of neutrons as reactants in a fusion reactor not an atractive possibility?
10. There are a few delayed neutrons in fission. Why are there no delayed protons? Why
are there no positron?
COURSE 14:
I. Basic competency:
Students are able to understand the general theory of relativity to models of the universe
II. Indicators:
1. Able to explain the general theory of relativity
III. Subject Matter
1. Overview
Cosmology is the study of the universe, which is done by means of models. Most
cosmological models utilize the cosmological principle, the assumption that the universe is
homogeneous and isotropic. That is, the assumption is made that the properties of the universe
are the same at all places and in all directions. For example, the cosmological principle
requires the density, , of the universe to be constant in space (but not in time). This
assumption, of course, isnt true at small scale. Matter exist in clumps, ranging from leptons
and quarks to you and me to galaxies and to super clusters of galaxies. In fact, the farther anf
the finer that astronomers can see, the more nonuniformity they seem to find in the
distribution of mass. At the universal scale, however, the cosmological principle seems to be a
reasonable first assumption. Many early cosmological models made the earth the unmoving
center of the universe. More modern cosmologies consider the earth to have no exceptional
location in a vast universe made up of about 10
11
galaxies, each containing an average of 10
11
stars. However, modern cosmologists do still assume one earthcentered concept: The laws of
146
physics that we discover here on earth are the same as the laws everywhere else in the
universe.
2. Cosmological Models And Expansions
The cosmological principle states that the properties of the universe are the same
everywhere. Therefore the laws that cause these properties must be the same everywhere.
Regional changes in the laws would give regional differences in measured properties. Thus if
an astronomer finds that all the spectral lines in the light from a star or group of stars have
shifted to different frequencies, he assumes that this shift is the result of known phenomena,
such as the Doppler effect. Only as a last resort would the astronomer assume that the laws of
nature are different at the source of the light.
Vesto sliher measured the first frequency shifte of spectral lines from Galaxy at the
Lowell Observatory if Flagstaff, Arizona, in 1912. It was a blueshift( a shift to higher
frequencies) and it indicated that the Andromeda galaxy has a relative velocity component of
about 300 km/s toward us. He then continued his measurement on other galaxies. Meanwhile,
Einstein applied his GTR to the whole universe, publihsing the result in 1917. He utilized the
cosmological principle, assuming a constant density and a constan positive curvature of
spacetime. He also decided that he wanted a static universe. Newton had realized that a finite
static universe was impossible. A finite universe would eventually collapse because of the
gravitational attraction of each mass for all the others. However, Newton throught
(incorrectly) that an infinite static universe was possible.
Einstein similarly found that his field equation didnt yield a static universe solution,
even for an infinite universe. To arrive at a static equalibrium, he introduced a term called the
cosmological constant, A, into his equations. (This step was equivalent to inventing a
repulsive fifth force of nature to oppose gravity). However, because of later astronomical data
147
and proof that the static equilibrium was unstable. Einsteins model fell from favor. Sliphers
continued measurements showed that the Andromeda blueshift was unusual. By 1923, of
galaxies studied, 36 had redshifts and only five had blue shifts. This result seemed to relate to
another cosmological model published in 1917, the decidedly odd model of the Dutch
astronomer Willem de Sitter.
Attempting to arrive at a theory for a static universe, de Sitter used the cosmological
constant. He also used a constant density, but did so by letting equal zero. The de Sitter
universe contained no matter at all. However, if particles of mass were added to this model,
they acted as if they were moving away from one another, just as most of the galaxies seemed
to be moving away from us. Then, in 1924 at Mt. Wilson in California, Edwin Hubble began
to improve techniques to measure distances to galaxies. With the help of Milton Humason, he
discovered what appeared to be a linier relationship between the distances of the galaxies
from us and their speeds. Hubble and Humason determined that the few galaxies moving from
us and their speeds. Hubble and Humason determined that the few galaxies moving toward us
are nearby. Moredistant galaxies are all moving away from us. The universe seemed to be
expanding. This linier relationship is called the Hubble law.
v
r
=Hs 7.1
Where v
r
is the recession velocity, or the velocity at which a galaxies is being expanded away
from us; s is the distance the galaxy is away from us, and H is a quantity best labeled the
Hubble parameter. Apparently constant for all galaxies now (and therefore commonly called
the Hublle constant), H may change with time. It has no precisely determined value because
of the great uncertainties in measuring distances for galaxies. The current value of the Hubble
parameter is H=(238) km/s.Mc.yr. For most of our purposes, well use the average value of
23 km/s.Mc.yr. Recall that Mc.yr is our abbreviation for 10
6
light years and that one light year
is the distance traveled in one year at the speed of light.
