HHUTH

COINS OF THE JEWS.
BY

.YO

FREDERIC W. MADDEN,
;

M.R.A.S.,
j

MEMBER OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF LONDON ASSOCIE ETRANGER DE LA SOCIETE R.OYALE DE LA NUMISMATIQUE BELGE HONORARY MEMBER OF THE NUMISMATIC AND ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY OF PHILADELPHIA FELLOW OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF MONTREAL
;

;

SECRETARY OF THE BRIGHTON COLLEGE.

WITH

279

WOODCUTS AND A PLATE OF ALPHABETS,

<V

A VX\
V
'.-..,-.,„.„

LONDON:
TRUBNEK
& CO., 57 and 59,
1881.
All rights
reserved.

SEZN BY

LUDGATE

HILL.

PRESERVATION
SERVICES
DATE..

PREFACE.
The

following work

may be

virtually considered a Second Edition of

my
1

" History

of the
as
it

Jewish Coinage and Money in the Old and
all

New
It

Testaments,"

embracing

does nearly

the original matter contained printed
in
its

in

that volume, as
is

well as the

additional

information
corrections
so

" Supplement."

further
that I

enriched by

the

critical

gained from

all

papers

on the

subject

have been

able to obtain,

that the "History of the Coins of the Jews," from the earliest
of Jerusalem
is

times

to

the

destruction

and

the

building

of

iElia

Capitolina

by

order of the
It
is

Emperor Hadrian,
to

brought up
that

to the

knowledge of the present day.
representative
collectors,

much

be

regretted

no

thorough

collection

of

Jewish coins exists in England, though several private
Babington,
the

as Dr. in their

Churchill
cabinets

Eev.

S.

S.

Lewis

and Dr. John Evans,

have

many

rare

and valuable examples.
for

The

late

Mr. Wigan's cabinet of Jewish coins

was not acquired
the
collection

the

National Collection, but a hope
C. Eeichardt,

may

be expressed that
of the

formed

by the Eev. H.

which contains some
find

more remarkable specimens of the Jewish Coinage, may eventually
at

a

home

the British

Museum.
publication
illustrated
entitled,

Since
described

the

of

my

original

work,
of

the
the

late

M.

de

Saulcy

has

and

the

interesting

coins

towns of Palestine in a
Sainte."
3

handsome book,
fore

" Numismatique
all

de
the

la

Terre

It

was therehas

unnecessary to include
advisable
to

these

in

present
Colonial

volume,
Coins

but

it

been

thought
originally

retain

the
first

" Imperial
edition,

of JElia

Capitolina,"
relation

produced

in

my

these

having a more

intimate

with the
1

"Coins of the Jews" than those of any of the other towns.

Quaritch, London, 18G4.

2

Iu the "Numismatic Chronicle," x.s. 1874,

vol.

xiv. pp.

281-316;

1875, vol. xv. pp. 41-80, 101-139, 1C9-195, 298-333;

1876, vol. xvi. pp. 45-70, 81-132, 177-234.
3

Rothschild, Paris, 4to. 1874.

1

IV

PREFACE.

Great
historical

attention

has
has,

been

paid

to

the

chronology

of

all

periods,

and

an

commentary

where needful, been prefixed and interwoven with the

purely

Numismatic portion of the work.
Chapter has been devoted to the question of ancient Jewish Palceography,
(especially the

A
or

which points out how the Shemitic Alphabets
modified during
successive centuries.
deal

Jewish) were altered

The
"

Appendices
in

with

the
the

" Weights

mentioned

in

the

Bible,"
coins
list

the
of of

Money

the

New

Testament,"

evidence of the
Coins,"

Talmud " on the

the Eevolts,"

and " on Counterfeit Jewish

and conclude with a "

works and papers in connexion with Jewish Numismatics published since 1849,"
which,
it is

hoped, will
in

be of

much

service to the future student of Jewish coins.
classified

The woodcuts
From my "Jewish From

the

work can be

as

follows:

Coinage," drawn by the late Mr. F. TV. Fairholt, F.S.A

247

the "Numismatic Chronicle," kindly lent by the Council of the Numismatic Society, fifteen
of

which were drawn by the

late

Mr. Fairholt, 1 and

all of

which are distinguished by
20

an asterisk (*)

Engraved through the

liberality of

the publishers especially for this
letter T.
.
.
.

work by Mr. E. B. Utting,
. . .
• •

and distinguisbed by the Lent by Mr. John Murray

..............
.

1 1

Makiug

a total of

...

.

279

The Plate

of

Alphabets

has

been

lithographed
Son.

principally

from

my own

drawings by Messrs. Vincent Brooks,

Day and
I

In concluding these
returning

prefatory
to

remarks,
those

gladly

embrace the opportunity of

my

warmest thanks

all

gentlemen who have rendered
specially

me

so

much
friend

valuable assistance,

among whom may be
F.E.S.,

mentioned

my

indefatigable

Mr. Edward Thomas,
use;

whose experienced suggestions have been of
the

the greatest

Mr.

II.
;

A.

Grueber, Assistant in

Department
late Scholar of

of

Coins

and Medals, British
College,
St.

Museum
the

Mr. Bernard Jackson, B.A.,

Downing

Cambridge;
College,

Eev.
;

Churchill Babington, D.D., Honorary Fellow of
the

John's

Cambridge
arc,

Eev. A. H. Sayce,
Herod Philip
2.

M.A., LL.D., Fellow of

1

Those not by Mr. Fairholt
I.

(1)

Shekel of the year 5;
II.

(2)

II.

No.

1

;

(3)

Agrippa

I.

with Claudius;

(-1)

Agrippa

and Agrippa

II.

;

and

(5)

Agrippa

with Titus, No.

PREFACE.

V
of

Queen's

College,
S.

Oxford,

and

Deputy Professor

Comparative Philology

;

the

Eev.

S.

Lewis, M.A., Fellow of Corpus Christi College,

Cambridge
;

;

Mr. A.
H.
C.

Neubauer,

M.A.,

Sub-Librarian,

Bodleian
S.

Library,

Oxford

the

Kev.

Eeichardt of Damascus;
and Mr. G. A.
It is

Mr.

W.

W. Yaux,

M.A.,

F.E.S.,

Secretary

B.A.S.;

Bienemann, Exhibitioner of Oriel College, Oxford.

also

with

much
the
in

pleasure that I record
care

my
the

obligations to Messrs. Stephen

Austin and
for the

Sons

for

bestowed

upon

printing

of

the

work,
efforts

and
to

able

manner

which they have interpreted

and

seconded

my

make

the volume worthy of the

reputation of both the Publisher and the Printer.

PEEDEEIC W. MADDEN.
Brighton College,
July, 1881.

—— —— — ——

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
Early use of Silyer and Gold
BEFORE THE ExiLE
as a

I.

..........
CHAPTER
II.

Medium of Exchange and Commerce among the Hebrews

The Invention

of coined money.

— The

Materials employed for Money

17

CHAPTER
Writing

III.

24

CHAPTER

IV.

The Money employed by the Jews after their return from Babylon until the Revolt under
the Maccabees

..........
b.c.
b.c.

43

Simon the Maccabee first strikes Coins
A.
B.
C.

Simon Maccabjeus,

141

b.c.

..... ....
V.
135

CHAPTER

61

John Hybcanus

I.

135 106

b.c.

106

....
II. re-established, b.c.

67
74
81

Judas Aristobulus,

b.c.

b.c.

105.

D. Alexander Jann^eus,
E. Alexandra,
E.
b.c.

b.c.

105
69
.

b.c.

78

83
91

78

b.c.

John Hyrcanus

II. b.c.
b.c.

69
b.c. 63.

92

G. Abistobulfs II.

69
b.c.

John Hybcanus
57

63

b

c.

57.—
93

Alexander

II.

63

b.c.

H. John Hyrcanus
I.

II. re-established
B.C.

a second time,
B.C.

b.c.

47

b.c.

40

95

A Mi'. 'iNis (Mattathias),

40

37

99

——— ———

—— — — —

Ylll

CONTENTS.

Coins of the Idum.ean Princes

....
b.c.

CHAPTER

VI.
105
4.

A.
B.
C.

Herod

I.

surnamed the Great,
a.d.

37

b.c.

105

Herod

Archelaus, b.c. 4
b.c.

6

114
118

Herod Antipas,
I.

4

a.d.

40

D. Herod Philip
E.
F. G.

122
a.d.

Herod Philip

II. b.c. 4
I.

34

123

Herod Agrippa

a.d.

37

a.d.

44
a.d.

129

Herod, King of Chalcis,
II. a.d.

a.d.

41

48

139

H. Agrippa

48— a.d.

100.

139

CHAPTER
Coins struck by the Procurators of Judaea

VII.
170

Reign of Augustus, Reign of Tiberius,

a.d. a.d.

6

a.d.
a.d.

14

173

14

37
a.d.

176
41

Reign of Caius (Caligula), a.d. 37 Reign of Claudius,
Reign of Nero,
a.d. a.d.

183

41
a.d.

a.d.

54

183

54

68

185

CHAPTER
Money struck during the First Revolt
I.

VIII.
188

of the Jews
a.d.
a.d.

Coins of the First Year, a.d. 66

67
68 69

.

198

II.

Coins of the Second year, a.d. 67
Coins of the Third Year, a.d. 68

.

206
206

III.

a.d.

.

CHAPTER
Roman Coins struck
in Palestine and at

IX.
of Jerusalem

Rome commemorating the Capture

207 207

A. Reign of Vespasian
I.

Coins struck in Palestine Coins struck at

207 208 217 217

II.

Rome

.

B.

Reign of Titus
I.

Coins struck in Palestine
Coins struck at

II.

Rome

.

219
225 225 229

C.

Reign of Domitian
I.

Coins struck in Palestine

II.

Coin struck at Rome

.

CONTENTS.

IX

CHAPTER
MONEY STRUCK DURING THE SECOND REVOLT
I.

X.
PARE

Coins with no Date

II.

Coins with Date

—Tear

......
2
.

OF THE JEWS UNDER SlMON BaR-COCHAB

230 233
241

CHAPTER
Imperial Colonial Coins struck at Jerusalem

XI.
247 249

Hadrianus,

a.d.

136

— 138
a.d.

Hadrianus and Sabina,

128

— 136
a.d.

251 138

Hadrianus and Antoninus Pius,
Antoninus Pius,
a.d.

252 252

138

— 161
a.d.

Antoninus and Marcus Aurelius,

139

— 161

256
257

Marcus Aurelius,

a.d.

161

— 180
II.
,

Marcus Aurelius and Faustina
Faustina II. and Lucius Verus,

a.d. 161

— 175
— 169

258

a.d. 161

— 164
161

259 259
261

Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Marcus Aurelius and Commodus,
Lucius Verus, ad. 161
a.d.

a.d.

176

— 180

— 169
194

.

261

Commodus,

a.d.

180

— 192
.

262 263

Pescennius Xiger,

a.d.

Septimius Severus, a.d. 193
Julia Domna, a.d. 173

— 211
.

263
263

— 217

Caracalla, a.d. 211

— 217
a.d.

264
215

Caracalla and Julia Domna,
Geta, a.d.

— 217

264
265

211—212
A.D.

.

DlADUMENIANUS,
Elagabaxus, a.d.

217

218.

265
267

218—222

Aqi'ilia Severa, after a.d. 221

270 270 222

Severus Alexander,

a.d.

222

— 235
a.d.

Mam.ea and Severus Alexander,
Uranius Antoninus (tyrant
Gordianus III. Prus,
a.d.

— 235

270

in the East
.

under Severus Uexander)

270
271
271

238—244

Trasqiillina, a.d. 241

Trajanus Decius,

a.d.

— 244 249 — 251

272

CONTENTS.

Herennius Etruscus and Hostilianus,
Hostilianus, A.D. 251
.

a.d.
.

249
.

Valerianus,

Arab Coins

........ ............
.

— 251

....
. .

TAGF.

27-4

.

.

.

274 275 276

a.d.

253

— 260

A. Weights
B.
C.
1).

Money

in

the

New

The Talmudic Writings on the Coinage
Counterfeit Jewish Coins
List
. .

E.

of

Works and Papers

since 1849

.......... ....... ..........
Testament
of the First and Second Revolts
. .
. .

APPENDICES.

285

289
311

.

.

.314
317

in

connexion

with Jewish Numismatics published

INDEX

325

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA.

Tage

21, note 6.

M.

T. de

La

Couperie, a gentleman employed at the British

Museum
legend
. .

to arrange its collection of Chinese in the writing Li, official in

coins, has read a portion of the Chinese legend

on the iron coin.

He

says,

"The
.

is

China

from

B.C.

215 to a.d.
I

300

.

.

.

The

characters indicate the value of the coin

The reading agrees with The
iron

the weight of
is

the period.

have a copper coin of the same time with a legend of the same kind but another weight.

222 grains,

copper 171 " (Mr. Thomas,

MS.

communication).

Pages 27, 28.
of

In June, 1880, a Hebrew inscription was discovered by Mr. Schick, a German architect at Jerusalem,
in our
literary journals

which various detached notices have been given

(Prof.

Sayce,

"The Athenaeum,"

12th

March,

1881, p. 364; Mr. Neubauer, Colouel Wan-en, and Mr. Walter Besant,

"The Athenaeum,"

19th March, 1881, p. 395;

M. Halevy,
pamphlet

"The Athenaeum,"
entitled,

14th May, 1881, p. 656;
it,

cf.

"The Athenaeum,"

18th June, 1881, p. 809).

Prof. Sayce has fortunately

succeeded in copying the greater portion of

and has recently published the

results of his investigations in a small

"The
in

ancient
is

Hebrew

inscription discovered at the Pool of Siloam in
is

Jerusalem" (Palestine Exploration Fund, 1881).

The

inscription

in sis lines,

and

of the purest

Hebrew.

Prof. Sayce points out that the Yau, the Zain and the Tsadhc are
stone.

more archaic
of the

shape than the corresponding letters

on the Moabite

The form

of

Yau (X), though

older than that
cent. B.C.).

Moabite alphabet, nevertheless resembles that of the early Hebrew gems, as well as of the Nimrud lion weights (8th
first identified

The Zain was

by Mr. Neubauer, and

like the

Tsadhe presents a form from which the forms found on the Moabite
the
case
of

stone and in later inscriptions are derived by dropping the loop, and in
{Zain,

the

Tsadhe by yet further modifications
of the

g,;

Moabite,

J:

Tsadhe, Q^,;

Moabite,

|^.).

Twenty

letters of the

Hebrew alphabet out

twenty-two occur

in the

inscription, those missing being the Teth, as

on the Moabite stone, and the Samech.
is

Prof. Sayce considers that palseographically

the age of this

new

inscription

is

greater than that of the Moabite stone, and he

therefore inclined to assign

it

to the

"age

of

Solomon, when great public works were being constructed at Jerusalem, more especially in the neighbourhood of the Tyropceon
valley"
(p.
7).

Mr. Neubauer, however
(cf.

(p.

15),

comparing Isaiah

viii.

6,

suggests that

Ahaz made the conduit
p. 53), whilst

to increase the

rapid flow of the waters of Siloam ("

Rev. T. K. Cheyne, " The Academy," 16 July, 1881,

Mr. M.

W.

Shapira
Uzzi:ili

The Athena;um," 16
built

July, 1881, p. 80) has read the

name [U]zziah and

attributes the inscription to the time of
;

King

who

many towers and dug
The
late

wells in the desert (2 Chron. xxvi. 9 and 10)

but this reading

is

disputed by Mr. Neubauer ("

The

Athenaeum," 23 July, 1881,
Pages 36-38.
inscriptions,

p. 112).

Dean Milnian ("

Hist, of the Jews," 4th ed. 1866, vol.

ii.

p. 457) gives a representation of

two Jewish

from the work of Signore Visconti, taken from the newly-discovered catacomb at
to.

Pome

(p.

455, note)

;

but I have not

been able to obtain any information about the work referred
of the seven-branched candlestick.

The

inscriptions are in Greek,

and have on them a representation

Page 41, Column Page 41, Column
31 and 32 (Blacas)."

11.

Gesenius,

" Mon. Phcen."

pi. xxviii.

read " plates 4 and 28."
(Turin)
xxxi.

12.

Gesenius,

"Mon.

Phcen."

pi.

xxx.

and 32

(Blacas), read "plates 4,

30 (Turin),

Page

41,

Column
note
1.

13.

Gesenius, "

Mon. Phcen."

pi. v.

read "pi. 5."

Page 103,
Page 125.

Eeland, "

De

Spoliis Templi,

1710," read 1716.
(|

Another specimen of the coin of the "year 12"
in that of

|B.) of Herod Philip

II., formerly in

the collection of

Major de Rauch, and now
le

M. Hoffmann, was published by

the late

M. de Saulcy

in

1879 (" Monnaie inedite de Philippe
vol.
i.

Tetrarque," in the " Annuaire de la Soc. Franchise de Numismatique et d'Archeologie,"

p.

181), four years after the

publication of the example given in

my
a

text

(cf.

"Num.

Chron."

n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. 53).

M.
The

de Saulcy was unable to describe
it

the obverse legend correctly on account of the bad preservation of the coin, but after careful examination he considered that

should

be read
(y<

CGBACTQJ KAICAPI,
my
text (p. 126
;

reading confirmed by the previous

known
.

piece.

reverse gives the date |_.
its

IB.

ar 12) between the column- of the

I

have shown in

Temple and the legend 01 AinilOY T. De Saidcy Table, p. 128), the " year 12 " really coincides with a.d. 8-9.
.

assigns

date to a.d. 7-8, but as

Page 134, Page 209.

note 4.

" Lett. Num. Cont."
S. S. L< wi>
1i;i-

t.

v. p.

103,

No.

1,

read
«

t. vi.

The Rev.

recently acquired a coin

.J

Vespasian in gold similar to that described as of silver (No.
is

3)

;

and the gold coin (No.

4) described

from the " Cab. of Major de Ranch "
it

now

in the collection of

Mr. Lewis.

Page 228,

line 2.

" And did not send

away beyond

the Euphrates, where they had been stationed before," read

" where

it

had been stationed before."

COINS OF THE JEWS.
CHAPTEE

I.

EARLY USE OF SILVER AXD GOLD AS A MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE AND COMMERCE AMONG THE HEBREWS BEFORE THE EXILE.
The
earliest

mention in the Bible, after the Flood, of the use of the precious metals occurs in the
rich in cattle, in silver,
'

history of

Abraham, who came back from Egypt "very
"

and in gold."

1

Though

this passage does not

imply anything more than

bullion,' yet
is

we

soon find a notice

of the use of silver as the price paid for a slave.

He

that

born in thy house, and he

that

is

bought with thy money (C]D3

silver),

must needs be circumcised." 2
of the

The

first

actual
related

transaction of
that

commerce

is

the purchase

by Abraham

Cave

of

Machpelah.

It

is

"Abraham weighed
Soki/aov

(7pt?*l) to

Ephron the
shekels
of

silver,

which he had named in the audience

of the sons of Heth,

four hundred
3

silver,

current with the merchant

(inb/ *QV>
presents,

LXX.
or
of

ifj.7r6poi<;)."

Silver

and

gold as

a

medium

of

commerce, or of
4

tribute,

may
is

also

be met with among the nations of the Philistines,

the Midianites, 5

the Phoenicians, 6 the Egyptians, 7 the Syrians, 8 the Assyrians, 9 and the Arabians. 10

Abimelech,

king of Gerar,
of
lay,

said

to

have given to Abraham "a thousand of
find

silver."

11

The Lords
of

the

Philistines

persuaded Delilah to
of

out

wherein the
12

great

strength
(t|D3

Samson
she

on

the

promise

" eleven

hundred

of

silver,"

which

money

silver)

afterwards received. 13
conspiracy by hiring
'

Abimelech, the son of
vain

Jerubbaal (Gideon), was enabled
'

to

form his
taken

and light persons
14

with the three-score
[shekels]

and ten of
of
silver

silver

from the house
stole

of

Baalberith;

and the eleven hundred

which

Micah

and then

restored,

two hundred of which were melted down

to

form a graven image, 15
of Joseph

also prove the use of silver in its quasi-pecuniary character.

The purchase

by the
and

" Ishmeelites " (Midianites),

who

"
it

came from Gilead with

their camels bearing

spicery

balm, and myrrh, going to carry
of
silver,"
16

down

to

Egypt," and who
a
Kings

paid for his purchase, " twenty
of

proves

that
*

silver

was

recognized as
10 12 1

medium
x.

exchange from
ix. 9.

"Gilead

1

Gen. Gen.
Gen.

xiii.

2; xxiv. 35.

Gen.
18;

xvii. 13.

10; 2 Chron.

»
is 15

Gen. xx. 1G.

3
4

xxiii. 16.

Judges

xvi. 5.
ix. 4.

Judges
Judges

xvi. 18.
xvii. 2-4.

xx.
xvii.

16;
11.

Judges

xvi.

5,

1

Kings

iv.

21;

u

Judges

2 Chron.
5 7

Gen. xxxvii. 28.
1

6

Kings

x.

29

:

2

Chron.

i.

1"

;

Kings ix. 11, 28. 2 Kings xxiii. 33 2 Chron.
1
;

i« "lis le vendirent pour uu vil prix, Gen. xxxvii. 25, 28. Koran xii. 20. pour les derhams comptes." " Le prix etait vil, a cause- de L'excea d'alliage que contenait

xxxvi. 3.

]a
;

9

Kings xv. 19; 2 Chron. xvi. 3 2 Kings xviii. 14.
1

2

Kings

v. 5,

23.

pen nombreux.

Comptis, e'est a dire monnaie, ou de son manque de poids. En efret, on avail Thaliitudc di- peser les sonnnes
1

qui atteignaient

once et de compter

celles qui etaient

au-dessous
1

MADDEN

'


'

to

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
Egypt"; from which country Solomon purchased
1

chariots for

"600

[shekels] of silver" each,

and horses for " 150 " each. and
fields,
3

By
all

the laws of Moses,
for
offences,
5

men and
the

cattle, 2

the possessing houses

provisions,

4

and

fines

were regulated by the
contribution
to

standard of the
the

current

value of

silver.
7

The same may be

said

of
8

Temple, 6
9

the

sacrifice of animals,

the redemption of the first-born,

and the payment

to the seer.

The

tribute rendered
10

by subject kings, though frequently designated by the terms
11

'

gifts

or 'presents,'

was

really 'tribute silver'

or 'gold,' and was generally brought 'a rate year
six

by

year.'

12

Thus Solomon received yearly "
if

hundred three-score and
correct,
11

six talents of gold,"

13

an almost incredible amount

some estimates are

equalling a

sum more than
metals
that

the

revenues of the whole Persian Empire under Darius.

The monuments
payment.
in

of
of

Egypt

show the
III.

early
(circa

use
B.C.

of

the

precious

for
this

tribute

The
to

annals
slaves,

Thothmes
cattle,

1591-1565)

record

king,

addition
of

corn,

precious

stones,

copper, and iron

and lead in bricks or
copper

bars

constant

form

and weight,

as

was

afterwards

the

custom together with
also as tribute regular

among
of
'

the Greeks, Romans, and Ancient Britons, 15

—received
to
'

amounts
the
solid

gold
or

and
Ten,

silver,'

which are
is

calculated

according
l&

a

special

Egyptian weight,
'

TJten

which

divided into ten Kat.

The

gold

and

silver

was

also

in

de ce poids "
p.

(II.

Sauvaire,

" Jouni. Asiat." 1880,
price, for a

vol.

xv.

organized the districts he had conquered into satrapies, each of

229).

which had
sold

to

pay a

fixed

sum
also

to the Assyrian treasury

"every

" And they
Translation,

him for a mean

ii.

p. 37).

few pence" (Sale's Foot-note adds, " namely for 20 or 22
;

year."

Separate
talents,

cities

contributed, Nineveh

30 talents,

Calah 9

etc.

(Prof. Sayce,

" Babylonian Literature "

dirhcms, and those not of full weight either

for having

weighed

Lectures delivered at the Royal Institution
Sons, 1879
13
;

p.

62, Bagster

&

one ounce of
is

silver only, the

remainder was paid by
'

tale,

which

"Records
x. 14
;

of the Past," vol. xi. p. 139.)

the most unfair

way
. .

of
.

payment.

1

Kings

2 Chron. ix. 13.

" Le derham
II est notoire

.

le

nom

d'une monnaie rond en argent.
lieu sous le

14
15

que l'adoption de sa forme arrondie eut

Appendix A. Weights, s.v. Talent. Mommsen, "La Monnaie Romaine," ed.
See
;

Blacas,

vol.

i.

Khalifat d'Omar. pres
la

Anterieurement a ce Khalife,

forme

d'un

noyau de datte

et

peu ne portait aucune
il

avait a

pp.
vol.
16

inscription.

ment

le

... En somme, le derham est lexicologiquenom donne a une monnaie ronde en argent. Dans le
la jurisprudence,

173-175; Lenormant, "La Monnaie dans 1'Antiquite," Evans, " Ancient British Coins," p. 18. i. pp. 216-219 Birch, " Trans, of Roy. Soc. of Literature," vol. ii. p. 100;

langage de

on l'applique, absolument parlant,
. .

au poids de
1

cette monnaie.

.

Le dinar

suit cette analogie

"

(II. Sauvaire, op. tit. pp.
1

229, 230).
i.

Kings
'

x.

29

;

2 Chron.

17.

The Chronicler
Solomon " out

(2

Chron.

ix.

28) adds that horses were brought to

of all lands."
etc.

The
hundred

chariot

'

probably includes

horses, harness,

Six

" Records of the Past," vol. ii. pp. 17-58; De Rouge, "Rev. Arch." 1860, p. 297; Chabas; "Notes sur un poids Egyptien" " Recherches sur les poids, mesures, in the " Rev. Arch." 1861 et monnaies des anciens Egyptieus," Paris, 1876. The earliest payments, purchases, and even salaries in ancient Egypt appear to have been made or paid in TJtens of copper (Lenormant, "La Monnaie dans 1'Antiquite," vol. i. p. 95),
;

would equal about £80 (see Appendix A. Weights). In the reigu of Marduk-idin-akhe (b.c. 1100), king of Babylon, "a chariot with its team of horses " sold for " 100
silver shekels

showing that

and a

full

at a very early date barter had been superseded, system of sale and purchase established.

The '5 Kat' weight, weighing 697'8
of

grains,

for-

weights of silver."
the Past," vol.
silver
ix.

Messrs. Oppert and
p.

Menant ("Eecords

of

merly in the possession

105) add in

a note that " a weight of

Mr.
it

Harris

of

may

be an obolus, the 360th part of a mina.'"

The mina
?

Alexandria,
bought
is

who

being equal to £9, the 360th part would be 6d., and the price of
the " chariot and team "
2 3 5
7

at Thebes,

Levit. xxvii. 3 seq. ; Levit. xxvii. 14 seq.

£2 10*. Numb.
4 c 8

! !

Can
45
ii.

this

be correct
xiv. 26.
;

iii.

seq.
6,

now in the British Museum (" Ninth AnReport of
the

Deut.

28

;

nual
\os<q.

Exodus
1

xxi.

;

xxii.

Exodus xxx.

13, 15

xxxviii. 26.
xviii.

Levit. v. 15.

Numb.
iv.

iii.

45 seq.;
2

"Warden of the Standards for 1874-75," p. 49). It is made
of a dark greyish green stone,

9 10
11

Sam. 2 Sam.
1

ix. 7 seq.
viii. 2,

6;
;

1

Kings
cf.

21

;

x.

25

;

Kings

xvii. 3, 4.

known
Desert.

as

Serpentine of
the top of

the
it is

2 Chron. xvii. 11

Herod,
Chron.

iii.

89.

Upon

12

Kings

x.

25

;

2

ix.

24.

Tiglath-Pileser II.

engraved a vertical band of hieroglyphs,

which Mr. Edwin

THE PEECIOUS METALS EMPLOYED IN EGYPT AND ASSYRIA.
bars. 1
refer.

O
shall presently

lumps or

bricks, 2

though generally in

the form of

'

rings,' to

which I

About

B.C.

609 Pharaoh-Nechoh, king of Egypt, deposed Jehoahaz, making Jehoiakim

king in his

stead,

and put the land of Judah
3

to

a

tribute

of

a " 100 talents

of

silver

and a talent
Similar

of gold."

lumps

or

ingots

were

employed

for

payments

in

Assyria,
different

but

not

rings. 4

Assur-nasir-pal,
of
silver,

when invading
silver,

Syria, in b.c. 870, received

from

kings

"4 manehs

10 manehs of
tribute. 5

20 talents of
placed

silver,

gold, 100

talents of
II.

copper," and other

articles

of

The

inscription

by Shalmaneser
objects, the
6

on the black obelisk now
'

in the British

Museum

records,

amongst other

delivery of

silver

and

gold,'

and

'a tribute,' in B.C. 842, from Jehu, king of Israel.

The records

of Vulnirari III. (b.c. 810-781)
to

show that

tribute

was exacted from

Syria, the kings of

which country had

pay " 2300

talents

of silver, 20 talents of gold, 3000 talents of copper, and 5000 talents of iron." 7

Pul, king of

Assyria, 8

king of

who has been Israel, "1000

identified with Tiglath-Pileser II.

9

(b.c.

745-727), exacted of Menahem,
all

talents of

silver,"

which he raised by demanding "of
10

the mighty

men
of

of wealth, of each
of

man 50

shekels of silver,"

as

he had not that resource in the Treasury
Tiglath-Pileser II.

which the kings
tribute

Judah availed themselves on similar emergencies. 11
Azariah
(Uzziah)

also took

from
Israel,

and Jehoahaz (Ahaz), kings

of Judah, in
B.C.

and from
in

Hoshea,

king of

whom

he placed on the throne of Samaria,

730,

the

room of the murdered Pekah. 12
tribute,"
13

In

B.C.

727 Shalmaneser IV. made Hoshea
a

" render

him

but

Hoshea having entered

into

conspiracy with So (Shebek,

Sabaco), king of
among

Smith has read "belonging to the sun" ("Proceedings Soc. Ant." 2nd series, vol. i. p. 242). Upon the side of it is engraved
the following legend
:

sent Shalmaneser II. receiving the tribute of five nations,

whom

are the Israelites.

Previously, in his 6th year (b.c. 854),
of

— ttWTIS
I
Kat
v.

III «mhb '."J a

^|^

w

the king had defeated

Benhadad

Damascus, and Ahab, king
Savce. Sayce,
of

of Israel, but does not appear to

have taken tribute from them
108: 108;

(Smith. "Assvrian Canon." n. (Smith, "Assyrian Canon," p.

"Records

of the

of the treasure of On.

The employment
Prov.
xi.
1
;

of weights of stone

nations of antiquity, and especially
xvi.

was common to many the Hebrews (Deut. xxv. 13
;

11

;

Micah

vi.

11, etc.).

The Romans
lapis (Plin.
12).

also

made use of a kind of black stone called Lydius H. xxxiii. 8; cf. Chabas " Rev. Arch." 1861, p.
1

N.

an Ahab (Akhabbu) in Bc 854 in the inscription has occasioned much discussion, and the late G. Smith came to the conclusion ("Assyrian Canon," " Ahab who assisted pp 154> 189) 190) 198 ) that ne jther the Benhadad," northe "Jehu, son of Omri," are the "Ahab, king of T sra el," or the " Jehu of the Bible " but the identifications
Past," vol.
.

iii.

p. 99).

The mention

;

are

now

generally recognized (Sclirader,

"Die

Keilinschriften
;

From

the earliest times bars of gold and silver were in usual

traffic in

the East (Brandis,

« Das Miinz- Mass- und GewichtsThis explains the mention
\W?',
vii.

" KeilinAlte Testament," Giessen, 1872, pp. 97, 107 scariften und Geschichtsforschung," 1878, pp. 356-371; cf.

umj<las

wesen," Berlin, 1866, pp. 78, 138).
of a 'wedge' or 'tongue' of gold (2HT

prof R aw illson(
i

« Bible Educator,"

vol.

i.

p. 127).

LXX.yKwavav jxiav
21,
24),

i

Smith, "Assyr. Canon," p. 115.
Schrader,

e

2

Kings xv.

19, 20.

Xpvariv;
5()

Vulg. regulam auream, Josh.

weighing

shekels, as also the different

payments mentioned in the Old

"Die Keilinschriften und das A. T." pp. 121-133; " Keilinschriften und Geschichtsforschung," pp. 422-460 cf.
9
;

Testament, which presuppose with certainty the currency of See pp. 8 and 14, single pieces of metal according to weight.

and Appendix A. "Weights,
*

s.v. Talent.

Corresponding to the

classical nKlvBot xpixra? «a!

ap^vpa.7

"Assyrian Canon," pp. 76, 183. Prof. Rawlinson, however, does not hold this view, but considers that Pul, who is not mentioned in the inscriptions or the Canon, was a pretendi r to the Assyrian crown, and never acknowledged, at Nineveh
Smith,
(" Anc. Monarchies," vol.
10
ii.

(Polyb. x. 27, 12) and Uteres argentei atque aurei (Plin. xxxiii.
3, 17).
3 4

p. 123).

Josephus ("Antiq."
1

ix. 11, 1) gives

the

sum

raised as

'

fifty

2 Kings xxiii. 33; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 3.

6
6

Lenormant, " La Monnaie dansl'Antiquite," vol. i. p. 112. Rev. J. M. Rodwell, " Records of the Past," vol. iii. p.' 71. "Yahua son of Khumri " [Omri] (Dr. Hincks, "Dublin

drachms' per head (kuto. KHpaXh" SpaxP"* irivT^Kovrd), which Cf. Madden, " Supplement to Jew. Coinage" in is incorrect.

" Num. Chron."

n.s. 1876, vol. xvi. pp. 84, 85.

Univ.
vol.
ii.

Mag."
p.

Oct. 1853; Prof. Rawlinson,
;

"Anc. Monarchies,"
bas-reliefs repre-

105

Smith, "Assyrian Canon," p. 114; Prof. Sayce,

"Records

of the Past," vol. v. p. 41).

The

Kings xv. 18; 2 Kings xii. 18; xvi. 8; xviii. 15. « Smith, "Assyr. Canon," pp. 117, 123; Rev. J. M. Rodwell, " Records of the Past," vol. V. p. 43; Prof. Rawlinson, "Bible la 2 Kings xvii. 3. Educator," vol. i. p. 141.
1

"

4

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
it,

Egypt, shortly after ceased to pay

upon which Shalmaneser came up again, in
in

B.C. b.c.

723,

and besieged Samaria, which was eventually taken by his successor Sargon 1
Sennacherib,
in
b.c.

721.

701,
of

according to his

own

account, 2

received

from the Jewish king

Ilezekiah " 30 talents
talents of silver

gold and 800 talents of silver," sums stated in the Bible as " 300
3

and 30

talents of gold."

In
precious

spite,

however, of

the

absence of

coined

money 4 and
5

the

constant

payment

of

the

metals

by weight, trade

transactions

were carried on actively in Assyria.

"In
of

the eighth and seventh centuries B.C.," writes Prof. Sayce,
trade,

"Nineveh was a bustling centre
on
the
East,

and

its

merchants
the

had

connexions

as of

far

as

India

and

possibly

Tartessus

on

West.

The commerce
in
;

Tyre

and
the

Sidon

had been

ruined
of

by the

Assyrian kings, acting, perhaps,

the

interests of

mercantile classes
of

Nineveh, like
capital, 6

Edward

III.

in

our

own country
to

and

the

conquest
of

Carchemish, the Hittite

by Sargon, secured
Mesopotamia
to

Assyria the

passage

the

Euphrates

and

the

high road
satrap,
'

from

Palestine.

Carchemish,

now governed by an Assyrian
and the
'

became a

meeting-place of the merchants of
standard of
weight. 7

all nations,

Maneh

of

Carchemish
leased,

was made the

Houses and other property were sold or

and the carefulness

with which

the deeds of sale or lease were

drawn up, the

details into

which they went, and

1

"The King
p. 125;
.

of Assyria," 2

Canon,"
2

Kings xvii. 6; Smith, "Assyr. Oppert, " Records of the Past," vol. vii. p. 28.

"mention
to

of coined

money,"

Prof. Sayce writes to me, in reply

my

query, that the

phrase in
scholars,

question

must have been
of

Sir II

Rawlinson, in Prof. Rawlinson's
p.

"Bampton Lec;

misinterpreted by Assyrian

as all the terms used

tures,"

1859,

141;
;

Dr.

Hincks, in

and Babylon," p. 143 Smith, " Assyr. Talbot, "Records of the Past," vol. i. Rodwell, " Records of the Past," vol. vii.
3

"Nineveh Canon," p. 135 Fox p. 39; Rev. J. M.
Layard's
p. 63.

money
5 6

transactions

by the Assyrians imply weighed and not

coined metal.

"Babylonian Literature," pp. 64-67. Carchemish (2 Chron. xxxv. 20 Isa.
;

2 Kings

xviii. 14.

Various explanations have been given

Prof. Rawlinson's opinion

is

x. 9 Jer. xlvi. 2) in not to be identified with Circesium,
;

of this discrepancy (Prof.

Rawlinson, "Bampton Lectures," " Anc. Monarchies," vol. ii. p. 164; "Bible Educator," vol. i. p. 188; "Speaker's Commentary," vol. ii. "Nineveh and Babylon," p. 145; Vans, p. 99; Layard, "Nineveh and Persepolis," p. 498), but in all probability the
1859, p. 412;

but perhaps with the later city of

Mabog
So
247),

or Hierapolis

("Anc.

Mon."

vol.

ii.

p.

67

;

vol.

iii.

p. 49).
p.

also

Rev. H. "W. Phillott
is

("Bible Educator,"

vol.

iii. ii.

and Prof. Lushington

(" Records of the Past," vol.

p. 67).

The contrary opinion
iii.

held by Prof. Sayce ("Records of the Past," vol.

p. 88),

opinion of Brandis

is

the correct one.

He

maintains (pp. 98,
grains] yield

and Prof. Oppert

(vol. vii. p. 30),

the former of

whom

has

now
the

101) that the two amounts are identical, or nearly so, for 800

adopted the late Mr. G. Smith's settlement of the

site at

Assyrian

fiftieths of

5-61

grammes [86-6745

4488

grammes [69,339-6 grs.], while 300 Jewish silver shekels of 14-55 grammes [224-7975 grs.] yield 4365 grammes [67,439-25 grs.]. Multiplying in each case by 3000, the Assyrian talent will be 16830 grammes [260023-5 grains], and the Jewish These two talents talent 43650 grammes [674392-5 grs.]. multiplied by 800 and 300 respectively give the following
totals
:

modern Jerabl&s ("The Academy," Sept. 16, 1876, p. 291; Nov. 4, 1876, p. 454; Aug. 16, 1879, p. 124). Schxader (" Keilinschriften und Geschichtsforschung," 1878, pp. 222225) has fully examined the question, and seems inclined to accept
this latter identification.

thinks that there

Assyrian

.

.13,464,000 grammes [208,018,800

grs.].

[202,317,750 ,, ]. Mr. Head is inclined to think (compare Brandis, pp. 100, 160) that the Assyrian silver talent was somewhat lighter, equalling
,,

Jewish

13,095,000

Mr. Head ("The Academy," No. 394, Nov. 22, 1879, p. 376) is good reason to suppose that the "maneh of Carchemish" is identical with the Babylonian silver mina of It about 8656 grains Troy = 561 grammes (Brandis, p. 100). was the weight which the Hittites used in their commercial
7

transactions

with the peoples of
etc.,

Phrygia, and the Troad,
Assyria to distinguish
it

and having a siglos or -^th of In this case 800 talents would equal 13,080,000 grammes [202,086,000 grs.], and would still more nearly agree with the Jewish amount. 4 " Payment might still be made in kind, but more ordinarily in bars of the three chief metals which were weighed, though mention of coined money also occurs" (Prof. Sayce, "Encyc.
grs.],

16350 grammes [252607"5

Cilicia, Pamphylia, Lydia, and the name was given it in from the other heavier silver mina of

5-45 grammes [84-2025 grs.].

about 11,225 grains used in Phoenicia. The shekel of the weight of Carchemish (173 grains) was superseded along the western coasts of Asia Minor, as well as in Thrace, by the shekel
Cilicia

(224 grains) of the Phoenician mina of 11,225 grains, but in and Cyprus it held its own against its rival down to the

age of Alexander the Great.
Besides the

Brit."

9th ed.

s.v.

Babylonia,

vol.

iii.

p.

192).

As

to the

"maneh

of

Carchemish" (perhaps the JTy JO

TRADE TRANSACTIONS IN ASSYRIA.
the

number

of

attesting witnesses,

might win the admiration even
its

of

a

modern lawyer.
and diplomacy
in
;

The
and

Aramaic of Northern Syria took
the

place as the

lingua franca of trade

Assyrian

contract-tablets
1

are

frequently

accompanied
of

by

a

docket

the

Aramaic
of

language and alphabet,
contracting
sold
parties.

stating
of

the chief contents

the documents

and the names
find

the
girl

Some

the deeds are very curious.
to Nitocris,

Thus we

an unfortunate
to

by her

father and brothers

an Egyptian lady, who wished
at about

marry her
it

to

her son Tachos.

The intended wife was only valued
by the payment
subscribed
sale of

£2

8s.,

2

but marriage,

would

seem, raised her price, as the contract could only be annulled by Nitocris, or her heirs, three
of

whom
B.C.

are named,

of

£90. 3

Another
one

tablet,

dated the 16th of Sivan, or

May,

G92, and

by seven
house
'

witnesses,
its

of

them apparently a Jew, named
doors, situated in

Zedekiah, records the

a

with

woodwork and

the city of

Nineveh, near the houses of Mannu-ci-akhi and Ilu-ittiya, and of the markets,' to an Egyptian
astronomer,
the house
too

who

paid one
their

maneh

of

silver,

or £9, for his

purchase. 4

The former owners

of

attached
possess

nailmarks instead of
their

seals to the deed,

probably because they were
presence of
three

poor to

seals of

own.

The

contract was

signed in the
B.C.

judges.

In another deed, dated the 20th of Ab, or July,

709,
^,

we have
^

three Israelites,

known to the Phoenicians by the collective term "the cities" and to the Assyrians by the name
of that
particular

/'"

"~^\

Syrian

city

with which they

were more immediately connected Sir Henry Rawlinson, " Bilingual Readings," J.R.A.S. 1864,
n.s. vol.
i.

p. 226, note), there

two other minse

in use

— the " maneh

seem to have been " of the king

(cf. "king's weight," •fpftn |3X 2 Sam. xiv. 26), and the "maneh of the great goddess of Nineveh and Arbela" (cf. the "shekel of the sanctuary,"

Exod. xxx. 13,
Assyrian
note 52).

etc.),

both of these being native
op.
cit.

weights

(Rawlinson,

p.

219,

As for the "weight of the country" (NplX *T 2 Be zi arqd), which occurs on so many of the lion weights in the British Museum, Sir H.
Rawlinson suggests
note)
{op.
cit.

pp.

219, note,

226,

word arqd may mean Assyria, and thinks that the Chaldaean word Np~lN was not substituted for NXIX {earth, Jer. x. 11)
that

the Phoenician

until long after the age of these inscriptions.

Some

of these lion weights are attributed in

my
right T\yO
'

"Jewish Coinage" (pp. 259-264) to Asshur-izir-pal, b.c. 880 (Nos. 8 and 13), and to Shalmaneser II., b.c. 850 (Nos. 4, 5, and 9), but the reading of the name of Asshur-izir-pal on Nos. 8 and 13 has been corrected to Shalmaneser ("Ninth
Report of the Warden of the Standards," 1874-75, pp. 45, 46), and as to the attribution to Shalmaneser II., Sir H. Rawlinson is of opinion {op. cit. p. 244, note) that " the lion
weights are connected in a continuous chronological
that the
series,

one maneh
;

'

;

on base of lion to

left

"pD HJD

'

one

on base of lion to right X. Cuneiform inscription, "Palace of Shalmaneser, king of multitudes, king of the country of Assyria, one maneh of the king." The woodcut (where
of the king'

maneh

marked with

lines) gives the
is

name

of

Asshur-natsir-pal,

hut

the Cuneiform Sayce,

really

<T*f-

£jT *r/-

>X- Shalmaneser

(Prof.

and

MS.

communication).
'

On No.

9 the rending should be
'

Shalmaneser whose name they bear must be the king who intervened between Tiglath-Pileser II. and Sargon." The
weights
B.C.

33D
1

Sinab, or

two-thirds of a

maneh

(Rawlinson,

op.

cit.

p. 207, note 39*).

consequently

bear the names of
6,

Tiglath-Pileser II.

See

Chapter

III.

"Writing."
"
(Prof. Oppert,

727-722 [Nos. 4, 5, 8, 9, 13), Sargon, b.c. 722-705 (No. 15), and Sennacherib, b.c. 705-681 (No. 12). No. 8 ["Jewish Coinage," p. 261] (Handle lost) on side of lion to left on side of lion t<i
10),

745-727 (Nos.

Shalmaneser

IV.

b.c.

2

" 16 drachmes

of silver

" Rec. of the Past,"

vol. yii. p. 115).
3 4

I

;

" Ten mines of silver" (Opport, op. cit. p. 116). " One mina of the king, of silver" (Oppert, op. cit.

p. 113).

G

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
M. Oppert
being
thinks, sold
to

as
sale

by a Phoenician

for

£27/ any

retractation

or

annulment of the
to

subject

a

penalty of

£230

or thereabouts, 2 part of

which was
the
sale

go

to the
slaves,

temple of Istar of Arbela.

Some twenty
failed to appear

years later

we hear

of
3

of

seven

among them an
for

Israelite,

Hoshea, and his two wives, for

£27

;

the sixth witness to the sale,
. .

some unknown reason,

and sign
silver,

his

name. 4

.

Besides
of

these

deeds
let

of sale,

we

find other

documents in which

iron,

and various objects

metal are

out at interest, the

borrower binding himself to pay interest upon them in the presence of

several subscribing witnesses.
cent,
seals,

In one case ten shekels of the best
B.C.

silver are lent at

four per

on the 3rd of Sebat, or January,

650-640, lender, borrower, and judge affixing their
;

and an Aramaic docket accompanying the deed
iron are lent
at

in
;

another case, the

11th of Si van,

b.c.

676, two talents of
b.c.

three per cent.

and in a third

case, the

26th of

Iyyar,

667, four manehs of silver (£36), at five shekels of silver per

month

interest." 5

So too among the Phoenicians, the great merchants of antiquity, did the precious metals
largely circulate. 6

The paintings

of

Thothmes
and

III. (circa b.c. 1591-1565)

show the Phoenicians,

called Kefa, bringing tribute of gold
III. received

silver in rings or bars.

The

tribute that

Thothmes

from Syria, as recorded in the inscriptions of Karnak, prove that
highly
that
civilized,

at this time
7
;

the

Syrians were
it is

and were engaged in active commerce with Babylonia
supremacy
etc.,

and

certain

under
of

Egyptian
metals,

the

Phoenicians

must have

largely

developed

the exchange

goods,
of their

between

Babylonia,

Syria,

and Egypt, and

secured in the process

much
king
the

own

prosperity. 8

At

the time of David, friendly relations were established between the Phoenicians and the
of

Hebrews, 9 and Hiram,
David's palace, 10 and for

Tyre, supplied materials and
of

men

for of

the

construction of

erection

a

temple. 11

The building
still

the temple was not,

however, undertaken by David, but by Solomon,

who

retained the friendship of
to the

Hiram

12
;

and the
of 120

latter,

amongst other presents, furnished Solomon with gold
talents.
13

amounts respectively

and 420
is

There

frequent mention in

the annals

and

records of

the Assyrian kings of

'

tribute

'

of bars of silver, gold,
1

and lead being exacted from the

Phoenicians.'' 4

2

" 3 mines of silver " (Oppert, op. cit. p. 114). " 10 mines of silver, one mine of gold" £140 with £90

it away, and they consequently made "silver anchors" in place of those that they had brought with them

unable to carry
(Aristot.

silver,
3

£230

(Oppert, op.

cit. p.

114).

"3 manehs
i.

of silver"

(Prof. Sayce,
*

" Eec.
late

of the Past,"
cit.

vol.
5

p. 139).

Prof. Sayce, op.

"De Mirab. Auscult." 147 of. Diod. v. 35 Kenrick, "Phoenicia," p. 211; Max Duncker, "Hist, of Antiquity," trans, by Abbott, Bentley, 1877, 1879, vol. ii. pp. 85, 86).
; ;

Mr. G. Smith acquired " a collection of tablets, consisting of the cheques and deeds, of a great banking firm which flourished at Babylon from
Prof.

Sayce,

op.

cit.

p.

138.

The

7

Brandis, p. 93;

Max

Duncker, " Hist, of Antiq."
9

vol.

i.

p.

304
8

;

vol.

ii.

pp. 69, 294.
2
1.

Herod,
2
1

i.

1.

Sam.

v. 11

;

1

Kings

v. 1.

the reign of Nabopolassar, the father of Nebuchadrezzar, to the

'"

Sam. Sam.
Kings

v.

11
xxii.

;

1

Chron. xiv.

end of that of Darius Hystaspes," which " were found by some Arabs deposited in a number of earthenware jars which served the purpose of our modern 'safes' " (Prof. Sayce, "Babylonian
Literature," p. 67).

n
12

Chron.

2; xxix. 1-9.
;

2
;

vii.

12, 13
3.

1

Kings
cf. x.

v. 5

;

vii.

13

;

1

Chron.

xxii.

10
13

2 Chron.
1

ii.

ix. 11, 14,

28

;

11

;

" 450

talents," 2 Chron.

" And Tyrus did build herself a stronghold and heaped up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the streets" cf. Ezek. xxvii.). The quantity of silver obtained (Zech. ix. 3
6
;

viii.