148
Example 7.1
The recession velocity of a galaxy in Ursa Major is 1.5x10
4
km/s. How far away from us in
this galaxy?
Solution: Using v
r
=1.5x10
4
km/s and the average value of the Hubble parameter, H=23 km/s.
Mc.yr in u
r
=Hs, we get
yr Mc x
yr Mc s km
s km x
s
H
v
r
. 10 5 . 6
. . / 23
/ 10 5 . 1
2
4
= = =
Or 650 million light years away from us.
In the 1920s, cosmological theory also indicated that the universe was not static, but
was expanding. The chief theoreticians were Alexander Friedman, a Rusian, and Georges
Lemaitre, a Belgian. Their models of the universe used the cosmological principle with a
nonzero dentsity. Lemaitre included a cosmological constant (but not Einsteins value), but
Friedmann used no cosmological constant. Einstein realized that his rather arbitrary addition
of A kept him from discovering the concept of the expanding universe and called it the
biggest blunder of my life.
When you first hear of the expanding universe, your mental picture may well be of a
bunch of stars and stuff all moving outward through space from some central point. That is
not what is happening according to the dynamic general relativistic cosmologies. Rather,
thestars and stuff are relatively fixed in space, and it is space itself that is expanding. Our
problem is trying to visualize what is happening is that we need five dimensions, four for
spacetime and one for curvature, to properly display expansion. However, suppose that we
again ignore one dimension and discuss the evolution of a threedimensional representation in
149
time to try to get an understanding of the expanding universe. Figure 7.1 shows one modelthe
raisin bread dough model. However, well use the common spherical rubberballon model.
First we mark longitude and latitude lines on the ballon, jus like those on globe of the
earth. Then randomly here and there we glue pieces of confetti on the surface with a flexible
glue. Each piece of confetti the represents a galaxy (or even some larger clustering of
galaxies). All displacements are restricted to the surface of the ballon. The flexible glue
enables us to move wach piece of confetti a bit from the latitude and longitude coordinates
peculiar to that piece. This type of motion gives rise to what is called the peculiar velocity of a
galaxy, that is, its motion with respect to its coordinates in space.
Figure 7.1 (a) The raisinbreaddough model of the expanding universe
Figure 7.1 (b) The spherical ruberballon model of theexpanding universe
150
Now lets blow up the ballon slowly. What happens to the pieces of confetti? Ignoring
their peculiar velocities, we see that their coordinates dont change, but the distances between
them ( as measured along great circles on the surface) do. Every piece of confetti moves away
from every other piece of confetti. The distance between pieces is given by s=ru, where r is
the radius of the ballon and u is the angle between two radii from the centre to two pieces of
confetti. The latitude and longitude angles dont change, so u is also constant. The recession
velocity of the pieces is v
r
=ds/dt=(dr/dt) u. Therefore v
r
at any time is directly proportional to
how far apart the pieces are that time.
Example 7.2
Prove that v
r
at any time is directly proportional to how far apart the pieces are at that time.
Solution:
First, s=ru gives u=s/r. We then substitute u=s/r into v
r
=(dr/dt) u to arrive at v
r
=[(dr/dt)/r]s.
At any time, (dr/dt)/r is the same for all points on the balloon, showing that v
r
is directly
proportional to s at that time.
The Andromeda galaxy is about teo million light years away from us and has a
velocity component of 300 km/s toward us. We might be tempted to try to analyze its motion
using v
r
=Hs, but we would be wrong to do so. The cosmological models undergirding the
Hubble law asume a uniform density of matter at any given time and therfore a uniform
curvature of spacetime. On the scale of only a few million light years, matter is manifestly not
uniformly distributed. The 300 km/s is mainly a component of a peculiar velocity, not a
recession velocity.