18.

u Smith, " Assyrian Canon" passim; "Records Past" passim; Max Duncker, "Hist, of Antiq."
pp. 271, 308 seq.

of
vol.

the
ii.

by the Phoenicians at Tartessus was so great that they were

SILVER BY WEIGHT AMONG THE HEBREWS.

7

AVe have thus seen that in Egypt, Assyria, Phoenicia and Judaea, the metals 'gold and
silver
'

were largely employed.
of
is

At the same time
the

silver

'

by weight

'

was the more common
strictly

medium
and
it

exchange
probable

among
the

Hebrews.

Honesty in weighing was
as

enforced,

1

that

Hebrews employed public weighers,
Yet though frequent mention
it is

did

the

Egyptians, 2

to see that

the weight was

just.

is

made

in the Bible of the

balance and of the weighing of money, 3
that
piece,

not probable

the system was

applied to each individual lump or
that
it

nor

is

it

likely

was employed in every

transaction of
it

business.

In the second book of Kings 4
priest
lid of

is

recorded

that the

Jehoiada " took a chest, 5
it,

and bored a hole in the
altar," and " the priests
all

and

set

it

beside the

that kept

the door put therein

the

money

that

was brought into the house of the
full,

Lord."

"When the chest was

the king's scribe and

the high-priest came and "told [ver. 11 ^23*1 'numbered';
ver. 12

priori 'measured' or 'weighed out'] the money"
it

and "put
1

up [Heb. 'bound up'] in bags," 6 perhaps afterwards weighing
hag
divers weights
;

it

in the bags. 7

" Thou

shalt not have in thy
'

[Heh. 'a
.

8, 12,
ix. 3.

13;

vii.

17,

21, 26;

viii.

36; Esther
17;
2

iii.

12;

viii.

9;

stone and a stone

— J3N1

|3S], a great and a small

.

.

thou

shalt have a perfect

and just weight" (Deut. xxv. 13, 15) "just balances, just weights " [Heb. stones ] (Levit. xix. 36) " a false balance is an abomination to the Lord" (Prov. xi. 1
' '

3 Gen. xxiii. 16; Exod. Kings xx. 39 Jer. xxxii. 9, 4 2 Kings xii. 9, 10.
;

xxii.

Sam.

xviii.

12;

1

10, etc.

cf. xvi.

11

;

xx, 10, 23; Ezek. xlv. 10

;

Amos
39,

viii.

5;
3.

Micah

5

jnS

;

vi.

11, etc.).

xxiv. 8, seq.

LXX. ki$wt6s Vulg. LXX. yKaso-oSKo/j.oi'
;

gazophylacium.
;

Cf. 2 Chron.

Vulg. area.

See

Appendix

" Denkmaler," Abt. iii. lib. Greeks and Romans had public weighers
2

Lepsius,

No.

The
3).

B. x.
reads " put up in bags and told the money," but may have preceded 'the placing in bags.' It has been proposed to alter the text. "For WSi) 'and they bound up,'
6

called

respectively

The A. V.
telling
'

(vy6(TTaTai (Artemid.

ii.

37) and libripcndes (Plin. xxxiii.
'

the

'

represented have the form of a lion and a 'Crouching antelopes' also occur (Wilkinson, "Pop. Acct. of Anc. Egyptians," vol. ii. p. 148). The Assyrian and
'

The weights here
'bull.'

suggests

Houbigant would read IpS'l and they poured out,' while Ewald nyi 'and they emptied,' which is the form used in
' '

in the form of lions (see p. 5, Such too is the form of the bronze talent weight found at Abydos (engraved and published by Mr. F. Calvert in "Arch. Journal," 1860, Sept. pp. 199, 200; De Vogue, "Rev. Arch." Jan. 1862, N.8. vol. v. pp. 30-39; Levy, " Jud. Miinzen," p. 153 Poole, art. 'Weights' in Smith's " Diet, of

Babylonian weights were also
7).

note

11" (Rawlinson, "Speaker's Com." vol. iii. p. 63). The Chronicler simply says and emptied the chest.' 7 The use of the bag or purse is of frequent occurrence in
2 Chron. xxiv.
' ' ' '

the O. T. (Gen.
Isa. xlvi. 6; cf.

xlii.

35

;

2

Kings

Job
in a

xiv. 17).
;

10 Prov. i. 14 vii. 20; Traders carried their weights in
xii.
; ; ;

;

'bags' (Deut. xxv. 13
silver

Mic.

vi. 11

Prov. xvi. 11).

A

talent of

the

Bible,"

vol.

iii.

p.

1731;

Madden,

"Jew. Coinage,"
or

pp. 271-272;

Brandis, p. 54) bearing an Aramaic inscription

NSD3 1 NnnD

'pnpS

pans "approved"

" found

correct

bag and one change of garment was about as much as one man could carry (2 Kings v. 23), and it may be that sometimes weighing was avoided by the sealed bags containing a certain weight of silver
as the seal remained

bound up

on the part of the satrap appointed over the silver," or

"money " ("Controle en presence desconservateurs de l'argent," De Vogue). The satrap mentioned is probably one of the "magistrates who
of the weights

passed current for

Tobit ix. 5), and so long bag or purse probably the amount marked thereon. This custom
(cf.

unbroken the

'

'

'

'

had control
the

name

of the great

and measures, as at Nineveh, also in king " and the silver mentioned is either
;

obtained partially also

among

the

Egyptians at the time of mentioned by Job
;

Thothmes III.
as a

(circa B.C.

1591-1565), but the bags frequently
is

" ladenreecommereiale transportce par les vaisseaux Pheniciens,"
or
les

contained " gold dust," [" which

(xxviii. 6)

"

cette matiere speeifique divisee en quantites determinees

pour

well-known form

of that metal

and
148

this

is

confirmed by

usages du commerce et les besoins du tresor public" (De
op.
cit.).

'pure

gold' being written over

them"
i.

(Wilkinson,
;

"Pop.
149),]

The Eesh on the back of the lion has not been satisfactorily explained. As to the words pLDX and N^HD, see Levy, "Jud. Miinzen," p. 153 note and " Speaker's Com."
Vogue,
vol.
iii.

Acct. of Anc.

Egyptians,"

vol.

p.

vol.

ii.

p.

brought by the conquered nations tributary to the Egyptians, a form in which tribute appears to have been brought by Jehu

pp. 423, 424, 498

;

vol. vi. p.

278

;

cf.

Ezra

v.

8

;

vi.

and the

Israelites

as

represented

on the

black

obelisk

of

'

8 In the large
total of
1

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
603,550 half-shekels, accumulated by the contribution of each Israelite to

the Tabernacle,

each individual half-shekel could hardly have been weighed.
is

That there were

occasionally lumps or pieces of ascertained denominations

evident from the half-shekel, which
shall not

was

to be paid

as the

atonement money, and from the command " the rich
less."
2

give

more and the poor shall not give
times
3
;

The

third part of the shekel is
piece, for it

mentioned in Persian

and the fourth part seems

to

have been an actual
4

was

all the silver

that

the servant of Saul had wherewith to pay the seer.
Shalmaneser II., and in which
Indians
it

was

also paid to Darius

by the

which

it

now

exists.

This numismatic precedent introduces us

(Herod,

iii.

94,

95,

98,

102-105),

and of which a

appropriately to the massive medals of Akbar's mints.

There

considerable portion of the wealth of Croesus consisted (Herod,
vi.

was an idea abroad

125).

were merely occasional pieces, struck more for vanity sake than for
real utility, but the

at one time that these Sihausah coins

In the Vedas, as discovered by Prof. Wilson and pointed out by Mr. Thomas (" Internat. Num. Orient." vol. i. parti, p. 33; cf. p. 25), mention is made of " ten purses " of gold, identified by

number

of specimens found ready prepared

amid Akbar's reserved treasures, and the continuity of their issue by succeeding kings, seems to indicate that they were
consistently designed to serve for the purposes of larger payments,
in one hundred pound Marsden, p. 641 217 No. dlvi Prinsep, " J. A. S. Bengal," 1838, p. 415. Large pieces called tankas of gold and silver, ten and twenty times heavier than the current mohur and rupee, were ordered to be struck in a.d. 1617 by the Emperor Jahangir. and bore the date of the succeeding year (Sir H. Elliot, "Hist, of India," vol. vi.

Mr. Thomas with
to the

'
'

the curious

little

red bays

filled

with crude gold

amount

of about sixteen shillings

[" gold dust separated

such as our civilized age recognizes
etc."
Cf.

money?), each tied up in a bit of cloth, is current as coin at eight Rupees the Phetang" Trail, "As. Pes." xvii. p. 24], which still figure in the Trans -Himalayan commerce with Northern India"; and the custom (several centuries b.c.) of employing bags with fixed and definite quantities in each may be gathered from a passage in the Mahabharata (Wheeler's ed. "a thousand bags, each containing a p. 179, London, 1867) thousand pieces of gold" (Thomas, op. cit. p. 38). Thevenot, in his account of the " Money, Weights, etc., of
into Phetangs (covered

notes,

Purchas,

i.

;

;

;

pp. 354-355). It may be that the Pcntecontalilra, or decadrachms of Gelon I.
(b.c.

Ispahan," when speaking of the Abassis, says (" Travels," part
p. 89) that there

ii.

"

Syracusan medallions,"

485-478) and Dionysius (b.c. 406-367), commonly called and the large gold pieces of the
silver),

was " so great equality

in their weight, that

Ptolemies and the Seleucids (called nva'iala, as equal to 100

in

great payments, they are weighed after this manner.

They

put five-and-twenty Abassis in one scale of the balance and as

drachms of "Hist, de
'

though undoubtedly current coin (Lenormant,

many

in the other,

and

if

the one weigh more or less than the other,

they conclude for a certain that there are some false Abassis

Mon. dans l'Antiq." vol. i. p. 7; "Gazette des Beaux Arts," May, 1877, p. 437), answered the same purpose as In the later a 'bag containing 100 or other number of coins.
la

which they are never out, for each scale ought most exactly to weigh alike. They then put the five-and-twenty of the one scale into the other, which by that means contains fifty, and that number makes the Toman, afterwards they count no more of the money, but only filling up the empty scale of the balance, until it weigh as much as the other wherein the Toman is counted, and when they find that both scales weigh not alike they examine the pieces."
fail
;

amongst them, and

not to examine them

in

Roman
totally

empire large gold pieces were struck of size and weight

unknown
pieces of

previously.

Constantius

II.

(a.d.

323-337)
21); (Cohen,
(a.d.

issued

56

solidi

(Cohen,

"Med. Imp." No.
solidi

Valens (a.d. 364-378) pieces of 15, 40, 48 and 90

Nos.

1,

6,

8,

10).

The gold medallion
solidi, or half a

of Justinian I.

527-565) weighs 36
laender,

pound (Binder and Friedii.
;

"Die Miinzen
i.

Justinians," pi.

Sabatier,

"Mon.

The Institutes of Akbar (a.d. 1593) show that there were always " ready in the palace large sums in dams, every thousand
which is kept in bags" (Gladwin, " Ain-i-Akbari," i. 3; Thomas, op. cit. p. 33 " Pathan Kings of Dehli," p. 421).
of
;

Gregory of Tours (" Hist. Francorum," coins of a pound weight vi. 2) mentions having seen gold (72 solidi), sent by Tiberius II. (a.d. 578-582) to Chilperic. Most of these pieces have the legend GLORIA ROMANORVM. They are clearly«o< coins but veritable medallions (cf. Lenormant,

Byz."

vol.

p. 176).

Sauvaire records (" Journ. Asiat." 1880, vol. xv. p. 428) that a badr is a purse containing 10,000 dirhems, and that it is

M.

op. cit. vol.

i.

pp. 10-14).

There remains to be mentioned the
Grueber,

large silver medallion of Priscus Attalus (a.d. 409-416) in the
British

money in this manner. A (De Gayangos, "Hist, of the Mob. dyn." ii. p. 469, n. 16). The badrah is ... a bag containing 1000 or 10,000 derhams or 7000 dinars (Tadj el-'arous, iii. p. 35). See page 1, note 16.
still

the custom in Spain to count
(purse)

Museum,

weighing 1202 "5 grains (H. A.

'talega'

= 1000

dollars

"Rom.

Medallions in Brit.
as it should

Mus."

1874, p.
;

101),

low weight,

issued as a quarter of a

weigh 1260 grains it pound of silver (Dr. Finlay, " Greece
ed. p. 534, note).

though of was probably

under the Romans," 2nd
1

very probable that large gold coins, such as that of the Baetrian king Eukratides (b.c. 185), weighing 2593-5 grains
It
is

(and being a twenty-stater piece), those issued by Akbar, and the
large pieces in silver of the Persian monarchs, took the place of

'bags' or 'purses.'
423):

Mr. Thomas writes ("Pathans," pp. 422-

"

It

is

curious that the Greeks should so early have adapted

themselves to Eastern notions of bullion and ingots, although

Exod. xxxviii. 26. 2 Exod. xxx. 13, 15. 3 Neh. x. 32. 4 1 Sam. ix. " When in Sam. ix. 8 we are told, as 8, 9. something not at all uncommon, that the servant who accompanied Saul had a quarter-shekel in his pocket, this shows that the traffic in such pieces of silver was very widely spread
'

they reduced the crude lump of metal to the classic form in

(Braudis, p. 78, note 5).

See p.

3, note 1.

;

GOLD MONET.
There
as of
is

—KING
of

MONET.

no positive mention of the use of gold money among the Hebrews, though gold,

we have
gold

seen, constituted part of the wealth

Abraham,

if

we exclude
of
2

the " 600 shekels

by weight " paid by David for the threshing-floor and oxen

Oman, and
1

the
first

" 6000 of gold " taken
statement,

by Naaman on
passage
reads

his

journey to the king of
shekels
of

Israel.

As
the

to

the

the parallel
'

"fifty

silver";

3

and

for

second,

as

the word

shekels

'

occurs in
'

many
in

other passages in the Hebrew, and as the Authorized Version
of

has also

supplied

shekels

'

others

a

similar
also

kind, 4

and

as
'

a

weight
'

is

no doubt

intended, the
'pieces.'

word understood

in this case

would

probably be
the

shekels

in preference to
silver in the

Nor can the
5

passages,

"They

lavish

gold out of
gold,

bag and weigh
shall
7

balance,"

or

"Wisdom ....
6

cannot be gotten for

neither

silver

be

weighed

for the price thereof,"

be brought forward in favour of gold money;

and gold was generally

employed for personal ornaments 8 and for objects in connexion with the Temple. 9
It
is,

however,
case
of

probable

that
to

a

system
the

of

" jewel-currency "

or

" ring-money "

was

in
of

use.

The

Rebekah,

whom
her

servant

Abraham
and

gave " a

golden earring of half a shekel
for

weight,
[shekels]

two
10

bracelets

hands

of

ten

weight,"

proves

that

the

ancient
so as

Hebrews
to

made

their

jewels of

a specific weight

know

the value of these ornaments in employing them in lieu
of

monev.
jewels
or

That
rings
are

the
is

Egyptians

kept

their

bullion

in

evident from their monuments,

where they

represented
is

weighing rings
illustrated

of

gold
fact

and

silver, 11

and

further

by the
of
silver

of

the
of

Israelites

having

at

their

exodus

from

Egypt borrowed "jewels
2
4
6

and

jewels

gold"

12

—and

spoiled

the

I

1

Chron. xxi. 25.

2 Kings v. 5.

3

2

Sam. xxiv. 24.

See Note at end of this chapter.
Job. xxviii. 15.

5 Is. xlvi. 6.
7

means of exchange in Britain (Dickinson, " Num. Chron." o.s. vol. xiv. p. 64), in Ireland (Hoare, N.C. o.s.vol. xvii. p. 62), and among the Norwegian sea-kings (Dickinson, N.C. o.s.
in use as a
vol.
viii.

Shakspere ("Measure for Measure," act ii. scene 2, Isabella loq.) is therefore mistaken in speaking of " skekels of the tested
gold."

p.

208)

;

also
;

in

Interior

Africa
xi.

(Dickinson,
;

N.C.

o.s. vol. vi. p.

201

cf. viii. p.

215;

p. 161

xvi. p. 168);

in Arabia
;

Gen. xxiv. 22 2 Chron. 17, 21
;

8

xli.

42

;

Judges
1

viii.

26

;

cf.

1

Kings

x. 1G,

ix. 15, 16, 20.

Num.
iii.

vii.

14,

20, etc.;
is

9.

The gold unit
" (Exod.

only

Kings vii. 48 seq. mentioned once

;

2 Chron. 0. T.

and India (" silver rings " Dickinson, N.C. o.s. vol. and in China (copper and iron), where the money "consisted simply of round discs of metal with a hole in the centre" (Williams, N.C. o.s. vol. xvi. p. 44). Mr. Vaux's
viii.

p. 217),

in

opinion that the
similar to
p.

existence of rings as a
is

medium

of

exchange

" the gold of the offering
of the sanctuary
10

....

730 shekels, after the shekel
8.

money

altogether imaginery (N.C. o.s. vol. xvi.
(cf.

xxxviii. 24).

128) cannot be accepted

Dickinson, N.C. o.s. vol. xvi.

Gen. xxiv. 22.

See p. 10, note

p. 150).
12

"Wilkinson's

7. The woodcut of the rings is from "Pop. Acct. of the Anc. Egyptians," vol. ii. p. 149. The hieroglyphics signify "gold" and "white gold," viz. " silver." These rings remind us of the Hebrew expression for

II

See woodcut on p.

3HT tal «|D3
2.

»j>3.

Exod.
Keli,

xii.

35

;

cf.

Exod.
in

iii.

22

xi.

The word
be found
;

v3
in

rendered

"jewels"

A. V.,

may
1

also

the heaviest unit in weight
signified 'a circle'
p. 51).
(cf.

— the

talent H33,
°~'

<p6oi$es

xp v

iov

>

which originally Bockh, " Metrolog."

The Leyden Museum

possesses a collection of gold rinjjs

found in Egypt, which certainly mast have served as a medium of exchange, and not as jewels (Brandis, p. 82). Gold rings were also

Sam. vi. 8, 15 and Ezek. xvi. 17. The LXX. translate by (r/ceuTj and the Vulg. by vasa (except in Numbers, where simply auri is put). That "vessels" are probably intended by the word "jewels" seems likely from the employment of the word "vessels" for
;

Gen. xxiv. 53; Numbers xxxi. 50; 2 Chron. xx. 25 xxxii. 27 ; Job. xxviii.

17,

MADDEN

;

10
Egyptians."
1

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
So,
too,
it

would appear that the money used by
corn
of

the

children

of

Jacob
Their

when
money
Vulg.

they
is

went

to

purchase

in

Egypt

was

an
;

"annular

currency." 2
SeafMol

described

as

"bundles

money"
to

(PjD3 rflTTC

LXX.
found

tov

upyvplov;
[full]

ligatce
3

pecunice),

and

when

returned

them

was

to

be

"of

weight."

It

was

therefore of
in

a form capable of

being tied up, which receives corroboration
are
into

from the
the
in
tithes

passage
to the

Deuteronomy, 4

where
shalt

directions

given

as

to

the

sanctuary — " then

payment

of

thou

turn

it

money and

bind up the
shall

money
The

thine

hand, and shalt go unto
sale

the place which

the

Lord thy God
Midianites

choose."

account of the
of the

of

Joseph by his brethren to the

affords another

instance

employment

of jewel

ornaments as a medium of exchange, 5 as we gather from accounts of

the spoiling of the Midianites that they carried the whole of their wealth in the forms of jewels,
chains, bracelets, rings, earrings

and

tablets. 6

Hence the " wedge " or " tongue "

of gold

of

50 shekels weight, found by Achan
of gold "
is

at Jericho. 7

A

still

more

positive statement as to "rings
in

made

in the case of

Job,

whose friends when visiting him each gave him,
of

addition to a "piece of
Xpvcrov Kal aarj/xou
;

money" (ntD^p), an "earring
the
friends of

gold" (iHT DT3

s

LXX.

tct palpa-yjiov

Vulg. inaurem auream unmn)?
all

Now, had
the

these earrings of gold not been

intended as
the same

representing money,

patriarch would not have given
of
silver,

him

article,

and that

in

connexion with

a

piece

and

it

seems evident that

Job must have employed his

gifts in

purchasing cattle almost immediately, as we read that he

soon became possessed of thousands of animals.

v3 (LXX.
Josh.
vi.
i.

a-Kevri;
(ctk€utj
;

Vulg. vasa) in other passages of the A.V.,
omitted)
;
;

of all nations

which he had subdued,"

as

we know was done
of

in

24

Ezra

7, 1 1

viii.

27

Is. lii.

Sam. viii. 10 1 Kings and moreover there is a 11
2
;

x.

25

the time of Darius.
;

;

special
to the

Besides

the references given above (to six only
alludes, i.e.

which
xii. 35,

treatise or Massictoth

(JTiFODO) on eelim (D^3) relating

Mr. Conder
xxxix. 33;

Gen. xxiv. 53,

xlii.
viii.

25

;

Exod.

Num.

xxxi.

purity and impurity of vessels, furniture, etc., in the 6th hook of

50;
3.nj

2

Sam.

10),

Mr. Conder
iv.

the Talmud, entitled Seder taharoth (JTrinD Tip).

The phrase
rendered

quotes a "cognate

word"
;

ni?30

(2

Chron.

21,

LXX.

to. Trvptla xpvo-iov Ka.6a.pou

"furnish thyself to go into captivity"
in the of

Vulg. de auro mundissimo) rendered

(Jer. xlvi. 19), is

Hebrew

' '

make thee instruments
VJ3
;

of captivity " or

" vessels
;

in A. V. " perfect gold."
1

wandering"

(JlVlS

LXX.

[xxvi. 19] o-Ktvr) a-noiKicrfiov

2

Exod. xii. 36. Gen. xlii. 35;
Gen.
xliii.

cf.

e)D3n "lfl? Prov.
<

vii.

20; A.V. 'a bag

Vulg. vasa transmigration^).

by "stuff" (Gen.
xxxix. 33; both,

xxxi. 37;
<XKtvri
;

In other places the A. V. translates xlv. 20), by "furniture" (Exod.
Vulg. supellex), and by "sacks"

of money.'
3 5

21.

Deut. xiv. 24-26.
26.
1,

LXX.

Gen. xxxvii. 28.

(Gen
in

xlii.

2.5; last

LXX
(vv.

ayyeia [vessels];
passage
27,

Vulg.

saccos),

though
for

6
7

Numbers
Josh.
vii.

xxxi. 50, 51
21.

;

Judges
3,

viii.

this

-quoted
25,

"sacks,"
latter
xliii.
is

pb

two 35) and

other

words
(v.

occur

See

p.

note

and Appendix

A.

nnn»N

27),

and the

"Weights,"
8

s.v.

Talent.

employed

in the continuation of the

same story (Gen.
in

DT3 signifies

"a
it is

ring."

Though

translated

"earrings"

18, 21, 22).

Mr. Conder ("Bible Educator," vol. iii. p. 178) supposes from the fact of the weight of the gold (16,750 shekels, or, as he writes, 17,000 aurei) taken from the Midianites (Num. xxxi. 52), and from the dedication by David of the "vessels of gold, of silver, and of brass" to God (2 Sam. viii. 10, 11) — it being
illegal to dedicate any vessels not specially

the face'

earring for 47 of the same chapter, and nose-rings are evidently intended in Prov. xi. 22 Is. iii. 21 Ezek. xvi. 12.
1
''

Gen. xxiv. 22,

expressly designated as

"an

in verse

;

;

In
is

this

latter

passage the "earring" 7'jy

(cf.

Num.

xxxi. 50)

separately alluded to.

The nezem, however,
4,

signifies

an earthough

made

for the service

ring proper in Gen. xxxv.

and

may

or

may

not have this
12,

the word

tli e absence of any reference to money, that means coin. Moreover, that if "vessels" had been intended, it would have been written in the plural, kelim. But the vessels might have been melted down and then dedicated with the " other silver and gold that David dedicated

of

God— and

from

signification in Judg. viii. 24, 25, 26,

and Prov. xxv.

in Judg.

viii.

Jeeli

26 the word mp'tO?, rendered in A. V. "collars,"

would " Cyc.
9

also

seem

to

mean "ear-drops

or

pendants"

(Kitto,

of Bibl. Lit." ed. Alexander, s.v. Collar).
xlii. 11.

Job.

;

THE KES1TAH AND OTHER SILVER PIECES.
Some
The
(1)

11

other terms occur in the 0. T. which have been thought to signify 'money.'
is

first

the

Kesitah (HD^'p).

This word occurs three times in the Old Testament
of a field at
1

:

in the

record of the purchase
;

by Jacob

Shalem (LXX.

ercarbv dfivwv

;

Vulg.

coition

aijnis

A. V.
;

"piece of

money");

(2)

the same purchase

again mentioned
3

(LXX.
name
trial

dfjbvdhcov e/carbv

Yulg. centum

novellis ovibus

;

A. V. "piece of silver");

and

(3)

as the

of the piece of

money given

to

Job by his friends when visiting him
3

at the

end of his

(LXX.

dfivdSa /xiav;

Vulg. oran unam; A. V. "piece of money").

From

the translation by the

LXX.

of " lambs,"

it

has by

many been assumed

that the

Kesitah was a coin bearing the impression of

a lamb or a sheep.

Such a view has been put

forward in a

paper in
in

Danish on the "Kesita," by Frid. Munter, 4 and more recently by
" Proceedings of
as

Mr. James Yates
coins,

the

the Numismatic Society "

for

1837-1838. 5

The

however, that
till

are quoted

examples of the Kesitah belong

probably to Cyprus, and

were not struck

after B.C. 450. 6
to

Dr. Grotefend 7 considers the Kesitah

have been "merely a piece of

silver

of

un-

determined
silver

size,

just as

the

most ancient shekel was nothing more than a piece of rough

without any image or device."
in

The confusion

the

text

of

the

LXX.

and Vulg. may perhaps in some degree be
7,

accounted for from the fact
times "
the
;

that
|"I323

in

Gen. xxxi.

41, the

words

D*Jft

TT\W

(A. V.

" ten

Vulg. decern

vicibus,

more usually standing for a weight) have been translated by
as if

LXX.

SeKa d^ivwv,

which looks

the scribe had
portion,"
10
;

made
and

a mistake for
it is

/xvcov.

8

The

real

meaning, however, of Kesitah seems to be "a
the Arabic word
v^J±
9

probably connected

with
the

" he or

it

divided equally "

at the same time " the sanction of

LXX.,

and the

use of weights having the forms of lions, bulls, and geese,

by the Egyptians,
so

Assyrians,

and probably Persians, must make us hesitate before we abandon a rendering

singularly confirmed by the relation of the Latin pecunia and pecus." u

The second
argenteus
;

is

the term Agorat Keseph (5]D3
piece of silver"). 12
called in the

fiTUN

;

LXX.

6/3o\6$ dpyvplov;

Vulg. mtmmus

A. V.

"a
so

The mi^X, The

from

*"DX,

"to

collect,"

may

be the same

as

the

ni5

(Gerah).

Both are translated
third
is

LXX.

o/3o\o?.

the

expression Eatsee Keseph

(tp2 HH; LXX. dpyvpiov

;

Vulg. argent um

A. V. "piece of silver"). 13
1

3 6
:

Gen. xxxiii. Job xlii. 11.
P. 111.

19.

2 4

Josh. xxiv. 32.

,0

Comp.

t3tJ'|5

(unused root)

'to divide
xxxiii.
it

equally.'

From

a

Copenhagen, 1824.

comparison of the passages Gen.
to the purchase and priee of land,

19 and x\iii. 1G relating

s

6 Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 6. Num. Chron." o.s. vol. ii. p. 248. Htissey, "Weights and Money," p. 194, note; Rev. E.

has been supposed (Gesenius,
that the Kesitah was heavii
r

"Lex."

ed. Tregelles, s.v.

ntS^p)

than the shekel, and that
.

it

contained four shekels.

Venables, Kitto, " Bibl. Cyc." ed. Alexander,
9

s.v.

Kesitah.
2.
i.i

Root k*uS

1.

a justo deflexit,
i-

iniquus.

separavit.

„ 3.
viii

lustitiam exeremt. 4. v distnbuerunt re/« aequahter inter scse.
,
i.

...

!_•!.

.

,

distribuit.

Hence ^ \

V-.".«

Kusfar, " Xumularius,"

n R g r „ l)1( Smith) « Diet, of the Bible," s.v. Money; Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 7; ef. Wilkinson, " Pop. Acct. Hussev, " Weights and of Anc. Egyptians," vol. ii. p. 151 °-u ' ', ,, f? ... Lepsius, " Denkmaler," Abth. m. 111. 39, Money," p. 194
;

.

'

,

,

,

,

;

aliis

\,,.
'

3"

e tc.

12

1
;

Sam.

ii.

36.

" mercator

"— Freytag.

3

Ps. lxviii. 30.

Heb. 31

;

LXX.

lxvii.

30

Vulg. 31.

,

12
The word
silver "
V*l,
off.

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
from Y)£1, "to break in
pieces,"

must mean "a fragment" or "piece

of

broken

In neither of the two

latter cases

can the passages imply " a coin."

A
tuum.

curious passage

is
,

that

in Ezekiel xvi. 36.
e'^e^ea? rov

The Hebrew
crov,

text has Tjfit^rO "HSt^n "tV
est aes

translated

by the LXX. Av0' wv
1

^aXuuv
to

and by the Vulg. quia effusum
represent
brass

Gfesenius

understands the
interpretation,

word fiwTli
as

here

money;

but

this

is

a very improbable

brass

or

copper was the

latest

metal introduced

into

Greece for money.

On
[ntrrp]

this question the

Rev. Dr. Lindsay Alexander writes: 2
Latin
aes,

— "Gresenius

understands by

it

money, like
it

the

but there
feeble

is

no evidence that the Hebrews used copper
passage to understand the word so
(ver.

money, and besides
here.

seems to give a
is

turn to the

Havernick thinks the allusion
;

to the gifts

which the harlot had bestowed

33)

having become worthless
copper
;

they were of silver or gold, but they should be poured out as base

an interpretation which

seems somewhat fancifid and far-fetched.

Fiirst understands

by

it

the pudenda muliebria, and supposes the meaning of

'Thy shame

shall be

poured forth'

to be the

same

as that of

rVOTFl

""15^3 in ver. 15, viz.

Thy whoredoms

shall be profuse,

and

without restraint.
(for

He

arrives at this, however,
11, to

by making fl^rO mean bottom
no authority), and
less

or lower part

which Ezek. xxiv.

which he
is
'

refers, gives

so the lower
it

part

of

the trunk, the pudenda.
'

This

quite

gratuitous,

and not

so is

to

make

the words

Thy shame was poured
a

forth

mean, Thy whoredom was carried on.

May

not Neehoslieth

be used here simply as

designation of

what

is

worthless,

and the meaning be that her

worthless favours were profusely bestowed?"

This suggestion
all

seems to be

very probable, more especially as the expression " they are
Jer.
vi.

brass

and iron" (/rO^I HBTI3) in

28

(cf.

Ezek. xxii.

18)

is

used to

signify

" anything vile like base metal."

There

is

another passage (Ezra

viii.

27

;

cf. 1

Esdras

viii.

57),

where mention
aicevr] j(a\icov

is

made

of

"fine copper precious as gold" (Heb. "yellow or shining" iHXft;

LXX.

arlXftovTos
lit

ayaOov Sidcpopa kinQv^Ta

ev yjpvaiw;

Vulg. vasa
like

ceris

fulgentis optimi duo, pulchra

aurum).
vii.

Perhaps the copper here alluded
(t3"lbtt

to is

the "bright brass" recorded in 1 Kings
x.

45

nBTti;
;

LXX.

-)(a\.Ka;

Vulg. aurichalcum), and in Dan.
;

6 (77p ntt

f

!"l3

;

LXX. yakKov
referred to
to

(TTiXfiovTos

Vulg. aes candens
of

cf.

Ezek.

i.

7;
of

LXX.

i^acn pdirroyv ^aA/co?).
out
a

It is

by Josephus, 3 who speaks
as

the

" vessels {^aXicd

brass " weighed

by Ezra
term

the

priests

"more

precious

than gold"

a/cein]

^pvaov

/cpeiTTOva),
4

he also

employs
Kpel-TTova

for the
eXeyov).

"brazen vessels" made by Solomon for the Temple

(^aX/cbs ov tov

xpvaov

It will

be

noticed

that

the

Vulgate has

translated

the

term

in

1

Kings

vii.

45 by

1

" Lex."
Kitto,

ed. Tregelles, s.v.

TV^m.

'
4

" Antiq."

xi. 5, 2.
vii. 5, 3.

2

" Cyc.

of Bibl. Lit." ed. Alexander, s.v. Nechosheth.

Joseph. " Antiq."

ORICHALCUM.
aurichalcum,

13

a

composition of metals supposed by the ancients to be of considerable value. 1

Accordiug
certs

to the derivation of Isidorus, 2 "
;

Aurichalcum

dicitur,

quod

et

splendorem

aun

et

duritiem
i.

possideat
viii.

" and Bochart

3

has consequently supposed the word Chashmal
of
£•

{*7l2\JFi,

Ezek.

4,

27

;

2) to be

compounded

HO

brass

and XT?£) gold

;

but

the

Chaldee

word NT?ft

seems to be of very uncertain authority. 4

The word 7f2&R

is

translated

by the LXX.
but
it is

^Xe/crpop, 5

by the Yulgate

electrum,

and in
four

the Authorized Yersion "

amber "
6

;

probable that the metal said to consist of

parts gold and one part silver

is

intended.
is

Dr. Michelson says, 7 " There

no doubt that aurichalcum

is

the

Latinized

form of the
of

Greek ope^aX/cos," and has further suggested that perhaps by the
27 was meant aurichalcum.
Cicero, however, speaks of
8

3HVD nKTO
who
adds,

Ezra

viii.

" Or/chalcum "

;

and

so does Pliny, 9

"Nee

reperitur

longo jam tempore,

effoeta tellure."

In the time of Julius Caesar two new coins were struck of " yellow brass," called

sestertius

and
1

dupondius.

10

From

the

golden colour

of

the

metal

doubtless

arose

the

orthography

" Hym." v.; Hesiod, 114; Horn. 122; cf. Plautus, "Cure." 1, 3, 45; "Miles " Pseud." 2, 3, 22 Glor." 3, 1, 64 double distilled gold '— a fabulous metal. H. T. Eiley's Trans, ed. Bohn, vol. i. p. 103, 2 " note. Orig." xvi. 19.
Plato,

"Critias,"

"Scuto,"

ver.

'

;

;

mentioned in Greek or Roman literature except by Lampridius (in " Alex. Sev." 25) who says that Alexander Severus "Alexandri habitu numnios plurimos figuravit etquidem electreos aliquantos,
;

sed plurimos tamen aureos."

None, however, have been

disi.

covered
p.

(cf.

Ch. Lenormant, "Rev.

Num."

n.s.

1856, vol.

3

" Hieroz."
Gesenius,

ii.

p.

877

seq.

88 seq.;

C. T. Newton, "Trans, of Roy. Soc. of Lit." vol.

4

"Lex."
i.
'

ed.

Tregelles,

s.v.

?J2KTI.

Gesenius

viii.;

Eckhel,

" Doct. Num. Vet." pp.
as

xxiv,

xxv),

though

says,

" As in chap.

7

[Ezekiel]

there occurs in the same

probably some were issued,
the inscription

specimens of the gold pieces

connexion 7?p

nCTD

smooth

brass,' ^DJJTI must, I think,

be
(3

mentioned are considered to be those found at Tarsus bearing

explained as having the same sense, and be taken as from E'n3

being rejected by aphoeresis) and *p£, a syllable which

is

shown

to have not only the signification of softness, but also that of

smoothness and brightness, by many roots which commence with
it,

as

u^D

Y*yQ

i/jj}^t

,

&L«

na\dcr<ru>, mttlcco, mollis,

and

and to have been " amulettes preservatrices " (Longperier, "Rev. Num." 1868, pp. 309-336, pi. x.-xiii.; Lenormant, "Essai," vol. i. Mr. Thomas ("Internat. Num. Orient." vol. i. part i. p. 41). p. 44) mentions that Apollonius of Tyana observed "that the Indian money was of orichalcum and bronze purely Indian and

BACIAEYC AAEZANAPOC,

with a guttural prefixed, 7?0n."
5

The XevKos xP v(T ^
i.

°f Herodotus,

and opposed to xp v<t °s
est,

&K((p6os (Herod,
6

50).

Plin.

" Ubicunque quinta argenti portio "Nat. Hist." lib. xxxiii. cap.

electrum vocatur."

Roman and Median coins " on which passage M. Priaulxadds, "The Indian money is {ih-q K^Ko^evfievn. metal refined, prepared, and the Roman Kexapay/j.eu-q, stamped; " and Mr. Thomas suggests that the orichalcum may refer to the nickel pieces of Agathocies and Pantaleon. Dr. Flight (" Num.
not stamped like the
;

4.

xvi. 24) gives the proportion as three parts of gold
silver.

The

analyses
89)

made by

the

Due

("Orig." and one of de Luynes (" Eev.
Isidorus

Chron." n.s. 1868,

vol.

viii.

p. 305) has given

an interesting
p. 22, note
1

analysis of.some coinsof this metal. [See

ChafterII.

.]

Num."

1856, p.

do not confirm these proportions.

The

Chasmal has been thought by some to be the same as the metal known among the ancients as " Corinthian brass," supposed to be
an alloy discovered at the burning of Corinth by Lucius Mummius, B.C. 146, by the melting and running together of various metals, especially gold and bronze (Plin. "Nat. Hist." xxxiv. 2, 3), but
this latter idea is considered incorrect, as
artists

any Greek writer in which the word tfKeKTpov is used as a metal is in the "Antigone " of Sophocles (1038), while rbv npbs ^dpSeaiv jj\(KTpov Kal rbv 'I</8<k2>c
earliest passage of
.
. . .

Xpva6v are placed in apposition, the former evidently referring to the "pale gold" of the Pactolus, of which the coins of Cyzicus, Phocaea, and other neighbouring states were probably made. Certain coins of Syracuse seem to have been made of a
metal of about four-fifths gold and one-fifth silver (Mommsen, "Hist, de la Mon. Rom." ed. Blacas, vol. i. pp. 286, 287;

whose works

were composed of
refined bronze.

this valued

metal lived long before this event

(Smith, " Diet, of Antiq."

of this
7

s.v. Aes). It was probably a highly In later times the Jews possessed vessels made metal (Joseph. " Vit." 13). See Appendix B. III.

Kitto,

" Cyc.
Offic."

of Bib. Lit." ed. Alexander, s.v. Chasmil.
iii.

Chron." n.s. 1874, vol. xiv. p. 26), and the gold coins of the Bosphorus after a.d. 200 appear to have been composed of a mixture of gold and silver (Mommsen, vol. iii. pp. 25, 294). But money of electrum is nowhere

B. V.

Head,

"Num.

8
D

"De

20.

"Nat. Hist." lib.
See

xxxiv. cap.2;

Virgil

("2En."

xii.

87) and

Horace (" Ars
10

I'oetiea," ver. 202) both write

"enchaleum."

Appendix

B. VI.

14
" au nchalcum."

NUMISMATA OEIEXTALIA.
The
true

derivation

would

seem

to

be

from

opo?

and

^aX/cos,

namely,

mountain-bronze. 1

A

fine

brass ('yaXKoXl^avov)

is

mentioned

in

Revelation
3

(i.

15

;

ii.

18).

The Vulgate
.

renders both passages by aurichalcum.

This Gesenius

would explain by ^oXkov XLirapov^^foW]

Other explanations have been

offered. 3

From
the
of

the

statements given above,
of

it

seems evident,
4

firstly,

that

if

the Hebrews became

learned in "all the wisdom
use
of

the

Egyptians,"
that

they did not, in any case, learn from them
the Pentateuch
is

money
money.
this

;

and secondly,

nowhere in
in

there

any mention
add
to

coined

Nor

do

the
It
is

passages
true
that

Joshua,
of

Judges,
silver"

and

Job
is

our
at

knowledge on

subject.
it

a " piece

(miJX)

mentioned

the time of Samuel, 5 but

can only be considered

as expressive of

some small denomination,
of

and does not imply a
for Judaea
;

coin.

The reigns

of

David and Solomon were an era
it

prosperity

" silver was
still
it

in

Jerusalem as stones,
that
It
is,

was nothing accounted

of

in the days of

Solomon;" 6

is

certain

there were no

real coins, namely, pieces struck

under an

authorit)', before

the
of

Exile.

on the other hand, most
rings, 7

probable

that

the

Hebrews
case, it is

employed pieces

a definite weight, either in ingots or

and

this

being the

remarkable that none of the

many

excavations in Palestine have ever brought to light an example.
the pieces of silver were collected for the treasury, they
It is recorded 9

I must, however, observe that

when
8

were melted down before

re-issue.

that

Shaphan the

scribe

came

to

King

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," pp. 299, 300. Bochart observes that in his time the French called " brass " arched by corruption
1

attempted to show from his examination and interpretation of
the cylinder of Sargon (b.c. 722), which
British
is

preserved in the

from the Latin aurichalcum, and at the present time they still For an analysis of this designate "brass-wire" fil a"archal. metal see Pinkerton, "Essay on Medals," vol. i. p. 106; Mommseu, " Hist, de la Mon. Eom." ed. Blacas, vol. iii. p. 38,
note.
2 3

Museum, that this king coined silver and gold money. The word kaship he translated "money" from 2!iTl kasheb, "to compute or to account," from the same root as C]D3 kaspa, "silver," and the word rikkati "coins or pieces of stamped money" from Upl "to strike metal with a hammer so as to
spread
it

"Lex."

ed. Tregelles, s.v. blO'Cn.
s.

out," hence the substantive

Smith, " Diet, of Bible,"
Acts
1

vv. Brass

and Copper; Madden,

But
that

this theory

was disputed by the
vol.
ii.

" Jew. Coinage,"
4 5

p. 17, note 4.
of.
1

Chron." n.s. 1862,
30.
if

p.

for lamina of metal. Mr. Dickinson (" Num. 123), especially on the ground
late
it

D^pl

vii.

22

;

Kings

iv.

coined
also

money had

existed in Assyria at this period,
;

Sam. ii. 36. 6 1 Kings x. In 2 Chron. i. 15, 2 Chron. ix. 20, 27. 21, 27 the words " and gold " are added. 7 " A fixed weight to single pieces so as to adjust their value as Without this acceptation many of the biblical money. cf. 2 Kings xii. 5) would be passages (especially Gen. xxiii. 16
; . .
. ;

would

have existed in Judaea

neither in Assyria, Egypt, or
this date

known that Judwa has any coined money of
and
it
is

well

been found, nor even pieces of
p. 208),

silver

graduated to

weights.
n.s. vol.
i.

Moreover, Sir H. C. Bawlinson (" J.E.A. S." 1864,

who examined

the same inscription, though

allowing that kaspa meant "silver," compared the Cuneiform

difficult to rightly

understand;

indeed, they not only presuppose

had been at once recognized at such, whether in the unwrought form or through certain characters inscribed on the pieces " (Dr. Levy,
pieces of metal of a definite weight, but also, that they

"

Jiid.

Munzen,"

pp. 9, 10).

— " From many passages of
if

Scrip-

ture

.... we
of

conceive that in these olden times silver
in use,

money
in

word rujgati not with J?p~l but with the Chaldee $031, which was probably in its origin an ingot of metal used instead of money, translated in Prov. xvi. 11 "just weight," and interpreted the words rir/f/ati la rusi as "in solid bullion," though he admitted that the passage was difficult. As to the words kaspa va zipar, "silver and copper," it is uncertain whether
they refer to the weight of the metal given to the proprietors for their lands, or to the material of the tablets on which the
title-deeds

must have been already long
pieces

not coined

;

yet in weighed

certain

standard"

(Soetbeer,

"Das Gold

der

iii.

Gegenwart," Heft 144, p. 535; cf. Movers, " Phoeniz." Brandis, p. 78, note 5). See pp. 3 and 8. 1, 33 » Mr. Fox Talbot ("Trans, of Boy. Soc. of Lit." vol. vii.)
;

were

written

(cf.

"Num.

Chron."

n.s.

1864,

vol. iv. p. 291).
9

2

Kings

xxii. 9

;

2 Chron. xxxiv. 17.

THE EXPRESSIONS FOR MONET IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.
Josiah and said,

15
the

"Thy

servants have gathered (*D*fin

l
;

LXX.
it

i^covevcav; Vulg. conflaverunt)

money

that was found in the house, and have delivered

into the

hand

of

them

that do

the

work, that have oversight of the house of the Lord."
(b.c.

The same plan was followed by Darius
vessels,

521-485),
off,

who melted

the gold

and

silver into earthen

which,

when

full,

were
off as

broken

leaving the metal in

a mass.

When

any was wanted, a piece was broken

necessity required. 2

NOTE.
The
translated

general

expression

for

silver

and money in

the

Old

Testament
but

is

f|D3

keseph,

by
2;

the
xvii.

LXX.
13;

apyvpiov,

and

by

the Yidgate
;

argentum,

sometimes pecunia
ii.

(Gen.
xxiii.

xiii.

xxiv. 35;

Exod. xxi.
of

xxii.

passim; pecunia, Deut.

6;

xiv.
xii.

26;
4;

19, etc.; cf.

5p3 "O^, "money

everyone that passeth [the account]," 2 Kings
xxiii.

"HID? *Q5?,
probata

"current with the merchant," Gen.

16;

LXX.

8o/clfj,ov

i/xTropoK

;

Vulg.

moneta publico).

In

one

passage (Isaiah

vii.

23)

the

word

silverliags

is

employed

in

the

Authorized

Version as the translation of P|D3, rendered by the
(sc.

LXX.

o-i«Xo?,

and by the Vulg. argenteus

slclus).

3

The word "shekel" (/pt^) occurs
the following passages: 4
(ver.

in

the

Hebrew and

in

the Authorized Version

in

—Gen.
Lev.
v.
;

xxiii.

15,

16;

Exod. xxi. 32;
16
;

xxx. 13,
47, 50
;

15; xxxviii. 24-26
vii.

24 gold shekels)
43, 49,

;

15

;

xxvii.

3-7,
xviii.
;

Num.
Josh.

iii.

13,
ix.

19,

25,

31,

37,

55,

61,

67,

73, 79, 85,

86;

16;
xxi.
;

vii.

21;

1
;

Sam.

8;
;

xvii. 5,

7
vii.

(brass
1
;

and iron
xv.

shekels)

2 Sam. xiv. 26

16 (brass shekels)
2 Chron.
iii.

xxiv. 24

2 Kings
;

20

;

1

Chron. xxi. 25

(gold shekels)

9

(gold shekels)

Nek.

v.

15;

x.

32;
is

Jer. xxxii. 9;

Ezek.

iv.

10; xiv. 12;

Amos
29

viii.

5.

It
xvii.

supplied in the A. V. in connexion with "silver" in Deut.

xxii.

19,

29; Judg.

2-4,

10

;

2 Sam.

xviii.

11,

12;

1

Kings
vii.

x.

;

2

Chron.
32,
16. 38,

i.

17;
50,

and in connexion
56, 62,
68, 74,

with

"gold"
Judg.

in

Gen. xxiv. 22;
26;
1

Num.
x.

14,

20,
ix.

26,
15,

44,

80, 86;

viii.

Kings

16

;

2 Chron.

'Margin A.V. ''melted" or "poured out"; so LXX. The same word is employed in Ezek. xxii. 20, 21, in the sense of "melting" metals (Gesenius, "Lex."
and Vulgate.
ed. Tregelles, s.v. T]ri3).
2

3 Mr. Aldis Wright, in his edition of the " Bible Word-1 k" which was commenced by the Rev. J. Eastwood (Macmillan,

1866),

says,

"The Hebrew word
silbcrling.

is

used for a shekel,
occurs in

like

the

G.

[German]
of

Silverling

Tyndale's

Herod,

iii.

96.

Alexander,

after

the

battle

of

Arbela

found at Susa .30,000 talents (say £11,500,000), of which the greatest portion was in uncoined gold and silver, the Diodor. xvii. 66 Arrian, iii. remainder in Darics (Curt. v. 2, 1 1
(n.c. 331),
;
;

and at Persepolis 120,000 talents (say £27,600,000) of Diodor. xvii. 71). In modern gold and silver (Curt. v. 6, 9 times the Persians converted the gold and silver into bars, so as to remove them if required (Janbert, " Voy. en Armenie et en
16, 19),
;

and in Coverdale's of Judg. i\. I. is found in Luther's version." The Rev. E. Venables (" liible Educator," vol. iv. p. 210) adds "that the same word is used in Cranmer and Tyndale for the money stolen by Micah from his mother (Judg. xvii. The kuen hundredth syluerhjnges.' " 2, 3), 4 For ee mj a more extended account of these pa 'Supplement to Hist, of Jew. Coinage' in "Num. Chron." N.S.
version
xvi. 5.

Acts xix.

19,

The German

silbcrling

1

'

Peree," p. 272, Paris, 1821
\i.

;

Grote,

" Hist,

of Greece," vol.

1876, vol. xvi. pp. 82-88.

p.

193

;

vol. xii. p. 4).

"

16

NTJMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

The word
Hebrew.
xxxvii.

" pieces " has
is

been
always
ix.

supplied in

the

A. V. for
the like,
vi.

a

word

understood
(Gen.

in

the

The rendering
28;
xlv.

"a
4;

thousand," or
xvi.

"of silver"

xx. 16;
viii.

22

1
j

Judg.
12,

5;

2 Kings

25;

Song

of

Solomon

11;

Hosea

iii.

2;

Zech.

xi.
is

13).

In similar passages, the word "shekels" occurs in the
this
is

Hebrew, and there

no doubt that
in

the

word understood in
in

all

these
(2

cases.
v.

The
5).

same word
In

is

supplied

connexion with
of
as

"gold"

only one

passage
gold,

Kings

several other

passages
;

a

similar

kind in connexion
is

with

the

A. V. supplies
silver,

the word
as

" shekels "
is

and

a similar expression
is

found in connexion with

and

there

not

much doubt

that a weight

intended, the

word understood

in this passage

also

would probably be " shekels."

The word
aTaOfiLov,

7p£?

is

generally translated
siclus,

by the LXX.
but sometimes
of

hihpa)(jjbov

or

aUXos,

sometimes

and by the Vulg. generally
as

stater,

and the term " didrachm
equal
in weight
to

was probably adopted
shekel.

the

common name

the _coin which was

the

The various

divisions

of the shekel:


xxiv.
rfj

Bekah, or half a shekel (5?p2,
xxxviii.
13,

Gen.

22;

LXX.

hpayjn]

;

Yulg.

duo

sicli;

Exod.

26

;

LXX.
or

(xxxix. 2) Spa-^pr] puia
is

ice<pa\f}

to r\piav rod gikKov.

In Exod. xxx.
sicli).

15, the

expression

7pETl rVXHti
(J^Tl,

;

LXX.
Sam.

tfpiav rov
ix.

BiSpdyyMov

;

Yulg. dimidium

Rebah,

quarter

shekel

1

8

;

LXX.

TerapTov

aU\ov

dpyvplov

;

Vulg.

quarto,

pars stater is argenti).

Oerah, or twentieth part of the shekel (Hlil, Exod.
iii.

xxx. 13;
obolus).

Levit. xxvii. 25;

Num.

47

;

xviii.

16

;

Ezek.
the
tertia

xlv.

12

;

LXX.

6f3o\6<;

;

Vulg.

Third part
Zvhpdyjiov
;

of

shekel

6j3E>n TVtihtf, Neh. x.

32—Heb.
the

33;

LXX.
(2)

Tpvrov

-rov

Vulg.

pais

sicli).

Three kinds of shekels appear
the sanctuary

to
(3)

be
the

mentioned:
shekel
of

(1)

shekel;

the

shekel of
|3K).

(EH/PH 7p#)

;

and

the

king's weight

(^SH

The

" shekel of the sanctuary " or " holy shekel," a term generally applied to the silver shekel,

but once to the gold
in

(Exod.

xxxviii.

24),

was probably the normal weight, and was kept
(2

the Temple.

The

" shekel of the king's weight "

Sam. xiv. 26) was connected with
the

the Assyrio-Babylonian

maneh

of

the

king as marked on

monuments from Nineveh,

and which in Palestine,
pp.

as well as in Nineveh,

was considered
fifteen-stater

as established weight (Brandis,

102,

103).

The Phoenician Asia Minor
and Palestine, and the
"Weights.]
xlv.

or

standard
struck

was in use in early
after
this

times in

Syria

Jewish

shekels

were

standard.

[See
1

Appendix A.

In Gen. xxxvii. 28 and

22 the

LXX.

has xp v(r

^

instead of SiSpaxinov,

apyipiov

or

&pyvpos.

The reason

for

the employment of this word in these passages cannot be explained.

CHAPTER

IT.

THE IXYEXTIOX OF COIXED MONEY.— THE MATERIALS EMPLOYED FOR MONEY.
The
title to

the invention of coined

money

1

is

a

question which

has heen often discussed.
earliest coins, not a single

In the countries where we should have expected to have found the
specimen has been discovered.

Egyptian money,
silver,

2 as stated in the previous chapter,

was probably

composed of rings of gold and

and Egypt never had a coinage
4

3

till

it

was introduced
In Assyria
have been

when

the country was conquered
tablets only,

by the Persians

and afterwards by the Greeks.
of

and Babylonia clay

commemorating grants

money

specified by weight,

found in considerable numbers; and in Phoenicia, a country most likely

to

have produced a coinage,
light. 5

no stamped pieces of an antiquity
Before
the

earlier

than the Persian rule have hitherto come to
into Greece
of
6

introduction of coined
of
6/3e\i<rKoi,
'

money
or
'

by Pheidon, king

of

Argos, there

was a currency
(Spa-^fiJ]).

spits

'

skewers,' six

which were considered a handful
of
silver?

Colonel

Leake 7 thought that they were pyramidal pieces
nails or bars of
is

but

it

seems
as

more probable that they were long
spits in the

iron or copper, capable of

being used

Homeric

fashion.

This

likely

from the

fact that six of

them made a handful,

which implies that they were
1

of a considerable size. 9
2
*

The terms employed bv the Greeks
>

apyvpiov, xp>7 uaTa
frpyvpos silver,
signify

and

vS/xur/ia.

and

this latter

for " money " are was called apyvpiov from word was itself sometimes used to
It

See
Sir

Chapter
G.

Egyptians

I., p. 9 and woodcut. Wilkinson says that the papyri state that the had unstamped copper money called "pieces of

"money"

(Soph. " Antig." 295).

All words connected

brass," which, like the gold and silver, was taken by weight,

as

with " money " were derived from ipyvpos and not from xpva6s, KaTapyvpSw " to bribe with money," hpyvpanoifioi " moneychan^fi>,"op7i;poKoiri(TT7iporap7iipoK07roj''acomei''" argt ntarius;

even in the time of

the
150).

Ftolemies

(" Fop.
4

Acct.
iv.

of

Anc.
3rd

Egyptians,"
5

vol.

ii.

p.

Herod,
pp.

166.
711,

Rawlinson,

Herod,

vol.

i.

"App."

710,

\.\

.

"silversmith," Acts six. 2t;
conflator ;

apyvpoxoiros apyvpoKoiru
vi.

;

ed. 1875.
6

conjhnt
xvii. 4)
;

A. V. "founder," Jer.

29
etc.

;

cf.

Judges

Coined money

is

not found in the time of Homer,
barter,
chiefly

but

apyvpo8r]KT]

"a

money-chest";

apyvpovSfxos, apyv(see Liddell

traffic

was carried

on by

with

oxen.

"The

pTn-pdry}! or

apyvpoiT<i)\T)s

"a

money-dealer,"

and Scott; Lenormant,

pp. 73. 174). however, one example of the employment of xpvoSt in .33schylus, 0S '' ' Apijs (Twi.La.Toiv (" Agam." 436, see Hussev, 6 xP v ra P- c"P
'

"La Monnaie dans l'Antiquite," vol. i. [See Appendix li. ix. Money-changers."] There is,

arms of Diomed are worth nine oxen, those of Glaucos are worth The tripod, which was the first a hundred ("II." vi. 236).
prize

for wrestlers in the Twenty-third
;

twelve oxen
at

the

woman

captive, skilled in
. .

• Weights and Monej ," chap.
vol.
i.

"App."),

and Rawlinson's Herod. but with apparent allusion to weight (Ka!
v. sect. 2;

four (" II." xxiii. 702-705). brought to Ithaca, she was purchased by Laertes for twenty

was valued at works of industry, When Eurucleia was
Iliad,

oxen

("Od."

i.

431),
p.

or for the value of
534).

them"

(Gladstone,

TaKavrovxos iv pixy SopJr, ver. 437). Xpr'j/uaTa signifies all that is needful for the employments of life, especially property, money (cf. Pindar, " Isthm." 1!. v. 17). tiS/ua/ia from v6/jlos, anything recognized by established law, hence current coin (cf.

".Inventus Mumli." of unwrought iron ("
xviii.
vi

Sometimes by means of masses
ix.

II." xxiii. S26), or by quantities of silver

and gold, especially of gold (" II."
507;
xxiii.

122, 279

;

xix.

247

;

269;

"Od."

iv.

129;

viii.

393;

ix.

202, etc.),

Demosth. "contra Timocrat." ed. Didot, p. 367; Aristoph. •Xub."247). [See Chapter VI. sect. F.] The word occurs on coins of Seuthes I. king of the Thracian Odrysae, B.C.

hieh latter metal, mentioned in the expression rd\avTov

xpwov,
ffell.

KOMMA

may have been
"

the only one measured by weight.
o.s.
vol.
xvii.

"Num.

Chron."

p.

203;

"Num.

124, and

i-

used bj Aristophanes ("

Ran." 726)

to express " the

striking

of

£EV0A KOMMA
coin of Seuthes there

money," hence that which is struck coin; a "the money oi Seuthes." On another
is

App." i). 1. " The pyramidal lumps

the legend

JEV0A APTVPION

"the money
xx. p. 151
.

ol

Seuthes" Dr. Birch, "Num. Chron." 0.8. vol. In Dion Cassius (liv. 26) the triumviri monetales

of metal (copper) issued at Agrigentum, having for type, a crab, eagle, etc., and on their bases '.'. .'., ami •• are suggested to be " Coin-weights (?)" representing the Tetras, Trias, ami Wexas ("Cat. of Greek Coins in British

Mn
9

i

urn,

Sicily," pp. 23, 24).
vol.
i.

are called oi rh rov vo/xianaros aSfi/ia ntTaxtipi(6/j.cvoi.

Rawlinson, Herod,

"App."

p.

715.
;?

18
There are two accounts relative
struck in xEgina, the other that
its

NUMISMATA OEIENTALIA.
to the invention of coined

money,

1

the one that

it

was

first

organization was due to the Lydians.
2

The former opinion was

maintained by a distinguished numismatist, the late Col. Leake.
to
teal

The

principal authority appealed

is

that

of

the

Parian marble.
iv Alylvr)

This states
eiroiriaev,

'.40' ov

.

.

Sav 6 'Apyelos

....

avecrKevaae

vo/iia/Ma

dpyupovu

ev$e/caTo<i

wv

a<p'

'HpaKkeowi?

But the
was not

text of
first

this chronicle only declares that

Pheidon stamped
in iEgina, but

silver
it

coins, not that

he was the

who
done

did so

;

and that
at

he struck them an
earlier

is

not

said

that

this

also

elsewhere or

date,

nor does

it

determine that the ^Eginetans had not coined
states
is

money

before

Pheidon. 4
for him,
5

Ephorus expressly
and the inference

that

Pheidon employed
people of

the
at

iEginetans
this time

to strike

money

that the

Argos were

ignorant of the method of
in

stamping money, and that the iEginetans had made some progress
has

the

art. 6

This

supposition

been shown to be highly probable by Mr. Borrell, who
to

attributes a coin

on which are two dolphins, and on the reverse an incuse square,
while the

Pheidon
hence

king of Argos

;

known iEginetan
from their

coins,

marked with a

turtle or a tortoise (and

called xekdiivai) , are clearly

style of

an

earlier date.

The weight, and the general form

and

fabric of the coins

seem

also to favour this conclusion.
is

The reason

of the adoption of this

device of two dolphins for coins of Pheidon

unknown, but Mr. Borrell has ingeniously, but
neither
suit

not
coins

conclusively,

conjectured

that

"

it

would

the

-ZEgineta3

to

impress

the

they fabricated for Pheidon

with the private mark or symbol of their own people,
it."
7

nor for Pheidon to have permitted

The other account
were the
1

is

derived from the authority of Herodotus,

who

says,

"they (the Lydians)

first

nation to introduce the use of gold and silver coin," 8 a statement confirmed
If

by

It is perhaps hardly necessary to allude to the supposed

earliest

Chinese coins
(?),

(?)

called

pu

coins,

made

to

represent

anterior to Gyges,

any of these dates were correct, Pheidon would of course be king of Lydia. Weissenborn ("Beit, zur
p.

a fork

and

tao coins, representing a knife,

been

made

rs.c.
ii.

2218!
213).

(Dickinson,

"Num.

and said to have Chron." n.s.

Griech. Alterthuinskunde,"

18,

Jena,

1844) vindicates the

1862, vol.

p.

of bullion currency, for as

They must be included in the age "the Egyptian and Arabian bought

emendation of Pausanias proposed by some former critics, altering the "8th Olympiad" of Pausanias into the "twenty-eighth," thus showing that Pheidon cannot have flourished earlier than
B.C.

bracelet which he wore,

cup which he used, or the ring and what commodity he wanted, the Chinese did the same with his copper knife, fork, and spoon" (Dickinson,

with the gold or

silver

600

(cf.

Herod,

vi. 127, ed.

Rawlinson), but his arguments
of Greece," vol.
ii.

are not considered
note) to be

by Grote (" Hist,
forcible,

p. 315,

op. cit).
2

"Numismata

Hellenica,
seq. vol.

Appendix";
i.

"Num.

Chron."

o.s. vol. xvii. p.
3 *

202

and certainly not to justify so grave BM alteration in the number of Pausanias." Curtius ("Griech. Geschichte," vol. i. pp. 206-209) adopts the proposal of "Weissenborn, to which also Lenormant ("La Mon. dans l'Antiq."
i.

" very

" Frag. Hist. Graec."

ed. Didot, p. 546.

vol.

p.

129) has

given

some

prominence.

In

this

case

The date of Pheidon according to the marble is b.c. 895, which when reduced to the dates of Eratosthenes will give B.C. 869 (Clinton, F. H. vol. i. p. 247). The testimonies of
viii. p. 358) and Pausanias (vi. 22, 2) Olympiad which Pheidon celebrated (which according to Pausanias was the 8th) was omitted in the Elean register, and as no Olympiads were registered before that of Coroebus, it is manifest that this 8th Olympiad was B.C. 748 The account of Plutarch (" Amat. Narrat." 2) (Clinton, I.e.).

Pheidon would be posterior n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. 252
part
iii.

to Gyges.
;

p.

7)

supposes that

Head ("Num. Chron." " Internat. Num. Orient." vol. i. Pheidon "some time before the

Ephorus

(ap.

Strabo,

establish that the

middle of the 7th century instituted a mint in the island of JEgina."

Herodotus
5

(vi.

127, ed. Eawlinson)

only says that Pheidon

established weights and measures throughout the Pelopounese.

"E<popos

8'

iv Alylvri

&pyvpov irparov
lib.
viii.

Koirr\va'i

(pr)<nv

{mo

QelSavos.
6

Ephorus ap. Strabo,
irpwToi
(Alyivr/rai)

p.

519, ed. Falconer,

makes the beginning

of his reign

47 or 48 years before the

Oxford, 1837.

Bockh ("Ad. Corp. Inscr. foundation of Syracuse, B.C. 734. Grcec." No. 2374), Miiller (" iEginetica," p. 63), and Clinton
(I.e.)

Ko!

vS/xio-fia

eV<fyacTO

ko!

olvtwv

inX-hdi)
7

v6fj.io-/j.a

Alyivaiov.

JSlian. " Var. Hist."

xii. 10.

place

him between b.c 783 and b.c 744; Grote ("Hist,
ii.

of

" Num. Chron."
UpHroi 8e

o.s. vol. vi. p.

42

seq.
v6fuafj.a -^pvaov

Greece,"

vol.

p.

315, ed. 1869) between B.C. 770 and B.C.

H

avffpwiraiv

tuv

i]p.us

i8/u.ei>
i.

koX

730, and Rawlinson (Herod, vol.i. "

App."

p. 711)

about B.C. 750.

apyvpov Ko^dfievoi ixpvo-avro.

Herod,

94.

;

EARLIEST COINS OF LYDIA.
Xenoplianes of Colophon.
successfully
1

19
Lydian
origin,

Histoiy

is

certainly in favour of a
in

which has heen
claims
of

argued by
2

Prof.

Rawlinson,
it

a

short

essay on the

respective

the

Lydians and Greeks
scale of weights

and " since

is

now

universally admitted that Pheidon introduced his
it

and measures (known as the Eginetan) from Asia, 3

is

at least not unlikely

that he
it

may have

been beholden to the Asiatics for his other innovation.

On

the whole, then,

may

be said that authority and probability are alike in favour of a Lydian rather than a
the invention."
4

Grecian origin of
it is

In order, however, to arrive

at

a

satisfactory conclusion,

necessary to examine the coins of these respective countries that have been preserved to us.
It has

been well observed by M. Lenormant, 5 that taking
of

either the eledrum of
is

Lydia,

or the silver

JEgina,
careful

it

is

difficult

to decide

at

first

between them, which
the

the

most

ancient, yet on
little

examination the lumps or ingots

— for

early coins of

Lydia are

more

—seem

to represent the transition

between the ancient form of metallic circulation
really
relief

and 'money proper'; whilst the coins of .ZEgina, though more irregular in form, are

more truly money,

since " to the

hollow stamp of the

reverse

is

opposed

the

type

in

produced by the coin-die, yet unknown at the time of the fabrication of the eledrum of Gyges."

The

earliest coins of
(b.c.

Lydia are of eledrum, and were issued during the reigns

of

Gyges

and Ardys

700-637).
;

They were
the other

of

two kinds

— one

for

commerce with Babylon by
coast

land, weighing 1G8"4 grains

for dealings with

the

Ionian

towns, weighing

224

grains.

They "bear no type

—the
6

obverse being plain, and the reverse marked with three
centre oblong and

deep incuse depressions, the one in the
certain similar smaller coins
of the larger of the

the

others

square
'

— together
'

with

which appear

to represent the \, the \, the

T T and the T T parts
,

two

staters."

The

stater here

represented

is

a specimen

of the former,

and was probably issued

at Sardes.

Weight.

Obverse.
Plain
[ttjpus fasciatux).

Reverse.

1668

Three incuse depressions, that in the centre oblong,
the others square, within the central oblong a
fox ??
7

running: to

left.
i.

(Brit.

Mus.

— Madden,
ix.

"Jew. Coinage,"

p.

Head, " Internat. Num. Orient." vol. Chron." n.s. 1875, vol. xv. pi. vii. No. 1.)
12;

part

iii.

pi.

i.

No.

1.

;

"Num.

1

Pollux,

83;

ef.

Fu>tathiiH ad Dionys. Periget. v.
i.

8-10.

system of a Babylonian weight, and to consider
to

it

a standard

2 3

Rawlinson, Herodotus, vol.

" App."

p.

700

seq.
di

Completely national ami sin juris, hut as the proof of his assertion
graof
is

The weight adopted by Pheidon "appears
oi tin-

to be only a

appear

in his

" sixth hook," not yet

out, it is impossible to

dation

Phoenician silver standard, the
tic
is

maximum weight

say
1

bow

far his

views

may he
vol.
i.

correct.

the earliest .ZEgini

staters being as higb as

the avi rage weight

not more than 100 grains "

212 grains, though Head. ".Num.

Rawlinson, Herod,

"App."

p. 712.

Chron."
vol.
i.

n.-. 1s7">, vol. xv. p.
iii.

part
p.

vol.
coin;

i.

252; "Internat. Num. Orient." Lenormant .'•• l.a Mon. dan- I'Antiq." 130) seems however to disagree with the idea that the
p.
7).

Mon. dans I'Antiq." vol. i. pp. 132-1.34. 6 Head, "The Coinageof Lydia and Persia," in the " Internat. Num. Orient." vol. i. part iii. p. 11 "Num. Chron." s.>.
"Hist, de
la
;

5

1875, vol.
7

w.

p.

256.
fox on the reverse, which on other specimens

jina can be taken link to a derivation from the

The supposed

20

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
The next period extends from the
accession of

Sadyattes
ceases,

in B.C. 637, to that of

Croesus

in B.C. 068.

About

b.c.

600 the issue of pale electrum

and

staters

of

comparatively
called

pure gold, weighing 248 grains, were issued at Sardes
the Phocaic standard. 1

by Alyattes on what has been

Weight.
248

Obverse.

Reverse.
Incuse square,

Head

of lion to left

with open mouth

and tongue protruding.
(Brit.

Mus.

—Madden,
the
its

"Jew. Coinage,"

p.

12;

Head,
n.s.

"Internat.
vol.

Num.
pi.

Orient."

vol.

i.

part

iii.

pi.

i.

No. 7;

"Num.

Chron."

1875,

xv.

x.

No.

8.)

On
and in

accession

of

Croesus

(b.c.

568), " the coinage of
in

electrum

was entirely abolished,

place

a

double currency in pure gold and

silver

was issued," partly on the

Babylonic and partly on the Euboic standard. 2

The specimen here represented
of the Darics.

is

a stater of

the Euboic standard

and was the prototype

Weight.
125

Obverse.
Fore-parts of lion and bull facing

Reverse.

Oblong incuse, divided into two

parts.

each other.
(Brit.

Mus.— Madden, "Jew.

Coinage,"

p.

12;

Head,
n.s.

"Internat.
1875,
vol.

Num.
pi.

Orient." vol.
x.

i.

part

iii.

pi.

i.

No. 10;

"Num.

Chron."

xv.

No.

1.)

This coin was issued at Sardes, and the lion and bull facing represent the

Arms

of that city. 3

As
207

to -ZEgina, it has to

been recently demonstrated 4 that this
Pheidon), issued
pieces
of
to
electrum,
us.

island, about the year B.C.

680

(previous

the time of

of

which the

stater

weighing
Milesian

grains, the j,

and —, have been preserved
has heen recognized by

These were struck on

the

perhaps takes a more definite form,

the place

M. Lenormant
a

("

Mon. Boy. de

la

Lydie," Baris, 1876) to be

Hor. "Odes,"
fHaaadpa or

symbol of the Lydian Dionysus, whose name Bassarens (of. i. 18, 11) is perhaps connected with the word
j3oo-(rapis,

Mr. Head, 2 Head,

where money originated (Brof. "Num. Chron." n.s. 1870, vol. "Num. Chron." n.s. 1875,

Curtius,

trans,

by

x. p. 110).

vol.

xv.

p.

257;

"

Internat.
3

Num.

Orient." vol.

i.

part

iii.

p. 21.

a fox.

But the reviewer of M. Lenormant's

Croesus sent the image of a golden lion to the temple at
i.

above-quoted work states
xvii. p. 77)

("Num. Chron."
a

n.s.

1877,

vol.

Delphi (Herod,
Cybele, the

50;

cf.

84),

and the

lion

was sacred to

that as regards this particular coin "
fox what

M. Lenormant
is

"mother of the gods," who was worshipped at Sardes,
generally represented as accompanied or drawn in her
lions

has improved into the semblance of

merely the

and who
chariot
iii.

is

rough unworked surface of the metal within the incuse depression." Head, opp. cit. The attribution of this coin to Miletus (Brandis, p. 394), and its supposed great antiquity, it having
1

been considered by Burgon to be the oldest of
has been satisfactorily opposed by Mr.

all

Greek

coins,

" Bhiloct." 391-402; Virg. " ^n." ("Num. Chron." o. s. vol. ii. p. 216) that all of these coins that have been discovered have been found within a radius of thirty miles from Sardes.

by

(Soph.

111-113).

Borrell

says

Head

;

nor was Bhocaea

4

Head,

"Num.

Chron."

n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. 269.

EARLIEST COINS OE iEGINA.
standard, slightly reduced, and were followed
standard, introduced

21
silver coins

by the
(?).

first

Greek

based on the same

by Pheidon about

B.C.

669

These pieces

bear on the obverse either a land or sea tortoise
the Phoenician goddess of the sea

—the

emblem

of

fr(k**^"fik%

#

and

of trade

l

— and

the earliest

have on the reverse

a rude

incuse

stamp.

Gradually the

rude

stamp

gives place to an

indented square, divided into four

compartments

by

raised

lines,

one quarter
as
to

being
five

again divided

by
and

a

diagonal
shortly

line

so

form

compartments, 2
for

after

the

letters

AIT or AITI

AITINHTON
a

are

introduced into
a dolphin

the upper part of the square, and
generally into one
of
is

figure of

the lower parts.

On

the

specimen

here given the
fashion
It

A

I

on the obverse, and the IN [TIN and reading enigmatically

—boustrophedon
an

— THN?]
may

on the reverse.
fairly

then be

assumed that the

first

idea

of

impress and

the invention of

actual coin should be

assigned to Lydia, while the honour of perfecting the coin by adding

a reverse design

may
as

be given to the iEginetans. 3

The three metals
coinage were,

employed by the Greeks and Romans for the
gold,
silver,

fabrication

of

their

at the present day,

and copper.
is

Other metals and materials

are said, however, to have been sometimes used.
for

Iron

mentioned as having been employed
all

money by

the Lacedajmonians and Byzantines, 4 but in
5

probability this

money

consisted of

nails or bars of iron.
to the
1

Notwithstanding the perishable nature of this metal, an iron
(b.c.

coin, attributed

Bactrian king Hermaous
i

138-120), has been preserved to
Chinese
class,

us.

6

A
the

nickel coinage
identified.

was

Head. op. it. There are usually only

but have not yet been
transliteration of

Mr. Thomas
but does
of

five

compartments on the reverses of
a reverse of eight divisions
is
ii.

concurs in the
not

visible

letters,

the iEirinetan ruin-, but in the sale catalogue of the coins of

concur in

the

tentative restorations, nor does he accept
to

Mr. Henry Pershouse,
mentioned
p. 127. not<
3
1

lot 58,

the attribution of the coin
rajasa
title
is

Ilcrnueus.
;

The
the

title

Raja
been

(Dickinson,
.

"Num.
cit.

Chron." n.s.

1862, vol.

is

exceptionally adopted

Tradata.
a

Since this

by Azas was written

Hernucus'
coin

second

has

Cf. Dickinson, op.

published with
vol. p. 216.

woodcut
n.s.
is
is

of the obverse

Pollux,

vii.

106.
i.

("Num. Chron."
" Bars
used
in

1879, vol. xix.

by Mr. P. Gardner pp. 275-276), but no
coin,

5

Lenonnant, " La Mon. dans l'Antiq."
are
still

certain

attribution
later

made.
also

Another iron

but smaller

of iron Africa.

used in
is

trading with the natives of Central
still,

and of
copies

date,

engraved, resembling the degraded

Iron

money

or was not long since,
its

Japan

lor small

values,

hut

discontinued [see note 6].
countries at the pn sen! da]

from the mint has been The use of pure iron coins in civilized
issue
is

out of the question, both because of

the

cli'

apness

"l

tie-

m<

t;il

and

eau-e the coins would soon

lo e

the sharpness of their impressions by rusting, and become dirty and
easily counterfeited.

the Northern districts of and sixth centuries a.d. It is to he remembered that the Chinese were in the habit of coining iron cash, and have been imitated by the Japanese, who have an irim coin of the value of about one hundredth part of a farthing, principally used for almsgivings and offerings to the gods
of

Scythian coins issued in
first

India between the

Bui

it

is

quite possible thai iron or steel

(J. "White,

"Num.

Chron."

n.s.

1880, vol. xx. pp.

171-176).

might still he alloved with other metals for the coining oi pence" Trot.. I, rons, "Money and the Mechanism of Exchange,"
p. 43, 1876).
6

See note
In

5.

the

province of

Kordol'an,

in

the interior of Africa,
a piece oi

the

This piece, which was picked up in one of the buried
BThoten,
is

cities

most common money in circulation is the section of a mushroom, and
value
is

iron,

not unlike
Its

called

near

in

the

possession of Sir T.

Douglas Forsyth,

about
i.

2\>/.

(A.

T.

Eolroyd,

"Num.

Qasshahshah. Chron."

o.s.

who kimlh made at the
raja

sent

British

me the following description of it, which was Museum. Obv. In Arian letters Mdhdrajana
Eorse
to

1839,

vol.

p.

210).

At Loggun
Is

thin

plates of

iron are in

use, these ate

made

into parcels of ten

and twelve, according to
in

[dirajasa
of the

tradalasa Herama\yasa.

righl

the

wi

i

'M. and 30 of these parct

are equal

value to
in

in rottola

Hera

king's
':)

name not
in

clear).

Rev.
letters

A

peculiar

device

or a dollar (l)enham and Clapperton,

"Travels

Africa

in

(symbol for cash

the midst

of

which seem of the

1822-1824,"

p. 237).

22

NUMISMAT.V ORIENTALIA.
(circ.

introduced by the Bactrian kings Pantaleon and Agathocles

b.c.

246),

which was copied
;

by Euthydemus
to

(circ. B.C.

225).

l

Platinum was tried in Russia from 1828 to 1845

but owing

the

difficulty

of

melting
Tin
is

it,

and the
to

cost

of

making

the

coins,

they were withdrawn
I.,

from
(b.c.

circulation. 3

said

have been struck

by Dionysius

tyrant

of

Syracuse

406-367), 3 and some of his bronze coins are supposed by M. Six to be mixed with a
quantity of
5

certain

tin

aud

to

be the pieces referred

to.

4

There

is

a notice in the law of
at

the Digest
of
tin

of of

false

tin

coins.

Some

years

since there

was discovered

Lyons a number

pieces
6

Septimius Severus, Caracalla, Geta, and Julia Domna, which M. Lenormant

considers

to

have been really issued for circulation, and probably after the expedition of
tin

Severus to Britain, from whence the
moulds, are also

had been obtained.

British
to

tin coins,

cast in

wooden

known

to
tin

exist,

though they do not appear
to

have been current in that
Leaden money
is

part of Britain where

was produced, nor
8

be of any great number. 7

frequently mentioned by the poets,

but lead was more frequently emjdoyed for the

tessera?.

True

coins,

however,

exist,

struck in Egypt, some with the

name MEMOIC,
Glass

9

in

Gaul, 10 and
in

by the kings

of Numidia, of types similar to their copper pieces. 11

money was empk^ed

Egypt under
1

the

Upper Empire, 12 under the Byzantine monarchs, 13 and perhaps under the Arabs. 14
At
vol.

Gen. Cunningham, "Num. Chron." n.s. 1868, vol. viii. Dr. Flight, 1868, vol. viii. 282 1873, vol. xiii. p. 188 E. Thomas, " Internat. Num. Orient." vol. i. part. i. p. 305 Nickel is only used as an alloy. p. 43, note 5, p. 44, note 1.
p.
; ; ;

the city of Tavoy in

Ava

tin pieces called

Danga were

in

circulation for
ii.

small change only (Marsden,
Nightingale, "

"Num.

Orient."

p.

806

;

Num. Journ."

vol.ii. pp. 59,

60

;

S. B. [? Birch],
8

"Num.

Chron."

o.s. 1844, vol. vi. p. 91). et

owe which amounts to as much as 20 per cent., while the mass of metal, or upwards of 77 per cent., is of pure copper, a proportion which differs but little from the 5 aud 10 centime pieces of Belgium, which consist of

The

analysis

made by Dr. Flight shows that

these coins

G. Eiuk, " De veteris numismatis potentia
Longperier, " Rev.
Longperier,
Garrucci,

qualitate,"

their whiteness entirely to the presence of nickel,

p. 34, 1701.
9 10
11

Num."

1861, p. 407.
p. 253.

25'55 of nickelani 74-4 of copper [see

Chapter

I., p.

13, note 6].

pp. 412-416. publishes several other leaden pieces, some of which

"Rev. Num." 1861, "Rev. Num." 1862,
(cf.

Garrueci

may have

Gen. Cunningham thinks nickel was procured from China, and may be intended under the names of " white iron," " white or silvery brass," as recorded by Quintus Curtius (" Vit. Alex." ix. 8) and by Crinagoras (" Antholog. Grseca," Lips. vi. 261). Dr. Flight observes that it formed a very constant constituent
of

served for coins
vol.
i.

Lenormant,
British

"La Mon.
Museum.

dans l'Antiq."
leaden

p. 211).
is

A
in

specimen of a leaden stater of Philip II. king
the

of

Macedon

" In 1635

tutenag,

some of the alloys known and white copper.

to the Chinese, especially paokfong,

were used for change, at the rate of a farthing a piece, in Massachusetts. At the present day it is still current in Burmah, being passed by weight for small payments" (Prof. Jevous,
bullets

— In

1869 and 1870-1 pence and

" Money, etc."
12
13
14

p. 44).

half-pence were executed in nickel at the English mint for the

Longperier, " Rev.
Longperier,

Num."

1861, p. 412.
p. 413.

colony of Jamaica, but were discontinued
nickel rose, and the
alloy for the ten

when

the price

of

"Rev. Num." 1861,

German Government have chosen the same and five pfennig pieces of its new monetary

S.L.Poole,

perier,

" Rev.

"Num. Chron. "n.s. 1872, vol. xii.p. 109; LongNum." 1861, p. 413, note; Lenormant, " La Mon.
vol.
i.

system (Prof. Jevons, " Money, etc." p. 50). 2 Prof. Jevons, " Money, etc." p. 48.
3 4

dans l'Antiq."

("Num. Chron."
but see Lenor-

n.s. 1873, vol. xiii. p.

Aristot.

"

Num.

" Oeconom." ii. 2; Pollux, Chron." n.s. 1875, vol. xv.
dans l'Antiq." vol.
i.

ix. 79.

p.

29;

1877, vol. x. p. 98) to of opinion that they are standard coin weigh Is

Mr. E. T. Rogers objects "J.R.A.S." n.s. 60 these glass discs being considered coins, and is
p. 214, note 3.
;
;

and be

is

supported

mant,
5

"La Mon.

p. 211, note '>

xlviii. tit. 19.

" La Mon. dans l'Antiq." vol. i. p. 213. 7 Evans, " Auc. Brit. Coins," p. 123. "The kings of England often coined tin. In 1680 tin farthings were struck by
6

by DeGoeje ("The Academy," 5 Feb. 1876, p. 196), who translates " The weights for money the Arabic of Mokaddasi as follows {sandj, from the Persian seng = stone) are made of glass, and bear the same stamp as the ordinary pounds, viz. the name of
:

the prince of the faithful."

He

adds that Prof. Karabecet of

Charles II., a stud of copper being inserted in the middle of the
coin to

render

counterfeiting

more

difficult.

Tin

ball-pence

and farthings were also issued in considerable quantities in the Tin coins were reign of William and Mary (1690 to 1691). formerly employed among the Javanese, Mexicans, and many other peoples, and the metal is said to be still current by weight in the straits of Malacca " (Prof. Jevons, "Money, etc." p. 44).

Vienna " had come already to the conclusion that the so-called glass coins were in reality weights, and that he held the testimony Mr. J. G. Chester ("The of Mokaddasi to be decisive." Academy," 5 Feb. 1876, p. 123) is opposed to Mr. Rogers' theory, but remarks that "these glass roundels are often found
in the weight-boxes of the drug-sellers in the bazaars of Cairo

and elsewhere."

LEATHER MONEY, ETC
Leather

23

money

is

reported as having been employed by the Spartans, 1 the Carthaginians, 2
It

and the Romans. 3

was

also in use in

China in

a.d. 692. 4

In

later

times
the

leather

money
were

was

more

prevalent.

Under William

I.,

king of

Sicily

(1154-116G),

Sicilians

compelled to bring gold and silver to Palermo
a kind

and other towns,
5

and received in exchange
earliest

of

leather
is

money bearing the monogram of the king

The

specimen that I
in 1574,

have seen

that struck

by the town

of

Leyden when besieged by the Spaniards
Francesco Cornaro
is

and an example
It
is

of a sequin in
rarity.

leather of

also

in

the British

Museum.

of
of

great

Leather

money
6

is

said

to

have circulated in Russia as
shells

late as the

reign

Peter the Great

(1689-1725).

Wood and

are

also

quoted as materials for

money," and moulds of haked clay of gold and silver coins of different countries, belonging
principally to the middle of the fifth

century

B.C.,

have been discovered by M. A. Salinas,
fiduciare,

which are thought

to

have had " une circulation

mais d'un caractere tout prive,

comme

celle

des billets de credit dont la loi autorise dans certains pays l'emission par des
particulieres." 8

institutions

At the

present day countries

little

advanced in civilization use

either ornamental articles or vegetable productions or

manufactured materials for money. 9

1

Seneca, v. 14.

* Aristides,

" Orat. Platon."

p. 145,

explained by the Scholiast
'

imaginary money of account, consisting of 100 copper copecks (Prof. Jevons, " Money, etc." p. 71).

mean that they did not actually make coins of leather,' but exchanged skins of animals 'with each other (Eckhel, " Doct. Num. Vet." vol. i. p. xxi). " In the traffic of the Hudson's Bay Company with the North American Indians furs, in spite
to of their differences of quality

Num. Vet." vol. i. p. xx. Lenormant, " La Mon. dans l'Antiq." vol. i. p. 216. 9 In 1851 more than 1000 tons of cowries were brought from the East Indies to Liverpool, to be exported thence to the West
7

Eckhel, " Doct.

s

and

size,

long formed the medium

Coasts of Africa and exchanged for palm

oil.

In the British

of exchange

....

and even

after the use of coin

had become

common among
money
3

of

the Indians, the skin was commonly used as the account" (Prof. Jevons, "Money, etc." pp. 20, 21).

West Indian islands, pins, a dram of whisky, and in the
(J.

slice of

bread, a pinch of snuff, a
parts of South America,

central

soap, chocolate, cocoa nuts, eggs, etc., serve the

same purpose

Suida.s, 8.V.

aaadpia.

Tates, " Descriptive Cat. of a collection of current coins of
exhibited in the Exhibition of 1862").

memorial was presented to the Chinese Empress Tset'ien, which the following words occur: " The treasuries were emptii d, si ildiers and horses exhausted, and envoys despatched in yearly and monthly succession, till money was made of leatln r, and coins reckoned by the string," etc. (S. W. Bushell, M.D., " Early History of Tibet," translated from the Chinese, in
in a.d. 692, in

4

A

all nations,

The value

of the cowrie in India

"used

to be about
is

rupee, at which rate each shell

one worth about the 200th part of
shells for

5000

a penny.

.

.

.

Among

the Fijians whales' teeth served in the

place of cowries and white teeth were exchanged for red teeth,

somewhat

in the ratio of shillings to sovereigns.

" J.R.A.S." n.s. 1880,
5 6

vol. xii. p. 452).

at Caracas, about 30 cacao nuts were

... In 1521, worth one penny English.
.
.

J.

G.

Pfister,

"Rev. Num." 1842,
coined,

p. 52.

Prof. Jevons, " Money, etc." p. 20.
after

and

money was

" bars

of silver

In Russia, both before " were still employed,

marked off by divisions, but not otherwise separated, which marks indicated numeral values (Sir E. Bayley, com. to Mr. E. Thomas). Sir E. Bayley added that the word Ruble means " to
cut."

Straw money, consisting of small mats, called libougos, woven out of rice straw, and worth about \\d. each, circulated until 1694 in the Portuguese possessions in Angola. Salt circulated in Abyssinia, Sumatra and Mexico" (Prof. Jevons,
.
.

.

"Money,

etc."

pp.

24-29).
of

See also an article by Sir J.

Before the time of Peter the Great, the Ruble was an

Lubbock on the 'History Nov. 1879, p. 789).

Money' ("Nineteenth Century,"

CHAPTER

III.

WRITING.

The
the

ancient

Hebrew

character

is

acknowledged
deejfly,

to

have been the same
into

as,

or an offshoot of

Phoenician.
it

Without

entering

therefore,

the

question of the invention of

Writing,

will

be desirable to consider briefly the opinions

advanced by palaeographers and

scholars as to the origin of the Phoenician itself.

That writing was used
certain,

at

a

very remote period by the Egyptians and Babylonians

is

and

it

is

not

therefore

surprising

that advocates have been found to refer to one or
its

the other the source of that alphabet, which in

turn became the parent of the letters of the
ancient

Western Nations.

The Hieroglyphic system
express letters or
the

of

the

Egyptians consists of a certain

number
symbolic
assigned

of

figures used to
to

syllables,

and a vast number of ideographic or

forms devoted
to the sixth

representation of
(circ.

words.
its

The use
object

of

the Hieratic writing

is

dynasty

B.C.

2200),

l

and

was the writing Hieroglyphics
classical

on papyrus with greater ease and expedition. 2
writers, the

According to the united testimonies of
earliest

Egyptians

are

spoken of as the
states

instructors of

other nations in writing,

and Tacitus 3 more expressly
Egyptians.

that

letters

were adopted by the Phoenicians from the

There are three opinions as
it

to

the origin of the so-called Phoenician alphabet:
it

4

1.

That

was derived from Egypt.
pictorial alphabet at

2.

That

originated in Babylon.

3.

That

it

was produced from

an early
1.

home.

Paravey, Salvolini, Charles Lenormant, and more recently Halevy have endeavoured to
that
5

prove

the Phoenicians

derived
this

their

alphabet
lies

immediately from
serious

the

Hieroglyphics, but

De Rouge
1

has shown that

theory

open to

objections,

and has brought
Museum
is

This date

is

"

Diet, of the Bible," s.v. Egypt),

taken from Mr. Poole's calculations (Smith's where the first dynasty and

geometrical papyrus in the British
the Hyksos
side of the
;

of the age of to set

so that

we have another papyrus

by the
to

the accession of

Menes is assigned to b.c. 2700. Lepsius has placed the commencement at b.c. 3892, and Bunsen 200 years
but according to Poole
to exist
(I.e.)

Papyrus Prisse (Prof. Sayce, Mr. Thomas).
2

MS. communication

later,
a

these calculations are based on

The formation

of the Hieratic from the Hieroglyphic

is

statement of the false Manetho.

The

earliest Hieratic

writing

clearly seen in the Tables of

Brugsch (" Grammaire Demotique,"
iii.

known

at Paris,

is said to be on the papyrus of M. Prisse d' Avenues, which has been published by M. Chabas in the " Revue It is supposed to be of the Archeologique " (vol. xv. p. 1). It was assigned by the Rev. Mr. Heath, in the sixth dynasty.

1855).
3

Pliny,
4

" Ann." xi. 14 "Nat. Hist."
note)
'

;

cf.

Lucan, " Pharsal."
cf. vii.

ver.

220-224

;

v.

12;

56.

Prof.
104,

Rawlinson
takes

("Contemporary Review," Aug.
exception to
the

1870,

"Monthly Review" (July, 1856), to who was one of the Shepherd Kings
Mr. Poole
p.
is

a Phoenician king, Assa,
of the fifteenth dynasty.

p.

term

'

Phoenician,' and

would prefer

Cadmean,' as proposed by the
'

late

Mr. Deutsch.
p. 3) prefers

inclined to this latter opinion (see
i.

175

;

Joseph. " contr. Apion,"

14).
is

" Hone ./Egypt." To whatever dynasty
it is

Dr. "W. "Wright ("North British Review," Oct. 1870,
to designate the alphabet as
5

Shemitie.'

Hieratic writing

may be

assigned,

it

certain that

not of a

" Sur l'Origine Egyptienne de l'Alphabet Phenicien," publ.

later date than b.c. 2000.

Eiseulohr has

discovered that the

in the

"Revue

de

1'

Instruction publique," 8 Sept. 1859.

DERIVATION OF THE PHOENICIAN FROM THE HIERATIC.
forward a more probable supposition,
basis of the Hieratic,
viz.

25

that the

Phoenicians

framed their alphabet on the

by

selecting a certain

number
In

of characters sufficient for the purpose,

and

rejecting altogether the ideographic forms.

support of his

view he compares the alphabet
(circ.

on the Phoenician monument of Esmunazar, King of Sidon
with that found on one of the most ancient papyri

b.c.

600)

'

[Plate,

col. 4],

known

to exist in the Hieratic character (the

Papyrus

Prisse) [Plate, col. 1],

which

is

anterior to the eighteenth dynasty (b.c. 1500),

and hence

he concludes that they probably borrowed their alphabet during the sojourn of the Shepherd

Kings in Egypt. 2
here
taken.
3

If not absolutely proved, yet
position
of

many

circumstances tend to confirm the view

The geographical
sea- faring

the

Phoenicians, and their
to

known

character as a
barter
their

commercial and
wares, and
of
it

nation,

would lead them immediately

Egypt

to

would not be long before they would naturally

feel

sensible of

the necessity
to

a

less

complex

medium than
says, 4

the

Egyptian
to

alphabet
give
us

afforded

in

order

maintain
brief

their intercourse.

Sir

Gardner Wilkinson seems

the
is

real

solution, in

but

precise words.

He
.

"The

claim to real alphabetical writing
in

certainly in favour of the

Phoenicians.
of

.

.

For while the Egyptians
our era) the
first
first

the

Hieroglyphic

and Hieratic had
the

(upwards
a

2500

years

before

germ of the alphabetic system,
the

Phoenicians,
5

highly practical people,
alphabet must have

struck

out

idea

of a simple
to

and regular
5

alphabet."

This

been used and even communicated

Greece

long before the Demotic
b.c.), 7

form

of writing

was introduced into Egypt (about the seventh century
benefit

and one cannot

help supposing, that in return for the

conferred on the Phoenicians

by the primitive

mode

of

writing

in

Egypt, this nation of merchants must have considerably influenced the

Egyptians in causing them to adopt the more perfect phonetic system of the Demotic writing,

which in
1

its

form bears even some resemblance
it

to the Phoenician letters.
those of the earlier Hieratic
in regarding
it is

This

is

the date assigned to
says
it

Rouge
2

(I.e.)

is

of

the twelfth century B.C.!

by the Due de Luynes. De but he
as the

sufficiently striking to

warrant us
general

as at least provisionally true that

what was natural

afterwards abandoned this view.

and perfectly possible did actually take
testimony of the early Greek and

place.

The

About

b.c.

20S0 Egypt was invaded by strangers, known

Roman

writers that the alphabet

Shepherds,
3

who appear to have been Arabs
"
of the alphabet

cognate with the PAas-

nicians (Poole, Art. " Zoan," Smith's

Diet, of the Bible ").

by the Phoenicians and its De Rouge, has been most elaborately worked out by M. Francois Lenormant in his great work entitled "Essai sur la propagation de 1'Alphabet Phenicien dans 1'ancien Monde," vol. i. Premiere livraison,
derivation from the

The invention

Hieratic, as set forth by

was invented in Phoenicia must then be limited to the sense in which Tacitus says that the Phoenicians had the credit tanqimm repererint qum acceperant." (J. Peile, art. "Alphabet," in " Encyc. Brit." 9th ed. vol. i. p. 607.)
the same time among the Syrians and Phoenicians a method was developed, just as in Egypt the hieratic writing grew up beside the hieroglyphic. This cursive writing of the Western Semitic nations has not, however, arisen out of
cursive

"At

1872; vol.
1873.
to the

i.

Prof. Sayce

Seconde livraison, 1873; vol. ii. Premiere livraison, (MS. communication) has called my attention
of

the cuneiform symbols, hut out of the hieratic writing of the

newly published work

Simeone Levi, entitled "Raccolta
i

Egyptians.
abbreviated
of

The Phoenicians must claim
still

the merit of having

dei Segni Ieratici Egizi nelle diverse epoche con
Geroglitiei ed
i

corrispondenti

further, for their

own

use, the cursive writing

loro differenti valori fonetici" (Turin, 1880). in

the

Egyptians.

But the picture-symbols
and alphabetic symbols

of
;

the

hieratic

which copies are given of all the known forms of the Hieratic characters with reference to the papyri on which each form is
found, adding that

writing were not merely contracted and simplified
of pictorial, syllabic,

the mixture

— beyond which the

given by Levi,
right."
5 4

"the forms found in the 'Papyrus Prisse,' make it plain to every one that De Rouge was
In Rawlinson's Herodotus, 3rd ed.
vol.
ii.

p. 313.

Egyptians did not rise— was abandoned, and then for the first time an alphabet was discovered." (Max Duncker, " Hist, of Antiquity," trans, by Abbott, vol. i. p. 281; cf. Dr. Tylor,
G " Early Hist, of Mankind," 3rd ed. p. 102.) See Page 29. ' The earliest instance now existing of Demotic writing is dated B.C. 665 (Brugsch, " Grammaire Demotiquc," p. 4), but

Gesenius and

Ewald both

are of

opinion that the Semitic

alphabet was constructed by a people connected with Egypt (see

Davidson, " Biblical Criticism,"

vol.

i.

p. 24).

The correspondence between the Phoenician
M All den

characters and

it

was

of course used previously.

4

26
2.

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
It

must

not,

however, be concealed, that
for

many eminent

scholars have turned their eyes

in another direction
as the true

the origin of

the

Semitic alphabet, and

have designated Babylonia

mother of the characters employed in very ancient times in Syria and Mesopotamia.
this

Kopp, 1 Hoffmann, 2 Davidson 3 and Levy 4 support
grounds, that besides
the

view, and

chiefly

on the following

cuneiform writing used so constantly in Assyrian
also

and Babylonian

monuments, a cursive character was
probably borrowed by

employed identical with the Phoenician, and therefore

the latter people. 5

The

earliest

specimens

of

this cursive

character

(accompanied by cuneiform) are on the bronze lion-weights
others occur on some of

now

in the British
this theory

Museum, 6 and

the bricks, cylinders and gems.
these characters only

But on

Kenrick 7 justly

remarks, that the occurrence of
people,
to the

proves the intercourse between the two
Norris, 8 also, in

and
same

not that the cuneiform teas the parent of
point, writes
:

the Phoenician.
it

reference
these

" It

has

been

suggested, and

is

certainly possible, that

legends

may

be in the cursive Assyrian alphabet, which would then have been subsequently adopted

by the Phoenicians," but that these cursive characters on undoubted Assyrian monuments, though
allied to

them, are

still

different,

and " the language of the inscriptions
Gesenius
9

.

.

.

seems peculiarly

Hebrew or Chaldee rather than Assyrian."
argues that the characters on the
form, and he
possessed

is

on

the same side of the question, and

bricks are genuine Phoenician, but not of
of

the most antique

suggests

that,

during the period
the

the

Persian

sovereigns, the Babylonians

a

common

alphabet with

Phoenicians.

Lastly, Sir

G.

"Wilkinson

maintains

10

that the ancient Assyrian letters "could not have been the origin of those used in Greece."
3.

The theory

that

the

Phoenician

alphabet was produced from an early pictorial one at

home

is

one only of

conjecture, for no traces of
of
this

such a system remain,
to

and yet
" the

it

has
of

its

probabilities.

In

support

view

it

is

important

note

that

names
;

the

Phoenician or

Hebrew

letters are

not

arbitrary, but each significant of
all

some object

though

the meaning of the names cannot in
instance, Aleph, Beth,

cases

be

recognized with absolute certainty.
;

For

Gimel and Daleth, mean, Ox, House, Camel, Door
letters,

and
(so

if

we

find that

these

and

the

succeeding

when

in

their

most

primitive forms

far

as

known),

present
1

similarities

with the whole or a portion of the objects by the names of which they
ii.