151
You should remember that the expansion of the universe involves the expansion of
space itself in most cosmological models. Therefore we can write the distance s between any
two distant objects as the productof a scale factor R times the change in the space coordinates
between the objects. This approach is similar to converting a distance on a map to an actual
distance by multiflying by the maps scale factor; for example, 2.6 (map cm)x50 km/(map
cm)=130 km. Solving v
r
=ds/dt=Hs with s proportional to R gives
dt
dR
R
H
1
= 7.2
Example 7.3.
Assume that R follows a simple power law, R=Ct
n
, where C is a constant. Find the time
dependence of the Humbble parameter!
Solution:
Differentiating, we have
t
nR
Ct
dt
d
dt
dR
n
= = ) (
Therefore
t
n
t
nR
R dt
dR
R
H = = =
1 1
Because the scale factor is changing with time, distance between points are also changing
with time, including the distance between adjacent crests in waves. This distance is the
wavelength of the wave. Consider a wave emitted at time to with wavelength o and
frequency uo when the scale factor was Ro. We detect the wave at time t with wavelength
and frequency u when the scale factor is R. Since is directly proportional to R and u when
152
the scale factor is R. Since is directly proportional to R and u is inversely proportional to ,
we can write
Ro
R
o o
= =
u
u
7.3
Example 7.4:
Is the redshift of distant galaxies a special relativistic Doppler shift as given by equation :
1
2
2
cos ) / ( 1
1
u
u u
c v
c
v
o
+
=
Solution:
The answer is no. Equation 7.5 shows that this redshift (lower frequencies and lower
wavelengths) is a direct result of the expansion of the universe, because expansion means that
R(now) is greater than R
0
(when the galxies emitted the light.
Most cosmological models predict that the expansion of the universe is showing down
or decelerating because of the attraction of the masses of the universe to one another. If there
is a deceleration, dR/dt decreases with time, making d
2
R/d
2
t negative. The deceleration
parameter, q, is a measure of this decrease:
2
2 2
) / (
) / (
dt dR
dt R d R
q = 7.4
The deceleration parameter has no units and is positive for a decelerating universe.
Example 7.5
Assume that R follows a simple power law, R=Ct
n
, where C is a constant. Calculate the
deceleration parameter.
153
Solution:
t nR nCt
dt
dR
n
/
1
= =
Then
2
2 1
2
2
) 1 (
) 1 ( ) (
t
R n n
Ct n n nCt
dt
d
dt
R d
n n
= = =
Therefore
1
1
) / (
] / ) 1 ( [
) / (
) / (
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
=
=
=
n t R n
t r n n R
dt dR
dt R d R
q
An area of great current interest is the determination of the average density of the
universe. Below a certain critical density of about 10
26
kg/m
3
, the universe will eventually
stop expanding and begin to collapse, as shown in figure 7.3.
Figure 7.3 The scale factor of the universe as a function of time
for certain cosmological model
That collapse is sometimes called the Big Crunch. In some models, the universe will
then begin to expand again, with a new oscillation, turning the Big Crunch into Big Bounce.
The best current estimates of the average density of the universe range from 0.03 to 10 times
the critical density. How old is the universe? We can get a rough idea from the relation R=Ct
n
,
which gives H=n/t. Letting the beginning be t=0, our time now is t=T, the age of the universe.
Therefore T=n/H=n(155)x10
9
yr. Different cosmological models give different values for n,
154
with typical value of to 2/3, giving T=(94)x10
9
yr. However, we cant really answer the
question with our current level of understanding.
If we mentally travel backward in time, our expanding universe becomes a contracting
universe, with the scale factor approaching zero as t approaches zero in most cosmological
models. That means that the univese started out with a very small scale factor and
corresponding very small distances between everything and then expanded. This expansion is
called the Big Bang. George Lemaitre is called the farther of the Big Bang, not because he
was a catholic priest, but because he first investigated the idea (but gave it a different name).
Despite its name, the Big Bang is not an explosion in space, but a rapid expansion of space.
TASK14
1. The steadystate model of the universe assumes a perfect cosmological principle,
one that says the properties are the same at all times, at all places, and in all directions.
Explain why this model then requires that matter be created constantly throughout an
expanding universe.
2. Explain why the universe has no edge and no center if it can be modeled by the
expanding ballon.
3. At what distances do recession velocities and peculiar velocities have about the same
magnitude?