2 3 4 5

"Bilderund Schriften," 1819, vol. " Gram. Syr." 1827, p. 61. " Biblical Criticism," vol. i. p. 25. " Jiid. Miinzen," 1862, p. 140.

p. 147.

("Hist, of Antiquity," trans, by Abbott, vol. i. p. 281) that the Phoenician alphabetic writing was in use in Babylon side by
side with the

corresponding'
circ.

cuneiform on a weight of Irba-

Another exponent of this view has recently come forward in Dr. Deecke("Zeitschriftd. D.M.G." 1877, vol. xxxi. pp. 102-116), and his theories were accepted in the "Academy Newspaper"
(No. 267, 16th June, 1877).
Prof. Sayce has, however,

shown

Nineveh. But he is which has been frequently published (Layard, " Nineveh and Babylon," 1853, p. 60l"; Norris, "J.R.A.S." 1856, vol. xvi. p. 217; Madden, "Jew. Coinage," 1864, p. 265; Smith, in " Rec. of the Past," vol. v.
(?

Merodach

b.c.

1050) found at

mistaken,

as

this

duck-weight,

("

The Academy," No.
failure,

268, 23rd June, 1877) that they are an

p.

91;

Chisholm, in

"Ninth Ann. Report

of the

Warden

of

utter

and that nearly half the characters given by

the Standards," 1875, p. 47), only bears a cuneiform inscription,

Dr. Deecke are non-existent.

The

latter

defended his system
it

("The Academy," No.

273, 28th July, 1877), but

was again

"30manehs. The palace of Irba- Merodach, king 7 " Phoenicia," 1855, p. 164.
6 9

of Babylon."

demonstrated to be weak and improbable by the Rev. Isaac Taylor and Prof. Sayce ("The Academy," No. 274, 4th Aug.
1877).
6

Art.

"J.R.A.S." 1856, vol. " Pala?ographie "

xvi. p. 226, note. in

Ersch and Gruber's " Algemeine
ed. vol. p. 316.

Encyclopadie."

See

Chapter

I.

p. 4, note 7.

Prof.

Max Duncker

states

10

In Rawlinson's Herodotus, 3rd

ii.

;

THE MOABITE STONE.
are
distinguished,

27
for

there

is

a

strong probability of a pictorial origin
possibly
in

the letters."
idea

l

It

may

be

" that

the

Phoenicians,

the

first

instance borrowing the
literal

from the

Egyptians,

struck out for themselves a more purely

and therefore a more simple and
first

useful alphabet," 2
alphabet,

and in choosing the word aleph as the name of the

letter

of the

took

it

from " a mode

of

writing in which the
3

representation of

an ox (or of

some part of an ox) stood for the sound of A."

Which
thus
It

of

these theories

is

correct cannot at present be decided with

any

certainty, but

much can

be ventured, that the Phoenician alphabet was not derived from the cuneiform.
letters of the

would certainly appear, since the
ships nor have

Hebrew alphabet

contain no trace whatever
a people
rich in
cattle,

of

any

association with the sea, but rather

refer to

that

the inventors of the alphabet, whoever they were, were
4

a pastoral people, living in

a

comparatively advanced stage of civilization,
Phoenicians
the
its

and

this

may have been

the condition of the
5

inhabiting the Delta,

called

Caphtor

or " Greater

Phoenicia "

in

any

case, if

Phoenicians did not invent the Shemitic alphabet,
chief

they have " a just

claim to being

disseminators."

6

The most ancient Phoenician
" stele

inscription

existing 7

is

that

on the "Moabite Stone," or
at

of Mesha, king of Moab," a black basalt stone,

which was discovered

Diban, in

August, 1868, by the Rev. F. A. Klein, of the Church Missionary Society [Plate,
account of
its
its

col. 2].

The

unfortunate destruction, and the history of the recovery of the greater portion of

pieces,

have frequently been published, together with various versions of the inscription. 8
On
" Writing," "

1

Dr.

J.

Evans, "

the Alphabet and

its

Origin," a lecture

G

Alrlis

Wright,
iii.

art.

in Smith's

Diet, of the

delivered before the Royal Institution on Friday,
p. 7;
2

March

15, 1872,

Bible," vol.

p.

1790.

Prof. Rawlinson,

p. 109; Dr.
3

W.

"Contemporary Review," Aug. 1870, Wright, "North British Review," Oct.1870, p. 4.

Evans, op.

eit. p. 9. Prof. Sayce, " Trans, of Soc. of Bibl. Arch." 1876, vol. v.

7 The absence of Phoenician writing non-monumental is well known, but M. de Vogue has published (" Syrie Centrale— Inser. Semitiques," p. 131; cf. Lenormant, "Essai," vol. i. 93, note) a papyrus which is said to be positively p.

p. 30.

This paper

found at

Hamah

is on the " Hamathite Inscriptions," mostly (Hamath), at Aleppo (Helbon), at Carchemish,

Phoenician.
8 Clermont-Ganneau, "La Stele de Dhiban," in the " Rev. Arch." 1870, pp. 184, 357; Ganneau et de Vogue, "Inscription de Mesa, Roi de Moab," Paris, 1870 Derenbourg, in the " Journal Asiatique," 1870 Deutsch, in the " Times," March 3, 1870; Dr. Ginsburg, "Moabite Stone," 1870, 2nd ed. 1871;
; ;

and

at Ibreez in Lycaonia.

They

are written in hieroglyphics,

and Prof. Sayce adds, " If the
Hittite

first

Semitic employers of the

so-called Phoenician alphabet were already acquainted with the

Hamathite hieroglyphics, we can well understand new alphabet the names of the objects represented by the characters they had hitherto employed. In this case the names given to the letters of the Phoenician alphabet would have been derived from the Hamathite
or
their applying to the letters of the

inscriptions."

The

Hittites

possessed

a

peculiar

system

of

hieroglyphic

writing as yet undeciphered.

From

the excavations about to be
it is

undertaken on the

site of

Carchemish,

expected that a large

number

of inscriptions will be obtained, affording a clue to the

decipherment of the character in which they are written (Prof. Sayce, " The Bible and the Monument-,'" in Eyre and SpottisWOOoVs " Aids to the Student of the Bible" ).
4

Prof. Rawlinson, in the " Contemporary Review," vol. xv. p. 9G, Aug. 1870; Dr. "W.Wright, in the "North British Review," Oct. 1870; Prof. Davidson, in the "British and Foreign Evangelical Review," Feb. 1871 Edward Thomas, in the " Num. Chron." sr.8. 1871, vol. xi. p. 202; Rev. W. Pakenham Walsh, "The Moabite Stone," Dublin, 1872; F. Lenormant, " Essai sur la Propagation de P Alphabet Phenicien dans l'ancien Monde," vol. i. pp. 128, 144, Paris, 1872 Captain Burton and Tyrwhitt Drake, "Unexplored Syria," vol. i. p. 335; " Our Work in Palestine," "Palestine Exploration Fund," p. 253, 1873; Prof. Rawlinson, in the "Bible Educator," vol. i. p. 124, MM. Neubauer, Schlottmann, Nbldeke, Schrader, 1874;
; ;

Evans, op.
Prof.

eit. p.

10.

Geiger, etc., etc.

A

catalogue of the principal literature on the
in

" Introduction to the Science of Language," " The Bible and the Monuments," in Eyre and vol. ii. p. 168 Spottutwoode's "Aids tothe Studentof the Bible"; "The History I Writing," a Lecture at the London Institution, 12 Feb.
5

Sayce,
;

Moabite Stone
the

is

given by Dr. Ginsburg
p.

"The

Moabite
it

Stone," 2nd ed. 1871,

31.

He

has further published
p.

in

"Records
also

of the
a

Past"

(vol.

Levy

printed

translation

The late Dr. ("Das Mesa-Dcnkmal und
xi.

1G3).

notice ot in " Nature," 19 Feb. and 26 Feb. 1880.

seine Schrift," Breslau, 1871).

'

28
It

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
commemorates the successes
of

of Mesha,

king of Moab, over a king of
Samaria,

Israel,

who was

either

son or grandson
in

Omri, the founder of

and agrees generally with the account
with Ahaziah and Jehoram,

the Bible of the

wars of Mesha, after the death of Ahab,
1

two grandsons of Omri.

With
of view,

respect

to

the

date,

the

inscription

was

at

once,

from

a

pala^ographical point
earlier,

recognized as

more ancient than any previously known
[Plate,
col.

inscriptions,
(b.c.

even
or

than those on the

lion-weights

9]

of

the Assyrian kings
B.C.

745-681),
2

the writings on the Phoenician gems of the eighth century

[Plate,

col.

3].

"With this

view the tenour of the inscription
fall

itself

well agrees, as

the reigns of

Ahaziah and Jehoram

about

b.c.

853-841. 8
letters

Of the twenty-two

which constitute the Phoenician and Hebrew alphabet,
teth is

4

twenty-one

are found on this stone.
in the
1

The

the letter omitted, though

it

may

perhajjs have existed

word
i.

A\_f\arotli?
iii.

2

Kings

1

;

4-27.

name),

2

De Vogue,

"Intailles a legendes Semitiques," in the
;

"Eev.

Arch." n.s. 1868, vol. xvii. pp. 432-439, pi. xiv. ef. Lenorraant, " Essai," vol. i. pp. 128, 142, pi. ii. col. 3. The teth does not
occur on the gems published by de Vogue, as given by Lenormant
[see note 5].

who lived in the former half of the eighth century b.c. In any case M. Clermont- Ganneau, who is preparing a critical memoir on these monuments (which will doubtless give further
the words

explanation of
(?

soken

(?

inhabitant),

Qarthadachat

On

a sardonyx

now

at Florence

is

the figure of a
'

Carthage), the position of the sanctuary of Baal-Lebanon, tob and other queries), comes to the conclusion, and thereby confirms
the remarks of

man

with a high crown, and the legend

'pyi^N^

Of Abibaal.'
king

It has

been suggested that this stone belonged
des Satrapies," pi.

to Abibaal,

fragments, that " they
after the

M. Renan about the pahcographical rank of these may claim the second place immediately
word 2\2 Tob, but

and father of the Hiram of the Bible (De Luynes, xiii. No. 1; cf. Max Duncker, " Hist, of Antiquity," trans, by Abbott, vol. ii. p. 264), but on no sure grounds. Another gem found at Khorsabad, and probably
of Tyre,

Moabite stone."
been explained.

"Num.

The
3

teth occurs once in the inscription, in the

this has not

engraved at Tyre or Sidon, bearing the inscription 'pjmajj, is on the contrary considered to give a certain date, Khorsabad having been built circ. b.c. 721, and to be a monument of the
eighth century b.c. (De Longperier, "Journal Asiatique," 5 ser.
vol. vi. p.

monuments

These would be the dates derived from the Assyrian canon and (see Smith, "Assyrian Canon"; Schrader, "Keilinschriften, etc." Max Duncker, "Hist, of Antiquity," trans. by Abbott, vol. ii. pp. 114, 115, 234, 239, 249). The Bible
;

dates

422

;

Lenormant, " Essai,"

vol.

i.

p. 143).

are Ahab, b.c. Jehoram, b.c. 896-884.

918-897;

Ahaziah,

b.c.

897-896;

Several fragments of brass containing a Phoenician inscription were discovered many years ago at Cyprus. The attention of M. Kenan having been called to them by Dr. Euting, the former published them with an illustrative plate (" Journal des Savants," 1877, p. 487). Recently M. Clermont- Ganneau has

4 The Moabite Stone clearly disproves the statement of some that the original Shemitic alphabet contained only " sixteen letters
'

(cf.

Plin.

"Nat. Hist."
1

vii.

56;

Dr. Donaldson,

"The New

Cratylus," p.

70),

point, unless supported

and shows the worthlessness of tradition on this by inscriptions (J. Peile, "Encyc. Brit."
609).

made a

careful examination of these antiquities,

and has come to

9th ed. vol.

i.

p.

The occurrence

of the Sainech

was

the conclusion that they all formed part of the same vase of bronze, which had been purposely broken into pieces at some 1880, pp. 502Reconstructing the form he has arrived at the following 17 April,
:

considered as proof of the late date of the inscription, as the

time far remote
504).

("The Athenamm,"

by Simonides (b.c. 530), doubt that the Samceh on this stone, or on the Phrygian rocks [see page 30], was the prototype of the
is

Greek Xi

said to have been invented

but there can be no

complete inscription

Greek

XL

The Pahieographical importance

of

the

Moabite

nKnrrmp pDi

pnb bynbi b])2^> ;rv tn ibo conn -uy pD 3D ?n ntrra np&ro »ns pnS n nc'-irrrnp

am
.

*jin

stone has been fully discussed by Prof. Rawlinson (" Contem-

porary Review," Aug. 1870, pp. 104-112), and by Dr. Ginsburg (" The Moabite Stone," 2nd ed. 1871, pp. 29, 30). 6 It has been maintained by several scholars (Ginsburg,

[mention of a vow, name To Baal-Lebanon, his lord i.e. and rank of the author] (? and) soken of Qartbadachat, servant of Hiram, king of the Sidonians, has given it [or, he has given it '] to Baal-Lebanon, his lord, in excellent brass [or
'
.

.

.

Clermont- Ganneau, Schlottmann, Geiger,
originally occur in the

etc.) that the teth
1
.

did

.

.

'

in

'

heave ottering of brass

']

—H
.
.

.

.

tob, soken of

Qartbadachat
the

and 1 This letter is rare in Phoenician, Gesenius ("Script. Linguaeque Phoen. Mon." tab. i. cf. p. 80) only giving three examples, and Lenormant ("Essai," vol. i. pi. ii. col. 3) only two, in his "Premier type
in lines 10
;

word A\t\aroth,

['who' For 'that'
It will be
'

? 'it' P]

.'

seen that the inscription
'
'

contains

name

of

Hiram, king of the Sidonians or the Phoenicians,' and it has been conditionally attributed by M. Clermont- Ganneau to a Hiram (for several Phoenician kings might have borne this

la Phenicie propre," but these latter cannot In the Due be accepted with any certainty [see note 2]. " Prinsep's Essays " de Luynes' Alphabets, in Thomas's (vol. ii. p. 166), under Phoenicia Proper, in all nine alphabets,

paleographique de

only one alphabet (Esmunazar, king of Sidon, plate xia. col. 3)

;

THE INTRODUCTION OF LETTERS INTO GREECE.
To these
after

29
of

early alphabets

succeed the inscriptions of Malta
the
inscriptions
others,
la

J

and

Nora
col.

in

Sardinia
to

2

which may be
already
alluded,

placed

of

Esmunazar
have
propre,"

[Plate,
styled

4],

which

I

have

and

several

which

been
3

by

M.
de

Lenormant
de

" Deuxienie

type

paleograpkique
4

de

Phenicie

and " Type

transition

l'ecriture Phenicienne."

With
that
few,
" the

respect to

the

introduction

of

letters

into

Greece,

it

is

asserted
in

by Herodotus 5
the

Phoenician
so

letters

were

adopted,

but with
still

some

variation
letters

shape
as

of

a

and

they arrived at the
the
6

present use,

calling
first

the

Phoenician,

justice

required,

after

name
that

of

those

who were
of

the

to

introduce

them

into
all

Greece."

Prof.

Sayce
that

writes
it

" the

names

the

letters

of the Greek alphabet

end in
of

a,

showing

must

have

been

brought into
the

Greece
of

not

by the Phoenicians
since

Tyre
aleph

and
is

Sidon,

but

by
of

the

Aramaeans of
not
of

Gulf

Antioch,

the
of

emphatic

a

characteristic

Aramaic,
disclose

Phoenician.
origin,

Even
J"V3>

the
fcJJ'H,

names
DJ5,

the

letters

in

the

Hebrew alphabet
and

their

Aramaic
conclude

etc.,

being perfectly
rather

Aramaic,

we may

therefore

that
in

the

alphabet

was

introduced

by

Aramaeans than the Phoenicians who traded

Greece and elsewhere."
7

As
to

to

the date of this introduction,
of

Grote was of opinion

that letters were

unknown
were
first

the

Greeks

the

time

of

Hesiod
the
first

and

Homer

(tire.

B.C.

850-776),

and

introduced about the

period of
of

Olympiad

(b.c.

776),

an opinion also entertained

by Dr. Ginsburg.

8

The forms
(b.c.

the Greek

inscriptions of

Thera, a Phoenician settlement, 9

dating from Olympiad 40

620),

and those on other
forms

inscriptions, dating about B.C. 650-500, 10
stone,

do not

differ

materially from

the

on

the

Moabite

and

it

would

therefore

seem probable that the Phoenician alphabet was altogether taken over by the Greeks n about
exhibits it:

whilst the Punic series supplies owe example before

(c)

The Races
" Hist,

of

Syria," in Eyre

and Spottiswoode's "Aids
ii.

b.c. 396, hut has a

Punic war
it

(b.c.

gap in 218), and
fact,
it

all
it

the following

lists till

the second

to the
7

Student of the Bible."
of Greece," ed. 1869, vol.
ed.

occurs only once on the inscription

p. 116.

Esmunazar.
early

In

appears to be especially absent from

8

" The Moabite Stone," 2nd

1871, p. 30.

is also Arama;an monuments. It is curious that the In the first ten alphabets given by Rose (" Inscript. Grace. Vet." p. xv.) there are jive gaps. The Phrygian alphabet has no 0, though the Carians naturally retain it in their early Greek inscriptions in Egypt [see page 30, and Plate, cols. 6, 7, 8]. It is also absent in Lycian (Sir C. Fellows, " Discoveries in Lycia," p. 443, 1841). Mr. Sharpe in "Appendix B." p. 452, remarks, "The Lycians must have copied [?] the Greek alphabet before it contained the long vowels H and Q, or the consonants 0, ]~, <J), vj/, which have no

all

equally rare in early Greek.

9 Franz, " Elementa Epigraphices Grsecae," pp. 51-59; Eirchhoff, " Studienzur Geschichte des Griechischen Alphabets,"

p.

49
10

;

plate, col. viii. Berlin, 1877.

Prof. Rawlinson,

"Contemporary Review," August, 1870,
Kirchhoff, op.
cit.

plate, lines 5

and 6

;

plate.

" With
supposed,

the exception of one symbol (Tsadhe)

as

generally
his
8],

though Kirchhoff, who makes the form JV| in early Greek alphabet the equivalent of Tsadhe [Plate, col.
says [op.
(*)

cit.

pp. 157, 159

;

cf. p.

124), that the simple sibilant
as

was at

first

denoted by
(b.c.

M,

on the alphabets of Thera,
later,

Lycian representatives." 1 Gesenius, "Mon. Pheen."

Melos, Crete,
pi. viii.

etc.

620-460), but
to

long before the

Nos. 3 and 4; Lenormant,

Ionic alphabet was adopted, and there was a change from

avoid confusion with m,

" Essai,"
2 3
(iii.

vol.

i.

pp. 128, 142.

M

to £ (or as the letter used to be

Gesenius,

pi. xiii.

No. 41

;

Lenormant, he.

cit.

written in
perfluous

its

shorter form £), in consequence of which the suin his theory (p. 30,
V|/

"Essai,"
bis) is
Ti.

vol. i. pp. 129-131, pi. iii. A special plate added, giving the pateographieal evidence of coins,

M

gradually disappeared altogether out of the alphabet,

Mr. Thomas
duced the
letter

Plate,

col.

5)

has intro-

l'rnm

r.

522-145, similar to that communicated by the Due de
lor

as the equivalent of the Tsadhe.

Lnynes to Mr. Thomas 168 pi. xia).
;

" Prinsep's E>says"
pi. iv.

(vol.

ii.

pp. 106-

As

to the

Greek
;

op. cit. p.

110

or Vi ^ ^ as Deen considered (Rawlinson, Ginsburg, " The Moabite Stone," 2nd ed. p. 30)

Y

1

6

" Essai," "Trans,

vol.

i.

p.

145;

5

v.

58.

that this letter was

evidently

derived

of

Bibl.

Arch."
p.

vol.

v. p.

Review," Dec. 1878,

63;

"The

30; cf. "Contemp. Ethnology of the Bible

Moabite stone, but
cit. p.

this is doubtful,

from the Vau of the and Kirchhoff considers (op.
at

159, note) the resemblance of form to be simply

eidental.

:

30
b.c.

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
900 or
B.C.

800

l

[Plate,

cols.

7,
I.

8].
2

From
B.C.

the inscriptions
656), but

at

Abusimbel, generally
attributed to
(t>,

assigned to the time of Psammetichus

(circ.

by some

that of
v|/

Psammetichus
introduced
;

II.

3

(circ.

B.C.

590),

we know

that

the

double
still
4

letters

X and
col.

were

but the F was rejected,

and the alphabet was
it

deficient

in the
6].

eventually

incorporated letters Z,

Z and O, and

of

course retained the
started

[Plate,
that

But

recently

Mr.

Edward Thomas has

the

theory

the

earliest

Greek

alphabets are more likely to have been taken from the Phrygian

alphabet,

as

existing on

the rock-cut inscriptions at Doganlu, and of the date

B.C.

920, than
its

from the Phoenician. 5

Mr. Thomas writes

6

" Prior to the discovery of the Moabite stone, of
stele,

now admitted

context,

and

of the positive impressions of the letters of the original

no palaeographer could have

ventured to say that these archaic Graeco-Latin records were expressed in, pro tanto, the same
letters as the coincident Biblical text of the

Aramaean stone

;

and yet

it is

so,

letter for letter

identities

follow on,
till

and there

is

no break in the continuity, even

to the

exclusion of the
stands as the

redundant t3 = 0,

we reach

the inevitable

Aryan Y, which,

in

this case,

concluding (or twenty-second) letter of

the alphabet, and, in this sense, recalls the traditional
letters,
a,
/3,

primitive Greek

alphabet
to

of

sixteen

7,

8,

e,

1,

k,

A,,

fi,

v,

o,

ir,

p,

a,

r and v."

In

calling

attention
of

the
in

supposed
the

absence of

the

D
22.

on
he

the Moabite
says,
7

stone,

and the
cases

certain
final

absence
of

the

Phrygian
21

inscriptions,

" In

these

the

letter

the alphabet counts as
is

and not and

as

No. 21 in the ordinary course

of

Eastern letter notation

equivalent to 300,

as such the

Greeks received the T, out

of its regular Phoenician order,

and adopted

it

into their

own

system, which goes far to suggest
to the tentative

that this

Phrygian medium was the true channel of communication in opposition

numerals of the Egyptian, which the Phoenicians perhaps suggested to the Latins.

So much

avowedly depends upon the sequent order of the

letters, that

we

find in

Hebrew

the

Jl

Tau=400,

and where the current Hebrew adds a second 5 p (=3 f) the T\ grows into 500. " The missing of the Aramaean writing regains its place in the accepted Greek
scheme under
the

Phoenician

influences,
letter

to

which

it

was

so

largely

indebted,

and from
1

whose alphabetical notation the
is

had never been absent.
letter

So

also the

Hebrew
of

yod=l§

constant

in

the Greek

series

of

numbers.

The

Greek
where
of
it

scheme

amalgamation

evidently experienced a second jerk in the
as

number
revised

of 90,

had

to

supply a figure P
revived
as

inconsecutive
to

and

inconsistent
or

as

the

equivalent
its

the

six,

in

order

perchance
fixed

retain
i

bring
its

back the *) = R to

proper numerical position

100,

the
of

succeeding

to

ancient

function as 200,
letter

and the

T

to

its

coincident value

300,

from

which,
it

as

the twenty-first
to

of

the primitive Moabite and Phrygian

order

of notation,

ought never
cit.

have been displaced."
ContemKritik derQuellen zur ^gyptisehenGeschichte," Leipzig, 1880 on the Psammetichus inscriptions in the " Philologus,"
;

1

Rawlinson, op.

pp. 109,

112;

Prof. Sayce, "

porary Review," Dec. 1878, p. 63. 2 Rawlinson, Herod, vol. ii. p. 44, note 3; Kirchhoff, op. cit. pp. 40-42. p. 381
;

art.

p.

274, note;

vol. 39,
*

3

Alfred

Wiedemann, "Geschichte JEgyptens von Psamme-

tich I. bis auf Alexander den Grossen nebst einer eingehenden

1880 (Prof. Sayce, MS. communication). Thomas, "J.R.A.S." n.s. 1878, vol.x. p. 363; Kirchhoff, op. 5 "J.R.A.S." n.s. 1878, vol.x. «*.p. 35. pp. 361-372. 7 6 op.cei.p.362. "Indian Antiquary," Sept. 1878, p. 228.

THE ARAMiEAN ALPHABET.
The following
Phrygian Alphabet
is

31 numbers
40
50
:

therefore Mr. Thomas's scheme of letter

ABrAEfZH[0]IKAMNZOn^0p STY
1

Numerical power

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

20

30

60
6,

70

80

90 100 200 300

["The normal
tricities

(Phrygian)

alphabet
of
£,

is

deficient in the letters
a-,

% and

w.

The

eccen(in

of the original

definitions

£ and

have been studiously reproduced
of

the

tentative transliteration);

the

r]

is

formed

by the addition

a fourth limb to the

E."

Thomas, "J.R.A.S."

n.s.

1878, vol. x. p. 370.]
alphabet

For
informs

the

copj
that

r

of
is

this

(Plate,

col.

5)

I

am

indebted to Mr. Thomas,
its

who
will

me

he

preparing an

Alphabetical Table,

which with

commentary

doubtless set forth

more

fully the novelties suggested in his scheme.

It is a generally received opinion, 1 that the inscriptions

on the Assyrian

lion- weights should
col.

be placed among the earliest Aramaean monuments preserved to us [Plate,
porary with the cylinder seals of " Akadi, the son of
of

9],

2

contemson

Bereg-berud,"

3

and

of " Hudraqi'a,

Hur-b'ad."
that

4

On

all of

these the
of

idiom

is

stated to be

incontestably Aramaean, notwith-

standing

the forms

the letters

are

absolutely
5

identical

with

those

on the

gems
stone.

purely Phoenician, found

in

great
B.C.

number

at Nineveh,

and with those on the Moabite

About the seventh century

there appears

a

special

Aramaean alphabet [Plate,

col.

10].

The monuments on which

this occurs are a series of tablets

found in Nineveh and Chaldaea,

published by Sir H. Rawlinson, 6 to which M. Lenormant has added 7 several other examples

from

bricks

and

gems,

including the

lion

of

Abydos,
in the

first

published by

M. de
:

Vogiie. 8
1.

The Aramaean alphabet becomes further developed
Inscription on a stone at Carpentras accompanied

three following examples

The
This
the

by
to

Egyptian sculpture

[Plate,

col.

11].
of

monument has been
Seleucid period.
It
10

considered by

Gesenius 9

have

been

executed

by

a Syrian
to

may, however, be the production of a Jew inclining
at

the Egyptian
de
JBtacas,

worship.
in

2.

The papyri

Turin, and formerly in

the possession of the

Due

now

the British

Museum, and

others

[Plate,

col.

12].

n

In the Blacas papyri the

first

vestiges

of final

letters

(Caph and Nun) appear;

and on the papyrus of the Louvre the

earliest final

Lamed.

The

characters on all the papyri are similar to those on the Carpentras

monument, but

resemble more the Palmyrene

and

the

square

Hebrew.

The age

of

the

Carpentras stone

1

De Vogue, "Mel.
The
Sir
v.
:

1..

Dormant, "Essai," vol.
2

de l'Arch. Orientale," pp. 145, 194; i. p. 202.
i.e.

9

" Rev. Arch."

n.s. 1862, vol. v. pp. 30-39. See

Chapter I.
in

p. 7, note 2.

After these

may

be placed the coins struck

Asia

letters

wanting,

the

Vau, Pe, Tzade, and Tau, are
[eire.

supplied from the bulls of Saigon
3

B.C. 648).

H.
cf.

No.
4

" J.R.A.S." n.s. Levy, " Phbn. Stud." ii. 24.
Rawlinson,
cit.

1864, p. 232, pi.

Minor by the satraps of the Persian Empire (Due de Luyncs, "Essai sur la Num. des Satrapies, etc." 1846; Waddington, " llev. Num." 1860, pp. 432-455 "Mel.de 1861, pp. 1-22
;
;

Eawlinson, op.

p. 240,

pi.

No. xv.

;

cf.

Levy, op.
pi.

cit.

30; De Vogiie, "Rev. Arch." n.s. 1868, No. 24. 5 Rawlinson, op. cit. p. 228, pi. Nbs. ix,
xvii;
6 1 cf.

vol. xvii.

xv.

Lenormant, "Essai," vol. i. pp. 218-223), and the inscription found by M. Marietta in the excavation of the Serapeum at Memphis (Lenormant, "Essai," vol. i. p. 223; Planche x). The teth occurs on this
et de

Num.

Philologie," pp. 59-102;

xii,

xiii,

xiv,

xvi,

monument.
10

Levy, op.
vol.

cit. pi.

Nos.

2, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12.

9 " Mon. Phcen." p. 232. Dr. Lindsay Alexander in Kitto, " Cyc. of Bibl. Lit."

s.v.

op. cit. pp.

187-228.
i.

" Essai."

pp. 205-208

;

De

Vogiie, " Rev. Arch."

n.s. 1868, vol. xvii. pi. xv.

"Aramaic Language"; cf. Levy, " Zeitschrift d. D.M.G." Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 313. xi. p. 67 " Madden, he. cit.; Lenormant, "Essai," vol. i. p. 229.
;

32

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
to the reigns of

and of these papyri may be assigned
inscriptions

the latest Ptolemies.
bilingual
all
1

3.

The Palmyrene

[Plate,
in

col.

13].

These
to

are

generally

in

Aramaic

and

Greek.

M. "Waddington,

his

voyage

Syria,

obtained copies of

the inscriptions of Palmyra

(124 in number), -which have been published
to

by M. de Vogue,

and which date from

B.C.

9

the third century

a.d.

On

the Palmyrene inscriptions only the final

Nun

occurs. 2

We
The
from the

now

pass

on to consider the most ancient alphabet in use

among

the Hebrews,

which has been designated by French scholars the Hebreu Archaique.
earliest
last

example of

this

alphabet

may
B.C.
4

be found on certain engraved stones, dating

half of the eighth
3

century

[Plate,

col.

14],

which have been published
again occur on the ancient
of

by the
shekels
(b.c.

late
(b.c.

Dr. Levy

and M. de Vogue.
[Plate,
cols.

These characters
16],

141-135)
[Plate,

15,

on

the

coins

the

Asmonaean
of

family

135-37)

col.

17],

and were
col.
6

later

adopted

during

the Revolts

the Jews

(a.d.

66-70, and a.d. 132-135) [Plate,
5

18], ceasing only with the death of Bar-cochab

in a.d. 135.
as
to the

The

researches of Lenormant,

who

objects to the conclusions of Gesenius

and

"VViner

permanence of the Hebrew

to the time of the Maccabees, tend to fix the extinction
its

of "ancient

Hebrew"

as the general

language of the Jews and

replacement by " Aramaean "
its

to the period of the return to Ezra.

from the Captivity, without attributing

introduction personally

The old Hebrew on the coins proves
lost,

that, for certain uses either
it

monumental or in
it

MS., this language was not altogether
1

but

by no means proves

that

was the common

" Syrie Centrale

— Inscriptions

Semitiques," Paris, 1869.

from the Haaran exhibit an alphabet degenerated from the Palmyrene, dating from the first half of the first century a.d. (De Vogue, " Rev. Arch." n.s. 1864, vol. ix.
2

The

inscriptions

p.

The 284; Lenormant, "Essai," vol. ii. pp. 98-103). Nabathcean inscriptions and coins, the alphabet of which is a variety of the Hauranitic, date from B.C. 60 to a.d. 105 (Lenormant, " Essai," vol. ii. pp. 116-129, pl.xv; cf. De Vogue,
" Rev. Arch."
n.s.

3 Zeitschrift " Siegel und d. D.M.G." vol. xi. p. 318; Gemnien mit aramreisehen, phconizischen, althebraiischen, himjarischen, nabathaischen und altsyrischen Inschriften," Breslau, 1869. One of the seals published by Dr. Levy (" Zeitschrift d. D.M.G." vol. xi. p. 320), which is preserved in the British Museum, is said to bear the name of Jonathan, son of Mathathias," and Levy has suggested that it may be the seal of one of the Maccabees. But this is very doubtful.
' '

1865, vol.

xi.

planche

i.).

The

Sinaitic

by Mr. Forster to have been written by the Israelites during their wanderings (" Israelitish authorship of the Sinaitic Inscrip." 1856; "Sinai photographed," 1862),
inscriptions, supposed
are,

no doubt, as
fifth

I

p.

314)

of a Christian age,

have elsewhere stated ("Jew. Coinage," and extend, probably, from the
of

"Rev. Arch." n.s. 1868, vol. xvii. p. 445, planche xvi. Lenormant, "Essai," vol. i. p. 179, seq. The second form of the Samecli is added from the Larnaca gem, which is of rather later date (Lenormant, op. eit. pp. 180, 186). 5 This coin-character was undoubtedly the earliest alphabet of the Hebrews (Gesenius, " Geschichte der hebncischen Sprache,"
;

4

cf.

second to the
p.

"Essai," vol. ii. Aramaean (Levy, "Zeitschrift d. D.M.G." xiv. pp. 363-484), and Prof. Palmer, who has made careful drawings and studied the inscriptions on the rocks themselves, has decided (Major Palmer, R.E., " Sinai,
century a.d. (Lenormant,
the
inscription
is

p. 145).
(see

Whilst the scholars of France, Germany, and England
1'

106).

The idiom

De Vogue, " L' Alphabet Hebrai'que et Alphabet Arameen,"
n.s. 1865, vol. xi. pp.
;

reality

History from the Monuments," S.P.C.K.) that they are "in nothing but another phase of that Semitic alphabet

Lenormant, unanimous on this point, M. de Saulcy stands alone in his exceptions, considering ("Rev. Arch." n.s. vol. xi. pp. 137-153, 398-485; 1872, p. 2) the
in
;

"Rev. Arch."
vol.
i.

319-341

" Essai,"

p. 179

cf.

p. 283), are

square Hebreiv to be as old as the times of the kings of Judali
p. 33, note 10,

[si

e

whose forms appear alike in the Hebrew, Arabic and Greek. They seem to constitute an intermediate link between the ordinary Hebrew and the Cufic or old Arabic," and dissenting from Beer's view that they are the work of Nabathsean pilgrims, Prof. Palmer writes, "they must be attributed as a whole, not to pilgrims of any country, but rather to the commercial

and
il

p. 34].

As M. de Vogiie

rightly says {op.

eit.),

" Aujourd'hui
un

n'y a pas une grammaire ou on

le conteste,

pas

ou on ne l'enseigne," and De Wette concludes his chapter on Writing (" Manuel d' Arch, hebrai'que," 4th ed. 1864, § 278) as follows, " Les opinions des savants du temps
cours d'hebreu

passe
. .
.

qui tenaient l'ecriture carree pour

l'ecriture

primitive
curiosite

community who inhabited, or at least colonised, the peninsula The during the first few centuries of the Christian era."
inscriptions are very

n'ont

plus

aujourd'hui

qu'un
cf.

interet

de

historique."
6

commonplace, such as
rested here," etc.

'

'

passed this

"Essai,"

vol.

i.

pp.

281-296;

Renan, " Histoire des

way," "

son of

langues Semitiques," 1st ed. pp. 134-149.

THE SAMARITAN AND HEBREW ALPHABETS.
language of the time.

33

The

inscriptions on

the

coins of

the Revolts are of course imitated
at
this time quite

from those of the Maccabees, for the old Hebrew language was
Syro-Chaldrean was spoken by
all.
1

dead and

The

earliest

specimen of the Samaritan alphabet (which
2

is

almost

the same as the coin

character) occurs on a stone found near Nablus,

the ancient Sichem, in an inscription containing

the ten

commandments

in an abbreviated form [Plate, col. 19].

This

monument

is

attributed
letters

to a period preceding

the reign of

Justinian

I.

(a.d.

527-565), and the forms of the
until
it

show how the coin-character was further
writing found in the oldest of
the

developed
codices.
it

arrived at the more
is

cursive

the Samaritan

The resemblance
surprising
that

so evident

between
called

Samaritan

and the
it

coin- character, that
is

is

not

the
first

latter

was

" Samaritan," although

beyond

all

doubt that the character was
3

acquired by the

Samaritans from the Jews, but was modified after their separation.
It will

be seen that

all

the letters of the
letters
it

Hebrew alphabet occur on
anCl

the coins

excepting

Teth, Samcch,

and Pe.

The curious
Zain,

^f

new form

of

Vau}
his

The

though

may

J" on the coins of Eleazar, are probably a be found in the table of Asaria de Rossi, 5
as

who

gives as

authority the

work

of

an anonymous Christian author, 6 was not known

a coin-letter
to

till

the coins of Eleazar were published

by de Vogiie. 7
in

It bears a great resemblance It

the

Samaritan form of

the same

letter

found

MSS.

will

also

be

noticed that

Zain and Samech are wanting in the Samaritan alphabet from the Nablus stone; and the Teth
has been incorporated from another monument, the description of which
is

given by Rosen. 8
etc.,

Owing

to the

numerous discoveries made within the
answers
to

last

few years of monuments,
denominated
theories

bearing an alphabet that obviously
there
is

the

character

square

Hebrew,

no necessity

to enter into a

long discussion of

the various

that

have been
that

advanced as to the time when this character was
the
square

introduced.

The monuments prove
era. 10

Hebrew, which
general use

gradually developed
till

itself

undoubtedly from the Aramaean, 9 did
the

not come into

the first

century

before

Christian

1

Renan,

op.

cit.

p.

211;

Lenormant,
d.

"Essai,"

vol.

i.

pp. 289-290. 2 Dr. Georg

mother,

Palmyrene and square Hebrew are not a daughter and a but two sisters, "sorties d'une meme souche, qui se
10

Rosen,

"

Zeitschrift

D.M.G."

vol.

xiv.

sont developpees simultanement, 1'une a c6te de l'autre."

There are also some remarks on this stone by pp. 605-634. Prof. E. Rudiger.

Lenormant, "Essai,"
in Smith's

vol.

i.

p.

298;

cf.

Aldis AVright, art.
iii.

"Writing,"

"

Diet, of the Bible," vol.

p. 1795.

" Geschichte der Judischen Munzen," p. 141, Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 310. According Breslau, 1862 tn Wilson •• The lands of the Bible," vol. i. p. 75) the modern
3

Levy,

;

Samaritans
4

still call

their letters 'Ebri or

'

Ebreni.

5
6 7

See Chapter VIII. " Coins of Eleazar." In his " Meor Enajim." c. 56.
It

" Renouvelant avec beaucoup d' esprit et de verve daus la polemique," writes Lenormant ("Essai," vol. i. p. 211), " une vieille opinion abandonnce depuis cinquante ans par la science, on a voulu faire remonter jusqu'au temps recule' des rois de Juda l'usage do l'alphabet hibraique cine, que nous persistons a regarder, avec Kopp, Gesenius, De Wette, Hupfeld,
Ewald,
et tous les hebraisants de la France, de

would be desirable to ascertain who this author was. "Rev. Num." 1860, p. 280, seq. See Chapter VIII. 8 " Zeitschrift d. D.M.G." vol. xiv. he. cit. plate, No. 2. 9 It has usually been considered that the square Hebrew was derived from the Aramaean modified by the Palmyrene, but
M.
xvii.

l'Allemagno et

de l'Angleterre,
chrctiennc.

comme

n'etant que de peu anterieur a I'ere
apres dens

Mais

cet alphabet carre derive incontestablcment de
primitil,
.
.

notre alphabet arameen
intermediaires de filiation

ou

trois

degrcs
l<

.

Si

done

il

devient prouvc que

Lenormant
i

is

of opinion

("Essai,"
the

vol.

i.

p.

278, planche

plus ancien alphabet arameen doit

son origine prccisemciit

an
la

that the earliest alphabet of the square

Hebrew
and

proceeds
the

type mixte de l'ecriture phenicienne qui etait en usage
valle'e

dam

directly

from the Aramaean of

papyrus,

that

de l'Euphrate pendant

la

premiere

portion du septieme

:

34

NUMISMATA OIIIENTALIA.
The monuments
1.

of

the square Hebrew
the

known

to

exist

are
at

as

follows

l

The

inscription

on

so-called

tomb of Saint
Saulcy,

Jacques
first

Jerusalem

[Plate,

col.

20].

This

tomb was

discovered

by M. de
rise

published by
to

M. de Vogue, 2 and
Ilaniah,

then by M. de Saulcy, 3 and gave
It
is

to the

discussion

which I have already alluded. 4
Joazar,

an epitaph of

eight

persons of
sons of

the

family of Beni-IIezir, Eleazar,
son of Azer
style
.

Simon, Jehouda and Johannan,
sons
of

Joseph,
the

.

.

,

and Joseph and Eleazar
and partly from
Saulcy, incorrectly

Haniah.

De Vogue,
its

partly

from

of

its

architecture
B.C.
;

paheographic reasons, assigns

date to the end of the first century

De

reading the names of the father and grandfather as Jaddua and Jonathan, instead of

Joseph

and Azer, and identifying
its

this

family with that

of

the

high
it

priests,

prefers

to

carry up
is

age to

B.C.

255
is

;

and

of these

two opinions, though

is

true

that

the

monument

iindated,

there

no doubt that that of M. de Vogue
of
the

is

the

more

correct.

*2. Fragmcntal viscription

Ilaram-esch-scherif
at

This
lie

fragment of monumental writing was discovered by M. de Saulcy
it

Jerusalem. 5

conjectures that

formed part of one of the

stones,

on which was inscribed a notice

in three

languages,
to

Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, placed in the Temple of Herod, forbidding
Its date therefore

any foreigner
to

enter under pain of death. 6

coincides with that assigned

the tomb of Beni-Hezir,
*3. Inscription

with the characters of
door

which
to

it

well

agrees.

above

the

of a

tomb

situated

the

north-east

of

Jerusalem on

the

road

to

the

tomb of the Judges.
of

This
discovered,

inscription,

which

only the

commencement
7

of

the

first
8

two

lines

exists,

was

and has been published by M. de Vogue

and M. de Saulcy.

It is posterior to the
first

inscription of Beni-Hezir, but probably dates

from the commencement of the
the

century a.d.

*4. Inscription

from

the

so-called

Tomb of

Kings

at

Jerusalem.

This inscription occurs on
the so-called

a

sarcophagus

which was

discovered

by M. de Saulcy in
It
is

Tomb

of

the Kings, and brought by the other in square

him

to the Louvre.

in

two

lines,

one in
queen

estranghelo Syriac,

Hebrew nrO^ft
it

iTTC or
of

HIS, Sadah or Sarah,
the

or princess. 9

M. de Saulcy would
les

assign

to

the

time

kings of

Judah, 10

sieele

avant Jesus-Christ, toutes

conjectures laborieusement
1'

p.

150
5
6

;

de Saulcy,
;

accumulees par M. de Saulcy sont renversees,
par la base, car on
se

edifice s'ecroule

398-485

" Rev. Arch." " Voyage en Terre Sainte,"

n.s.
vol.

1865,
ii.

vol.

xi.

pp.

p. 169.

trouve en presence d'un de ces faits

materiels et irrefutables devant la force desquels les systemes les
plus ingenieusement combines doivent ceder, et qui, du
qu'ils

"Voyage en Terre Sainte," vol. ii. p. 12. One of these stones with a Joseph. " Antiq." xv. 11, 5.
;

moment

sont bien constates,

ne laissent pas,
See

dans leur rigide

Greek inscription has been recently published by M. ClermontGanneau (" Rev. Arch." n.s. vol. xxiii. pp. 214-234 290-296,
planche
x.).
7 " Rev. Arch." n.s. 1864, vol. ix " Le Temple de Jerusalem," p. 151. 8 " Voyage en Terre Sainte," vol.
9

brutalite, de place a la discussion."
1

p. 32, note 5.

these

am indebted to the work of M. Lenormant for the list of monuments (" Essai," vol. i. pp. 260-277), and have marked with an asterisk (*) those not mentioned in my " Jewish
I

p. 208, planche vii.

No. 3

;

ii.

p. 207.

Coinage," or discovered since
»

its

publication.
ix. p.

The Hrc^D

to

be regular should be rO/>Q
vol.
i.

or

rDTO

"Rev. Arch."
" Rev. Arch."

n.s.

1864, vol.

200; Madden, "Jew.

(Lenormant, "Essai,"
reads

p.

263).

Coinage,"
3 4

p. 318, note 6.

n.s. 1865, vol. xi. pp. 137-153.
cf.

"the queen," or "the princess (Lenormant, " Essai," vol. ii. p. 8).

The Syriac inscription Saran" or " Sadan "
pp.

See p. 32, note 5; p. 33, note 10;
vol. xi. p.

de Vogiie,

"Rev.

Arch." n.s. 1865,

320

;

" Le Temple de Jerusalem,"

10 " Annales de philos. chret." vol. xlviii. " Voyage en Terre Sainte," vol. i. p. 385.

408-415;

:

EPITAPHS OF THE KARAITE JEWS.
whilst

35
the
inscription dates

M. Renan and M. l'Abbe Barges have
century
a.d.,

suggested

l

that

from

the

first

and

relates

to

a

lady of the family of Helena,
of
it

queen of Adiabene.
as
70.

As

this

sarcophagus was

inclosed

in one

the

caves

which

served

a

charnel-house
letters

during the siege of Jerusalem hj Titus,

cannot be later than a.d.

The

are

thought to resemble the inscription on the catacombs of the

Via Portttcnsis at
to

Rome
of

(No. G). the
first

and

in

all

probability

its

correct

date

may

be

assigned

the

first

half

century a.d. 2
* 5.

Epitaphs

of the

Karaite

Jews of the

Crimea

[Plate,

col.

21]. there
is

These epitaphs, about 700 in number, and of
the slightest doubt,
places
St.
3

the

authenticity of which

not

were discovered by M. Abraham
Copies
of

Firkowitz at Tschufutkale and other
taken
in

in

the
;

Crimea.

most

of

them were

paper and

conveyed
of

to

Petersburg

and from these impressions, M. Chwolson has
4

published eighteen

the

oldest

and the most remarkable.
6,

These are
305,
first

all

dated and belong to the following years
670,

—a.d.
960.

30,

89,

179,

197,

262,

369,

625,

678,

719, 807, 831,

898, 937, 958,
first

It

will be

noticed that the

three are of the first century A.u.
:

In the
i.e.

nine,

as given

by Chwolson, three
Tribes,
2.

eras are mentioned

1

.

The

era after the

exile,

the captivity

of
B.C.

the

ten
5
;

from
era

whom
the

the

Jews
is

of

the

Crimea

pretend

to

have

descended,

is

696

The

after
;

creation
3.

B.C.

3911, to which

89 years are to be added
(i.e.

to find

the Christian year
after
the

and
or

The

era of the

Matarchians
the

the Jews of Tamatarka

or

Taman)

creation,

the usual date

among

Jews,

b.c.

3760,

to

which 240

1

"Journal Asiatique," Dec. 1865, pp. 550-560.

given by Chwolson should be lowered 151 years.

M. Derenbourg
carres

2

An

inscription on a small chest containing bones,

which was

writes ("Essai sur l'hist. et la geog. de la Palestine," p. 448):

discovered at Jerusalem, very similar in style of character to that
of the sarcophagus, has been published arch,

"Les

inscriptions

magnifiques en

caracteres

qu'on a

da Musee Parent," p. 24), ("Journal Antique," June, 1868, p. 539) Jairi (Lenormant, " Essai," vol. i. p. 264).
3

by M. de Saulcy (" Bull, and explained by M. Renan

trouvees en Crimee et qui remontent aux premieres annees de
l'ere chretienne, font supposer

"IW

^EITO theca

cet

alphabet.

Comme

il

est

une habitude deja bien longue de certain que les individus pour
etc

lesquels ces

monuments funebres ont

eleves appartcnaient
a.

Dr.

Strack
:

has
ein

maintained

(" Firkowitsch

und

seine

aux dix tribus qui depuis leur
semblent etre restes sans
patrie,
il

captivite, fixee sur ces pierres

Entdeckungen

Grabstein den

Hebr. Grabschriften

der

l'an G9G, n'avaient plus jamais touche le sol de la Palestine et

Krim," 1876) that none are genuine; but Ewald ("Hist, of Israel," vol. iv. " App." p. 299) writes, "I may remark that
the attempts to reject these inscriptions as spurious, like that to
cast suspicion on the

aucun rapport avec
la presqu'ilc

leur

ancienne

s'ensuit que e'est des pays au dela de l'Euphrate que ce
s'est

systeme graphique

achemine vers

bordee par la

Karaites and their ancient

MSS.
is,

of the

Bible, seem to

me

entirely groundless."

There

however, a

mer Noire. Le nom d' Aschourit (riHl^'X, Assyrienne) que lo Thalmud donne a. cette ecriture se justifie done parfaitement
lorsqu'on on pense que les dix tribus furent eminences en captivite
(•(inline
i

doubt about some of the
*

MSS.

[see

No.

15].

" Achtzen Hebraische Grabschriften aus der Krim," in the " Mem de l'Aead. Imper. des sciences de St. Petersburg, " 1865. Xiubaucr has also published them, "Aus der Petersburger Bibliothek. Beitrage und Dokumente zur Geschichte des Karaerthums und der Karaischen [iterator, " 1866.
5

par

le

roi

d'Assyrie

;

aussi

les
:

docteurs

ajouteut-ils,

explication

du mot a*ehourit
(les

'

Parce que cette ecriture
'

st

venue avec eux
It
is,

Israelites)

de Babylone

(DHDy n'pyf

7320)."
Jews were

however, more than likely that, in any case

Chwolson,

op.

cit.

;

Bosanquet,

"Synchronous

hist,

of

A-yriaand Judaja,"
vol.
iv.

in
;

pp.

6,

27-30
in
iii.

"Trans, of Soc. of Bibl. Arch." 1874, Dr. Davidson, Supplement to Art.
Kitto's

between the fourth and seventh centuries a.d., the Crimean in intercourse with the Jews of other lands, and consequently that their alphabet during this period underwent
the same changes
as observable

on the Jewish monuments of
i.

"MSS.

Biblical,"
vol.

" Cyc.
the
first

of

Bibl.

Lit."

ed.

other countries (Lenormant, "Essai," vol.
op. cit. p. 1169).

p.

271

;

Davidson,
i^

Alexander,

pp.

1167-1169.
]><

Both

Bosanquet

and
i.e.

>lson give representations of
<l

three inscriptions,

(Aldis

The meaning of Wright, art. "Writing,"
iii.

the word JVllt'N
in

disputed
of

Smith's

"Diet,

the

\.i..

<;.

:;o.

s:i.

Wj-de

C" Mi']. d'Arch. Orient."

Bible," vol.
vol.
i.

pp. 1791, 1792

;

Davidson, " Biblical Criticism,

vol.

ii.

pp.

172-178) rather inclines to

think

that

the dates

p. 30).

36

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
Most
of the inscriptions bear one date
;

are to be added to correspond to the Christian year.

some,

however, have two.
characters
of

1

The
same
is

the inscriptions are very similar to those found at Jerusalem of the
figured
is

date.

The alphabet
simple
that
dot.

from the epitaphs

of

a.d.

6

and

a.d.

30.

The yod
a.d.

nearly a

The
197,

daleth

and pe are supplied from the
a.d.

epitaph of
2

89,

the teth from
6.

of

a.d.

and the samech from that of
catacombs.

369.

The

inscriptions

from Jewish

A,
In
the
s

At Rome and
escaped

Naples.

seventeenth

century Bosio
has

discovered a Jewish
all

catacomb
research,

situate

in

the

Via

Portuensis.
illustrated

This cemetery, which

subsequent

has
are

been specially

by the Abbe

Grreppo. 4
of

The

inscriptions

from

this

catacomb
or

now
of

divided

between
preserved

the
in

Museums
the

Rome

— the

Museum Kircherianum
and that
of

Museum
St.

Antiquities
;

" Collegio

Romano,"

the

" Cloister of

Paul "

—and
Rome
both

of

Naples
are

—the " Musee
letters.

Bourbon."

They

are mostly written in

Greek or Latin, but on some

Hebrew
5

Copies of these were taken by M. Lenormant

when
in

visiting

in
of

I860,

and

by

the

Rev.

J.

W. Burgon
to the
7J?

(now

Dean

of

Chichester)

1861,

6

whom
1

paid special

attention

Hebrew

readings,
of
~]

which generally
most
D1 7 fc?

consist of
is

the words

Ol

?^, or TNIfe?*, or 7N1fcS^

CHE?.

One

the

interesting

an

epitaph

in

Greek and Latin, and having the Hebrew word "Q

^V

" peace," four times repeated.

A

representation

of

it

is

here given. 7

'

NAWnAPHlOPIOCYIOCTOYBlA

bapzaaPujna. &hicsstpositvstv'biasbarzaha

&&

RONA^€TPM€CORlVSfiLlVS TVBIA€BARZAHAROf\rA ^

^EvOd&e

/cetTat

Tou/3i5?

f5ap^\_aapw~\va
et

ical

Ilaprjyopios

viof Tovftia

Bap^aapwva.

Sic
1

est

positus

Tubias Barzaliarona
;

Parecorius films
3

Tubice

Barzaharona.
1632,
i.

726 of the exile and 2,-702 of the exile = a.d. 6 Nos. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,^000 of the creation, 785 of the exile = a.d. 89; 4090 of the creation = a.d. 179, etc. No. 9, 4536 of the creation, 4385 of the era of Tamatarka=A.D. 625, etc. These dates are confirmed by the Karaite MSS. (see No. 15). 2 M. Lenormant has given a special plate (planche xvi.) to these inscriptions, dating from a.d. 6 to a.d. 369, and also (pi. xv. cols. 13 and 15) the alphabets of some of the later Karaite epitaphs, dating a.d. 625 and a.d. 719, which are very valuable contributions to the history of square Hebrew. A Karaite tombstone brought from Djuffet Kalea, in the Crimea, now in the British Museum, has been published by Dr. Lbewe
Nos.
1

"Roma

Sotteranea,"
1659, vol.

p.

= a.d.

30

;

Subterranea,"

p.

236.

141; Aringhi, "Roma, This catacomb did not
in eo

;

contain a single Christian

monument

quippe haud ulla, ut

in reliquis, Christiana religionis indicia et signa apparebant

Bosio, op.

cit. p.

142.

4 "Notice sur des inscriptions antiques tirees de quelques tombeaux juifs a Rome," 1835. 5 "Essai," vol. i. 1873, pp. 264-267. 6 "Letters from Rome," 1862, pp. 168-174; Madden, "Jew.

Coinage," pp. 319-320. 7 This woodcut is from the Rev. J.

W.

Burgon's " Letters

from Rome,"

p.

166, and
it.

I

am

indebted to the kindness of

("Trans, of Bibl.Arch." 1875,

vol. iv. p. 32).

The

date

is

wanting.

Mr. Murray

for the use of

"

INSCRIPTIONS FKOM JEWISH CATACOMBS.

37
p!"lT

Lenormant supposes that " Tubias Barzaharona
fils

est le
*)T\],

nom

propre

^2 rVilD

'

Tobie

de Zaharon.'
to naprffopio*;,

Ce dernier vient de
he
says,

la
is

racine

splenduit,

et doit

signifier splendidns."

As

that

it

" la

traduction grecque d'un
it,

nom

corame celui de

D1!"0 " [comfort, consolatioii].

Burgon remarks on
!

"Surely the
this

title

in Greek

and Latin and

Hebrew

is

a

striking

circumstance

Observe

that

Jewish epitaph
l

commemorates the

interment of a son with his father.
of to

So another Jewish epitaph
are

commemorates the interment
the desire of old Barzillai

two sons with

their father.

How

we thereby reminded
any
which

of
(2

be 'buried by the grave of his father and his mother'
natural
surely
in

Sam. xix.
one
is

37),

a sentiment
suspect

(sufficiently

people

of

nation),
!

led

to

was

peculiarly

prevalent

among God's

ancient people

Those at Naples are very

similar,

but do not

appear to have

any Hebrew legends. 2
and third century

The names on
a.d.

these inscriptions (such as Faustina) indicate the second

as

their

date.

The symbols which accompany them are usually the seven-branched candlestick (sometimes
repeated twice), the
(Blessing

palm and the horn
there
are
six

of oil;

on one bearing the inscription

EYAOTIA

or

Benediction)

circles

which

Burgon has thought

to

be intended

as

" Passover

loaves."

3

The

principal titles
;

which occur are
ovvajytoyr)?,

irarrip avvaycoyr)^,

father of the synagogue; of
the

sometimes
;

M

TVp>

mother

yepovaidp^rj^

gerousiarch

i

or chief elder

synagogue
5

ap%i-

ypafMfj,ar€v<;,

chief scribe;

and dpx<ov,
B.

ruler,

curiously

applied
etc.

to

a

Nicodemus.

-At

Venosa,

Lavcllo,

In September, 1853,
the
loculi

6

some Jewish catacombs were discovered
some
inscriptions

at

Venosa, upon some of

or niches

of

which

in

Hebrew, Latin, and

Greek are

either

roughly painted or scratched.

Twenty-four of the inscriptions as yet found are in Hebrew.
candlestick,

"They have
that

the seven-branched
;

and a

pigeon with
in

an

olive-branch

to

show

the

buried were Jews
to

whilst four
that

Hebrew

inscriptions

the Cathedral at Venosa

have the cross
inscriptions are
It has also

indicate

the

dead had

become Christians.

The Latin and Greek

misspelt,

but the Hebrew ones are more correct."
inscriptions in

been noticed" that "at Lavello there were found some Hebrew

the

last

century,
of

and

other

Hebrew catacombs were discovered in
in Apulia

1854

at

Oria."
is

The

existence

numerous

Jews

and Calabria

in

the fourth

century

proved by
of

many contemporary
398
:

records,

and especially by a law
et

of the

Emperor Honorius

the year

" Vacillure per Apuliam
sunt." s
to

Calabriam plurimos ordines civitatum comp>erimus, quia Judaicce

superstitiones It
is

much

be regretted that none of these are published, at

least

as

far

as

I

am
1.

1

Burgon,
This
is

op. cit. p. 164.

2

Burgon, op.
translates

cit.

pp. 167-170.

5 6

Cf. Ni/coStj/xos

....

3
4

op. rit. pp. 169, 170.

Murray's " Handbook for Southern Italy,"
Murray, loe. cit. " Cod. Theod."
xii.

&px<^" t<2c 'louSaiW, John iii. p. 361.

a

new word.
correctly.

Burgon
See

it

" chief -elder,"

"'

and doubtless

Chapter

V.

8

i.

p. 158.

38
aware.
I
is

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
cannot therefore now,

any more than

in

18G4,

assign any

exact

date
1

to

them,

hut

it

hardly possible that they can be later than the seventh century a.d.

In 1859 a Jewish catacomb, containing nearly 200 inscriptions, was discovered in the

Yigna Randanini, on the Via Appia, about two miles from Rome, nearly opposite the church
of
St.

Sebastian. 2

It

has

been

described

by

the

Padre Garrucci. 3

The

inscriptions

are

generally Greek,

though sometimes Latin, and some have Hebrew words.
frequently represented.
of

The
is

candlestick,
to

dove and olive-branch are
the time of Augustus,

Part of the

catacomb

said

be of

and part

the time of Constantine. 4
poverty-stricken "

In 1866

another " extremely
also

Jewish cemetery was excavated in the
it.

Vigna Cimarra,

on the
on
the

Via Appia, but no details are given of
of Kefr Bereim in
Galilee 6

5

*7. Inscriptions

synagogues

[Plate,

col.

22].
attributes

These are two in

number.

They have been published by M. Penan, 7 who
or

them

to

the end of the second century a.d.,

the

commencement

of

the

third.

*8. The inscription

from

Byblos.

This inscription was
(Djebal).*

discovered

by

M. Renan

in

the midst of

the

ruins of

Byblos

Its mutilated state has prevented its decipherment,

but

its

alphabet

points to the

commencement

of

the fourth century a.d.
on
the

as

its

date.

*9. Inscription

column tinder El-Aksa
inscription of
of

[Plate,

col.

23].

M. de Saulcy discovered an

four lines, traced at the foot of a monolith
at Jerusalem.

column, in the vaults under the mosque

El-Aksa

He

states

that

it

must
unless
to

have been engraved before the destruction of
one would wish
rebuild
of
to

Jerusalem by the
Julian the

Emperor Hadrian,

assign
at

it

to
;

the

time

of

Apostate,
it it

when he designed
anterior
to

the

Temple
by

Jerusalem
9

but he concludes by considering
to attribute

the siege

Jerusalem
to

Titus.
it

Lenormant, however, prefers
be
a

to

the time of Julian,

and

consider
is

to

monument

of

the

middle

of

the

fourth

century a.d.

Its

alphabet

very like that on the bowls from Babylon [No. 10].
5 Rev. E. Venahles, art. Cheetham's " Diet, of Christ. 6 This place is said to have the tombs of Barak and

1 Since this was written a paper has been published by Prof. G. Ascoli, entitled " Iscrizione inedite o mal note greche, latine, ebraiche di antichi sepolehri giudaici del Napoletano," being

"Catacombs,"
Antiq."
vol.
i.

in

Smith's

and

p.

301.

a reprint from the

Transactions of the

Fourth International
Prof. Ascoli

been once celebrated as containing Obadiah (Major Wilson, R.E.,

Congress of Orientalists held in Florence in 1878.

" Geography
p.

of the Bible," in the

" Bible Educator,"

vol. iv.

examines

first

the

Greco-Latin and the

Hebrew

sepulchral

75
"

;

cf. vol. iii.

p 184).
;

inscriptions, discovered in the

date between the

first

Jewish cemetery at Rome, which and fourth centuries a.d., and, secondly,

pp.

Hebrew inscriptions of the eleventh or end of tenth centuries, and points out that the inscriptions of the Jewish cemetery of Venosa belong precisely to the intermediate epoch. 1 have not been able to see a copy of this work, and am
the

Dec. 1865, "Journal Asiatique," Dec. 1864, pp. 531-540 561-569; cf. de Saulcy, "Rev. Arch." n.s. vol. ii. Frankel, " Monattschrift fur Geschichte und pp. 69-73; Wissenschaft des Judenthums," April, 1865; Geiger, "Jiidische 8 " Mission dePhenicie," Zeitschrift," third year, p. 230. p. 193.
9

"Voyage en Terre

Sainte," vol.

ii.

p. 325.

This inscrip-

indebted for this information to the notice in "

The Academy "

(No. 423, 12 June, 1880, p. 445).
2

Rev.

W.

II.

Withrow,

"The Catacombs

of

Home,"

1877,

pp. 51, 188.
3

" Cimitero

degli Antichi Ebrei

Scoperto recentemente in

must not be confounded with another one, which was also found by de Saulcy under the El-Aksa, and of which he has given a woodcut (" Voy. en Terre Sainte," vol. ii. p. 327), bearing a dilapidated text "trace au pinceau sur le trumeau faisant face a, la coloune monolithe," and "peint en rouge."
tion

Vigna Randanini," Roma, 1862. 4 J. Parker, C.B. "Photographs," Nos. 1160, 1161.

The alphabet
Papyri, and
B.C. (cf.

of this inscription

is

similar to that of the Blacas

its

date

may be

fixed to the second or third century
i.

Lenormant, " Essai," voL

pp. 285, 296).

VARIOUS INSCRIPTIONS IN SQUARE HEBREW.
10.

39

The

inscriptions on the bowls

from Babylon [Plate,

cols.

24, 26].

These

earthen howls, five in
the
British

number, were discovered by Sir Henry Layard,
1

and are

preserved in
nature,

Museum.
by

They have
at

inside

them long
in
Chaldaoa.

inscriptions

of

a cabalistic
their
later,

probably

written
*

Jews

Babylon

or

As

regards
B.C.

date,

Layard conjectures

No. 1 to be perhaps of the second or
;

third century
3

or

and

others to be of the fifth century a.d.

but according to Levy
that

they are partly of the seventh

century
earlier

a.d.

M. Renan has shown 4
fifth

the

most ancient of these monuments cannot be

than the fourth or
letters,

century a.d.
of

On
;

the earliest

of

them there
5,

is

no
as

strict

use
as

of

final

and no separation

words

whereas on No.

final

letters

well

separation of words are constantly found.

*11. The inscription at Aries.

This fragment of a
is

Hebrew
of

inscription,

the

epitaph

of

a person

named *VNft
to

(Mair),

preserved in the

Museum

Aries.

It

is

considered by Lenormant

be of

the fourth

century a.d. 5
*12. The inscriptions from the countries of the Visigothic Kings [Plate,
col.

25].

These consist of the trilingual inscription, Hebrew, Latin, and Greek, discovered at Tortosa
in

Spain; 6

and the stone
/J?

of

Narbonne, which
dates

is

in

Latin, but
of

in

the ninth line has the the

words 7X"lD^

D17EV

The former
is

from the end

the

sixth or beginning of
8

seventh century

a.d.,

the latter

dated in the reign of Egica (a.d. 687- 700).
the same epoch,
is

Another monument,

inedited, of

mentioned by Lenormant.

It is the

epitaph of a certain Samuel, found at Vienne, in Dauphine, and preserved in the
that town.
13.

Museum

of

The

inscriptions on the sepulchral stones

from Aden [Plate,
9

cols. 27,

28].

These
dated,

inscriptions,

now

in

the British
other

Museum,

are four in number, of

which two are

one a.d. 717-718, 10 and the
(3) correspond closely
4

a.d.

916-917.

The forms

of

I

(1),

\

{]),

T

(T),

and J"
letter

with those on the bowls found at Babylon [No. 10].

The

peculiar

f

!

on the

later

of

these

monuments, for N, seems

to

be of Himyaritic or Ethiopic

origin.

*14. Alphabet from the

MS.

of the Jesuits.

This Hebrew alphabet was discovered

by Montfaucon u

in

a Greek MS., containing

the

Lamentations of Jeremiah, preserved in the Library of the Jesuits, at the College of Louis-le-

"Nineveh and Babylon," " Jew. Coinage," p. 315.
1

1853,

pp. 509-526;

Madden,

"Journal Asiatique," Dec. 1865,
7

p.

569

;

Derenbourg, "Journal

Asiatique," Sept.-Oct. 1867, pp. 354-358.
8

2
3

op. tit. p. 525.

vol.

" Jud. Miinzen," ix. pp. 465-491
;

p.

142; " Zeitschrift d. D.M.G." 1855, ef. " Jahrbuch fur die Geschichte der
vol.
ii.

Le Blant and Renan, op. tit. p. 348. Heiss, " Monnaies dcs Wisigoths "
in

;

C. F. Keary,

"The
n.s.

Coinages of Western Europe,"
1878, vol.
9 10

the

"Num.

Chron."

Juden und des Judenthums," 1861,
plate.
1

pp. 267, 294, and

xviii. p.

250.
p. 318.

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
This inscription has been

" Hist, des langues

s('iiiitii|i](s,"

1st edition, p. 66.

published by Dr. Levy in

the

s
6

" Essai," vol. i. p. 273. Le Blant, " Rev. Arch."

"Zeitschrift d.
n.s. vol.
ii.

D.M.G."

vol. xxi. p. 156.
i.

pp. 345-350

;

Renan,

" " Prolcgom. ad

Orig. Hexapla," vol.

p. 22.

:

40

NUMISMATA ORIENTAL! A.
Alphabetum Jesuitarum. 1
Its

Grand, and for this reason has been designated by the name of
date

may
The

be assigned to the eighth century a.d.

15. Early

MSS.
2

of the Karaite Jews.

earliest

existing

Hebrew MSS.

are preserved

in

the

Imperial Public

Library at

St.

Petersburg,

which has recently acquired the
also deposited the

collection of

Herr Firkowitz, and in which
3

Library are
at Odessa.

now
The

Hebrew MSS.
MSS.
of
this

described

by Pinner
have

as formerly preserved

greater part of the
epochs.

collection

dates,

which are reckoned
the

according to

different

The

Biblical

MSS.

consist
the'

of

fragments of

Pentateuch

Rolls without vowel

points,
earliest

and of various portions of
date
is

Old Testament accompanied with Deuteronomy,

vowel points.
in

The

on

a

Roll
in

containing
the

which was found
is

a

Karaite

synagogue
|

at

Tschufutkale
|

Crimea.

The

inscription

as

follows

XpTDtD Wish

NjntD&tD

p

|

H5

EHplPI

uniW?
"Dedicated
[by the
[i.e.

hbpto

\

rivh

hi^x b
of

Synagogue]

here to the

Congregation [h meaning 7f|p or fi/Vlp]

Tamatarka

Phanagoria, the present Tainan on the Peninsula of the same name] formerly

Thamirake, in the year 4400 of the Creation, 1185 after our Exile."

From
Jews
each
other

other inscriptions calculated at different epochs [see No. 5],

it

is

apparent that the
differed

in the

Crimea made use of two eras calculated from the Creation, which
151
years, so

from

that

we must add 89

years

to the

one,

and 240

to the other, to

obtain the corresponding Christian year.

The year 4400

of the Creation is here that to

which

only 89
b.c.

years are
date

to be

added,

i.e.

a.d. 489.

The other

era of the Exile

is

reckoned from
corresponds
to

696, the

of

the

captivity

of

the

Ten

Tribes,

and the year

1185

a.d. 489. 4

Other fragments of Rolls exist in which the date of purchase or dedication
for example,

is

mentioned;

1335 of the Exile=A.D. 639; 1460 of the Exile = A.D. 764; 4541 of the Creation

=a.d. 781

;

1485 of the Exile and [4]700

of

the Creation=A.D. 789

;

1494 of the Exile

= a.d.
was

798;

1501 of the Exile and 4565 of the Creation=A.D. 805, in which year this Roll
tribe of

stolen

by the Gothic

the Tetraxians, and
is

recovered

by force from them by the

newly-converted Chazars.

This inscription

unquestionably genuine, and the Roll evidently

very ancient.
1

Gesenius, "Geschichte der hebr. Sprache," p. 177

;

Kopp,

des

Karaerthums und der Karaischen Literatur,"

1866.

Cf.

" Bilder uud Schriften," vol. ii. p. 275. 2 For the account of the Hebrew MSS. was indebted
in

in this Library, as

Dr. Davidson, "Supplement to art. 'Manuscripts Biblical,'" in Kitto's " Cyc. of Bibl. Lit." ed. Alexander, vol. iii.
p. 1167.
3

well as for the information relative to those noticed by Pinner, I

1864 to Dr.

W.

Wright, who kindly permitted

" Prospectus der Odessaer Gesellschaft gehbrenden
Dr.

altcsten

me

to

make an

extract of a letter addressed to him, and dated

Hebraisehen und Rabbinischen Handschriften," Odessa, 1845.
4

Nov. 1863, from Prof. Chwolson of St. Petersburg ("Jewish Coinage," p. 316). Prof. Chwolson has since briefly aUuded to them in his " Achtzehn Hebraische Grabschriften aus der

W. Wright
this

(" Journ. of Sacred Lit." Jan. 1864, p. 474)

considers

as suspicious, for Thamirake is a well-known town, situated out of the Crimea, a little westward

inscription

Krim,"

in

the

"Mem.

de l'Acad.

Imper.

des

Sciences de

of Perekop, but not in the peninsula of

Taman.

The

earliest

St. Petersbourg,"

1865, as also Neubauer,
Beitrage

"Aus

der Peters-

MS.

noticed by Pinner {pp.
(if it is

cit.)

was written, according

to the

burger Bibliothek.

und Dokumente zur Geschichte

subscription

genuine), previously to a.d. 580.

MSS. OF

THE KARAITE JEWS.

41

There are
843;

also others dated [4]

726 of the Creation = A.D. 815; 4603 of the Creations a.d.

[1]544 of the Exile

= A.D.

848; [4]608 of the Creation
at

= A.D.

848,
is

etc. 1

Among

the

MSS. formerly

Odessa, described

by Pinner,

one

containing Isaiah,

Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the later prophets, and bearing the date a.d. 916.
corresponds in date to one of the sepulchral inscriptions from

Of

this one,

which

Aden

[see

No. 13],

Pinner has

given an excellent facsimile.
above

It has this peculiarity,
letters,

that the vowels

and accents are written
to

instead

of

below
2

the

a

practice

which

has

been assumed

indicate

a

Babylonish origin.

The

opinion

of

Dr.
is

M. Heidenheim, 3
a
codex
of

that

the
or

MS.

of

the Prophets

in the

British
serious

Museum
attention.

{Add.
It
is

4708)

the

sixth

eighth

century,

does not merit

probably not earlier than the thirteenth or fourteenth century.
section of

I conclude this

my

subject with Mr. Thomas's Comparative Table

of

cognate

Alphabets, which appeared in his Article on " Sassanian Inscriptions " in 1868.

M°D

RN

H E B RE W

AB xs

G
a

D

HW"Z
n
i t

Kh

IKLMNSPTs EShTl
'

i

n

3^
V\ A
3
5

d

3

d

fi

s

1

w

r\

*

DUCDELUYNES' NUMISMATIC
PHCENICIAN.

OLD SYRIAC.

rC.S^
P 3
J

.1

00

O
1

\

*4»

.4

=0

^_
J

09

•&
P

^
j

\

.X.

h\

RABBINICAL

HEBREW.
CHALD/EO
PEHLVI

7

P

1

P

>

P

TDP

SASSANIAN
PEHLVI.

JJ

.

,

m
peh lvi

e

type.

»
I

j^-3^-3

*
*

)

ip<
J
;

n
;

^
"Deutsche

i

-c

oi

e_

*=j

-v ? *>
u^

p e rs a n

n a s k'h

i

m

«aT

•>

j

c
tD

^^Jfuu-Vs
M Ayin = „^.
;

J

^
d.

^

Hebrew

Letters not used in the Pehlvi

Teth =\

p Koph = „o

;

¥

Tsade, and

^ Sin.

1

Tlio authenticity of several of the dates on these rolls has,
is

however, been called in question, and Herr Gratz
(" Gesehichte der Juden,"
vol.
v.

of opinion

p.

551)

that the greater

number are purely imaginary compositions written at a recent date by some Karaite Jew (cf. Lenormant, "Essai," vol. i.
p. 277).
2

and Dr. Ginsburg has written a paper (" Trans, of Bibl. Arch." 1876, vol. v. p. 129) on " The Babylonian codex of Hosea and Joel, dated ad. 91G, compared
478),

MS. Dr. Levy has D.M.G." vol. ix. p.

published an alphabet

(" Zeitschrift

with the received Massoretic texts."
3

[See Xo.

5.]

Yierteljahrsschrift,"

vol.

i.

p.

259, edited by

Pinsker,

" Einleitung

in das Bahylonisch-hebriiische

Punk-

Dr.

M.

Ileidenheim.

tationssystem," "VTien, 1863.

He

also gives a facsimile of this

.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE.
Column

1

Egyptian
Phoenician

.

>

Hieratic,

circ.

B.C.

2000; from Lcnormant,

" Essai,"

vol.

i.

pi.

i.

;

and

Euting, " Semitische Schrifttafel," 1877.
2.
.

3.

i)

4.

»>

Moabite stone, b.c. 853-841; from Rawlinson, "Contemporary Review," August, 1870. Engraved gems, 8th century b.c; from De Vogue's plate of gems, "Rev. Arch." n.s. 1868, vol. xvii. pi. xiv. and Lenormant, pi. ii. col. 3. Esmunazar, king of Sidon, B.C. 600 from Madden, " Jewish Coinage," 1864;
;
;

Due

de Luynes, "Mem. sur le sarcophage et 1' inscription funerairc d'Esmunazar," 1856; "Journ. Asiatique," May, 1856; also in Thomas's " Prinsep's Essays," vol. ii. p. 166, pi. xia. col. 3.
;

Ancient Geeek, Phrygian, b.c 920
Texier's copies.

from tracings by Mr. E. Thomas, from Steuart's and

Carian, circ. B.C. 656, or b.c 520; from copies of inscriptions
after

by Mr. Thomas,

Boeckh and Lepsius
circ.

;

cf.
;

Kirchhoff,
cf.

" Studien zur Geschichte des

Griechischen Alphabets," p. 35
Various,

plate, col. vii.

from Rawlinson, " Contemp. Review," August, 1870, after Boeckh and Rose, and inedited inscriptions in the British
b.c 650-500
;

Museum; cf. Kirchhoff, From Kirchhoff, p. 157.
9.

plate.

Aeajlean

10.
11.

Lion weights, b.c 745-681 from the weights; the letters wanting supplied from the bulls of Sargon, circ. B.C. 648 Madden, " Jewish Coinage." Assyrian contracts, 7th cent. B.c from Lenormant, pi. ix. col. 3.
; ; ;

Carpentras stone,

? 1st

century b.c; from Madden,

"Jewish Coinage";
Gesenius,

Gesenius, " Mon. Phcen." pi. xxviii.
12.

Papyri, 1st century b.c; from Madden, "Jewish Coinage"; " Mon. Phcen." pi. xxx (Turin), xxxi and 32 (Blacas).

13.

Palmybene

.

B.C.

9

a.d.

257;

from Madden,
8th and 7th
n.s.

"Jewish Coinage";
b.c

Gesenius,

"Mon.

Phcen."
14.

pi. v.

Old Hebeew

Engraved gems,
" Rev. Arch."

cent,

;

15. 16. 17.

Shekels

M

1868, vol. xvii. pi. xvi.
.
;

from de Vogue's plate of gems, and Lenormant, pi. vii. col. 2.
;

)
j

a^,

b.c 141-135

from the

coins.

18.
19.

Samaeitan.

.

.

.

Asmona^an family, b.c 135-37; from the coins. a.d. 66-70 from the coins. Two Revolts a.d. 132-135 Nablus stone, a.d. 527; from Madden, "Jewish Coinage"; Rosen, "Zeitschrift d. D.M.G." vol. xiv. p. 622.
from Lenormant, pi. xv. col. 1. from Lenormant, pi. xv. col. 3. Kefr-Bereim, 2nd and 3rd cent. a.d. from Lenormant, pi. xv. col. 7. El-Aksa, 4th cent. a.d. from Lenormant, pi. xv. col. 9. from the bowls, Madden, Bowls from Babylon, 4th and 5th cent. a.d. "Jewish Coinage"; Layard, "Nineveh and Babylon," pp. 512-526, 1853.
1st cent. B.C.
;
;

20.
21.

Squabe Hebrew. Beni Hezir,

Crimea, 1st cent. a.d.

22.

;

23.
24.

;

;

25. 26.

Tortosa, 6th cent. a.d.

;

from Lenormant,
7th
cent,

pi.

xv.

col. 11.

Bowl

from
;

Babylon,
Layard,
a.d.

a.d.;

from the bowl,

Madden,

"Jewish

Coinage "
27.
28.

op. cit.

Stone from Aden, a.d. 717
Stone from Aden,

from the stone, Madden, "Jewish Coinage." 916; from the stone, Madden, "Jewish Coinage"
;

29.

Modern.

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CHAPTEE

IV.

THE HONEY EMPLOYED BY THE JEWS AETER THEIR RETURN EROM BABYLON UNTIL THE REVOLT UNDER THE MACCABEES.
In the
first

year of Cyrus, king of Persia

(b.c.

538), l

an edict was issued authorising the
i.).

return of the Jewish people to Jerusalem for the purpose of building the Temple (Ezra

Nearly
of

fifty

thousand persons
offered
ii.

responded to
for

this

decree,

and on
set
it

their

arrival,
its

"the

chief
It
is

the

fathers

freely

the

house

of
after

God
their

to

up
unto

in

place."
of

recorded

(Ezra

69)

that

:

"

They gave

ability

the

treasure

the
fivai;

work three
Cod. Alex. year
of

score

and one thousand drams of
;

gold

(D^ilWYl, Darkemonim ;
of
silver."

LXX.

Bpa^id<;
(b.c.

Yulg.
537)

solidos),

and

five

thousand pound
the

In the

second
to

Cyrus

the

foundation

of

Temple was

commenced, shortly

be

stopped by the opposition of the Samaritans,

who

frustrated the

Jews

" all the days of Cyrus

king of Persia, even until the reign of Darius, king of Persia"
Darius,

(Ezra

iv.

5).

This was

son of Hystaspes.

2

An
with

accusation was written to Ahasuerus

(E^mCriX, Akhasverosh),
of

who has been
to

identified
B.C.

Cambyses,

3

the

son

and

successor

Cyrus,
five letter

who came
months, but
addressed to

the throne in

529,

and

died after a reign of
is

seven
6).

years

and

the result of

the communication

not

given

(Ezra

iv.

Another
who
to
says,

1

Cf. 2

Chron. xxxvi.

22,

23.

Namely,

his

first

year at
iv. p.

("Antiq."
Astyages,

x.

11,

4),

"Darius was the son
(i.

of

Babylon. Prof. Rawlinson says ("Bible Educator," vol.
note 9),

42,

but

known

the

Greeks by a different name."
109) that Astyages had
8.

date is determined by the canon of Ptolemy. no need to suppose that the Jews regarded the reign of the kingdom of Persia as commencing two years later (b.c. 536), for the prophetic round number seventy years need not baw been fulfilled exactly. The captivity commenced b.c. 605 The Dan. i. 1 2 Kings xxiv. 13; 2 Chron. xxxvi. 6, 7). decree of Cyrus was issued b.c. 538, in the sixty-eighth year

"This

Herodotus, however, distinctly states
no male issue
2

There

is

'

birais epaevos yovov.

See p. 46, note
of

'

Some

(Dr.

Mill,

"Evangel. Acct.

the

Birth

and

Parentage of our Saviour," pp. 153-165, 1842) have considered this Darius to be Darius Nothus (b.c. 424-405), but the

;

after.

The foundations
iii.

of

the

(Ezra

8), in

the sixty-ninth year alter the

Temple were laid b.c. 537 commencement of

arguments advanced for this view are by no means satisfactory. Moreover, if Darius Nothus be meant, Zerubbabel and Jeshua must have reached the age of a hunched and fifty or a hundred

Bnt if we accept the view that Astyages the Mede was the " Darius the Mede" of Daniel, and was left at Babylon (b.c. 538-536) as viceroy whilst Cyrus pursued his conquests, the Jews, being in constant intercourse with him, would
the captivity."
ally give

and thirty years at least, as they were still living in the second (Ezra iii. 8, v. 2) and even in the sixth year of Darius (Zech. iv. 9). See on this question Rev. H. Browne, in Kitto's " Cyc. of Bib. Lit." ed. Alexander, s.v. Darius, and Kawlinson, " Speaker's Com." vol. iii. p. 399 " Bible Educator," vol. iv.
;

him the

title

of king, and

would reckon the year of

p. 42, note 10.
3

hi-

death b.c. 536, which was that of their restoration, as the frst

Rawlinson, op.
Ahasuerus.

cit.,

Dr.

Cotton,

Smith,

"Diet, of the

year of Cyrus fVaux, "Hist, of Persia," S.P.C.K. pp. 80, 81). h< lab Dean Milman (" Hist, of the Jews," vol. i. p. 415), as
I

Bible," s.vv. Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes, J. Nicholson, Kitto,
s.v.

i

i

De

Saulcy ("Esdras et Nehemie," p. 24,
;

many
"t
i.

others, rather inclined to consider a Cyaxares the

unch

of

1868) identifies Ahasuerus with Xerxes
(Kitto,
of)

so also Dr. Davidson
s.v.

Cyrus to be Darius the Mede.
Astyages,
5,
'!,,

is

But this second Cyaxares, son only introduced inXenophon's romance("Cyrop."
is

"Cyc.
of).

of Bibl.

Lit." ed. Alexander,

Ezra, Book
s.v.

and Lord A. Hervey (Smith,

"Diet, of the Bible,"

and

his existence

apparently alluded to by Josephus

Ezra, Book

44

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Artaxerxes (NftE^TlFnX, Artakhsha&hta), identified with the Magian impostor Smerdis, 1
succeeded Cambyses
B.C.

who
of

522, and was

killed

by Darius Hystaspis

after

a

short

reign

seven months, met with an unfavourable reply, and the work of

the house of

God

" ceased

unto the

second

year

(b.c.

520)
v.

of

Darius,

king of
to

Persia"
again
Cyrus,

(Ezra

iv.

7-24).

Then the
letter

work

was

recommenced
Darius,

(Ezra

1-2),
to

soon
the

be
of

opposed.

Another
if

was

written to

calling

attention
v.

decree

and

asking
search

the building

was

to

be

continued (Ezra

6-17).

Darius

immediately ordered

to

be made in

the "house of the rolls" for the decree of Cyrus, which was found at

Achmetha (Ecbatana,

Ezra was

vi.

1).

Darius then issued a new decree for the advancement of the building, which
to

" finished according
of

the

commandment

of

the

God

of

Israel,

and according
2

to the

commandment

Cyrus and Darius and Artaxerxes, king of

Persia.

And

the house

was

finished on the third

day of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year

(b.c.

516-515) of

the reign of Darius the

king" (Ezra

vi.

3-15).

About
went up
words:
to

fifty-seven years later (b.c. 458), in

the reign of

Artaxerxes (Longimanus

3 ),

Ezra

Jerusalem with a special commission from the king, the decree including the following
all

"And
is

the silver and gold that thou canst find in

all

the province of Babylon, with

the free-will offering of the people and of the priests, offering willingly for the house of their

God which
lambs, with

in

Jerusalem

;

that

thou mayest buy speedily with this money bullocks, rams,
offer

their

meat-offerings
is

and their drink-offerings, and
in Jerusalem
silver
;

them upon the
good
icill

altar of

the bouse of
thy brethren

your God which
to

and whatsoever
the

shall seem

to

thee

and

to

do with
4

the

rest

of the

and

gold, that

do after

the

of your

God"

(Ezra

vii.

16, 17, 18).

On
1

Ezra's arrival at Jerusalem he committed the treasure to the care of the priests, " and
iii.

Herod,

61-78.
s.v.

Bawlinson
Artaxerxes).
est

and

Cotton

(op.

cit.)

;

only twenty-one.

Some,

as

Michaelis,

Jahn,

etc.,

advocate

J.

Nicholson (Kitto,

De

Saulcy (op.

cit. p.

27)

Xerxes.
priest

thinks the

name Artakhchachta

faux.

Dr. Davidson (Kitto's

From the fact that Eliashib, grandson of the highJeshua, who accompanied the first colony under Zerubbahel
xii.

" Cyc.
2

of Bibl. Lit." ed. Alexander, s.v. Ezra,

Book

of)

not

(Nehem.

1-10;

cf.

Ezra

ii.

2, iii.

2),

Smerdis but Longimanus.

when Nehemiah
says

arrived at Jerusalem (Nehem.
is

was the high-priest iii. 1), it is more

"There

is

some

difficidty,"
iii.

Professor

Rawlinson,
impossible

than probable that Artaxerxes Longimanus

the Artakhshashta of

(" Speaker's

Com."

vol.

p. 406, note 14),

"

in the conjunction

Ezra
as
iii.

(vii.

1)

and Nehemiah
(op. cit. p. 42)

(ii.),

and not Artaxerxes Mnemon,
See Bertholdt ("Einleit."
Artaxerxes),
s.v.
;

of Artaxerxes with Cyrus and Darius here.

It

is

De

Saulcy

supposes.

that the Artaxerxes of ch.
since he

iv.

7

[Smerdis] can be intended,

1014),

J.

Nicholson (Kitto,
vol.
iii.

Bawlinson

opposed the
(i.e.

building.

The Artaxerxes

of

ch.

vii.

(" Speaker's
note 11).
4

Com."

p.

408

" Bible Ed."
ticra

vol. iv. p. 42,

seems to be meant

Longimanus); but as the Temple was
it

'finished' in the sixth year of Darius (ver. 15), his grandfather, it
is

Cf.
<'

1

Esdras

viii.

16.

Xldvra re

fiovAr) ef

apyvpov koI
«al

scarcely accurate to say that

was

'

built

and finished

'

by

xP u(ro
koL

Karaaitevdnai, iroieiv l£ io-rui aoi
aoi

fxira.

rwv

db~eA<piii>

to

Artaxerxes' commandment.

Still, as

Artaxerxes contributed to

5e$o/j.ei>a

Upa

crKtiri

avaQriatis, koX oao>v &v
t?;i> eis

imvoiav

Ao/3j)s,

the beautifying of the Temple (ch.

vii. 20), and promoted the he might be thought to deserve mention, together with Cyrus and Darius, as one of those who helped forward the completion of the work." Cf. J. Nicholson

ravra wpoae^pydarj,
ya(o(pv\aKiov.

aura. Sairdvriv Ik tov /3a<riAiKoG

same by

his edict (ib. 13-20),

voiovnevos

— Joseph.

"Antiq."

xi.

5,

1.

This

(Kitto, s.v. Artaxerxes).
3

seems to show that Josephus understood that full permission was given to the Jews to turn the metal in their hands to whatever Josephus gives the name of the king who use they chose.
granted
the

The Artaxerxes here mentioned

is

generally considered to

commission

as

Xerxes,

instead

of

Artaxerxes

be Longimanus.
over Persia,

Three kings of the name of Artaxerxes ruled Longimanus (b.c. 465-425), Mnemon (b.c. 405-

Longimanus.
This passage of Ezra was the one upon which M. de Saulcy founded his new theory, and ascribed the emission of the shekels

359), and Ochus (b.c. 359-338).

of the field, as mention is an Artaxerxes who reigned thirty-two

The latter is at once put out made in Nehemiah (xiii. 6) of
years,

and Ochus reigned

and half-shekels, usually attributed to Simon Maccabaeus, to Ezra (" Etude Chron. des livrcs d'Esdras et de Neheniie," 1868,

;

DRAMS OF GOLD.
weighed unto them the
silver

45
even the offering of the house of
all Israel

and the gold and the

vessels,

our God, which the king, and his counsellors, and his lords, and
offered
;

there present, had

I even weighed unto their hand
talents,

six

hundred and
;

fifty talents of silver,

and

silver vessels

an hundred

and

of gold

an hundred talents
yjyva-ol yiXioi;

also

twenty basons of gold of a thousand
solidos)
;

drams (Q^'DTIX, Adarkonim;

LXX.

Cod. Alex. Zpayji&v yikioi; Vulg.
viii. 25,

and two

vessels of fine copper, precious as
(b.c.

gold" (Ezra

26, 27).

l

In the twentieth year

445-444) of Artaxerxes Longimanus 2 (Nehem.

ii.

1),
it,

Nehemiah,

hearing of the misery at Jerusalem, obtained permission from the king to
secretly viewed the ruins of the walls

visit

and having

and incited the Jews

to build in spite of their enemies,
iii.

the work was commenced
iv.

at

once,

and notwithstanding frequent interruptions (Nehem.
vi. 15).

v.)

completed in fifty-two days (Xehem.

Nehemiah then found "a
vii.

register of the
it is

genealogy of them which
" some of the chief of

came up

at

the

first

" (Nehem.

5),

in

which

stated that

the fathers
(0' 31fi.3*n,
,

gave unto the work.

The Tirshatha gave
xpvaovs
^iXtot;?;

to the treasure

a thousand drams of gold
fifty basons, five

Darkemonim;
priests'

LXX.

Yulg. auri drachmas),

hundred and thirty
of
;

garments.

And some
of

of the chief of the fathers

gave

to

the treasure

the

work twenty thousand drams

gold (0^1^311, Darlccmonim

LXX.

'xpvaov

i/o/xi'cr/^aTo?

Vulg. auri drachmas), and two

thousand

and two hundred pound
drams of
gold
of

of silver.

And

that which the rest of

the people gave was

twenty thousand

(^1^3"n, Darhemonim; LXX.
silver,

ypvaiov;
priests'

Yulg. auri drachmas), and

two thousand pound
3

and three score and seven

garments " (Xehem.

vii.

70, 71, 72).

p. 43), a theory completely accepted

("Essai,"

vol.

i.

p.

186),

and

myself with reserve
pp. 282-290).

("Num.

and advocated by Lenormant English readers by Chron." n.s. 1874, vol. xiv.
laid before

am of opinion that the views set forth by M. Six and Dr. Merzbacher give as convincing proof of the correctness of the attribution of the shekels and half-shekels to Simon Maccaboeus
as

But more recently Lenormant has restored these coins without any explanation to Simon Maceabseus ("La Mon. dans l'Antiq." 1878, vol. ii. pp. 28, 29, 155), and views of dissent as to their attribution to Ezra have been expressed by M. Six and Dr. Merzbacher (see Madden, "Xum. Chron." n.s.
1879, vol. xiv. pp. 13-15 The former numismatist
.

can be expected without direct or positive evidence.

See
12.

p. 50, note 1,
*

and Chapter V.

'

See

Chapter

I. p.

De

calls

Saulcy (" Esdras et Nehemie," 1868, pp. 52, 55, 70) this king Mnemon, and assigns Nehemiah' s visit to JeruB.C. 384.

salem to
3

("Xum. Chron."

n.s.

1877, vol.
:

xvii. p.
1.

238) urges the following reasons for the old attribution 2. The name of the These coins have not the carre crcux.
is

For an explanation of the amount of gold, silver, and garments contributed, as stated by Ezra and Nehemiah, see Eawlinson ("Speaker's Com." vol. iii. p. 448); Lord A. Hervey (Smith, " Diet, of the Bible," s.v. Nehemiah).
This register
is

town

followed by an honorary

title

iltiHp, and these titles are

similar

to

that in
=

Ezra

(ii.

1-70).

The

not adopted at Sidon till about B.C. 120, at Tyre till about B.C. 140, and at Bybh.s till b.c. 176-164. 3. The date is expressed

Tirshatha or "governor"
article
,T
:
'

(Nntyin always written with the
in

bv a numeral preceded bv the initial oi the word ]"I3C and , ,-,, „ ,, _,„ jj , and the word T\V added to ciphers do not appear till n.c. 368
,

Kr)Bhnn), mentioned T "
is

Nehemiah
.

(vii.

65,

70),

is

.

,

'

,

,

,

Zerubbabel and not Nehemiah, as

is

;

evident from Ezra (n. 63). v >

ite

is

not earlier than b.c. 238.
as the
stati rs

same weight

181), and ol his

4. The shekels have the Ptolemy V. Epiphanes (b.c. 204son Ptolemy VI. Philometor (b.c. 164-146).

Nehemiah though

called Tirshatha in
also

Nehem.
14;
26).

viii.

9;

x. 1.

of

Both Zerubbabel and Nehemiah are A.V. "governor"), the former
1,

named Pechah (ItnS,
(v.
(xii.

in

Ezra

cf.

ffaggai

i.

The

latter has devoted to the question a special paper, in

which

14

;

ii.

2, 21),

the latter in

Nehemiah

Tirsatha

is

he discusses "the age of the shekel" ("Zeitsch. fur Xum." 1877, vol. v. pp. 151-172), and many of the arguments are
similar to those advanced

by M.

Six.

Especial prominence

is

given to the study of the time

when

the Jews could have formed
to

an independent commonwealth, and

the

manner

in

which

autonomous coinage in Asia developed itself; whilst the passage in Ezra is rejected p. 158, after Gratz), as belonging to a record,
istorical value of which is more than doubtful. Without, however, attempting to discuss this last statement, I

a Persian word from tarsuta, the past participle of tars, "to fear" (Rawlinson, "Speaker's Com." vol. iii. p. 424). Lord A. Hervey (Smith, " Diet, of the Bible," s.v. Nehemiah) is of opinion that the Tirsatha in Ezra ii. 63, and Nehemiah vii. 65, 7<*. is Nehemiah, as we are expressly told in Xehenu'ah \iii. 9, and that it i~ certain that what is related in the two firstx. 1 named pa—a^-es happened in the time id' Nehemiah, and not in liut see Rawlinson's note ("Speaker's Zerubbabel. thai ol
;

Com."

vol.

iii.

p. 445).

;

46

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
To the above-quoted passages from Ezra and Nehemiah may be added the statement
of the

offerings given, at the time of David,

by David and the

chief of the fathers to the service of
:

the house of

God, among which the following are mentioned

— " And

gave for the service of

the house of God, of gold five thousand talents and ten thousand drams (D'OIDTIX Adarkonim

LXX.

xpvcrovs

;

Vulg.

solidos),

and of

silver ten

thousand
(1

talents,

and of brass eighteen thousand
7).

talents,

and one hundred thousand

talents of

iron"

Chron. xxix.
of

Though
"Darkemon,"

there are several opinions concerning
it

the origin

the words

"

Adarkon " and

is

in

any case agreed that by these words a gold coin or
the
of

stater is intended.

The
of

origin of the term has been sought in

name

of

Darius the Mede, or of Darius, son
supposed to have been

Hystaspes
to,

(CW7).

1

In

consequence

the

type of the coins,
2

alluded

being " an archer," the

late Dr.

Levy thought

that

the word was derived

from

^T\1, " to

bend the bow," from which was formed a noun fDTT, or with the Aleph
that

prefixed,

fDT7N, "archer," and
simple

the
is

expanded form J1D3"H might have formed
easily inserted.
4

itself

from the
dara,

fDT7,

for

the

Mem
a

Gesenius suggested

3

the

Persian word

" king," which would be

likely derivation,

as the

figure represented is not

any particular

king, but " the king of Persia " in a general sense.

The name " Darkemon," occurring
Cyrus
(b.c.

as it does

as

early as

the

first

year of the reign of
of

538, Ezra

ii.

69),

may have been

suggested

by the name

Darius the Mede, 5
B.C.

who may perhaps be
and who,
of
if

identified with Astyages,

king of Media, defeated by Cyrus in

558,

he was the grandfather of Cyrus, as stated by Herodotus, 6 when the combined armies
appeared
to the

Persia and Media captured Babjdon, might well have
if

Jews
office,

as the actual

king of Babylon, more especially
pursued his career of conquest. 7

he was There

left there to exercise

the kingly

while Cyrus

are,

however, serious objections

to this theory, 8

and
But
314
;

1 Darius is in old Persian Daryavush, a form well represented hy the Hebrew CJTT] Daryavesh (Bawlinson, Herod, vol. iii.

who
cf.

speaks of darics as in use in the time of Cyrus

I.

others (Rev. J.
p.

M.
of

Fuller,

" Speaker's Com."
value,"

vol.

vi.

p.

p. 544).
2

312) are of opinion that the notice in the scholium of
is
is

" Jud. Miinzen,"

pp.
3

19,

20,

note ;

Madden,

"Jew.
p3"}TNsays

Aristophanes

"no

small

and

the

Lexicon

of

Coinage," p. 19.
4

" Lex."
is

ed. Tregelles, s.r.

Harpocration
importance.

generally considered to be a work of the highest

With

respect
28)

to

Gesenius'

derivation,

llawlinson

It

may he

that

" the

scholiast mistook a statement

no evidence of the existence of any such root in ancient Persian, and that perhaps it is better to connect the term with Darius. Mr. E. Thomas ("Num. Chron." n.s. 1868, vol. viii. p. 286) writes, "The Persian
(Herod,
vii.

that there

purporting that the coin was older than the time of Darius
Hystaspis, and took

'king'"
Alexander,
I7

(Rev.
s.v.

its name not from him but from dara, H. Browne, Kitto, " Cyc. Bibl. Lit." ed.

Darius).

origin

of
<

the word
,

'Darius'
,

is

clear
,

in
.

the verb
t

^li-iiJ
,,
,,

'"> 91> 107, seq.

Bashtan,

_

,

to have, to hold, to possess,

,,

imperative^

Bawlinson, Herod,

dar.

The whole

One

of the titles of

justice."