4. An astronomer determines that a galaxy in Virgo is recending from us at 12 million
m/s and that it is 800 million ligth years away from us. Are these values reasonable?
COURSE 15:
I. Basic competency:
Students are able to understand experimental, and applied nuclear physics
155
II. Indicators:
1. Able to explain the history of the universe
III. Subject Matter
1. The History of Universe
If we try to travel too far back in time, we run into a problem. The scale factor
becomes so small that the corresponding separations and densities require a unification of
quantum mechanics and general relativity to explain what is happening. This condition
corresponds to a time of about 10
45
s (called Planck time) after the beginning of the Big Bang.
However, we simply dont have the unified theory needed to define just what time is before
10
45
s, and so cannot truly talk about the when of the beginning of the Big Bang. Figure 7.4
presents an overview of the history of the universe, with all the question marks in the uper left
of the figure emphasizing our lack of understanding before the time 10
43
s.
Figure 7.4 The History of The Universe
In the standard model of the Big Bang, all four forces of nature were unified before the
time 10
43
s. At that time, the equacalence of the four forces broke down and gravity began to
act separately. At 10
43
s, the temperature of the universe in the standard model was about 10
32
156
K. Since Boltzmans constant, 8,62x10
5
eV/K, is approximately 10
13
GeV/K, the average
energy per particle, approximately kT, was about 10
19
GeV. By 10
35
s, the decrease in density
and temperature ( to about 10
27
K) of the expanding universe brought about the separation of
the strong nuclear force from the electroweak force. Therefore the 10
43
s to 10
35
s interval is
the GUTs era, or the time for which the grand unified theories explain what is happening. One
prediction of GUTs is that the baryon number need not be exactly conserved, so it is in this
era that the GUTs predict a very slight excess of quarks over antiquarks.
In inflationary models, this separation of the strong nuclear force corresponded to a
phase change (like the phase change between liquid and gas phases of a substance, with its
corresponding latent heat of vaporization). As a result, one inflationary model predicts that the
scale factor, R, increased by 10
50
in 10
32
s. This model, with a relatively small nnumber of
assumptions, claims to explain the overall homodeneity and isotropy of the universe is
apparently so close to the critical density, the apparent rarity of magnetic monopoles, and the
small scale fluctuations that eventually led to the formationof galaxies and other features of
the universe.
The universea mixture of quarks, leptons, and gauge bosonscontinued to expand and
cool from the inflationary period to 10
6
s when the quarks began to bind together to form
baryons and their antiparticles. Before about 10
2
s, most radiation had enough energy that pair
production by two photons balanced baryonantibaryon pair annihilation. After that time,
most of the radiation fell below the threshold energy for pair production. Then, because of the
slight excess of baryons over antibaryons, almost all the antibaryons and most of the baryons
annihilated one another. After similar processes for the electronpositron pairs ( at about t=14
s), the universe was left with its current great preponderance of matter over antimatter.
157
Example 7.6
Why were most of the positron completely annihilated so much later than most of the
antibaryon?
Solution
This complete annihilation couldnt occur until most of radiation had energy below the
electronpositron pair production energy. Since electrons have much less rest massenergy
than baryons, this event wouldnt occur until the universe had expanded and cooled well past
the time when baryonantibaryon pair production ceased.
At about t=1 s, most electrons no longer had enough energy for the reaction
e
n p e v + + . The neutrinos also had a lower average energy and matter of the universe was
more spread out, so equilibrium reactions involving the absorption of neutrinos began to
decrease rapidly. Thus at this time the flux of neutrinos anf antineutrinos throughout the
universedecoupled from the rest of the universe. Because of the extraordinarily low cross
section for neutrino absorption, this flux is still present, although cooled by expansion to an
average temperature of about 2 K (according to the standard model, bu no one has been able
to figure out an experiment to test this prediction).
Also at about t=1 s, the ratio of protons to neutrons was
kT E
e
/ A
, where AE is the rest
energy difference between the two nucleons, (m
n
m
p
)c
2
. With a temperature of roughly 10
10
K,
this relation gives about none protons for every two neutrons. However, neutrons are
radioactive with a halflife of 630 s, so the protonneutron ratio continued to increase until
t=225 s. At that time, T was below 10
9
K ad very few photons had energies greater than the
2.22 MeV binding energy of the deuteron. Therefore a proton anf a neutron could combine
and remain combined asa deuteron,H2. This combination halted the decay of the free
neutrons at a ratio of about seven protons to every one neutron. The nuclide H2 can absorb a
158
neutron to form H3 or a proton to form He3, and the H3 and He3 can absorb a proton and
a neutron respectivelyto both form He4, but there the building of nuclei almost completely
stops. The reason is that no stable or longlived nuclides have a mass number of five, and the
cross section for further reactions is very small.