The

J\ remainder of the word

God

is

J J\J
is

Bdd-ddr, " possessor of
a mere appellative suffix

^^m

vol.

i.

p. 405.

of the identity rf Darius

^

Med(j

^

elongated on
p. 544).
5

euphonic grounds (Bawlinson,
1.

Herod,

vol.

iii.

See note

Dan.

v. 31, vi. 28,

ix. 1, xi.

1.

AapeiKovs ovk airb Aapelov,

by the Bev. J. M. Fuller, joint editor with the late Archdeacon Bose of the book of " Daniel " in the " Speaker's Com." (vol. vi. p. 310, seq.), and three identifications are more specially selected, (1) with Cyaxares II. (2) with Astyages, and (3)— a theory expounded by M. Quatremere ("Mel. Hist."
discussed
;

too Ee'plou -narpos, a\\' arp' erepov Tivbs TraKaiore'pov /3a<nA.e'o!s Schol. on Aristoph. " Eccl." 602; Harpocration avotxaae-qaav. and Suidas, s.v. AapetKos. This passage is condemned by Mr.

"Mem.

sur Darius le

Mede

et Balthasar,"

p.

372)

—with

the

general charged by Cyrus to lead the nocturnal expedition,

who

was rewarded with the satrapy
" ffiuvres,"
latter view.
ii.

Head ("Int. Num.

Orient." vol.

i.

part

iii.

p.

22) as

" un-

p.
i.

510;
p.

worthy of credit," and the statement of Harpocration, as perhaps derived from the romance of Xenophon (" Cyrop." v. 2, 7),

of the East,"

of Babylon (cf. Des Vignoles, Lenormant, " Man. of the Anc. Hist. Mr. Fuller rather inclines to this 490).
1.

See p. 43, note

THE DARIC.
yet
it is

47

difficult to
1

account for the names of these coins under Cyrus, unless from a king by

name

" Darius."

Though the passages

in

Ezra and Nehemiah would seem

to

show that coins

of a similar
it

name were
question
if

current

during the reigns of Cyrus,
is

Cambyses, and

Darius Hystaspis,

is

a

the coin called " Daric "

intended by those mentioned during the reign of Cyrus.
circulation
till

The Daric proper was probably not
(b.c.

in

the reign of
2

Darius, son of Hystaspes,

521-485),

who

issued

a

new

coinage

of pure
till

gold,

though the actual name of Daric
of

stater does

not seem to have

been in vogue

the

reign

Xerxes 3

(b.c.

485-465), under

whom

it

is

specially mentioned. 4

It is probable that the staters of

Croesus 5

may have

continued

in

circulation
7

from
and

after
if

the capture of

Sardes in

B.C.

554

6

to the time

when Darius reformed
supposing that the
viii.

the coinage,

so

the Lydian staters would be those alluded to during the reign of Cyrus. 8

There

is,

on the other hand, no
of

difficulty in

adarlconim and darkemonim

mentioned under the reign
the coins called Daric, as

Artaxerxes

Longimanus (Ezra

27

;

Nehem.

vii. is

72) are
specially

we

know, as I have above stated, that a " Daric stater "
father
9

mentioned

under

Xerxes,

the

of

Longimanus,

and that they were
at first

at

this

period

extensively circulated in Persia
to

and Greece.
;

The pay given

by Cyrus the younger
mentioned

his

soldiers
10

was a daric a month

and half-darics

(fjfuSapeitcd)

appear to be

by Xenophon.
1

The resemblance
also be noticed,

of

the word
it is

dram

to the
if

Greek Spaxp-v

6

The taking
to

of

Sardes,

according to
to

common

account,

is

may
is

though

a question

the

Hebrew word

the equivalent of 8paxM> as Ewald has suggested (quoted by A. von Werlhof in preface to Cavedoni's " Bibl. Num." vol. ii.

p. xvii),

and as the

late

M.

Charles Lenormant was inclined to

think (" Rev.

Num."
p.

1860, p. 17, note 4).

Hussey ("Weights

Volney (" Recherches surl'Hist. Anc." vol. i. pp. 306-309) and Heeren ("Man. of Anc. Hist." 1840, p. 478) to b.c. 557. Rawlinson (Herod, vol. i. p. 336 scq.) gives good reasons for the date b.c. 554. 7 B. V. Head, " Metrolog. Notes on Anc. Electrum Coins"
assigned
b.c.

546.

According

and Money,"
consider the

183) writes,

"It

remains, then, that

we may
Greek

word drachma

also,

like other

words

in the

("Num. Chron." n.s. 1875, 8 See Chapter II. p. 20.
9

vol. xv. p. 258).

system of weights, to be derived from some one of the oriental
tongues, and that the
of words
2

Pythius the Lydian (Herod,

vii.

28) placed at the disposal

from

a

Hebrew dnrlcemon and adarlon common rout with it."
~'

are forms

of Xerxes

Greece 2,000 talents of silver and 3,993,000 daric staters, which together would equal nearly five
his
to

on

way

Aopeios

fj.(V

TdTov

v6fiio-fia

eVdi|/oTo.

yap XP V0 10V KaSapciraTov a.we^rjaa'! is to SvvaruiHerod, iv. 166. Grote (" Hist, of

millions of our money.
p.

374)

has

Grote (" Hist, of Greece," vol. iv. no confidence in the estimate of the wealth of

Greece,"

vol. iv. p. 166) does

not think that there

is

any reason

for believing either the

name

or the coin Daric to be older than

Pythius, but other private individuals are recorded as possessing enormous riches. Haman offered Xerxes 10,000 talents of

king who coined money.

(p. 165) Darius was the first Persian But Herodotus only states that Darius coined gold of superior quality to any winch had been known before Rawlinson, Herod, ad he.). The staters given to Drmocedes by the wives of Darius for saving the king's life

Darius Hystaspis, and that

Jews (Esther iii. and Tritanta?chmes, satrap of Babylon, is said to have received as revenue an artaba of silver daily, which has been estimated (Sir G. Wilkinson in Rawlinson's Herod, i. 192) at
9),

silver (2-§ millions) to destroy the nation of the

about 1| bushels.
10

(Herod,
3

iii.

130) were Darics.

XlpoaaiTovai 5e
oil

fxia-Ohv

d

Kvpos

inrtaxv^'irat

r]p.i6\iov

irairt

Identified with the Ahaswrusoi Esther (Rawlinson," Speaker's
vol.
iii.

hwaeiv

Trp6rzpov ttpepov, o.vt\ SapetKov

Com."
of

p. 475).
til.

Mr. Nicholson writes
s.v.

(Kitto,

" Cyc.
is
it,

fii]vbs T(f (TTpcniwrri.

— " Allah."

Tpia TjfiiSapeiKa too
of these so-called

i.

3, 21

.

None

Bibl. Lit."

Alexander,
Persian
4

Ahasuerus),

"Nor

half-darics have

come down to

us.

Mommscn

considers (" Hist.

perhaps,
authority

unimportant to add
of
i.e.

that

Norberg

asserts,

on

the

native

historians,

that the mother of
('

Bahman,
Acad.'
5
iii.

Artaxerxes Longimanus, was a Jewess
^rarripuv AaptiKvv.

Opuscula
vii.

218)."

— Herod,

28.

hi Mon. Rom." ed. Blacas, vol. i. p. 12) — if, indeed, Xenophon meant to indicate a coin hy the term iifxihaptuc/iv that they must be the quarter-darics, wi ighing about 66 grain-, struck by the satraps, and especially by those of Tyre. Mr. Head

de

The

staters of Croesus

were known

in

Greece as early as

(" Int.

Num.

Orient."

vol.

i.

part
a

iii.

p. 29) is inclined to take

557-556.
apiece to

Croesus gave two staters (Svo o-TaTrjpvi xpuvov)

Tpia rifxiSapeiKa simply to
a
daric

mean

sum
rpiij/ti

of

money

equivalent to

Delphiana for the satisfactory answer he had obtained from the oracles (Herod, i. 54).

the

and a

half,

comparing

— the

ordinary

way

of

expressing one and a half.

;

;

48
The Persian
daric

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

may

be thus described

:

Obverse.

Reverse.

Figure of a king, crowned, kneeling to the right,
holding in
left

An

irregular incuse square.

hand a bow, and in

right a spear,

or sometimes an arrow. 1

The ordinary
drachma;. 2
are
rare
3

daric

weighed

about

130

grains,

and

was

equivalent

to

20

Persian

Double darks, weighing 257 grains, or thereabouts, are in existence, though they but there
is

no doubt that the Greeks gave the name
130 grains, which
is

of

crraTrjp

Bapeucos,

or

Bapeitcos,

to

the piece weighing the

more common.

With
in
all

reference to

"darics" mentioned in the book of Chronicles, the writer, who
not

probability

was Ezra, must
"

be understood
as

to

say that

darics

were current in

the time of David.

We

must rather regard him

wishing to express, in language that

1

The carrying the bow
in

in the left

hand and the javelin
Darics,

or

the lower end (the

"knob"

is

noticeable on the coins),
v.

and

arrow

the right,

as

represented on the

may be

among

the

Mossynoeci (Xen. "Anab."

4,

12)

the spears

by the passage in Ezekiel (xxxix. 3), "I will smite left hand, and will cause thine arrows to fall out of thy right hand," which alludes to the destruction of Gog, prince of Meshech (cf. fiCj} "OEJ.'O A.V. "them that draw the
illustrated

employed had a round knob formed from the wood of the shaft.

thy bow out of thy

bow,"

nations Moschi

19), and Tubal identified with the northern and Tibareni (Ezek. xxvii. 13 xxxii. 26 vol. iv. p. 215). The term Eawlinson, Herod, vol. i. p. 676 Gog or Magog (Ezek. xxxviii. 2, 3 Gen. x. 2 1 Chron. i. 5)
Is.

lxvi.

;

;

;

;

has been generally supposed to refer to the Scythians

(cf

.

Joseph.

"Antiq."
Lit."
s.v.

i.

6,

1

;

Rev. L. Alexander, Kitto, " Cycl. of Bibl.

by

Magog). In the cuneiform inscriptions we find side " Birighudu, a chief of the Madai" (Media), " Sariti and Pariza, sons of Ga-a-gi, a chief of the Saka" (Scythians), whom Mr. G. Smith ("Hist, of Assurbanipal," The Scythians were very skilful in p. 97) identifies with Gog.
side

with

the use of the

bow

(Herod,

i.

73

;

iv.

132)

;

mythically they
;

The dagger (4-yx f 'P^ l0V ) or short sword used by the Persians was generally suspended from their girdles (Herod, vii. 61), and was usually called o/cu'dicijs (vii. 54; cf. iii. 118, 128; iv. 62, ix. 80, 107; "Acinaces," Hor. "Odes," i. 27, 5). This aKivaxtis Josephus ("Antiq." xx. 8, 10) compares, as to the length, with the small sword (£i<pl8tov) used by the robbers (Si/capioi) in the time of Festus, which was somewhat curved, and in this respect differed from the Persian a/ciea/njs, which was straight (cf. Rawlinson, Herod, vii. 54). 2 It has usually been considered that the Daric was equivalent to " 20 Attic drachms," but the passage in Xenophon ("Anab." i. 7, 18) appears to show that it is the Persian drachm of 86 45 grains that is referred to (Queipo, " Essai sur les Syst. Met." vol. i. p. 300 Head, " Int. Num. Orient." vol. i. part iii. Lenormant, " La Mon. dans l'Antiq." vol. i. pp. 147, 150). p. 29
-

;

;

were supposed to be its inventors (Plin. vii. 56 cf. Herod, vii. 64), and are said to have been specially famous as mounted bowmen (nnroTo£^Tai, Herod, iv. 46). The Persian youth was instructed in three things, " to ride, to draw the bow (To|eveiv), and to speak the truth" (Herod, i.

3

Mommsen

(" Hist, de la Mon.

Bom." ed

Blacas, vol.

i.

p. 9)

quotes only three specimens.
existence of

Mr. Borrell informed me of the nine (" Jew. Coinage," p. 272). Mr. Head [pp. cit.)

publishes twelve.

A

double daric with a Phoenician

[?

Greek]

inscription on the obverse, [rOJK' and

some

figures, interpreted

The bow they used appears to have been of a very large 61; Xen. "Anab." iii. 4, 17). The darics themselves were known as to|<Stcii, at least so Agesilaus (b.c. 399-394) called them when he said that the Persian king had driven him away by means of thirty thousand "archers" (Xen. "Hellen." iv. 2; Plut. "Ages." 15; " Artax." 20). The Persian cavalry carried bows (To£o$d/j.avTts t' f;S' linro0a.Tai Herod, vii. 84). JEsch. " Pers." 26
136).
size (Herod, vii.
;

M. Ch. Lenormant (" Rev. No. 3) to Artaxerxes Longimanus. A (pi. isecond has a monogram composed of the letters No. 4), supposed to indicate the town of Chalcedon. Mr. Head thinks it probable that the double darics were not royal Persian coins, but were struck in small quantities at some Greek city or cities, perhaps in the Western portion of Asia Minor, as is evident from the Greek letters and symbols which occur upon
is

" year 22,"

attributed by the late
pi.
i.

Num."

1856, p. 16,

XAA

The

javelin or spear of the Persians
(vii.

is

specially alluded to

by

them, such as

<J)|

Herodotus

41) as having golden pomegranates or apples at

;

X,

1?,

M

,

etc.

THE SirAOS
would be

MHAIKOS.

49
and therefore as translating the

intelligible to bis readers, the value of tbe gold subscribed,

terms employed in his documents, whatever they were, into terms that were in use in his

own day."

*

Besides these gold Darics, there was a silver coin circulating in Persia, called the IMyXos
M-qSiicos, or SiyXos.

Mention

is

perhaps made of this piece in the Old Testament in the passage,

"But

the former governors that had been before
of

me
cf.

were chargeable unto the people, and
of silver "

had taken
apyvptov

them bread and wine,
;

besides
v.

forty shekels

(D vpw' PlDD

;

LXX.
twenty
to

SlBpa-^jia

Vulg.

siclus

;

Nehem.

15;
is

x.

32).

Of these
a
coin of

silver pieces

went

to

one gold daric.

In Xenophon there
2

mention of

this

name, said
#

be equal to 7\ Attic obols.

The obolus weighed about 11*25 grains
3

— 11*25 x7"5 = 84 375

and 84*37

is

about the weight of the silver darics.

These coins are like the gold daric

impressed with the figure of an archer.
After the death of Nehemiah
left
(tire.

B.C.

420)

the administration of Jewish affairs was
far

in

a great measure to the priests.
office,

This circumstance was

from keeping

up the

sacred
solely

the temporal power vested in them stirring up
of

many

aspirants,

whose object was
higher quali-

that

worldly aggrandizement, and

who were

entirely wanting in the

fications necessary for the office.

The negligence and wickedness

of the priests are complained
(b.c.

of

by Malachi.

4

In the reign
the

of Darius II., first

named Ochus and then Nothus,

425-405),
of

who had assumed
Artaxerxes),
the

throne

on the death of Sogdianus (one of the illegitimate sons
the

Egyptians
(b.c.
:

expelled

Persians from Egypt, and chose
into

a

king of their

own,

Arnyrtaeus

414).

To bring them again
the

subjection
to

the

Persians

marched
it is

through
impossible

Judaea
to
II.

and

though

Jews
not

remained
in

faithful

the

Persian

sway,

suppose that they were

some measure
of

sufferers

from
(b.c.

this

intrusion.

Artaxerxes
vigorous

Mnemon,
to

the

son

and successor power

Darius

Nothus,

405-359),

made
its

efforts

restore
its

the

Persian

in

Egypt, and the invading army on
Palestine,

way towards Egypt took
disquiet
of
this
to

course

along the
this

coasts of

which caused considerable
peace during the
son
of

the

Jews.

With perhaps
of
this

exception
(circ.

they enjoyed
b.c.

reign

king.

At the time

invasion
at

373)

John,

Joiada

and

grandson of Eliashib, was high-priest
Jesus,

Jerusalem.

He

had, however, a rival in his brother
to procure

whose claims were favoured by the Persian governor Bagoses, who promised
the nomination
to the

for

him

priesthood.

A

quarrel

ensued, and

Jesus was
in

slain

by

his
to

brother.

This atrocious crime was avenged by Bagoses,

who came
extorted

great

indignation

Jerusalem, and forced his
fifty

way

into the

Temple.

He

then

from the Jews a

fine of

drachms on every lamb

offered in the daily sacrifice,

and harassed the Jews

for seven years. 5

1

Rawlinson, " Speaker's

Com."

vol.

iii.

p. 271.

2

'O 5e crlyKos Svvarai eina ofioKovs

ical

rnj.tofi6\ioi>

'Attikovs.

'•

Anab."

i.

5, 6.

3

1'hitarch

(" Cim."

10)

mentions
gold.

silver darics,

apparently

in contradistinction to the

217A01 MtjSikoI apyvpol

Al

occurs in the

list

of

the offerings of the Parthenon (Bockh,

i. The "thousand pieces of gold" p. 14). xp" a(l0L ) given by the Ephesians to Timotheus for his dedicatory hymn to Artemis (Alex. jEtol. ap. Macrob. "Saturn." v. 22) were, most probably, darics, though they might have 4 Malachi i. and ii. been staters of Philip II. of Macedon. s Joseph. " Antiq." xi. 7, 1. These "fifty drachms"

ed.

Blacas, vol.

{(riyXoi

•Corp. Ins." No. 150;

Mommsen, "

Hist, de la

Mon. Horn"

(Sixmos

veinitKoina)

must cither be understood as "shekels,"

50
In the year
b.c.

NUMISMATA OFJENTALIA.
336, Alexander, the son of Philip of Macedon, ascended the throne.

In the

same year Darius III. Codomannus ascended the throne of Persia in the place of Arses (son
of Artaxerxes III. Ochus),

who had been murdered by Bagoas.
to be rivals,

These two kings, Alexander
effected the

and Darius, were destined

and the

result of their wars

overthrow of
the

one of the great Eastern kingdoms.
Persian

The
not

battle of

Issus in B.C. 333 decided the fate of

Empire

;

but

Alexander,
all

waiting to pursue Darius,

advanced

into

Phoenicia.

With

the exception of Tyre,

the cities tendered their submission.
it,

Angry with
it

the obstinate

resistance
success
violate

which

this city

made, Alexander laid siege to
towards
Jerusalem,

and took
of

in B.C. 332.
city

After his
to

here he advanced
his oath of

the high-priest
the

which

had refused

fealty

to Darius in favour of

king of Macedon.

At Sapha he was
he recognized the

met by a solemn
likeness of

procession, headed

by Jaddua the
to

high-priest, in

whom

a person

who had appeared
he
is

him

in

a dream, and believing that the incident

was due
to It

to Divine interposition,
sacrificed

said to have saluted
this

him with
is

reverence,
is

and afterwards
open to
to

have
is

in

the

Temple.

Whether

story

true

or not,

doubt.

certain,

however, that Alexander,

by some means
the
1

or

other,

was led
the
for

abandon his

intention

of

punishing
privileges

the

Jews,
his

that
reign,

Jews

were

allowed

enjoyment of
regret

many
died

considerable
(b.c.

during

and

had much cause

when he

324).

At

this period the coinage of
2

Alexander was a very rich one.
stater called

It consisted of gold, silver,
'A\e^dvBpeio<;,

and copper.

The usual gold coin was the

by Pollux

and the

silver

coins were tetradrachms and drachms.

These coins were struck after the Attic standard, intro-

duced by Alexander the Great, instead of the Phoenician and iEginetan standards, which were
largely used in Macedonia and Greece, except at Athens and Corinth.
this period struck in Palestine

Of the tetradrachms

of

two specimens are extant in the Paris and Gotha Museums, struck
Scythopolis (Bcth-shan) in Samaria was a town of
first

at Scythopolis and

Sycamina.

considerable

importance, at which three roads met, the

northward from Damascus, the second eastward
;

from Bostra in Arabia, and the third westward from Jerusalem
in communication with the towns of Ace,
3

and a fourth route placed

it

Sycamina, and Stratonis Turris (Caesarea Palaestmae).

From

this

it

may
At

be
a

inferred
later

that

Scythopolis

had

a

considerable
of

commerce

with

these

maritime

cities.

period (a.d. 64) the

number

Jews in Scythopolis was very

or with greater probability as

"

silver daries."

Xitto ("Hist, of

Palestine,"

vol.

i.

p.

C59) says that Ochus, the successor of

Artaxerxes Mnenion, remitted this heavy tax, which has been
estimated by Jahn at £50,000.

"Jewish Coinage," Chron." n.s. 1865, vol. v. p. 192); but De Saulcy afterwards abandoned this theory, and assigned their issue to Ezra. This view, though of more value than the
contested by most numismatists (Madden,
;

pp. v-ix

"Num.

permitted the Jews to enjoy the laws of their foreand to pay no tribute on the 7th year (Joseph. " Antiq." xi. 8, 5), and further to hold Samaria free from tribute (Joseph. "contra Apion," ii. 4), a privilege offered at a later time to Jonathan by Demetrius I. The attribution by De Saulcy to the high-priest Jaddua of
1

He

former one, has not, however, commended
writer (see p. 44, note 4).

itself to

the present

fathers,

the shekels, etc., usually given to Simon Maccaba;us, has been

2 For an account of the coinages of Alexander the Great, see " Numismatique d Alexandre le Grand," 8vo., with admirable plates and tables 4to., by L. Miiller. Copenhagen, 1855. 3 Aecho, now called St. Jean a" Acre. It was named Ptohmais after one of the Ptolemies, probably Soter.
1

COINAGE UNDER THE SELEUCIDJ3 AND LAGID.E.
considerable,

51
inhabitants. 1

and 13,000 are stated

to

have been murdered by the

Sycamina

(Hepha or Haifa) was situated between Acre and Csesarea
tetradrachms
bearing the
of

Paleestinse.

Of Joppa there are
and
Copenhagen,

Alexander

in

the
it

collections

of

Vienna,

Berlin,

Paris,

initials

1011, and

no doubt supplied Jerusalem with money, being a town of

importance and the seaport of
struck also at Ace.

that city.

A

considerable

number

of coins

seem

to

have been

After the death of Alexander the Great, his large possessions were divided
generals.

among

his

The scope
the

of this

work

will not permit of a full description of the dissensions
I.

amongst
cause of

them.

Until

Jews

fell

under the sway of Ptolemy

Soter

they had

much

complaint in consequence of their country lying between the two great kingdoms

of Syria

and

Egypt, and
of

liable to

be harassed by rival invaders.
to

Under the

first

Seleucidse the

same system

coinage as under Alexander the Great, seems
I.

have been continued.

There are coins of

Seleucus

Nicator, with the initials Al, supposed

to

have been struck at Diospolis (Lydda). 2

This city was situated at
this

no great distance from Joppa, on the grand road leading from

town

to

Jerusalem,

and was
I.

probably a place of
Nicator, took
this date that

great

commercial importance.

The

recovery of Bab}don by Seleucus
place in B.C.

312, and

it

is

from

the Seleucidan era was reckoned.

It

seems very

probable that the coins of Tyre and Sidon,

with
the

names

of the Seleucidoe,

and bearing dates

of

Seleucidan era, were in circulation in Palestine at
this period.

So also under the Lagidse we find the money of the Egyptian kings retained

on the
of his

old

Macedonian or Phoenician standard.
?,

Ptolemy
;

I.
it

struck coins towards the end

reign at Tyre, Sidon, Ptolemais

and Paphos

and

was not

till

the Jews finally
It will

gained their independence that any national Jewish coinage was struck and adopted.

be necessary to give a short epitome of the events which led to their autonomy.

About
city

B.C.

320

Ptolemy

I.

Soter
it

made an

attack

upon
if

Jerusalem,

and

won

the

by stratagem, having entered

on the Sabbath day, as

to offer sacrifice.

Palestine

was wrested from Ptolemy for a short time by Antigonus, king
former was continually at war,
at
till,

of

Asia,

with

whom

the

in the year B.C. 301, Antigonus
first

was completely defeated

the decisive battle of Ipsus.
condition,
especially
at

Under the
under

two Ptolemies Palestine was in a tolerably

prosperous
gifts

Philadelphus,
treated
in

who

not

only

made
settled

many
his

costly

to

the

temple

Jerusalem, but

the

Jewish colonists
respects

in Alexandria

with

great

toleration,

and

placed

them

many
is is

on

a

level

with

Greek

1

Joseph. " Bell. Jud."
It
r

ii.

18, 3.

required in interpreting them.
really Diospolis,
is
i

2

may he

noticed that in the "Catalogue of the Seleucid

a matter of doubt.

Therefore, whether Al or Mr. Gardner, whilst
I

A

Kiiv_ ~ of Syria in the British Museum," by Mr. Percy Gardner (1878, pp. xxix-xxxiii), the writer remonstrates against ndi in v to discover the names of mints in many of the monograms occurring upon their coins, urging that the utmost caution

allowing that

A£>

n

conjunction

with the figure of a dove
is

(the bird sacred to Derceto, the goddess of Ascalon),

Ascalon,

questions

if

ASK

alone ought to be so interpret!

d, as

has been

done by Mullcr

(op. cit. p. 308).

52
subjects. 1

NUHISMATA ORIENTALIA.
Under the moderate government
of

Ptolemy Euergetes, the high-priest Onias

II.,

a

mean and money-loving man,

refused to pay the annual tribute of twenty talents to the
to
seize

Egyptian king, who consequently threatened
his
troops.
to

Palestine and divide the

land
set

among
out
for

This threat was evaded by the high-priest's nephew Joseph,
purchase the

who
an

Egypt

farming of the

royal taxes,

and he

so

pleased

the king that he
office

was appointed

collector of

the taxes and revenues from Judaea, Samaria,

etc.,

which

he discharged for the period of twenty-two years.
the
Great,

A

new

rival

now
a

appeared.

Antiochus III.

king of Syria, on his return from the
but,

East,

commenced war on Ptolemy IV.
great
battle
at

Philopator,

though at
B.C.

first

successful,

he was

defeated in

Raphia,

near Gaza, in

217.
of

It

was

after
is

this

campaign that Ptolemy
to
it,

visited Jerusalem,

and

against the advice

the high-priest

said

have advanced towards the inner sanctuary
but, either

of the Temple, with the intention of entering

through some superstitious dread,
fright,
state.

or from
his

some supernatural horror, he was overcome with

and before he could

fulfil

unlawful purpose
the

was carried out

in

a

nearly senseless

In revenge

for

this

he

instituted

most cruel persecutions on the Alexandrine Jews, but afterwards

reinstated

them

in their former privileges.

When

Ptolemy IV. Philopator died

in B.C. 205, leaving a son,

a child of five years of age, Ptolemy V. Epiphanes, Antiochus III. the Great took advantage
of this state of to
affairs,

and entered into an arrangement with Philip V. king of Macedonia
of

divide

the dominions

Ptolemy.

Philip,

however, was

shortly

after

engaged in war

with the Romans, but Antiochus obtained complete possession of Palestine and Ccele-Syria by
his victory over

the Egyptian general Scopas, at
citadel,

Paneas,

B.C.

198, in consequence of

which

Jerusalem and the

through the aid of the inhabitants, who drove out the Egyptian
at the

garrison, fell into the

hands of Antiochus, and

peace which was thereupon concluded,

Antiochus gave his
province as a dowry.
short time, 2 which
B.C. 187.

daughter Cleopatra in betrothal to

Ptolemy, giving her the

conquered
a

To

requite the services of the

Jews Antiochus remitted the taxes for

was

also continued

under Seleucus IV. Philopator, who succeeded his father in
3

In

B.C.

175, Antiochus IV. Epiphanes
first

succeeded Seleucus, instead of the latter's son

Demetrius.

His

act

was

to sell the office of high-priest to the brother of the pious high-

priest Onias III., Jesus, or as

he was called by his Greek name Jason.
if

He

offei'ed to

the king

440

talents of

yearly tribute,

he would

invest

him with

the

high-priesthood,

and 150

1

Joseph. "Antiq."

xii. 2.

to the

Jews by Ptolemy
I.

I.

This privilege had also been granted Soter (Joseph. " Antiq." xii. 1), and
xii. 3,

obtain back the throne of Syria.

Ileliodorus

was

killed

and
i\v

Antiochus mounted the throne in the same year.
'Etti^oct/s, Sti, ttjs

'Eirwvvfiov

by Seleucus
2

Nicator earlier ("Antiq."

1).

He

also allowed

them

to live according to the laws of their

country, and issued a decree that no one should come within the
limits of the
xii. 3, 4).

apxvs a.p-n-a(oix4vris vrrb aWorpioiv, /3affi\tvs There is evidently a oIkcios &<p9r\ (" De Reb. Syr." 45). connexion here meant between the aorist passive b<p9rivai and
tpaivo/xai ('Eiri(pav7i<;).
let

Temple, excepting by permission (Joseph. " Antiq."
signifies

They both have the same

signification, to

oneself be seen, appear, especially in aorist (see Liddell
s.v.

Maccab. x. 1). Appian gives a curious reason for the adoption of this name. On the murder of his brother Seleucus by Heliodorus, who seized the kingdom, Antiochus, who was on his way to Rome, was
3

Epiphanes

"

illustrious

"

[Nobilis

1

Scott,

parody of
avrbv

and was also called Epimanes (madman) in Epiphanes, on account of his wicked deeds. KuAel
opdw).
lie
xal

'Eirifj.avi],

ovk

"E.Tn<pavri,

Sio

-ras

7rpa£eir

(Polyb.

"Reliq." xxvi. 106, Athemcus,

v. 4

;

x. 10).

assisted

by Eumcnes

II.

and Attalus

II. kings of

Tergamus, to

;

ANTIOCIirS IV. EP1THANES.

53

more up

"

if

he miglit

have a licence to

set

him up

a

place for exercise, and for the training

of youth in the fashion of
l

the heathen, and to write

them

of

Jerusalem hy the name of

Antiochians."
Gra;cising

This

offer

was immediately

accepted

hy Antiochus,

and Jason
to
'

set

about

the Jews.
;

An

attempt was made
the

again to cause

the Jews

become uncir-

cumcised

'

the service of

temple was neglected, and the very priests were partakers of

the iniquities of their chief.
as special messengers to the

Jason also sent his Jerusalemites, the newly-elected Antiochians,
sports

celebrated

in

Tyre in honour of Hercules, bidding them
Hercules, which, though sent with
gallies.

carry three hundred drachms of silver 2 to the
that object
B.C.

sacrifice of

by the

high-priest

Jason, was

employed by the bearers in making
festival

In

172 Antiochus visited Jerusalem, and a great
of

was given by Jason

in his honour.

The prosperity

Jason was not, however, of long standing.
his
office

A

yet

more cunning kinsman

removed him from

in

the

same way as he had removed his brother Onias.
(or,

A
the

younger brother of Onias and Jason
Temple), by name

as

some
for

say, brother of

Simon the overseer
sent

of

Onias, which he changed
flattery,

Menelaus, being

by

Jason to the king,
talents

knew how, through
of
silver,

and by bidding
the
to the
office,

more

than

Jason

by three hundred
to
fly.
;

to

gain

for

himself

and Jason was

compelled

To get the
and
all

money which he had promised
sources failing, Menelaus caused

king was a matter of some

difficulty

other

his

brother Lysimachus to obtain
sacrilege

possession of

some

of

the
of

sacred treasures in the
Onias,

Temple.
at

This act of
act
so

was not kept from the knowledge

whose indignation

the

roused the people that Menelaus grew apprehensive

of his safety,

and compassed the death of the ex-high-priest.

This only served the more to

heighten the indignation of the Jews,
act

who demanded

justice of

Antiochus for the disgraceful

which had been perpetrated.

Justice

was promised, but for some time Menelaus continued

to escape

paying the penalty for his crime.

On

Lysimachus, however, his partner in
again

guilt,

the fury of the Jews was spent, who, outraged

again and

by

his

continual exactions,

slew
to

him

in the Temple, whither
to

he had
act,

fled for protection.

When

the Jews sent three deputies

Antiochus

justify their

and had almost succeeded in satisfying him, Menelaus,
to invalidate their

through the agency of Ptolemy Macron, the king's favourite, was enabled
cause, to secure their execution,

and

finally to get himself reinstalled in his office at Jerusalem. in

In

B.C.

170 a second war broke out between Ptolemy VI. of Egypt and Antiochus,

which the

latter

was

successful.

About

this

time Jason, the

deposed high-priest, encouraged
against

by the

false

rumour
his

of

the

death of Antiochus, advanced

Jerusalem,

caused

the
of

expulsion
1

of

brother

Menelaus,

and resumed his
5«rx<A.£as

former

dignity.

The

approach
v.

2

Maccab.

iv. 9.
:

;

Vulg. drachmas argenti, and in Tobit
B.
iv.

15

[see

2

iv.

'Apyvpiov Spaxubs rpiaKoalas Vulg. didrachmas, 2 Maccab. 19. (For the discussion on the number of and the identification

of these

drachms or didrachms, see De Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."

pp. 26, 27; Madden, "Jew. Coinage," pp. vii, 233; " Suppl." in "Num. Chron." n.s. 1870, vol. xvi. p. 126.) Drachms are
also mentioned in 2 Maccab. x. 20, (tttAkis Si fivpidSas 5pax/ucis Vulg. didrachmis in 2 Maccab. xii. 43, us apyvpiov Spax/J-as
;

Maccab. x. 40, 42, where Demetrius I. (circ. B.C. 153) offers Jonathan 15,000 shekels (LXX. <tIk\os apyvpiov; Vulg. siclus argenti) a year towards the work of the temple and a release of 5000 shekels, are repeated by Josephus ("Antiq." xiii. 2, 3), who substitutes
v.].

Appendix

The passages

in

1

for shekels the

word drachms (150,000 and 10,000), and doubtless

correctly.

;

54
Antiochus,

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
however,

with

a

large

army,

forced

him

to

flee,

and he

afterwards

perished

miserably in Sparta.
of Jason

The wicked Menelaus contrived
secret understanding with

to persuade

Antiochus that the invasion

was made on a

the

Jews, and that they had
the
city.

made

great

rejoicings,

when

the

rumour

of

his

death

reached

Upon
and
first

this

Antiochus
it

took
the

Jerusalem by
golden
altar,

assault, slaughtered great

numbers, entered the sanctuary, removing from
table of

seven-branched candlestick,

shew-bread,

the
step

sacred

vessels,

and

plundered the Temple of
violence.

1800

talents.

This

was only the

to greater of

deeds of

Two
to

years later Antiochus

sent of

Apollonius, his

chief

collector
city,

tribute (dp^tov

cj)opo\oyla>i),

Jerusalem,

in

the

guise

peace

;

he entered the
the Jews.
still

and attacking the
fortified,

people on the Sabbath day, slaughtered numbers of
those
of

Mount Zion was
to

and
the

the

inhabitants
edict

of

Jerusalem

who were
of

true

their

religion

fled

to

mountains.

An

was now passed by Antiochus, enjoining the inhabitants of the whole
religion.

empire

to

profess

but one

Many

the

Jews,
;

fearful

of

the

penalty

which

disobedience to the edict
to to

would

entail

upon them, apostatised
faith.

the majority, however, refused
of

purchase any idemnity by forsaking their
Jupiter
;

The Temple

Jerusalem was dedicated
of

Olympius,

1

the

rite

of

circumcision
sacrificed

was abolished, and the copies
the
altar of

the

Law

burnt

moreover, a great
all

sow was

on

burnt-offerings

and

the liquor

sprinkled

over the Temple.
this

When
His
five

persecution

had continued
afflicted

some months, a champion was found for

the

dishonoured religion and the
sons,

people, in Mattathias, a priest of
;

the family of Joarib.
called

Joannan,

called

Caddis

Simon,

called

Thassi

;

Judas,

Maccabaeus

8

Antiochus IV. especially venerated Zeus. 2 Maccab. vi. 2. In b.c. 174 he commenced the completion of the temple of Zeus Olympius at Athens (Polyb. " Reliq." xxvi. 10; Livy, xli. 20), and associated the worship of Zeus with that of Apollo at Daphne, erecting a statue of the former god resembling that whilst at by Pheidias at Olympia (Amm. Marcell. xxii. 13, 1) Antioch he built a magnificent temple for the worship of Jupiter
1
;

fondness of the Samaritans for hospitality, whilst Jalm suggests
("

Hebrew Commonwealth,"

vol.

i.

p. 319) that it

was because

the Samaritans in their letter to Antiochus Epiphanes said that

they were strangers in the country.
2

The surname

of Maccabaeus

is

supposed by some to have been
is

adopted from the device upon his standard, which

said to

have

been composed of the four
of a verse of
is

letters
:

M, CH, B,

I,

the initial letters

Capitolinus (Livy,

xli.

20).

Exodus

(xv. 11)

r\W D^K"3
the gods

The temple on Mount Gerizim was ordered to be dedicated to Vulg. Jupiter, the defender of strangers (LXX. Zeus EeVios
;

like

unto thee,

O

Lord,

among

n3QD"'' O " Who ? (man/. mighty
'

Jupiter hospitalis, 2 Maccab.
5, 5),

vi. 2).

Josephus (" Antiq."

xii.

however, says that the Samaritans requested permission of

Antiochus " the god" (6e6s on coins) to dedicate their temple,
hitherto ivithout a name, to Jupiter Hellenius.

The avawtxov Up6v of Josephus furnishes a singular agreement with the words "Ye worship ye know not what" (John iv. 22). of Our Lord A coin of Antoninus Pius, struck at Neapolis Syriae, probably represents this temple (Akerman, "Num. 111. of N. T." 1846,
:

more probable to suppose that the name was derived from the Hebrew i"QpO "a hammer," and adopted on account of his glorious victories, as in a similar manner in later times the name of Martelyias given to Charles This for his brilliant victories over the Arabs (733-737). family is usually called the "Maccabees'" but " Asmtmmans'''' or " Hasmonceans" is the proper name of the family. The derivaones')."
It seems, however,

;

tion of this latter

name has been disputed, but
cf.

the derivation from

Chashmon

(|DKTI, 'AcranwaZos,

Gesen. "Thes."5343.),great-

29; De Saulcy, "Num. de la Terre Sainte," 1874, p. 248, No. 3, pi. xiii. No. 1). As to the epithet EeVios, which was given to Zeus as the supporter of hospitality and the friend of Virg. strangers (Plut. " Amat." 20; Xen. " Anab." iii. 2, 4 ".En." i. 735, etc.), it is explained in the A.V. of 2 Maccab. vi. 2, by the clause " as they did desire («atoj iriyxavov,
p.
;

grandfather of Mattathias, seems the most correct (Rev. B. F. Westcott, Smith's "Diet, of the Bible," s.r. Maccabees),
d. Jud." I.) derives the name from DDn temper steel," so that, as Dr. Westcott remarks (he. cit.), it but this explanation becomes a synonym of " Maccabee "

Herzfeld ("Geschich.

"

to

;

Vulg. prout erant hi) who dwelt in the place." 'as they were' Ewald, after 2 Maccab., supposes ("Hist, of Israel," vol. v. 298, note 6) that the name was connected with the p.
;

Dr. Leathes considers (Kitto, " Cyc. of Bibl. Lit." ed. Alexander, vol. iii. p. 2) "fanciful and groundless." s.v. Maccabees,

Dr. Curtiss (quoted by Dean Stanley, " Jewish Church,"

vol.

iii.

Appendix) sustains that "the original spelling of the word

is

:

MATTATHIAS AND HIS FAMILY.
Eleazar, called

bo
also

A varan

(or

Savaran)

;

and Jonathan, whose surname was Apphus, 1 were
to induce
Oveiv,

true to their religion.

"When

Apelles, the officer appointed
(SacriXieos

Mattathias

to

sacrifice

on an idolatrous

altar (tov

auSpa tov

dvay/cdfyvTa sons

Maccab.
living,

;

tov o~TpaTi]<y6v

ftaaiXecos, Joseph.),

came

to

Modin, where he and his

were

and

attempted to

persuade him, Mattathias indignantly

refused his advances, and not only struck

down

a

Jew

who was making
himself.

preparations

for

the

required

sacrifice,

hut

slew the

king's

commissioner

This was the commencement of the greater rebellion which followed.
Judaea,

Mattathias and

his sons fled to the mountains of

and the numbers of his followers rapidly increased.
to

In due time these devotees, in their ardour

maintain their religion, at terrible risks emerged

from their hiding-places, and headed by Mattathias marched through several of the Jewish
cities.

The obnoxious

altars

were destroyed, and the
followers,

officers of

Antiochus
that
his

slain.

For more than

a year Mattathias led

his victorious

when

finding

end was approaching,

he called his sons together, and after having conjured them to continue valiant and to show
themselves

men

in the behalf of the

Law, he

said

:

" Behold I

know

that your brother

Simon

Machabee, as in Jerome ("Prolog. Galeat."
that,
it
if so,
it is
'

p.

xxviii),

and

bourg considers ("Essai sur
p. 451),

1'hist. et la

geog. de la Palestine,"

derived from chabah 'to extinguish,' and that
'

"

le

mot

iv,

comme

interpole a la suite de l'interpre-

was applied to Judas as the extinguisher of the Pagan worship; " whilst the Dean himself writes [op. cit. vol.iii. p. 306)

tation erronee du
sar'

mot

o-apafiiK, et

nous n'aurons dans

^x Dy
a.

"If

name of the Hammer,' Maccab name of the ancestor of the family Asmon possibly also commemorated in the original Hebrew name of the book which described his fame The Avenging Rod of the Prince of the Sons of God' [Sarbath sar Bene PI]"
received the
'

"Judas ....

am'

el,

rien que le second titre de Simeon, qui etait
;

la fois

possibly connected with the

grand pretre et chef de la nation il repond au sar bane el dans le titre donne par Origene," adding that the word ~W in the

'

;

adding in a note, " this seems the most probable explanation." Various interpretations have, however, been ventured of the words 2apP7)02,apBave eA (cf Ginsburg, Kitto, "Cyc. of Bibl.Lit."
.

vogue at this epoch (cf. Aha, a doctor of the third century, and to R. Jonathan, "Essai," p. 48, note), and the Maccabees would probably have applied it to themselves before laying claim to the dignity of "|?0 " king."
sense of irpoo-TaTrjs or arpaTTiySs
in

was

ilTOn

*1B>,

Nehem.

ii.

8,

a title given to R.

For

o-ap/3r]0

M. Derenbourg

proposes to read

o-a<papfiri9

=

ed. Alexander, s.v.
first

Maccabees, Books

of), the original title of the (ap.

book of Maccabees, as given by Origen
»33 (or
i.e.

Euseb. " H. E."
of the Princes of
xii.

vi.

25)— 1. ha
2. bii

X>)

nB>mX> History
The Sovereignty

JV3 "ISD, and the title of the work would be bii *J3 X* JTO 1SD Book of the family of the prince of the people of God, which would resemble the name given to the first book of Maccabees by
the Halachbt gedoltt (seventh century),
Scroll of the house of the
also called (Ginsburg,
i.e.

thesonsof God,
115)
;

of Israel (Michaelis, "Orient. Biblioth."
(lit.

DWlfXTI 1V3 D^JD
p. 57, note 1),

»33

"W CaiC

the sceptre)

Asmonceans ("Essai,"
cit.)

of the prince of the sons of God, i.e. of Simon, who is called "prince" (<rrpaTTty6s) in 1 Maccab. xiii. 42; xiv. 47 (Ewald,

loc.
1

D'tOIDKTin "I3D Book of

the

Asmonceans

" Hist, of Israel," vol. v. p. 463, note 3) 3. bit *12 "IB> IV 3 X> Prince of the temple, prince of the children of God, Princeps templx (i.e. pontifex maximus), Princeps jiliorum I)ei (i.e. dux
;

\X31Ctrn ? )1t5>K"l /. Asmonceans; \X31CCn rblQ Scroll of the Asmonceans. There is, however, no doubt that the original Hebrew title is
;

very obscure, and Dr. "Westcott

is

of opinion (Smith,

"

Diet, of

populi Judaici), after 2iVaicos apxiepiws /xeyaKov Ka\ en paTrjyov
Kal riyov/xeyov ,'lovSalaiv,
1

the Bible, "s.v. "Maccabees," vol.ii.p. 173, «oteb)that

"Sap^fl
p.

dpx'fpf'»5

iv

2.apafj.e\,

1

Maccab. Maccab.

xiii.

42,
27,

xiv.
;

and iirl Si^wvos 28 (Wernsdorff,
bi<
to

Sa/WaieA

is

undoubtedly the true reading without the

All

the explanations start from the false reading tapfiave."

He
first

" Comm. de fide libr. Maccab." p. 173) 4. The chastising rod of those who are opposed
"GeschiehtedesVolkesIsrael,"vol.i.p.265);
Sorriness

'331D

,

3X>

cannot, however, propose any satisfactory transcription of the
true

God

(Herzfeld,

reading.

Dr.

Ginsburg

(loc.

cit.)

inclines

to

the

5. bti

'J3"1D

D31D

of those who have resisted God (Geiger, " Urschrift
p. 205).
iv' A<rapa/ueA <iir\2,i/j.wvos

and Uebersetzungen der Bibel," Breslau, 1874,
Astothe words fVSapayuc'A or
iir]

(v Sapa/teA

apxifpews avvaywyris f*.eyd\Tis Upeuv 1 Maccab. xiv. 27, 28), which hnvr been interpreted " in the fore-court of the people of
CI*

History of the princes of the sons of God. Josephus ("Antiq." xii. 6, 1) gives the names of the five sons as " Gaddes, Matthes, Macealiicus, Auran, and Apphus." Dean Stanley ("Jewish Church," vol. i p. 305) interprets the
explanation
1

i i

-

God"— bx

"IV"? by Ewald ("Hist, of Israel,"

vol. v. p. 336,

—ba

note 6),

and "in the solemn assembly of the people of
p. 212),

"The "The Lucky"; Thassi (after Grimm, ii. 266 on " 1 Maccab. ii. 1-5), "The Burst of Spring" or " The Jewel Avaran, "The Beast-sticker," and Apphus, "The Cunning."
names as given
in
1

Maccabees

(ii.

2-5) as follows. Caddis,

Holy"

or

;

God"

Cf. Levy,

" Beitrage zur Geschichte der Juden,"
ii.

in

" Jahrbuch

CV -IVV? by Geiger ("Urschrift,"

M. Deren-

fur die Gcs. der Judcn," vol.

p. 292, Leipzig, 1861.

56
is

NCMISMATA ORIENTALIA..
a

man

of counsel, give ear unto

him alway

;

he

shall be a father

unto you.
;

As
sons

for Judas

Maccabseus,
captain
in
his

he hath been mighty and strong even from his youth up
fight

let

him be your
and
died,

and

the

battle

of

the people."

'

Mattathias then blessed his
(b.c.

the hundred and forty-sixth year of the Seleucidan era
sons in the

167),

and was buried by

sepulchre of his fathers at Modin. 2

Judas

immediately took

the

command, 3 and pursuing the war, vanquished the large
second under Seron, at Bethhoron.
to

army
had

of

the Syrians under Apollonius, and a the

Antiochus
root

entrusted

management

of

the war

his

general

Lysias,

with orders " to

out the strength of Israel and the remnant of Jerusalem, and to take

away

their

memorial
lot."
4

from that

place,

and
of

to place strangers in all their quarters

and divide their land by
battles,

But the
Bethzur,
deserted

forces

this

general were
to

completely defeated in two
in
B.C.

the last time

at

and Judas,
Temple.

returning

Jerusalem,
war,
in

165,

repaired
his

the

dishonoured and

He

then waged

conjunction

with

brothers

Jonathan

and

Simon,
to

against

the

Iduma:ans,

Philistines

and Ammonites, and transplanted
Antiochus,

from Galilee
already been

Judaea those Jews
in
Persia, 5

who

still

had

remained faithful.

who had

repulsed
to

heard of the defeat that his generals had suffered, and hastened back

attempt in person the capture of Judas and the insurgents.

His

threat, that

he would
for

make Jerusalem " a

common

burying-place

6

of

the Jews,"

was not

of

much

avail,

on

1

1

Maccab.
site of

ii.

65

seq. ;

Joseph. " Antiq."

xii. 6, 3, 4.

Modin has always been medifcval and modern tradition place it
2

The

considered uncertain, but
at Soba.

Mr. Grove has

was he Maccab.
' '

suggested that

it

may

be identified either with Latrun or Kubdb.

from Jerusalem, and the latter two For this question, and also that raised by the miles further. description of the tomb in 1 Maccab. (xiii. 27-30) and Josephus ("Antiq." xiii. 6, 6), see Mr. Grove's art. Modin, in Dr. Dr. C. Sandreczki is of opinion Smith's " Diet, of the Bible."

The former

is

fifteen miles

El Medyeh occupies the site of Modin, and that the roektombs near here called Kuburel Yahud " Tombs of the Jews " are the remnants of the Maccaba:an mausoleum (" Quarterly Statement of Palestine Exp. Fund," Jan. -March, 1870, p. 245). Mr. Neubauer also thinks ("La Geog. du Talmud," p. 99) that Modin may be recognized in the village of El Medyeh, as it stands on a height, and the tomb of the Maccabees was built
that

captives). So sure announced the sale (2 viii. 10, 11), and many (" a 1000," 2 Maccab. viii. 34) merchants of the country .... took silver and gold very much, with servants (waiSas, ?ire8as fetters, as Joseph. "Antiq." xii. 7, 3), and came into the camp to buy the children of Israel for slaves" (1 Maccab. iii. 41). 5 At Elymais 'EKufxats ['EAu/xe's Cod. Alex.'] iv rfj UepalSi 7roA.i5, 1 Maccab. vi. 1, 2; Joseph. "Antiq." xii. 9, 1 at Persepolis, 2 Maccab. ix. 2. For the discrepancy, see Kitto,

captives

at

a

talent

(90x2000

= 180,000

of

success

that he

publicly

;

" Cyc.
6

of Bibl. Lit." ed. Alexander, s.v- Persepolis.

rioKvdvSpiov, 2 Maccab. ix. 4, 14.