Example 7.7
Almost all the protons and neutrons in the seventoone ratio either made He4 or remained as
H1. Therefore, by mass, what percent of H and He should there have been?
Solution:
The nuclide He4 contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons, so we need at least 2 neutrons in the 7:1
(protontoneutron) ratio. The ratio then is 14 protons to 2 neutrons. The 2 neutrons and 2 of
the protons make up 1 He4 nucleus. The remaining 12 protons have no neutrons to combine
with and so become H1 nuclei. Since the masses of H1 and He4 are about 1u and 4 u,
respectively, there were 12 u of H1 for every 4 u of he4, and a total of 12 u+ 4 u= 16 u.
therefore H was 12/16=75 percent and He was 4/16 percent by mass.
The average energy per particle at that time was still much too highh to allow
electrons to start binding to nuclei to form atoms. Atomic binding didnt occur until after 10
13
s, or nearly 700,000 years later, when the temperature had dropped to about 3000K. After that
very few free electrons were left to scatter electromagnetic radiation and so the flux of
electromagnetic radiation throughout the universe decoupled from the matter of the universe.
The radiation has continued to expand its wave lengths to form the 2.7 K blackbody radiation
that we receive (spatially uniform to 0.01 percent) from space. This radiation is one of the
main experimental pillars of the standard model of the Big Bang.
159
Example 7.8
By approximately what ratio has the universe expanded since t=700.000 years?
Solution
For blackbody radiation known that
p
=constant/T. Therefore we can write:
R
Ro
T const
To const
=
/
/
or
T
To
R
Ro
=
At t=700,000 year, T was about 3000K and now it is 2.7 K (or about 3K), giving
R/Ro=3000K/3K=1000. Universal distances are proportional to the scale factor R, so the
R/Ro ratio is also the distance ratio. Thus the universe has expanded by approxomately a
factor of 1000.
The energy radiated from stars is produced in fusion reactions in which H1 becomes
He4. When the hydrogen is about used up, the inward gravitational pressure exceeds the
outward radiation and gas pressure, and the stars core begins to contract. As it does so, its
gravitational potential energy decreases, and the kinetik energy of its atoms increases. For
stars of sufficient mass, there is both enough energy anf the necessary density to begin helium
fusion.
Two He4s first fuse to form Be8. The Be8 has an extremely short halflife (10
8
s)
but is compensated for by an unsually high resonance cross section for He4 absorption at
these energies. Therefore a reasonable fraction of the Be8 fuses`with more He4 to give
stable C12. (Three He4s have fused to form one C12 in what is called the triplealpha
process). Then succesive fussion with He4 give O16, Ne20, and Mg24. All these reactions
release energy to heat the star so that C12 and O16 can fuse to form elements having higher
and higher atomic numbers.
160
The binding energy per nucleon curve peaks out at Fe, so exoergic fusion reactions
stop with Fe, but succesive neutron captures can continue the synthesis of heavy elements. A
step in the evolution of some massive stars in an explosion of the star ( a supernova). Such
explosions release into space the heavy elements that ware produces by the earlier processes.
In space, the debris and other interstellar matter gravitationally bunch together to form stars
and planets. Thus it is more than poetic to say that the Earth is formed of stardust
TASK15
5. Intensity measurements indicate that a galaxy in Bootes is 1.7 x 10
9
c.year from us.
What
would you expect its recession velocity to be?
6. The Hubble length is defined as the distance at which the recession velocity equals c.
(a) Find the limiting values of the Hubble length
(b) What is the Hubble length for a galaxy 5 Gc.yr from us?
7. A galaxy cant move through space at velocities greater than c, but both its recession
velocity greater than c, but both its recession velocity and
COURSE 16: FINAL TEST
Singaraja, Dec 15
th
2011
Drs. IBP. Mardana, M.Si