This word was evidently
It
is

used by Antiochus in an insulting sense.

related

by

.(Elian

("Var. Hist."

xii.

21) that the Spartan

women
if

used to examine
Tas irarpaas

the bodies of their sons after a battle, and

the wounds were in
(eij

front they were buried in their paternal sepulchre
t<pepov TtMpds);

els (1

to 8ewpt7o~dai

inrb

iravroiu

t5>v

vKeSprwv

t^p BaKaaaav

but

if

the wounds were behind, showing that they
their bodies

Maccab. xiii. 29). Josephus ("Antiq." xii. 10, 6) calls Judas " high-priest of the nation," and says that he was elected by the people after the But in the Maccabees (1, ix. 52-57), an death of Alcimus. authority most to be depended on, we find that Alcimus did not die till after Judas Maccabams, and that Alexander Balas conferred the high-priesthood on Jonathan, the brother of Judas indeed Josephus elsewhere (" Vit." 1) says (1 Maccab. x. 20) that "iliejirsl of the sons of Asmonaeus, who was high-priest,
3
;

must have been cowards,

were cast into the

common

burying-plaee (KaraAnrovo-i tous veicpovs iv

tb

iroAvai'Spltp ddipai).

We

find apparent mention of cemeteries for the people in the Old Testament (rd<pov tuv oiSiv rov Aaov, 2 Kings xxiii. 6
;

HVTJua. vl&v

Kaov avrov, Jerem. xxvi. 23; LXX. xxxiii. 23). In Ezekiel also we read, " I will give unto Gog a place of
(nvyuf'toii)

graves
of

in Israel, the valley

CS

;

the passengers on

the

east of

the

sea;

LXX. voKvdvSpiov) .... and there

shall they

was Jonathan." 4 1 Maccab. xii.

ver. 15).

bury Gog and all his multitude" (xxxix. 11; cf. In the sixteenth verse of the same chapter, the name
is

35, 36.

Antiochus, finding his exchequer low,

of the place

given where the slaughter
the

is

to

take place.
(!"l3JIOn

had determined to hold a sale of the Jews when captured, so as to obtain 2000 talents due by him to the Eomans, and Nicanor, one of his generals, undertook to obtain the sum by selling 90

"They

shall

call

name

of the

city

Ilamonah "

[multitude];

LXX.

noAvdfSpioy).

JUDAS MACCABEUS.
his

57
he could
(b.c.

way he was

stricken

with a sore disease, 1

and,

before

execute his
164).
2

purpose,

died in

the hundred
confidant

and forty-ninth year of the Seleucidan era
guardian
to

His was
only

Philip was appointed
of age.

his

son Antiochus V.

Eupator,
regency,
at

who
and
also

nine
I.

years

Lysias

and

Philip

now

contended

for

the

Demetrius

Soter, the son of Seleucus

IV. Philopator, who had hitherto lived

Rome,

advanced pretensions to the Syrian crown.
Syrians,

In a battle that took place between the Jews and
Eleazar,
largest

the

former of

whom

were

defeated,

the

brother

of

Judas

Maccabacus,

met
the

his

death

by bravely creeping under the
be,

elephant,

upon which he
falling

thought

king

might

and

stabbing
to

it,

was

crushed

by
the

the

animal

upon him.
sent

Lysias
to

now persuaded Antiochus
Antiochus

make peace with
Jerusalem

Jews,

and accordingly he

Judas promising them peace, and giving them permission to live according to the laws

of their fathers.

upon
it

entering

immediately

broke

his

word,

and

ordered the wall round about

to

be

pulled down. the
the

He

also

took

away the

high-priest

Menelaus, and
death,
as

returned

to
all

Antioch.
the

By

persuasion

of

Lysias, Menelaus
to

was put

to

the origin of
also

mischief

Jews had done

the

king,

and Alcimus,
against

who was
Philip,
fell

named Jacimus, 3 was made
hands of Demetrius

high-priest.

Antiochus

then made war

subdued him and killed him.
I.,

Subsequently Lysias and his ward Antiochus Eupator

into the

who had
king,

arrived

from Rome, and they were immerenegade

diately

put

to

death.

To

this

new

Alcimus and the

Jews

came,

and

complained of Judas Maccabacus and his brethren.
to

Demetrius sent an army under Nicanor
;

support

the traitor

party and
victory,

to

capture

Judas

but

it

was

defeated
of

by the

valiant
sent

Maccabee.

After

this

Judas, having heard of the

fame

the Romans,

an

embassy to Rome, which was well received, the
with
the Jews
4

Roman
it

Senate at once forming a

league

and readily

affecting to

bestow what

was not

in

their

power

to give. 5

Maccab. ix. 9). In his agony he is is meet to be subject unto God, and that a man that is mortal sin mid not proudly think of himself, as if he were God " (ver. 12), further vowing to make "the Jews, whom he had judged not worthy so much as to be
1

" Eaten

of

worms"

(2

said to have exclaimed:

"It

were the Greek forms of the Hebrew names Jachin, Jakim and 4 1 Maccab. viii.; Joseph. " Antiq." xii. Eliakim. 10, 6. 5 " A Demetrio cum descivissent, amicitia Romanorum
petita,
facile tunc

primo omnium ex Orientalibus libertatem receperunt, Romanis de alieno largientibus" (Justin, " Hist."

buried, but to be cast out with their children to be devoured of

xxxvi. 3). This passage

the fowls and wild beasts

....

all

equals to the citizens of

and

Athens"
(tot.

(ver.

15),

even offering to

"become a Jew himself"
dying
of
this
iv.

is usually supposed to refer to Demetrius I. embassy sent to Rome by Judas Maccaboeus, but Dr. Merzbacher (" Zeitsch. f. Num." 1878, vol. v. p. 310)

to the

17).

Others are recorded as

loathsome

referring to the writings of Ritschl

("Rhn. Mus." 1873,

p. 588),

disease— Pheretima, Queen of Cyrene (Herod, (Plut. "Sull."36; Pliu. " Xat. Hist." vii. 43,
(Joseph.

205); Sulla
;

etc.)

Herod
33,

I.

Mendelssohn (in Ritschl's" Acta Soc.phil.iii 2 "Lips.vol.v.p.287), and Grata (" Gesch. d. Jud." vol. iii. p. 451)— dissents from this
opinion, assigning the context to Demetrius II., and the embassy
to It

"Antiq."
I.

xvii.

6,

5;

"Bell.

Jud."

i.

Agrippa

"Antiq." xix. 8, 2 see Chapteh VI. Sect. I'. Galerius Maximian (Euseb. " II. E." viii. 16), and Maximin (Euseb. " H.E." ix. 10; Lactant.
(Acts
xii.

23;
;

Joseph.

5);

Rome
is

to that sent by

Simon

(eire. b.c.

141-139) [see page 62].
is little

quite true, as Dr. Merzbacher says, that there

or

" De Mort. Pots." \wiii.). 2 The hatred oi Tacitus for

nothing said about Demetrius I. in the whole of this book, with the exception of the passage (xxxvi. 1) relating to Antiochus VII.:

the Jews is shown in his remarks on Antiochus: "Rex Antiochus, demere superstitionem et mores Gracorum dare adnixus, quominus tetemmmn ynilrm in " Hist."
i

"Judicos quoque, qui

in

Macedonico imperio sub Demetrio
and
this

patre armis se in libertatem vindicaveraut, subigit";

passage Dr. Merzbacher proposes to

make agree with

his views

v. 8).
'•

by the substitution
Antiq."
xii. 9, 7).

of

"

frut re

for patre.

All editions that T have

AAki/uos 6 koI 'loKtijuos (Jo-, ph.

These

been able to consult give patre.

58
But
after
in the

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
mean
time,

by

a second
in

army under Bacchides, Judas was overthrown and
B.C.

killed,

a valiant resistance,

the year

1G1.

His body, which his brothers Jonathan
of his fathers
at

and Simon had recovered,

was buried in the sepulchre
as

Modin.
while Alcimus

Jonathan was immediately chosen

the leader of

the

national

party,

was

reinstated

as

high-priest.

This

latter

did

not live

very long, being seized with an
inner
court
of

attack of

paralysis,

whilst
a
short

pulling
respite.

down the

wall of

the

the

sanctuary.

The Jews then had
era
(b.c.

In the hundred and sixtieth year of
to

the Seleucidan

152) Alexander Balas,

who pretended

be the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, set

himself up as king of Sj^ria in opposition to Demetrius.'
letters to Jonathan,

Both

of

these rivals

had written

asking his assistance, but Alexander Balas conferred upon him the highpurple

priesthood,

and sent him a

mantle and crown of gold, calling him in the
hesitate
to

letter,

"brother
to

and friend."
those
of
as

1

Jonathan

did not

accept the

offers

of

Alexander and
not regarded

reject

Demetrius,
sincere.
2

who again made

splendid

promises, which were place
this

by

Jonathan
in

A

battle

soon

after

took

between
victory,

Alexander

and

Demetrius,
Jonathan,

which the

latter

was

killed.

On

obtaining
his

Alexander sent for

and professing

to
3

esteem " him

among

chief friends

made him a duke and
Demetrius
(Xicator),

partaker of his dominion."

The son

of Demetrius,

who was

also called

took the field against the usurper.
trius II.,

Jonathan then defeated Apollonius, the general of Deme-

and
for

laid siege to

Joppa and Azotus, there destroying the temple of Dagon. 4

Alexander
Demetrius.

applied

assistance

to

Ptolemy VI. Philometer,

who

declared

in

favour

of

Alexander then attacked Ptolemy, who was killed in the Alexander Balas being
slain

battle,

though the former was defeated,
Jonathan

by an Arabian, with whom

he had taken refuge.

proposed to take the citadel of Jerusalem, but Demetrius summoned him to Ptolemais, and
the former, offering
to

pay yearly 300
that

talents,

was confirmed in the high-priesthood and
I.

nearly

all

the liberties
to

had been granted by Demetrius

The new king Demetrius

was obliged again
out
at

seek assistance from Jonathan, to quell an insurrection that had broken

Antioch.

But when he
all

thought

he

was

sufficiently

powerful

on

his

throne,
if

he

sought to retract

the promises he had made, and threatened

Jonathan with war

he

did not immediately pay

him

the ordinary tributes.

Jonathan

now found an unexpected
is

Maccab. x. 18-20. Demetrius offered to release the Jews from all tributes, crown taxes, etc., in Judoea, Samaria, and Galilee, and from the
1

1

the governor of Samaria under Antiochus VII. Epiphanes, twice so styled (Joseph. "Antiq."
(.uepiSapx/o) occurs in Joseph.
is

2

xii.

5,

5).

"Antiq."
(1

xv. 7,

The "office" 3, but this word
11
;

special

payment

of

5000

silver

shekels;

and

to

contribute

elsewhere used to express the "dignities" of the families
to

15,000 shekels of silver towards the work of the Temple. Josephus (" Antiq." xiii. 2, 3) gives different figures, and says "drachms" [seep. 53, note 2], Jerusalem was to be " holy and

who went up
4

Babylon under Ezra
(vSpini

Esdras

i.

viii.

28).

"a

As a recompense golden fibula "

for this victory Alexander sent to

Jonathan

free"

and many other immunities were to be Alexander the Great granted to them (1 Maccab. x. 25-45). had formerly granted the Jews the same privileges as regards Samaria (Joseph. " contra Apion," ii. 4). 3 ^Tparriyhv duo in ct partieipem princiKa\ MepiSdpxw
(see

Chapter

V.),

give to such as are of the kings'

xp UCT v)t " as was the custom to blood" (1 Maccab. x. 89;
Antiochus VI. also conferred on

Joseph. "Antiq."

xiii. 4, 4).

',

pnhm

(1

Maccab.

x. 65).

The

title of

Mcridareh, or governor of
Apollonius,

a province, only occurs in the

LXX.

and Josephus.

Jonathan the same "order" (1 Maccab. \i. 58; Joseph. "Antiq." xiii. 5, 4), and Demetrius II. made it unlawful for any but Simon to wear it (1 Maccab. xiv. 44). Fibulce aurees were frequently given as military rewards (Vopisc. "Aurel." 46 cf. Treb. Poll. " Claud." 14).
;

DEATH OF JONATHAN.
friend.

59
king;

Diodotus

(or

Tryphon),

a

general of

the former

Alexander Balas, made an
of

attempt to obtain the throne of
Jonathan, to

Syria for Antiochus, the

son

the

same, and found in
ally.

whom

he conceded the same privileges as Demetrius had done, a powerful
fly,

Demetrius was compelled to

and Jonathan renewed the treaty with Rome.
established,
to

1

Tryphon,

now
the

that his

power was firmly
Antiochus

found Jonathan an obstacle to his transferring
as

crown from

VI.

himself,

doubtless

was

always

his

intention.

He

determined in consequence to get rid of
an

Jonathan.

With

this idea,

he came to Bethsan with

army, and Jonathan
to
la}'

came out

to

meet him with forty thousand
he
to

men.
a

Tryphon was
force,

afraid

hands upon him
friendship
his

while

was

at

the head

of

so

large

and by
going

protestations of

invited

him

Ptolemais,

under the pretext that he was
city,

to entrust this city to

protection.

On

entering the

Jonathan was made prisoner,
to death
silver,
(b.c.

and

all

those

who had accompanied him (1000 men) were put

143).
of

Tryphon

promised to release Jonathan on payment of 100 talents of
as hostages.

and two

his children
let his

The money and the hostages were sent by Simon, but Tryphon did not

prisoner go free, and shortly after falsely murdered

him

at

Bascama

in Gilead.

At

a subsequent

period
at

the

bones of Jonathan were

recovered and buried

by Simon

in the family sepulchre

Modin.
;

1 1 Maccab. xii. 1, 3, 4 Joseph. " Antiq." an alliance is said to have been made (1 Maccab.

xiii.

5, 8.

The ambassadors were
;

also instructed to

go to the Spartaus, with

whom

xii. 2,

5-23

Joseph,

loc.

cit.).

See p. 62, note

5.

GENEALOGICAL TABLE,
SnOWIXG THOSE MEMBERS OF THE ASMOX.EAX FAMILY OF WHOM THERE ARE EXTAXT
COIXS.

Mattathias, d.

li.c.

167

d. B.C.

Joannan, 161

d. b.c.

Simon, 135

Judas Maccabams, d. B.C. 161

Eleazar,
d. b.c.

Jonathan,
d. B.C.

163

143

Judas,
d.

John Hyrcanus

I. d. B.C.

106

Mattathias,
d. B.C.

b.c 135

135

Judas Aristobulus
d. b.c.

I.

= Alexandra
(Salome)
1

Antigonus,
d. b.c. 105.

Alexander Jann.eus, = Alexandra,
d. b.c. 7£
d. b.c.

1

105

69

John Hyrcanus

II. d. b.c.

31

Aristobulus II. d.

B.C.

49

Alexandra = Alexander d. b.c 28

II. d. B.C.

49

Antigonus,

d. b.c.

37

Mariamne = Herod
d. b.c.

I.

Aristobulus.
d. b.c.

29
family for continuation,)

35

(See table of Herodian

See note under

Alexandra,

Sect. E.

CHAPTEE V
SIMON THE MACCABEE EIRST STRIKES JEWISH COINS.

When
great
the

Simon, the

last

of

the

five

brothers,

heard that Tryphon

had gathered together a
(jjye/wov)

army

to invade Judaea,

he encouraged the people, who elected him leader
1

in

place
of

of

his

brother

Jonathan,

and out of

his

private fortune

he armed and paid the
snow, from relieving
to death, returned to

wages

a

large army. 2

Tryphon being prevented, by a heavy

fall of

the garrison at
Syria,

Jerusalem, and having, as

we have

seen,

put

Jonathan

and on his arrival there "dealt deceitfully with the young king Antiochus and slew
3

him."

Disgusted with the cruelties of Tryphon, Simon espoused the cause of Demetrius
him,
received
kings, as

II.,

and

entering into negociations with

the

following reply:

— "King

Demetrius
the

unto Simon the high-priest and friend of
Jews,

also unto the
scarlet

elders* and
5

nation of

sendeth greeting

:

the

golden crown

and the

robe

which ye sent unto us

1

1

Maccab.

xiii.

8.

Simon had already been made by

Herod, procurator of Galilee, was summoned before the Sanhedrin
(o-vviSptov) for his unjust conduct (Joseph. "Antiq." xiv. 9, 4). Derenbourg says ("Essai," p. 86), " le nom de aweSpLoi/ n'est certes pas anterieur au temps des Asmoneens," and is of opinion (p. 83) that the senate at this time was designated (on the authority of coins of the time) " heber hayyehoudim (DTllTn "On
'

Antiochus VI. "captain {(npaT-qySs) from the place called the Ladder of Tyre {R&s-en-Nakh&rah) unto the borders of Egypt "
(1

Maccab.
10, 6).
1

xi.

59; Joseph. "Antiq."
xiv. 32.

xiii. 5,

4;

cf.

"Antiq."
31.
i.

xii.

Maccab.
xii.

3

1

Maccab.
1

xiii.

4

TlptafivTepot ([cf.

&pxopra

KalTrptafivTepoi,

Maccab.
4, 9).

20]

;

senat des Juifs')"
I.].

[see

on the word

"On

under Sect.

B.

vii.

33:

35

;

xiv.

20; Joseph.

yepovaia, or Jewish senate,
or &pxovTes.
it.
is

"Antiq." xiii. which was composed of
1

The
i.

Hyrcanus
6

The

title of

yepovo-idpxvs occurs on a

Jewish

irpetrQvTepot

inscription (see

Chapter
is

III. p. 37).
(Saii/r)v (1

mentioned in

Maccab.

xii.

6

;

2 Maccab.

10;

Thy

tTTccpavov rbu xpi/ffoCc Kal ti}V

Maccah.
cf.
1

xiii.

II

;

and

\i. 27.

Antiochus the Great in his decrees

calls the

37).
x.

The
;

(n4<pauos

the crown tax (see verse 39:
xiv. 4) given

Maccab.
y<

senate
himself

yepouaia (Joseph.
applies

" Antiq."
to

xii.

3,

3),

and
at

Josephus
Alexandria

29

xi.

35

;

2

Maccab.

by the Jews every

ar

the

same name
1).
ol

the

elders

to the king.
(xxii.

The same word
4).

occurs in the same sense in Polybius

(" Bell. Jud."
occurs in Acts

vii. 10,

A

mention of the ytpovaia or senate
Senior es filiorum

17,

Josephus

calls

one of the taxes remitted by
cpipos

v.

21

— xa\

avv avrcf. ovveKaXserav to avvifiptov
'l<rpa.T]\. (Villi:'.

Antiochus the Great

(TTecpaviTrjs

("Antiq."
ol

xii.

•'!,

3).

Kal irnrrav TT)V ytpovaiav

twv viae

The pahri
Version
1

or

/Sal's,

translated in this passage

the Authorized
in

Ueael), but as

it

were

in contradistinction to the awehpiov.
it

The

"scarlet
xiii.

robe"
and
is

(though the word fiatwv occurs

was of the wpecrlivTepoi and fyxovTes, may have included perhaps some who were not members of the Sanhedrin (Afford, ad he). The I. XX. frequently u<e the same
ytpouaia. comp<>-cd a-

Maccab.

51,

there rendered correctly " branches of

phrase yepovtria ruv vl&v 'Icrpa^K for the Ileb.
or

7N1C
iv.

1

*33 "^pT
xii.

Porphyry palm-trees"), is in all probability an Egyptian word. (" De Abstincntia," iv. 7), speaking of the Egyptian priest, savs, Koi'tt) Sc auTOis eV twc <riraSiV<ov rov (poivtKus. as KaAoDtn
Pais, lireirKeKTo.
It

t'Sn^ ^pi
ires,

(Vulg. seniores, Exod.
ix. 1).

iii.

1G, 18;

29

;

21

was probably

like the /,„!,„, i/,i. a

splendid
oi

;

Lent.
if

tie-

tine.

Though the Sanhedrin probably existed at Moses, the name avviUptov originated under the Macepremacy in Palestine ("quod ad staturn Macedonia?
-i

over-robe, embroidered with

golden

palm-twigs as symbols
\. p.

victory (Kwald, " Hist, of Israel," vol.

334, noli 5).

The

H it

li

int.

natores. quo- \,/„<
first

,/,*,*

vocant," Livy,

xiv. 32,,
.

and

occur

words to 0aia riiv <poivUav (A. V. "branches of palm-trees") <i>o?^| is the usual word for "palmin John xii. 13.
(cf.

occurs for the

time under Hyrcanus II. (n.c. 17

when

branch"

2

Maccab.

x. 7

;

xiv.

1

;

Rev.

vii

;

62

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
received,

we have
our

and we are ready

to

make

a steadfast peace with you, yea, and to write unto

officers to

confirm the immunities which
shall

we have

granted.

And
day,

whatsoever covenants
shall be
it,

we

have made with you
own.

stand

;

and the strongholds which ye have builded
committed unto us
if

your

As

for
also

any oversight or
which ye owe
us,

fault

this

we

forgive

and the
it

crown tax
shall

and

there were

any other

tribute

paid in Jerusalem,
let

no more be paid.

And
be

look

who

are

meet amoiig you
l

to

be in our court,
of the
2

them be

enrolled,

and

let

there

peace betwixt us."

"

Thus the yoke
(b.c.

heathen was taken

away from
Israel

Israel, in the

hundred and seventieth year
their instruments

143-142),"

and "the people of

began

to

write in

great high-priest, the governor
fortified

and contracts, 'In the first year of Simon the and leader of the Jews.' " 3 Several cities of Judaoa were also
Gazara,

by Simon,

among them Bethsura, Joppa, and
of

and

after

a three
to

years'

siege

the citadel

(aKpa)
last,

Jerusalem was

taken,

the

garrison being obliged
in

capitulate

from famine.
seventy-first

At

on the twenty-third day of the second month,
era
(b.c.

the hundred and

year of the Seleucidan

142),

he " entered in with thanksgiving and

branches of palm-trees, and with harps and cymbals and with viols and
because
(

hymns and songs
the

there

was

destroyed
sent

a

great
to

enemy out

of

Israel."

4

About
of

year

A.s.

172

= b.c.

141) Simon

Numenius
graciously

Rome

with

a

great

shield

gold of

a thousand

pound weight. 5

He was
of

welcomed, and the news of the favourable reception of
in B.C. 141, for on the 18th

the embassy was probably

known

in Judaea

day

of

the

month
the

Elul

(Aug.-Sept.)

the same year,
thanks,

being the

third

year of

Simon
of

the high-priest,
brass,

people published a decree of

which was written in

tables

and

set

upon

1

1

Maccab.

xiii.

30-40.
(1

"'

Demetrius II. in one statement
(

Maccab.

xiii.

41) issued

his charter in a.s. 170

= b.c.

143-142), before the conquest of

the castle of Jerusalem by Simon, a.s. 171 (=b.c. 142-141;

and before the despatch of an embassy 141-140; 1 Maccab. xiv. 24); whilst in another statement (1 Maccab. xiv. 36, 40) the decree of Demetrius is said to have been issued after these events (see
1

Maccab.

xiii.

51),
(

to

Home,

a.s.

172

= n.c.

below, "
3

On

the date of the shekels").
xiii.

Jews in Alexandria and other cities (Joseph. "Antiq." and according to Strabo (Joseph. " Antiq." xiv. 7, 2) he appears to have been an independent ruler. It is employed by Lucian as a title inferior to that of king ("AaavSpos .... iirb tov Qeov 2f/3a<TTou avrl idvdpxov fiacriKshi avayoptiBeis, " Macrob." sect. 17; ed. Didot, p. 642). The "ethnarch" in Damascus, under Aretas, king of Damascus (2 Cor. xi. 32), in a.d. 38, was probably a Jewish officer and Damascus at this time formed part of the kingdom of Petra, and not of the
to the
xix. 5, 2),
;

1

Maccab.

41-42.
Ka\

Kol iip^aro

6

Kabs

'l<rpa.7)\

ypa<pziv
iirl

province of Syria, no coins having been found bearing the heads
of Caligula or Claudius.
4

iv

reus

avvypatpais,

avvaKKayixauiv,

''Etous

irpwrov

apx^piuspLeyaKovKal (TTpar-qyov Ka\ ^yovfiivov 'lovSaluv. Josrphus -ays, " In the first year of Simon the benefactor and
^,1/j.wvos

1

Maccab.

xiii.

49-51

;

xiv. 33,

34

;

cf.

Joseph.

" Antiq."

xiii. 6, 7.

ethnarch (iBvdpxris) of the Jews " (" Antiq."
is

Simon xiii. 6, 7). " ethnarch " in 1 Maccab. xiv. 47, and xv. 1, 2. M. Dereubourg considers ("Essai," p. 67, note) that the term (Bvdpxvs as applied to Simon is the translation of DJ?n "It?, or the
also called

The embassy to Sparta and the connexion of the Spartans with the Jews, is according to Grimm (" Exeget. Handb. z. d. Apok.") Mendelssohn (" Elm Mus." 1875, vol. 30, decidedly made up
5

i

Maccab.

xiv.

24 [seep. 57, note 5].

(i

Maccab.

xiv. 16-23),

;

abbrevation of 'PN D]l "IB*, and so confirms his view respecting the interpretation of the word aapafxiK (see Chapter IV. p. 54

p.

422) thinks the insertion of these verses a senseless
1878, vol.

imi'iir

provisation (alroax^oiafffia), and Dr. Merzbacher (" Zeitsch.

Nasi (WtJO) at the time of the first Asmonaeans rests on no historical authority. Hyrcanus II. was also high-priest and "ethnarch" (Joseph. "Antiq." xiv. 10, 12, 3, 4 [see under Sect. H. Hyrcanus II. re2, 3, 5-7, 12 established] ), and Augustus bestowed this title upon Archelaus after
notel).
of
;

He adds that

the

name

pp. 299, 300) is inclined to consider them An embassy had a strange interpolation in the original text.
v.

Num."

previously been sent to Sparta by Jonathan

(1

Maccab.

xii. 2,

5-23) [see p. 59, note
of the Bible," s.v.
as spurious,
it

1].

Dr. Westcott, however (Smith's" Diet,
is

Sparta),

not disposed to reject the letters

his father's death, a fact confirmed
xvii. 11, 4
;

by

his coins (Joseph.

"Antiq."
Sect. B.].

"Bell. Jud."

ii.

6, 3) [see

Chapter VI.

" the very obscurity of Sparta at this time making extremely unlikely that any forger would invent such an

This titlewas also used as the designation for the magistrate allowed

incident."

"

RIGHT OF COINING MONEY ACCORDED TO SIMON.
pillars

63
with
letters

in

Mount

Sion. 1

Numenius

returned

to

Judaea

in

B.C.

130,

from

Lucius, Consul of the Romans, to various kings and nations in favour of the Jews. 2
Palestine
it

thus,

during the government of Simon,
:

attained a degree
till

of

prosperity

that

had not known for a long time
gave her
increase and the

"

Then did they
of

their
fruit.

ground in peace,

and the
sat
all

earth
in

trees

the

field

their

The ancient men
them
of

the streets,

communing together

of

good

things,

and
cities,

the

young men put on
set

glorious
of

and warlike
munition,
so

apparel.

He

provided victuals for the

and

in

all

manner
world.

that his
in

honourable

name was renowned unto
rejoiced with
to

the

end

the
sat

He

made peace

the land,

and

Israel

great joy, for every

man

under his

vine and his fig-tree, 3
the land
to

and there was none

fray them.

Neither was

there any left in

fight against

them
all

:

yea, the kings themselves

were overthrown in those days.
brought
low
;

Moreover,
searched
beautified
"

he
out the
;

strengthened

those

of

his

people

that were

the law he

and

every

contemner

of

the

law and

wicked

person he took away.

He

sanctuary and multiplied the vessels of the temple,"
?
4

and

all

the people said,

What

thanks shall we give to Simon and his sons
B.C.

In the year
dates
I.),

140

Demetrius

II.

was

taken
Sidetes,

prisoner

by Arsaces VI.
son of

(MithriI.,

king of

Parthia,

and Antiochus VII.

the second
to

Demetrius

having expelled the usurper Tryphon, soon after sent
prince the
of

letters

Simon the high-priest and
advantages.

the

Jews,

granting
renewed,
the

to

him
a

still

more

favourable
addition
:

Not only were
inasmuch
to

former
to

privileges

but
of

considerable

was

made,

as

he
the

accorded

the

Jews

right

coining

money
the

"

King Antiochus
of

Simon
:

high-priest

and prince of
certain
to

his

nation,

and

to

people

the
of

Jews,

greeting
fathers,

Foras-

much
purpose

as
is

pestilent
it

men
of

have
I

usurped

the

kingdom
it

our

and

my
my

challenge

again, that

may

restore

to the

old estate, and to
ships
of

that end

have gathered a multitude

foreign

soldiers

together,

and prepared

war,

meaning
destroyed
thee
all

also
it,

being to go through the country that I

may
;

be avenged of them that have

and made many

cities

in the

kingdom

desolate

now

therefore I confirm unto

the oblations which the kings before

me

granted thee, and whatsoever gifts besides
{Bum.

1

1 1

Maccab.

xiv.

25-28.
15-24.

containing the passage in

question ouly in

tint

209,

2

Maccab.
1.

xv.

The Lucius here mentioned

as

fifteenth century

;

Roman Consul
persons.
B.C. 136.
C:ilvus,

'ihraros 'Pwfialwv)

has been identified with three

former the name
the earliest

is

and Hurl. 2759, fifteenth century). In the given as L. Calpurno (sic), and in the latter

L. [Lucius]
is

Junius Philus,
2.

who was

consul

in

as Lucio Cabsurino (sic).

From

a personal examination also of

This date
consul in

too late.
142.
3.

Lucius Gecilius Metellus
L. Calpnruius Piso,

MS.

of Valerius, preserved in the Public Library at

B.C.

Cn. or

consul in n.c. 139, with
lication
is

M.

Popillius Lsenas.

This

last identi-

reading L. CaVpwrnio
authority for
Valerius

Berne (end of the ninth or beginning of the tenth century), the is distinctly given, and there is thus no
Cn.

probably correct, as the date corresponds.

There

is,

(Madden,
in

"On

a

fragment

of

a

MS.

of

however, a difficulty about the pnenomen of Calpurnius Piso.
iodorus
••

Maximus

the Public Library at Berne, containing a

Fasti Capitnlini
hi--

("Chron.") aa edited, gives Cn. Piso, whilst the " are detective. Valerius Maximus 'lib. i. 3),
epitomizer, as given in

portion of the text supplied from the Epitome of Julius Paris," in the "Trans, of the Roy. Soc. of Literature," vol. viii. n.s.
also in Kitto,

;

or rather

many

of the printed text-,

" Cyc.

of

Bibl.

I, it."

ed. Alexander, s.v.

Lucius).

has also On., though
!1

Cempf

(ed.

1854, p. 126, note), allowing

See under Sect. B.
re-established.
3

II y em

am

s

I.,

and

Sect. II. IIvuc

am >

II.

MSS.
writer,

read

Lucius, supposes this to be an error.
all

The

nt

from an examination of
British

the

MSS.

(22) of

Cf. 1

Kings

iv.

25; Micah
4

iv.
1

1

;

Zechariah
siv.

iii.

10;

[saiah

Valerius in the

Museum, found the portion

inserted

xxxvi. 16.

Maccab.

8-15, 25.


;

64
they
granted.
(/ecu

NUMISMA.TA ORIEXTALTA.
I

give thee
aou
!

leave

also
KOfM/xa

to

coin
ISiov

money
vo/xia/xa

for
rf)

thy

country with
an(l

thine

own

stamp

iireTpe-tyd

iroi^aai
let

X^PQ aov )>
hands,
let
it

as

concerning

Jerusalem and the sanctuary,

them be
and
be,

free

;

and

all

the armour that thou hast made,
let

and
thee.

fortresses

that

thou hast
be,

built,

keepest
to

in thine

them remain unto

And
thee,

if

anything

or

shall

owing

the king,

be forgiven thee from
will

this

time forth for evermore.

Furthermore,

when we have obtained our kingdom, we
so that

honour

and thy nation and thy temple, with great honour,
the world." 2

your honour shall be

known throughout

Antiochus now besieged Dora, where Tryphon had taken
Antiochus two thousand men, and some large sums of money.
assistance

refuge,

and Simon sent

to

Antiochus, however, forgot the

that

Simon had

afforded

him, and "would

not receive

them, but

brake

all

the

covenants which he

message
cities

:

had made with him afore," and sent Athenobius with the following
tower that
is

"

Ye

withhold Joppe and Gazara, with the
.

in

Jerusalem, which are

of

my

realm.

.

.

Now

therefore

deliver
for

the cities which
five

ye

have taken, and the
silver
:

tributes of the places

...

or else give

me
3

them

hundred

talents of

and for
;

the

harm
will

that ye have done and the tributes of the cities, other five hundred talents
fight

if

not,

we

come and

against you."

Simon refused

to agree

to all

these

proposals, but

sent one

hundred talents for the

cities of

Joppa and Gazara.

Antiochus immediately sent an

army
to

into Judaja

under Cendebaeus, and the aged Simon confided the management of the war
sons,

his

two eldest

Judas

and John.

Cendebajus was

put to

flight,

and 2000 Syrians

were

killed.

It

w as
r

not, however, permitted

to the

aged Simon

to

end his days in peace.
visit

While
to

taking

a

tour with

his wife

and two

sons,

Judas and Mattathias, he paid a
fortress of

his

son-in-law Ptolemy, gover-nor of
feast,

Jericho, at the

Doch.

There, in the middle of a
B.C.

Ptolemy treacherously murdered him and

his

tw o sons (Feb.
r

135).

He

then wrote

to

inform Antiochus of what he had done, begging him to send an army to

assist

him

in

1 De Saulcy ("Eev. Arch." 1872, p. 5), while recording the Latin text (Vulgate) of this passage, which runs " et permitto

the reading of the Complutensian edition (1522), and that of Grabe (Oxf. 1707). Other cursive MSS. have various readings,
«a! e'Wo-Tpeifai/ aoi
ko!

tibi facere

percussuram proprii numismatis," gives the Greek as
K6/j.jj.a

(Holmes and Parsons, Nos. 44, 62, 243),
(No. 74).

Ka\ iireTpexpdv aoi iroirjaai
lates

ISiov v6^ia^a,
tibi

which he transpercussuram

cureaTpt^dv aoi

The number
it

of

cursive

MSS.

into

Latin,

'

proprium numisma,"
hut he omits to
text
in
is,

— " my predecessors have permittedthee,"
statement.

'

et

permiserunt

facere

collated for this

only six of

would seem that these give the plural form, and none of the cursive

work was

sixteen, so that

give any authority for his

The

MSS.

can be earlier than the tenth century.
fifth

On

the other hand,

however, so quoted by the Count Esterhazy de Galantha

the Codex Alexandrinus (middle of the

century) reads, na\
the edition of

his

1744).

" Aunales Regum et rerum Syri.e " (p. 82, Vienna, Thanks to the kindness of Dr. Babington and Mr.

iirhp^d
Oxf.

aoi,

and so

is

the text given in

(1709), and in the recent one of Field (Christ.

Bos Knowledge Soc.
worth while to

Grueber, I

am

able to say a few words about the
(fourth cent. ed. Mai,

MS.
is

readings.

1859), and the latter does not think

it

The Vatican MS.

1857)

said to read

notice any various readings, neither does Cotton in his notes to

Ka\ iirtrpttf/dv (rod. en-carp.) aoi -noirjaai nSfifia lovSa'iKOi> vS/jna^a,

but Cardinal Mai's edition is considered very faulty (Dr. Davidson, Kitto, " Cyc. of Bibl. Lit." ed. Alexander, s.v. Greek Versions)
moreover, Tischendorf, in his edition (2 vols. 8vo. 5th ed. 1875), reads iireTpetya, and knows nothing of lovba'iKSv for the generally
received iSiov.

the English edition of the " Five Books of Maccabees" (Oxf. The majority of MS. authority thus favours the reading 1832).
koX eVeVpe^a aoi, and, indeed, the plural form, as de Saulcy himself allows, seems to be " singulieremeut boiteuse."
s 3

1
I

Certain cursive

MSS. have

iv4Tpe\pdv aoi (Holmes
this is also

and Parsons, Oxf. 1798-1827, Nos. 106, 134), and

7, 2,

Maccab. xv. 2-9. Maccab. xv. 27, 28, 30, " Bell. Jud." i. 2, 2. 3
;

31;

Joseph.

" Antiq."

xiii.

DATE OF THE SHEKELS AND HALF-SHEKELS.
taking
the

65
John, who, being fore-

country.

He
to

also

sent

some men

to

Gazara

to

kill

warned, was
those

enabled

frustrate
1

the wicked designs of

his

brother-in-law,

and

to

destroy

who had come

to slay him.

OX THE DATE OF THE SILYEK SHEKELS AND HALE-SHEKELS.
With
been a
respect to the years of issue of the dated shekels

and half-shekels there has always

difficulty, as

Simon Maccabeus
till

is

said

to

have ruled eight years, 2 but did not obtain

the right of

coining

the

fourth year of

his

government

;

and as Antiochus VII. broke

"

all

the covenants which he had

made with him

" shortly after he had conceded the right. 3

The
1

shekels at present existing bear dates from years 1 to 5; the half- shekels from years
If

to

4.

then the "first year" of Simon's government was
a.s.
till

A.s.

170

= b.c.

143-1 42, 4 the

"fifth

year" would be

174

= b.c.

139-138.

But the

right of coining was not granted

by

Antiochus VII. Sidetes

just before a.s. 174=b.c.

139-138, 5

consequently the coining of
shortly

the shekels would not only have been
after

commenced unlawfully, but would have ceased
Supposing, however, that
a.s.

the

right
a.s.

had been conferred.
173=b.c. 140-139, or
the

they date

from the grant of

coinage in

174 = b.c.
first

139-138, then they would be in complete
year

contradiction
third year a.s.

to

statement

that
6

Simon's

was

A.s.

170 = B.C. 143-142, and his

172=b.c. 141-140.

The whole question has been
Dr.
in
1

recently submitted
that the supposed
1st,

to severe

and

critical

examination by

Eugen Merzbacher, 7 who shows
and

sequent history of Simon Maccabseus

Maccabees essentially represents:
xiv.

the

principal
of

account from
the
acts

chapter

xiii.

1,

to

chapter

24;

2nd,

the

shortened

memorial
a.s.

of

Simon,

as

given

in
first

chapter xiv.
real

27-40, and he suggests that though
the

170 = b.c.

143-142 may be the
is

year

of

government of
so recorded

Simon,

a.s.

172 = b.c.
tables

141-140
brass.

the

first

official

one,

and was naturally
case,

by the people on

of

Assuming

this

to

be the

and from an examination of other authorities
theory,

—Eupolemus,

Sulpicius Severus, etc.
dates
for

— in

corroboration of his

Dr. Merzbacher proposes the

following

the reign of

Simon Maccabseus
1

:

1

Bi 2
;

11.

Maccab. xvi. 14-22; .Iml " i. '2, 3, 4.

cf.

Joseph. "Antiq."

xiii. 7,

4;

8,1;

breaking

of

the treaties,
;

lie

stopped the issue
that a sin
ki
1

of

silver

and

struck a copper coinage
4

but

now

of the

" year o "

Joseph. "Antiq."
1
;

xiii. 7, 4.

has been discovered, this theory becomes invalid.

Maccab. xv. 27 Madden, " Jewish Coinage," p. 40, note; ' Num. Chron." n.s. 1866, p. 60. It was at one time thought [Madden, op. eit.) that Simon commenced the issue of coins in 143, and that in b.c. 140-139 (his fourth year), on the

IMaccab. nil. 41, 42. 1 Maccab. xv. 6, 10. 7 " Die Zeitrechnung dor Sckel," Numismatik," 1878, vol. v. p. 'I'.ri.
6

G

1

Maccab.

xiv. 27.

in

the

"Zeitschrifl

fur

»

66
A.S.

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
B.C.

170

142

(?

Jan.-April).

First real year of government of Simon.

Simon

obtains,

by

resolution of a popular

assembly, the
his brother.

offices

and honours

of

Siege of Gazara.

171

142-141.

Second real year of government of Simon.

Conquest

of Gazara.

Conquest and occupation of the tower
of Jerusalem.

172

141.

Third real year of government of Simon.

Demetrius II. begins his campaign to
Parthia.

Peaceful condition in Judaea.
Burial of Jonathan by Simon in Modin.

Death

of

Antiochus VI.
1

Departure of Jewish Embassy to Rome,

and one

to

Demetrius II.
at
II.

Upon
is

favourable news of reception
of

Rome, the Charter
published. 2

Demetrius

Popular resolution of the 18th of Elul
(Aug.-Sept.).

[From now
real year

to

April,

140,

the

third

= the
year.

first official

year.]

From
,,

Elul (Sept.) 172
o\isarj

141 to Adar (March-April) 140.

First

official

year of government of Simon.

(April) 173
)

140


,,

139.
138.

Second

official

II

>)

174
175

139
138 137

Third

official

year.

II

II

M
J
J

,,

137. 136. 135.

Fourth
Fifth

official year.

II

II

176
177

,,

official
official

year. year.

II

II

}J

136 to Shebat 3 (Feb.)

Sixth

If then the

first official
:

year of Simon commenced in

B.C.

141, the dates on the shekels

will range as follows

B.C.

N
2
i

First

year
,,

Second
Third


,,

T n

Fourth
Fifth

,,

= = = = =
for

141-140.

140-139.
139-138.

138-137.
137-136.

1

See p. 62.

AOPi

cannot

be

admitted

(De Saulcy,
pp.

" Recherches
34, 35,
Paris,

2

The

ZHP
n.c.

AOP

which bear dates between (b.c. 146) and TOP (b.C 140), show that it was in 140 that Demetrius II. was taken prisoner. The date (Miounet, v. p. 554), which is probably a wrong reading
coins of
II.,

Demetrius

sur les monnaies datees des

Seleucides,"

1871).
3 The death of Simon occurred in month called Sahat " (1 Maccab. xvi.

a.s. 177,
14), or

"

in the eleventh

February, B.C. 135.

;

COIXS OF SIMON MACCABEUS.

67
complete series of shekels

A
As
Dr.

shekel of the " sixth year " would,

when

discovered,

give a

coined under Simon.
to the "right of

coinage" conferred hy Antiochus VII. hefore
letter

a.s.

174

= b.c.
1

139-138,

Merzbacher shows that his

was written "from the

isles

of the sea,"

and can,

therefore, be fixed during the period

when he

stayed at Rhodes, and was urged by Cleopatra

(the wife of Demetrius II.
or

now

in confinement) to

many

her,

i.e.

about

a.s.

173=b.c. 140-139,

the second

official

year

of Simon's
first

government.

Simon would thus have coined without

authority only the coins of his

year.

A.

Simon

Maccabeus,

b.c.

141-b.c. 135.

Obvebse.

Reverse.

M.

6.

TtfTJJf* S"36? Shekel Israel

"Shekel
a pellet

of
2

nCnp St^W
rod).

Jerushalem hedoshah,

Israel."

A cup or chalice, on cither side,
,

"JerusalemtheHoly."

A central device (? Aaron'

above the cup, the letter^
(indicating the
first

i.e.

the numeral letter

1

year of Simon's mintages).

(De Saulcy,

"Xum.

Jud."

pi.

i.

No.

1

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 43,

No.

1.)

OlS VERSE.

Reverse.

JR.

4.

^ptyn $PI

Chatei
;

ha-SheM, "Halfside, a pellet

nBHp DSBT)*i
A

"Jerusalem the Holy."

shekel."

A cup or chalice
letter tf,
i.e.

on either
;

central device (? Aaron's rod).

(omitted by error in woodcut)

above the cup, the

numeral

"year

1."
pi.
i.

(De Saulcy, " Xum. Jud."

No. 2

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 43,

No.

2.)

1

'Airi

tuv

vfi<r'j>v

tv]5 0aAc£<r<77)s.

1

Maccab. xv.

1.

the shekels were coined by Simon Maceabaeus, this

is

impossible.

-

As regards the

on either side of the cup, on the --hekels of the first year, Dr. J. Evans is
pellets

The golden
stones

chalices of the

Temple were adorned with precious
xii.

(Joseph.

" Antiq."
pellets,
tin.'

2,

10;
those

Ecclesiasticus

1.

9).

I

to think that they

help to prove that several years

probably intervened between the issue of the shekels of the first and of those of the succeeding y< :trs (Madden, " Suppl. to Jew.
Coin." in

Perhaps these the cups on
represent, in a
nru:i nil litid.

as

well
of

as

round the
are

tops

oi

shekels

other

years,

intended

to

rough way, the jewels with which they were

"Xum.

Chron."

m.B. 1876, vol. xvi. p. 120);

but

if

68

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Obverse.
3.

Reverse.

JR.

6.

^tn&l ^p&,

" Shekel of Israel."

A

nE^npn D vJ^l^V
rod).

Jerushalaim

Tia-lcetloshah,

cup or chalice, ornamented with jewels; ahove
the cup, the letters
;

"Jerusalem theHoly."

A central device (? Aaron's

$&

(for

y^ty

Shenath2)

year 2."
(De Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."

pi.

i.

No. 3

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 43,

No.

3.)

Obverse.
4.

Reverse.

JR.

4.

Sp^n ^H,
y&,
i.e.

"Half-shekel."

A cup

or

PlCnpn

DwIT,

"Jerusalem the Holy.

chalice,

ornamented with jewels; ahove the cup,
" year 2."
pi.
i.

A
;

central device (? Aaron's rod).

the letters

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."

No. 4

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 44,

No.

4.)

Obverse.
JUL. 6.

Reverse.

Sn1K>* b&W, "Shekel of Israel." A cup
Shenath 3) "year 3."
p. 44,

HETlpn

ET?BTl*> " Jerusalem the Holy.'

or chalice, ornamented with jewels; ahove the cup,
the

A
No. 5
;

central device (? Aaron's rod.)

letters^ (for yftW,
(British

Museum: Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

cf.

De

Saulcy,

" Num. Jud."

pi.

i.

No.

5.)

^f§^
^,'dL
Obverse.
6.

Reverse.

M.

4.

7pB>n ^»n,
y$,
i.e.

"Half-shekel."
;

A

cup or

HBTlpil DvBTl**

" Jerusalem the Holy."

chalice,

ornamented with jewels

ahove the cup,

A
sr.s.

central device (? Aaron's rod).

the letters
(Coll.

"year 3." "Num.
Chron."
fur
1862, vol. 1876,
vol.
ii.

of

Rev. H. C. Eeichardt [two specimens],
44,

p.

2G8,

pi.

vi.

No.
C,

1

;

('.linage," p.

No. 6;

Merzbacher,
a.

"

Zeitscbrift

Num."

iii.

p.

190,

No.

pi.

iv.

Madden, "Jew. No. 6, from

"Hamburger

iu Frankfurt

M.")

COINS OF SIMON MACCABiEUS.

69

Obverse.
7.

Reverse.

M.

6.

SNX"

hp&, "Shekel of Israel." Acup
SAeraatfA 4)

Tl^lpT] D*St?W> "Jerusalem the Holy."

orchalicc, ornamented with jewels; ahovethecup,

A central device
ii.

(?

Aaron's rod). 1

the letters
(Coll. of

~W (&r*l"JT3B5f,
also

"year 4."
p. 269, pi. vi.

Rev. H. C. Reichardt,

"Num. Chron."

n.s. 1862, vol.

No. 2; Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 45,

No.

7.)

Mr. Reichardt
above, but weighing
in

possesses a

copper

shekel of the
It

same

size

and same type

as

the

considerably less (1701 grains).

was obtained from a peasant living

the

neighbourhood of a village called Beit-Sakarieh, about three and a half hours' ride

S. \V.

of Jerusalem. 2

Obverse.
T. 8.
.-It.

Reverse.

4.

^p^fi

*5flT "Half-shekel."

Acup

[HETTD]!! D*SWV*], " Jerusalem the Holy."

or chalice,

ornamented with jewels; ahovethecup,

A
Madden,
plated.)

central device (? Aaron's rod).

the letters "It? (for
(Cull,

TFOBO
who

"

J ear 4 -"
me
an impression;
coin
is

of Rev. S. S. Lewis,

kindly sent

"Num.

Chron."

n.s.

1879, vol. xix. p.

13.

This

Obverse.
*9.

Reverse.

M.

6.

I7M*18W* SpB^i " Shekel of Israel."

A
5)

nCnpn
A

iiSt d*?BHTi

"Jerusalem the Holy."

cup orchalice, ornamented with jewels; above the
cup, the
letters

central device (? Aaron's rod).

HE?

(for

iTHM?

Shenath

"year 5."
of

Rev. S. S. Lewis,

"Num. Chron."

n.s.

1876, vol. xvi.
1

p.

322

The

reverse

is

engraved

in

Farrar's "Lifi

oJ

Christ,"

vol. illustrated, p. 591.)

1 Ahout January, 1874, a hoard of a hundred shekels wire found near Jericho, some of which were purchased by the late Mr. Tyrwliitt Drake and forwarded to England, and the remainder

thai

they were forgeries (sec

Appendix E. No.
1, 2, 3,

56).

They are

b;

M. Ganneau. They had been deposited in an earthen pot, rot which had in some manner been secured with lead,
seal

and with them was found a gold
ears

with a

gem on which wheatbeing
such
as to

are engraved,

the whole circumstances

afford

no ground

for suspicion,

though hints had been expressed

and 4, five of which bear thedate*. Halt-shekels of the "year 3," and shekels oi the " year 4 " are not so uncommon as they were in 1861. Specimens have been recently sold by Messrs. Sotheby, Wilkinson and Hodge ("Cat. of Greek coins consigned from Constantinople," Nos. 225, 226 and 226*, April, 1880). 2 Cavedoni considered (" Nuovi sopra le Ant. Mon. Giud."

twenty-four in number, dated

•()

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
The mode
of -writing

D ,tyVV instead

of D7fc?Vl*j

from the year two, has been supposed
that a

1

to allude to the taking of

Sion from the Syrians, and
the

the fortress

constituted a second

town, and therefore

necessitated
2

employment

of

dual name, but
is

the

supposition

has

been considered untenable.
but
it

In the Old Testament " Jerusalem "
places as

usually written D7tJ^*V
;

may

be found in
;

five
6).

Dvtt^T

(1

Chron.
is

iii.

5

;

2 Chron. xxv. 1

xxxii. 9
2,
vi.

;

Jer. xxvi. 18

Esth.

ii.

The Chaldee form

U7^T\\ and dSeJTI* (Dan.

v.

11

;

Ezra

iv.

8).
is

The Rev.

T. E. Espin writes, 3
tihtfiD)

"It seems evident that the original and proper and the form DvEPTV belong
to the silver age of

pointing
the

D/B^T*
the older

The pointing

Hebrew language.

Possibly this dual form was originally' adopted only by
the later pft£> was
as

way

of honour;

as out of
p.

\T\W

formed
referring

(cf.

Ewald, "Lehrb. der Ileb. Spr."

470)

;

and the explanation of the form
itself
title

to the

upper and lower city might

suggest

afterwards."

The

"Holy"
right of

appears to have been attached to Jerusalem
Soter, it
also
it

at

a

very early time

4

and in the decree of Demetrius
free." 5
also

is

expressly stated
to
it.
6

that

it

should
of
St.

be " holy and

The

asylum was
city,"
7

granted
retains

In the Gospel
in
its

Matthew

it

is

called

the "holy holy."

and
titles

El-Kuds,

— " the

this

appellation

present Arabic

name,
b}^

The

of

holy

(lepd)

and inviolable (aavkos) were adopted

many Greek
from
taxes,

cities,

especially the coast cities of

the Mediterranean, which had been exempted
coins. 8

and these words are inscribed upon the

It is

probable that the inscription

on the shekels of Simon was employed in the same

sense.

The type
considered,

of

the

obverse

of

the

silver

shekels

and

half- shekels

has

been

usually

and probably
a
pot,

correctly, to represent the

pot of manna.
therein

"

And Moses
lay
it

said

unto

Aaron, take
Lord,
to

and put an
for

omer

full

of

manna
this

and
the
4,

up before the
pot
is

be

kept
;

your

generations." 9
xpvcrovs
;

In
cf.

passage
ix.

manna

called

Zinzeneth

(H3X3X

LXX.

aTdjj,vo<;

Hebrews

ardfxvos

%pvai)),

a

word
vessel

most probably

derived

from

HV (=p5)

"to

protect,"

which would imply that the
Perhaps
it

had a

cover.

Now

the vase upon these coins

has no cover. 10

was a

flat

one, or

else the vase

only indicated the representation of
there could
"

something like the pot of manna, of which
It has, however,

at this time

be only a traditional recollection. 11

been suggested

pp. 11, 12) this piece to be Vanima di tm Siclo cPargento suberato. Merzbaeher possesses one of the " year 3." Reichardt's coin is

4

Isaiah xlviii. 2;
iii.

lii.

1;

Dan.

ix.

24; Nehem.
1

xi.

1,

18;

Joel
6

17.
'IepoucraArjju ^t&>

him as "plated" {pp. cit., Madden, "Jew. Coinage," pp. 45, 46, 48), but it is said to be of "copper, partly covered with red oxide" (Reiehardt, "Num. Chron." n.s. 1864, vol. iv. p. 175). A woodcut is given of it in the " Wien Numism. Monatsheften," ed. Dr.
the same as the one spoken of by

Kal

ayia

/cal atpeifievr],

cf.

xv. 7;

Upav Kal &crv\ov
ttSkis,

Kal

iAtvdtpav, Joseph.
6

xii. 2, 3.
7 i)

1

Maccab. x. 31; " Antiq." Maccab. x. 43.
t\

ayia

Matt.

iv.

5;

xxvii.

53;

tt6\is

tj

ayia,

Rev.
8

xi. 2.

Egger, 1866.
1

On

the coins of Tyre
etc.

and

Sidon, and also

on those of

Cavedoui,

"

Gesenius (" Thes." quo apparet, duo ilia scribendi genera eodem tempore usitata fuisse, et, utrum optatuni sit, illis certe
Saulcy,
p.

2

De

Num." vol. i. p. 23; "Num. Jud." p. 18, note.
Iiibl.

vol.

ii.

p. 12.

LaodiceaandSeleucia,
9 I0

(Mionnet, "Description de Mddailles,"

vol. v. pp. 65, 80, 93, 272).

629) concludes,

"Ex

Exod.

xvi. 33.
is

A

cup with a cover

represented on the coins of the "third

temporibus ex arbitrio fere pependisse."
3

year " of the First Revolt.
p. 54.

" Speaker's Commentary,"

vol.

ii.

n R.

S. Poole, Smith's

See Chapter VIII. " Diet, of the Bible," s.v. Money.

COPPER COINS OF THE FOURTH YEAR.
that

71
of

the

vessel

may

represent
'

some other piece
2

of

the

furniture

the

Temple, such

as,

perhaps, a chalice.
that there
is

Cavedoni

and Levy
to the

are inclined to take this view,

and the former

states

a

chalice

similar

one on these coins, which was on the golden table of
carried
3

the sanctuary at Jerusalem, and which was
Titus, together

to

Rome, and represented on the arch

of

with the golden candlestick.
is

The

reverse type

generally taken to represent Aaron's rod

that budded.

"And

behold

the rod of

Aaron

for

the house of Levi was budded, and brought forth buds and bloomed
4

blossoms and yielded almonds."
according to the words,

Cavedoni, however, prefers to consider

it

a hyacinth or
lily."

lily,
5

"I

will be as the

dew unto

Israel,

he shall blossom as the

The following copper
Alaceabxus
:

coins of the " fourth

year " have been usually attributed to Simon

Obveese.
1.
' '

Reverse.

JE.

*SPI

SI11S nJE> Shenath aria Chats

|V¥ ll^JO? Ligullath
Zion."

Zion,

"The redemption

of

In the fourth year

— one-half."

Two bunches

of

A

palm-tree between two baskets
fruits.

filled

thickly-leaved branches (Lulal), between which
a citron (Ethrog).
(De Saulcy, " Xum. Jud."
pi.
i.

with dates and other

Xo. 6

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 47,

No.

8.)

Obvebse.

Revebse.

M.
of

6.

y»2"l

XD1K

fOE? Shenath aria Reiki,

1VX Xbtob, "The

redemption of Zion."

" In the fourth year

— one quarter."

Two

bundles

An

Ethrog.

branches (Lulal).
(De Saulcy, " Xum. Jud."
pi.
i.

Xo.

7

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 47,

Xo.

9.)

1

'•

Bibl.

Xum."
is,

vol.

i.

p. 29.

Eosea
pi.

xiv.

6;

cf.

Isaiah Nxvii. G;

szxv.

1.

Cavedoni'e

" Jud. Miinzen,"
3
4

p. 138.
iii.

views, either as regards the

"chalice"
S.

ox the " lily," are not,

De Rnh
Xumbers

xvii.

" Vetera Areas August. Triumph 8; cf. Hebrews ix. 4.

howevex, conclusive
Lit." ed. Alexander,

(cf.

11.

Poole, Kitto,

" Cyc.

of Bibl.

s.v.

Ark

of the Covenant).

72

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Obverse.
3.

Reverse.

M.

5.

|VX rfa«S>

" The

redemption

of

tfTlX

1

rtiE>

Shenath arba, "In the fourth year."
of

Zion."

A cup or chalice, ornamented with
(De Saulcy,

jewels.

A
;

bundle

branches (Lidab) between

two

Ethrogs.

"Num.

Jud."

pi.

i.

No. 8

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 47,

No.

10.)

Obveese.

Reverse.

H. M.5. [j]V¥ rbitb," The redemption of Zion."

VTMS T\^>
No.
3,

" I Q tne fourth year."

Same type

as

A

cup or chalice, ornamented with jewels, parcovered with the countermark of an elephant.
(British

but mostly obliterated.

tially

Museum.

— Madden,

"Num.

Cbron."

n.s. 1866, vol. vi. p. 61.)

Obverse.
5.

Reverse.

jE.5. p*X ffotiSi "The redemption of Zion."

1D1K

" In tne T\)W>

fourth year."
;

An

Ethrog

A

cup or

chalice.

alone, as

upon No. 2

but with the
1,

stalk upivards,

like the Ethrogs on Nos.
(Grotefend,

3 and 4.

" Jahrbucher des Vereins von Altertlmmsfreunden

ein Rheinlande,"
v. p. 343.)

1865, p. 290;

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

n.s.

1865, vol.

As

to the correctness of

the attribution

we

are

not on sure ground.

Doubts

as to these

coins being of the

same age as the shekels and half-shekels have been expressed by numis-

matists of authority, 2 and one numismatist has not hesitated to assign
of

them

to the fourth year

the

First

Revolt,

3

an arrangement that has not been adopted by the present
of

writer. 4

The most

recent

student

Jewish numismatics has not

felt

able

to

classify

them with

certainty, but has preferred considering

them

as " early coins of

an uncertain age." 5
existence of one of

The discovery
"year
six,"

of

a shekel of

the " year five," and

the

possible

the
all

has done away with the theory that in consequence of Antiochus "breaking
(1

covenants"

Maccab.

xv.

27),

the

silver

coinage

ceased

in

the fourth

year,

and was

These/mi on these coins is formed sometimes sometimes &). " Num. Chron." o.s. 1857, vol. xx. p. 12; De Saulcy, "Rev. Num." 1864, p. 377; cf. Madden, "Num. Chron." n.s. 1866, vol. vi. p. 51 1875, vol. xv. p. 305.
2

1

W,

3

Garrucei, "Diss. Arch, di vario Argomento," vol.

ii.

p. 31,

J. Evans,

Rome, 1865.
4

See

Chapter YIII.
cit.

" Num. Chron." he.

5

;

Dr. Merzbacher, " Zeitschrif t fur

Num."

1877, vol.

iv. p.

364.

TYPES ON THE EARLY COPPER COINS.
replaced
a
special
it

I

6

by a copper one
copper
curious

;

but
should

it

may
have

be

observed,

that,

though we cannot explain why
in

coinage
that

been

introduced

the

fourth

year

of

Simon,

yet

is

copper specimens of shekels

of the fourth

year are, as above shown, in

existence.

But whether
or
not, their

these copper coins of the "year four" can be attributed to
to the
is

Simon Maccabncus

assignment
4),

Seleucidan

period

seems to

some extent confirmed by the

copper piece (No.

which

countermarked with an
It

elephant.

Now

the

elephant
I.

was a

special type of the Syrian kings.

was adopted

as a coin-type

by Seleucus

Nicator, who,

marrying the daughter of Sandrocottus (Chandra-Gupta), an Indian king, with
been at war for some time, received from him a present of
in consequence called in derision,
five

whom

he had

hundred elephants. 1

He was

by Demetrius

I.

Poliorcetes,

king of Macedonia, "a ruler of
Seleucus
etc.,

elephants."

2

The type

of the elephant also occurs
I.

on

the

coins of

II. Callinicus,

Antiochus III. the Great, Alexander

Bala, Antiochus VI. Dionysus,

and on those of
500 elephants,

Apameia

in Syria, at

which place Seleucus had
stallions.
3

his commissariat, keeping there

30,000 mares and 300

The
famous

selection of

the

palm-tree on the copper coins was peculiarly appropriate, as

it

was

as a product of Palestine, 4

and

it

may

be found on other coins of Judaea. 5

The palm-

branch, in conjunction with the myrtle, the willow, and the Ethrog (citron), represented the Festal

branch which every
the
first

Israelite

was

to carry at the feast of Tabernacles.
fruit)

"And

ye shall take you on

day the boughs (Hcb.

of

goodly

trees,

branches of palm-trees, and the boughs

of thick trees,

and willows of the brook; and ye
to

shall rejoice before the
"j*y

Lord your God seven
with
the

days."

6

According
tied

tradition
in

the
7

myrtle

(1"QJ?

Spy)

and

willow,

palm-

branch,

together

a bunch,
teft.
s

were to be carried in the right hand, and the Ethrog

('j'nnX = "H!"I

"y H2)
Ethrog

in the

Such a bunch may be seen on Nos. 1-4, and

close

by

it

the Ethrog, excepting on No.
reverse
;

2,

where the bunches are on the obverse, and the Ethrog on the
the reverse of

the

is

also

on

No.

5.

This fruit

is

only found

alone on

these copper coins.

The palm-branch was employed upon
citadel

all festive occasions, as,

for instance,

the

taking

of

the

by

Simon, 9 and
dates

on

the

purification

of
1

the

Temple by

Judas

Maccabaous. 10

The baskets with

and other

fruits

on

No.

no doubt bear reference

to the offerings of

the First-fruits (D*TD2), n which, on ascending the

mount
to

of

the Temple,
the
court
of

each
the
1

person

was

compelled

to

take

upon

his

shoulder,

and proceed
12

Temple,
Strabo, p. 721.
•E.kt(pai>Tdpxvs-

where

he

was

met

by the Levitcs
«

singing.

Should
cf.Neb.em.

these

types

not

be

Levit. xxiii. -10;

viii.

15.

2

Tlut. " In

Dcmetr." 25.
II.
ias,

l

This buncb was called

Mai

(&))>), which strictly
c.

means

Strabo, p. 752.

only a palm-branch (Buxtorf, "Lex. Talm."
» o

1143).

4

xiii. 4.

"Judaea rero inclyta est vel magis palmis." Plin. X. " Bxubi .nit Bruges nostrum ad morem praeterq
:

Levy, "Jiid. Miinzen," pp. 134, 135.
i

Maccab.

xiii.

51

;

cf.

John

xii.

13.

See p. 62.

imam
ix. 1,

et palnue."
4, 1.

Tac. "Hist." v. 6;
TT.

cf.

Joseph.

" Antiq."

i"
ii

% Maccab. x. 6
],,„,
;

sea.

2; xiv.

ins of the Asmontcan and
Procurators,
of

rodian

families, of the

12

p

r

jxyj 2 Jeremiah vi. 9. an account of these offerings, see Smith's " Diet, of the

the

Revolts,

and those commemorative of the

Bihle "

s.v. First-fruits,

n oi Jerusalem.

MADDEN

10

NUMISMATA ORIEXTALIA.
intended
prosperity
in peace,
to

have reference to the

festivals,

they at any rate ideally indicate

of

the land in the terms of

the ancient text:

— "Then

the peace
their
1

and

did

they

till

ground

and the earth gave her

increase,

and the

trees of the field their fruit."

B. John Hyrcanus

I.

b.c.

135
2

b.c.

10G.

Immediately on the murder of Simon, John Hyrcanus

assumed the dignity

of high-priest,
fled

and made an expedition against Ptolemy, his father's and brother's murderer, who had
to

Zeno Cotylas, the tyrant of the city of Philadelphia.
arranged
this

It

seems excessively probable that

Ptolemy and Antiochus Sidetes had
diately
after

assassination

between

them, for
against the

immeJews.

the

flight

of

Ptolemy, Antiochus

undertook an expedition

As he came with
surrender,

a

very large army, Hyrcanus
besieged
in

did not venture to oppose him,

and was

consequently closely

Jerusalem.
offered of

Famine would

soon

have

compelled

him

to

had not an opportunity

making peace with the king Antiochus.

The

feast

of Tabernacles being near at hand,

John

sent to Antiochus,

and desired a truce for seven days,
be used
for

which Antiochus

not

only

granted,

but supplied animals to

the

sacrifices. 3

Pleased with this friendly behaviour, John again sought to
to

make terms
agreed

of

permanent peace,
the
conditions,
cities

which

Antiochus,

contrary

to

the

wishes

of

his

generals,

on

that they should deliver

up

their arms,

and pay tribute for Joppa and the other
hostages and
five

which
Three

bordered upon

Judaea,

and give him

hundred

talents

of

silver.

hundred

talents

and the hostages were immediately

sent, 4 for

Hyrcanus preferred
Jerusalem.

this latter

condition to allowing a Syrian garrison to be placed inside
b.c.

This took place in

135.

However, a league of friendship was made between them, and Hyrcanus admitted
city,

Antiochus within the
afterwards,

and furnished his army with whatever they required.

Four years
and

John Hyrcanus accompanied Antiochus in
first

his expedition against the Parthians,

Antiochus, though at
in b.c. 129.
1

successful against Phraates II.,

was eventually

slain

by the enemy
to recover

Immediately on hearing of the death of Antiochus, Hyrcanus was enabled
xiv. 8 seq.

1

Maccab.

another Ilyrcaims
of Tobias,

(LXX.
in 2
2).

"TpKavos

The reason for the adoption of the name of Hyrcanus by John is uncertain. In the Arabic book of Maccabees (xx. 1-3)
2

mentioned
xii.

Vu]g. Sireanus), a son (?) Maccabees (iii. 11) and in Josephus
;

(" Antiq."

4,

See Westcott, Smith's "Diet, of the
Kitto's

on account of his slaying a certain man who was called Hyrcanus. Eusebius ("Chron." lib. ii. ed. Mai, 1818, p. 359) and Sulpicius Severus ("Hist. Sacr." ii. 26) say that he adopted it in consequence of a lib. victory gained over the Hyrcanians. John had accompanied Antiochus VII. Sidetes into Parthia, and a trophy was erected at the river Lycus (in Assyria) to commemorate the victory
it is

said that

he received

it

Bible,"

and Madden,
s.v.

"Cyclop,

of

Bibl.

Lit."

ed.

Alexander,

Hircanus.

over

the

Parthian

general

(Joseph.

"Antiq."

xiii.

8,

4).

The Hyrcanians were
distance from Parthia.
of the

a nation whose territory was bounded on

the north by the Caspian Sea, and would thus be at no great Josephus, however, gives no explanation
xiii. 7,

3 For these concessions he is said to have been favourably compared with Antiochus Epiphanes, and called Evo-f&ris, "the pious" (Joseph. "Antiq." xiii. 8, 2). Josephus also gives him ("Antiq." xiii. 10, 1) the title of Swr^p. 4 Josephus records ("Antiq." vii. 15, 3; xiii. 8, 4; "Bell. Jud." i. 2, 5) that Hyrcanus, in order to pay this money, opened the tomb of David, and took therefrom 3000 talents of silver, Herod also opened the tomb, but probably found only ornaments (Joseph. " Antiq." vii. 15, 3 xvi. 7, 1). The story, however,
;

name ("Antiq."

4

;

"Bell. Jud."
in
1

i.

2, 3),

John

is

nowhere called Hyrcanus

Maccabees.

and There is

is

rather improbable.

»

.

JOHN HYRCANUS
his independence,

I.

and reduced several neighbouring

cities.

Sichem was stormed, and the hated

temple on Mount Grerizim was destroyed.
to

Idumsea was subdued, and the people compelled
of

become Jews.

Hyrcanus was now desirous
to

making

a league

of

friendship with the

Romans, and sent an embassy

them,

which was favourably received by the Senate, and
In the mean time,
in

the alliance that had been concluded with Simon was again renewed. 1 the Syrian

kingdom there were continual

dissensions, consequent

on the escape of Demetrius II.
B.C.

from his captivity in Parthia, and his re-establishment on the throne about

130

;

and

Hyrcanus not only concluded an
B.C.

alliance

with the victorious pretender
Several

Alexander Zebina,
till

128, but

extended his power in every direction.
Samaria, which
the
close

years elapsed,
B.C.

at length

he

laid siege to

city

he destroyed entirely in
his
life

109.
at

His

rule

towards

of

was not

so

successful

home

as

abroad, for

there were

constant
at

disturbances

between the Pharisees
to

and the Sadducees, and IP/rcamis,
quarrelled

who had been
after

first

attached

the

former party,

with

them and inclined
dying

towards the opposite faction.
thirty
years' reign in

He
B.C.

did not experience the results of his proceedings,
2

10G.

Josephus says that he was esteemed by

God worthy

of three privileges

—the
of

government of his nation, the high-priesthood, and prophecy. 3
of
coins,

Of the reign
issued in copper. 4
It seems

John Hyrcanus there are a large number

but they were only

excessively probable, as has been

shown by De Saulcy, 5 that Hyrcanus did not

commence

striking coins immediately on his
;

accession.

The

siege of

Jerusalem by Antiochus

had prevented this

and moreover, Antiochus himself, after friendship had been established,
in
B.C.
:

when

visiting Jerusalem
is

132 and 131, struck coins there in his own name, of which

the following

a description
2.

1

Joseph. " Antiq."

xiii. J),

Other documents given to

Sidetes (Joseph.

"Antiq."

xiii.

8,

2;
vol.

the date following this
iii.

the time of

ITyrcanus II. by Josephus

("Antiq."
I.

xiv.

10,

passage
that

is

corrupt, Clinton, F.

H.

p. 330, note z),

and

22-25) appear to refer to that of Hyrcanus
of Israel," vol. v. p. 364, notes 1

(Ewald, "Hist,

and

2),

decree of the people of Athens to Hyrcanus,

and so too ma}- the " high -priest and
xiv.
8,

ethnarch

of
eit.

the
p.

Jews"

(Joseph.

"Antiq."

5;

cf.

Simon died in Feb. B.C. 135, consequently the first year of Hyrcanus I. ended in Feb. b.c. 134. We also know that Hyrcanus II. succeeded Alexandra in Ol. 177, 3, Hortermo et Melello consulibus, b.c. 69 (Joseph. "Antiq." xiv. 1, 2).
Allowing
then one
year
to

Ewald, «p.

The
xiv. 8.
p. 31

405, note 3; p. 496, note 6). decree of the Roman Senate given by Josi ph.ua ("Antiq."
')

Judas Aristolndus
11, 3;

(/3<x<nAeu<ras
i.

ifiavr6v, Joseph.

"Antiq."

xiii.

"Bell. Jud."

3, 6),

to

Hyrcanus
letter

II.,

and thought

bj Li

\\

in

(" Fasti Sacri,"

to belong to

same
ri -<

as

the

Hyrcanus I., would really seem to he the written by the Consul Lucius to Simon
p.

twenty-seven years to Alexander Jannacus, b.c. 105 to 78 (/8acnA6u<ras tT-q eiTti ko.\ ukoo-i, Joseph. " Antiq." xiii. 15, 5
;

"
69

Hell.

Jud."

i.

4, 8),

and nine years

to Alexandra, B.C.

78

to
;

Maccabaeus [Sect. A.
i

2

26,

Sect. H. Hyrcanus II. wrong place in hishistnry. Eusebius (" Chron.") and Sulpicius Severus ("Chron." ii. 2) assign to John Hyrcanus a reign of only twenty-six

63, note 2;

ii~i

-1-1

ilhy

Jim -phusin

a

years;

tie

(

\ieon

Faachale only twenty-seven years. Josephus,
'jpiaKovTa
5'

Ivvia., Joseph. " Antiq." xiii. 16, 6 Jud." i. 5, 4), we obtain a term of thirty years (Feb. B.C. 135 to end of b.c. 106) for the reign of Hyrcanus I. 3 " Antiq." xiii. " Bell. Jud." i. 2, 8. 10, 7 4 The sudden cessation of the striking of silmer by the

(BaaiAevo-ao-a %tt\

"

Bell.

;

OH the contrary, gives to liim thirty
rtfiris

eV ?t€it( tt)s
(tJjv

diroAoycos,

"Antiq."
HpiaTuv
7
.

\x.

10),

tkirty-cne
evl

apxhv
«a! to.

SiotKrjad^fUos

tov
10,

rp6nov

Ztzctiu

ko\

TpiaKovra,

"Antiq."
Kara

xiii.

and

th, ,t ,/.//,,;,

years of reign

Asmonsean family i> remarkable. It may be that the striking was considered less of a prerogative. Such was lie case in India. Babur and Humayun would not put tie u mark on their copper coins (Thomas, " I'atlu'm kings of Dehli."
of copper
p.

apxh" KaAAiirra SioiKTjrras eV Tpta'tv /fa! rpiaKovra 6'Aois inaiv. "Bell. Jud." i. 2, 8). We have two certain dates to calculate from. We know thai the first year of Hyrcanus L

tV

383),
silver

and
p.
5

and Akbar's mints define the limited mintaud the large range of copper (Thomas,
n.s. 1872, p. 9.

of gold
op.

.

128).

was contemporary with the fourth year of

Antiochus

VII.

"Rev. Arch."

76

NUAIISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Obverse.

Reverse.

M.

Lily.

BASIAE[QS] ANTIOX[OY EYEPrETOY]Anchor; below, AI1P
(a.s.

181=b.c. 132) and

BI1P
(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."
pi. iii.

(a.s.

182=b.c.

) 131.
p. 67.)

Nos. 13, 14

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

After the

death

of

Antiochus, ia

B.C.

129, and

on the

conclusion

of

the

treaty with

Rome, and the

alliance with

Alexander Zebina, Hyrcanus struck money in his own name.

Obverse.
1.

Reverse.

^E.

3.

J)^

Two

cornua-copia},

between which a poppy-head.

urnm
iraniScn]
i-e.

DHinran

nnm biim psn

pmm
of the

Jehochanan Hakkohen Haggadol Vecheber Hwjehudim.

"Johanan the high-priest and the Senate
Jews," within a wreath
of laurel or olive.

(Formerly in the Cab. of the late Mr. Wigan; Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. .57, No. 3 cf. De Saulcy, " Num. Chron." n.s. 1871, " Num. Jud." pi. xx. No. 3 Merzbacher, " Zeitschxift fur Num." 1876, vol. iii. p. 195, No. 26.) p. 237, No. 1C
;

;

;

The following
(2)

varieties occur

A
pmm
yr\

(3)

A pmm
nn pan
<n

(4)

A
pmrv

pan

n nam bi
Tin*

nam

"?

ru pa mn nam

D
(De Saulcy, "

Num. Chron."
No.
19.)

n.s. 1871,

(De Saulcy,

op. cit.

No.

18.)

(De Saulcy,

op. cit.

No.

17.)

p. 237,

1

A specimen

of this coin in the British

Museum

appears to be undated (" Cat. of the coins of the Seleucids," p. 7o, pi. xx. No. 14).

VARIOUS INTERPRETATIONS OF THE
(5)

WORD

*£!"!

77

A
.

(6)

A
^un pan

.

sn p
.

.

Sn:
No. 12.)
(Merzhacher, op.

m
iii.

nam
"Num. Jud."
pi.
iii.

....
(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."
pi.
cit.

DHin
No. 30;
cf.

De

Saulcy,

No.

11.)

The Greek A, which
alliance

is

the

initial

letter

of
II.

the

name

of

Alexander, 12 8.
B.C.
1

relates

to

the

between John Hyrcanus and Alexander
till

Zebina in

B.C.

This coinage was
122.
s a.

probably in circulation
"With respect
to

about

B.C.

124

;

Alexander Zebina died in
Nuntius, "\^_

the

word

"12!"!

[%£»

Nuntiorum gnarus,

"Is qui

Deum

cognoscit," Freytag
it

—from

root 'l&-\ varic,us interpretations have been given.

Reichardt

explains

as " doctor " or " learned

man," in contradistinction
preferred
a

to so to

many

high-priests
it

who
of

were "illiterate
Juifs."
3

men";

whilst

De

Saulcy originally

interpret

as " I'ami des

Cavedoni,
of

however,

cannot understand 4

why
title

king

of

Jewish

descent

and

the lineage

Aaron should have adopted the
to

" friend

of the

Jews."

He

says, " It

would have been better

have had OlAOflATPIS, as was the case with Archelaus, king of
iv.

Cappadocia, and other Greeks (Eckhel, vol.

p.

4G2).

Judas Aristobulus, son of this John,
do not think that any prince
instead of
Vechaber,

called himself $i\e\\T]v (Joseph. " Antiq." xiii. 11, 3), but I of Jewish origin called himself
<I>i\.oiov8aios.

Therefore, I
gens,

consider that

we must read

Vechebcr,

i.e.

societas,

natio,

populus,

and that these coins were struck In a similar manner are found in
20),
3,

with the name of the Jewish nation and

its

king John.
viii.

the records of the time of the Maccabees (1 Maccab.
et

Judas Machabams
sutnmus

et fratres ejus

populus (to
(ical

TrXrjOos)

Judceorum, and

in

1

Maccab.

xii.

Jonathas

sacerdos et gens

Judceorum
tation,

to

Wvos twv 'IovSalwv)."

Levy, 5 however, though agreeing with this interprelimited
association,

suggests " that cheber

means a

and that

if

the whole people of the

Jews were meant, the form would be Wehajehudim, and not Wecheber hajehudim.
the

Also among
denoted by

Phoenicians

(viz.

the

inscription of

Marseilles), the

eTaipelcu

(Societies) are

C3"DP| Chebronim (the plural of p!in).

... In

this inscription the Suffetes,

mentioned in the
side stand the

beginning of the decree, are the representatives of the
Chebronim, as with the Greeks the Qparpicu, and with the

Senate,

and by their
the Curia?.
is

Romans

As

the Suffetes

and Confederation together issue a decree to the Carthaginians, this
to
Suffetes

accordingly equivalent
the

and Elders

(•ytpovTes)

or

Senators.
edicts,
'

...
The
3

So

now among

Jews

is

there

a

combination of authority for the issue of
1

high-priest and the Confederation of the
Jud."
the

De

8aulcy,
p.

"Num.
13.

Jud." pp. 99, 102;
suggestion
a

"Rev. Arch."
("Bibl.

w.B.

1ST-',

Cavedoni's
lettei

Num."

p. .382.

"Num. He
p.

p.

84;

"Rev. Num."

n.s.

1864, vol.

i\.

has recently adopted
reading

vol. ii. p. 17)

that this

aa?

e,unie\ion with the wreath,

1877,
4

86)

["Mel. de Xiunismatique," " l'assemblee (le Scnat)." See

and that it denotes a coron a aurea, cannot be accepted (Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 57).
2

page 78.
"Bibl.

Num."

vol.

ii.

p.

II.

"Num.Chron."N.8.1862,vol.ii.p.269; 1864, vol. iv. p. 178.

5

"

Jiid.

Miinzcn,"

p. 50, note 3.

78
Jews.'

NUMISMATA OBIENTALIA.
"
J

Cavedoni

2

further
in

suggests

that

it

might be translated by the phrase
of the

7ro\irevfj,a

'IovSaicov,

which occurs

a well-known

decree
its

Jews

of

Berenice

in

the Cyrenaica, 3

but he does not like altogether to resign
as the title iOuclpxv^

connexion with the Greek e6vo$ 'Iov&aiav, especially
to one of the sons of

was given by Augustus
is

Herod the Great. 4
"1311,

Dr. Geiger, however,
thus

of opinion

5

"that the priestly Senate was called
the
high-priest,

and that
Senate

we

find

on
.

the
.

coins,

besides

the

governing

body — the
iepecov

DTliTn
xiv.

"HPI "

.

" the priestly

Patriciat,
(1

that
iii.

is

the crvvayray)) /xeydXr]
is

(1

Maccab.

28), or

merely the avvaycoyi]

Maccab.
to

44)," a view that

unreservedly accepted

by M. Derenbourg, 6 and which appears

be the most reasonable interpretation. 7

Obvekse.
7.

Reverse.

JE. 3.

31PP

Two

cornua-copia\ between which a poppy-head.

nana
mS-un

rrma
.cnra
i.e.

DHramn -ism yun

jron

pirn
of the

Jehohmian Halkohen Haggadol Yecheber Hajehudim,

"Johanan the high-priest and the Senate
Jews," within a wreath of olive or laurel.

(Formerly in the Cab. of the late Mr. "Wigan

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 54,

No.

1.)

The following
(8)

variations in the legend
(9)

may

be found

:

prnm
tin jron
*n

pmm
n:n jron

m
;

prune*]

-am b cmn
f.
;

n
1876,

-nm

h
De

nm
(Merzbacher, op.
Sauley, op.
cit. cit.

nam nn nmn
(De Sauley, op. cit. No. 10; cf. "Num. Jud." pi. iii. No. 1 (sic) "Qill; pi. iii. No. 6,andxx.No. 1 (*ic)"13nni; Levy, "Jud. Miinzen," p. 50, note 2; Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. .34, note 2.)

(Merzbacher, "Zeitschril't
vol.
iii.

Num."

No. 14 cf. De Sauley, "Num. Chron." n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 237, No. 12.)
p. 193,

No. 14 bis No. 11.)

1

See the proclamation of Demetrius II. to the Jews, in which
is

xiii.

42,

mention
yzpova'ia.
2
3 4

made

of the &pxovres or irpea^vrfpot of

whom

the

tation,

" The governor and leader of the Jews." This interprehowever, has not met with the support of either Dr.
p. 122) or

was composed (see p. 61, note 4). " Nuovi studi sopra le antiche monete Giudaiche," pp. 13, 14. "Corpus Inscr. Grac." No. 5361 cf. 2 Maccab. xii. 7.
;

Geiger (" Urschrift,"
p.
"
6 1

Dr. Levy ("Jud. Miinzen,"

50, note 3).

See

Chapter VI.
p. 643,

Sect. B. Archelaus.

Ewald ("

Gott. gel.
vol.
ii.

"Urschrift," pp. 121, 121. "Essai," p. 83.
I

Anz." 1855,
more

quoted by Cavedoni, " Bibl.

Num."
'

p. 15) says that the latter part of the inscription

("On) would be
'

pretation of the

must here note word

in justice to

"On

as

correctly rendered
its

by

' '

General of the Jews

as

"On

is

used in

warlike meaning of gathering together the leader with

his troops (Gen. xiv. 3), therefore

"On may

denote "the leader
1

been above given, that this works of either Geiger or Derenbourg, still doubts if the rendering of "QH by " Senate" will become the accepted version
of this

Mr. Eeichardt, whose inter" doctor " or " learned man " has writer, though not having seen the

or commander."

This

agrees with

the words of

Maccab.

word (MS. communication).

.

COINS OF JOHN HYRCANUS
(ii)

I.

79
(13)

pmm
pan n nam Sn
:n

(12)

uimn*
[n

ami*]

pan

}

n p[an p
(**)

cna]ni Si:
[*]nn*n

naai bnu]
*nn*

tann*
(Merzbacher, op.
cit.

n
No. 15
bis.)

(Merzbacher, op. «£. No. 16.)

(De Saulcy,

op. cit.

No.

(14)

mm
[jinan

(w)

[mm*

(16)

mm
djh
(*w)

p
n
(«'<o

pan p
? ?

pan

[p]

m

V-nn
cit.

nmn
(Merzbacher, op.

nnnn b imn
"Num.
;

No. 17 Aw.)

(De Saulcy, op. cit. No. 6; cf. No. which in the third line reads Dill.)

8,

(Reichardt,
vol.
ii.

in

Chron." n.s. 1862, cf. Reichardt, No. 4 Egger's " Wien. Num. Monatsh."
p. 270,

1867, p. 107, and

De
7.)

Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."

pi.

iii.

No.

(i7)

mm
nnn p
(*<o

(is)

in*

(«)

in*

nan pn
i

an
.

\:r\

rfen

}

ym
n
-inn

}
.

na
.

p
.

.

am
....
No.

*m
De Saulcy,
Jud."
pi.
o/>.

(«'c

)

cit.

No. 7;
5,

cf.

"Num.

(Merzbacher, op.

cit.

p.
cit.

194,

No. 20;
3.)

(De Saulcy,
Jud."
line
pi.

op. cit.
iii.

No. 5;
2,

cf.

"Num.

iii.

Nos. 4 and

giving the
in

De

Saulcy, op.

No.

reading in third

name

as |31i"P Jehonan,
(.sic)

and reading
{sic)

?"Un.)

third line

rbl and

"till.)

(20)

in*

(21)

in*

(22)

cm*
[n]

m
Tin

pn

pan pn
i

pni

p
(«'c )

yun
man

frnttn

an

[n

pa n nam

m
Icy, op. cit.

?m
cit.

No .2.)

(Merzbacher, op.

No.

22.)

(Merzt acher, op.

cit.

No

23

23

(24)

na

\t\

(sjc)

ni 3H1 n:n pa nam h>
n*n
(De Saulcy,
«//.

bnyn

eft.

Xo.

4.)

(De Saulcy,

op. cit.

No.

1.)

)

so

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Obverse.
25.

Reverse.
Tvto cornua-copise, between -which a poppy-head.

M.

3.

Din*

1

1

narona vvrbxi

n^nmn
D*["ll]

•«.

dytwvti nan e>*n
Jeholcanan

Sun pan
Rosh

pain*
Cheber

Hakhohcn
'
'

Haggadol

Hajehudim,

Johanan the high-priest and Prince
within a wreath

of the Senate of the Jews,"
of laurel or olive.

(Formerly in the Cab. of the late Mr. "Wigan

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 58,

No. 4

;

cf.

De

Saulcy,

" Num. Jud."

pi.

iii.

No.

3.)

The following
(26)

varieties occur

:

(27)

(28)

in*

n pan p
E>s*n

nan pn
n y-un
|

pan pn
an 'run n nan b>
-in*

Snj

*n

nnn

nan

^k
Num."
;

*nn
(De Saulcy,

in*n
(Mcrzbacher,
1876, vol.

"Num.

vol. xi. p. 237,

Chron." n.s. 1871, No. 15.)

"

Zeitschrift
p.
cit.

f.

(De Saulcy,

op. cit.

No.

13.

iii.

191,

No. 10
14.)

cf.

De

Saulcy, op.

No.

(29)

in*

(30)

in*

[plan

pn

an pn bnjn rn

nann
*n
(Reichardt,

v

ann p&n

wrw
HI
ii.

n
p.

"Num. Chron."

n.s. 1862, vol.

p. 269,

No.

3.)

(Reichardt, in Egger's
ef.

" Wien Num. Monatsh." 1867, Merzbacher, op. cit. p. 192, No. 13.)

106

The reading and
iZiA'j

interpretation of the

word t?Nn

[{Ju\j

"

Caput

fuit, praofuit, rexit

gentem."

" Princeps gentis," etc.

—Freytag.]
is

as

" head or prince " receives thus

full confirmation.

1

It will be noticed that in the
is

woodcut there

a

1

p. 191) that this letter

really only a portion of the

Dr. Merzbacher suggests ("Zeitschrift fur in this line. wreath surrounding the legend, which is perhaps likely.

Num."

1876, vol.

iii.

TYPE OF THE TWO CORNUA-COriJE. The type
of the

81

two cornua-copioo
the Seleucida;

first

occurs on the Egyptian coins, 1 and was probably
a

adopted on the coins of
princess.
2

on the occasion of

marriage with

an

Egyptian

The type on these Jewish

coins

seems to be an imitation of some of the coins
are first

of

the kings of Syria.
3

The two cornua-copiaa
They
also

met with on

coins of Alexander II.

Zebina
type

(b.c.

128-122).

occur on

a unique

tetradrachm of
I.

Cleopatra,
B.C.

and the

may have been adopted on her marriage with Alexander
inscrij)tion

Balas,
of

150. 4

The

wreath which encircles the
takes
its

on

the

above-described

coins

Hyrcanus
I.
5

probably
coins

origin

from the coins

of

Antiochus VI., the son of Alexander
with

If the

with

the
this

two cornua-cojjia)

originated

Alexander
6

II.
it

Zebina,

then

John Hyrcanus

made
j\,

type a sign of his alliance with Zebina,
to this
is

and

helps
it

to

prove that the Greek
" year
1."

on some of his coins refers

king,

unless indeed

denotes the

The

type of the double cornu-copia3
of

itself

perhaps emblematical of the prosperity of the reign

John

Hyrcanus. 7
coin with

The small

a

Hebrew
8

inscription within

a wreath and with two cornua-copia)
letters
|_.

and poppy-head, and over the cornua-copia; the Greek
its

A.,

was

first

assigned by
9

possessor, the late

Abbe Cavedoni,

to

king Alexander, and then by the same numismatist
|_.

to his father

John Hyrcanus, the date being read

A

(year

30),

and not

L.

A

(year

1).

The supposed date has probably been confounded with

a portion of the cornua-copia). 10

C.

Judas Aristobulus,

b.c.

100

b.c.

105.

Immediately after the death of John Hyrcanus, Judas Aristobulus 11 succeeded, and in addition
to the priest-hood, took the title of king, this

being the
to

first

instance of the assumption of that
left

designation since the Captivity. 12

His mother,

whom Hyrcanus had

the

government

by

will,

wished to reign, but Aristobulus put her in prison, and caused her to be starved to

death.

He

also imprisoned three of his brothers, but the fourth, Antigonus,

was his favourite,
Itura;ans,

and with him he shared his kingdom. and compelled them
to

Soon after his accession he subdued the

embrace the Jewish religion.

During the progress

of this expedition,

On the golden octrodrauhms of Arsiuoe, wife of Ptolemy Philadelphna (b.c. 279). 2 R. S. Poole, Smith's " Diet, of the Bible," s.v. Money. Mionnet, vol. v. p. 83, Nos. ::;i). ;:;i Onnlner, "Cat.
1
;

9

" Nuovi

Studi

sopra

le

antithe

Monete

Giudaiche,"

p. 13.
'« Cf. Merzbacher, " Zeits. f. Num." 1876, vol. iii. p. 195. » Josephus gives him the Hebrew name, Judas, as well as the Greek one, Aristobulus (" Antiq." xx. 10, 1).
12

;

ol

Coins of the Seleucids in British
*
l

Museum,"

p. 82.

5

E. 8. Poole, he. at. The coin referred to, which is in the Museum, was strui a1 Sycamina in a.s. 187=b.c. 125. Eckhel, "Doct. Num. Vet." rol. iii. p. 233; Gardner, * Coiiis of the Seleucids, " p. 67.

i

Joseph. "Autii|."

xiii.

11,

1

;

xx. 10,

1;

:.

3,

1.

Also Eusebius, •Ap«tt6Pov\os vlbs 'iwdveuvwpbs
StdSijfia

" Bell. Jnd." i. ttj apx^ii.

pwvwr)
(chap.

th^^to
Cotton),

fraoiMnbv -npinos (" Chron."
version
of

ed.

Mai, "l818, p. 360). wii.
ed.
in

The An. hie

the

Maccabei

ph. • Antiq.'

uii. 9, 3.
-

!•" Xlli

10,
ii.

l.

Roman Senate
21,

p.

note

13;

Levy,

"

Jiid.

Straho

(lib. xvi. 2,

however, contains a decree of the which John Hyrcanus is styled kin-, whilst 40, ed. Didot, p. 649) asserts that Alexander
title.

Munzen,"

p. 60, note

1

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. GO.

Jannx-us

first

assumed the regal

1 j

82
illness

NEMISMATA OEIEXTALTA.
forced

him

to

return

to

Jerusalem, and
intrigues
of

he

resigned

the

command
was

to

Antigonus,
the
it

who, being

calumniated
to

by the

the Queen
after,

and

others,

assassinated

day after he returned
said,

Jerusalem.

Not long

Judas Aristobulus also died, as
year.
1

is

in remorse

for

his of

misdeeds, having reigned only one

lie

received the

name

of

^iXeWyv 2
title of

(lover

the Greeks).

His coins show us that he did not place upon them
title.

the

king, though, as above observed, he had usurped that

From

the shortness of the

reign of

Judas Aristobulus
title

his

coins

are

of

great rarity,

and they prove that he contented himself with the

of " high-priest " only.

Obverse.
i.

Eeveese.

m.3.
(«*o

Tin*

la.

tirp

Two

cornua-copia?, in the middle a poppy-head.

Syrian
lanvVi

wnan
hiam^iS
nhin*
(**)

••«

unwn

nam hbi pa

jm*
Jews,"

Kohen Galul{? GadoT) Vecheber Hqjehudim, "Judas,
the high -priest,

and the Senate

of the

within a laurel or an olive wreath.
(Formerly Cab. of the late Mr. "Wigan

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p.

62

;

De

Saulcy, "

Num. Jud."

pi.

ii.

Nos.

1,

2.)

The following various readings occur
(2)

nine*]

(3)

Tinra

(4)

mm
"U

hn pa
*n "nan

[Til

isn

pa
Si

n

pa n
Si

nam
in*

nam

TliTPI

(Merzbacher, " Z.

f.

Num."
No.

1876, vol.

iii.

(Eeichardt, in Egger's

"Wien Num.
108;
cf.

(De Saulcy,
baclier,

op.

cit.

No. 24;

cf.

Merz:

p. 196,

31.)

Monatsh."
Saulcy,

1867,

p.

De

op. cit.

No.

32, pi. iv.

No. 32

"Num.

Chron."

n.s. 1871,

Eeichardt, op.

cit. p.

109.)

vol. xi. p. 238,

No.

25.)

1

Joseph. " Antiq."

xiii.

11, 3

;

"

Bell.

Jud."

i.

3, 6.

2

Joseph. "Antiq."

xiii. 11, 3.

.

-

COINS OF JUDAS ARISTOBULUS.
(5)

nmra

(6)

"nn^
3

(7)

mrr
3

pa
n ttt
^n

[n]
. .

p3
*tpi

PI

pa n

•nam 77

nann hi

la

n
(De Sauley,
op. tit.

No. 23.)

(Merzbaeher, op.

tit.

No.

36.)

(De Sauley,

op. «f.

No. 22

;

ef.

No.

21.)

(8)

"nn*

0)

tin*

(io)
_

nrv

n;

pa n nam
op. tit.

n

pa

n

(«*o

S^n

pa

n

n iani
*ian
i

(De Sauley,

No.

20.)

(De Sauley,

op. w*.

No.

26.)

(Grotefend,

"Jalirb.

d.

Vereins

f.

Alter
;

thumsfr. im Rheinlande," 1865, p. 291

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

N.8.

1865,

vol. v. p. 343.)

"With respect to the reading 7)7,3

p3

Kohcn
1

Gahil, which, occurs
is

on Nos.

1,

la and 10,

and about which so much has been written,
should be
the
daleth

there

little
is

doubt that the correct rendering

THJ
a

jna Kohen Gadol, and that the

717,3

an error of the engraver, for from

lamed might easily be substituted by an ignorant die-cutter. 2

D. Alexander Janx^eus,

b.c.

105

b.c.

78.

Alexander Jannacus, 3 the
released

eldest
(called

of

the

three

surviving

brothers

of

Aristobulus,

when
he

from prison by Salome

by the Greeks Alexandra), wife
and immediately put

of Aristobulus,

whom
act

soon after married, 4 was

made king by

her,

to death one of his brothers,
life.

who
was
in-

disputed his right to the throne, leaving the other to lead a private
to

His

first

lay

siege

to

the cities of

Ptolemais

(Acre),

Dora,

Stratonis

Turris and Gaza.

The

habitants of Ptolemais
at the

applied to Ptolemy Lathyrus,

king of Cyprus,

who

entered Palestine

head of thirty thousand men.

A

great

battle

was fought near the river Jordan, and
24, 'lawa, 'lawal).

p.

De Sauley, "Num. Jud." p. 84; "Rev. Num." 1857, 290; Cavedoni, " Bibl. Num." vol. ii. p. 19, note 11 Levy, "Jud. Miinzen," p. 55; Eteichardt, ••Num. Chron." n.s.
1
;

1.

ii.

p.

270

fend,

op.

tit.

p.
;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 62 Grote291; Madden, "Num. Chron." n.s. 1865,
:

;

vol. v. p.
:

343

1874, vol. xiv. p. 305.
to

Mr
or

me in 1864 ("Jew. Coinage,"

p. 63)

that the

" he
3

it

word h'Oi may be compared with the Arabic root was illnstrio
Jo
1

calls him Alexander Talmud under the name of Jannai (W), and his coins give us the names of "Jonathan," or " Jehonathan." The proper form is *J*, as the Aleph is oiilv a mater lectionis, as for instance the biblical name (1 Chron. But »3< or is ii. 28, 44; iv. 17) is written later \SOK\ " Only an abbreviation of }J"DV The name ''XV means a " Teach r in the Talmud (Gitlin, 60a; Levy, "Jud. Miinzen," p. 115,

Luke

iii.

Joseph us also

(Joe. tit.).

He

is

known

in the

^W

W

JJ^cf.

note 1).
4

'\avvaios

See note under Sect. E.

Alexandra.

1

i.

"Antiq."

xiii. 12,

1

;

"Bell. Jnd." i. 4;

84
Alexander was
totally defeated,

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
rtolemy
tlien

overran

all

the country, which experienced the
lost

barbarous cruelty of
Cleopatra,

the

conqueror.

Alexander would soon have
lest

his throne,

had

not

the Queen of Egypt,
to the aid of

who was alarmed
Cyprus

her son

should attempt to enter her

kingdom, sent

Alexander an army under Chelcias and Ananias, two Jewish generals.
to return to
cities
(b.c. 101).

Ptolemy was therefore obliged
Ccele- Syria,

Soon afterwards Alexander invaded

and took several

above Jordan, but being taken by surprise by Theodorus, son
all his

of Zeno, he

was defeated before Amathus, losing ten thousand men and
of

baggage.

In these

and other struggles passed a third

his reign, whilst
to

at

home

the old dissension between
jealous

the Pharisees and Sadducees continued
of

rage with violence.

The former, who were
officiating

the increasing power of Alexander, attacked

him while he was

as

high-priest,

rushing at him with their palm-branches, and pelting him with the Ethrogs (citrons).
outbreak was soon quelled, and
years of
prisoners,
civil war,

This
several

six

thousand of
decided

the insurgents were

killed.

After

he

gained two

victories,

and having taken a great number of

he massacred during a banquet eight hundred, with their wives and children, in
of his

the

presence
" the

concubines.

In

consequence

of

his

cruelties

the

Jews
to

surnamed
Syrians,

him

Thracian."

His conquests included "
;

cities

that

had belonged

the

Idumaeans, and
in

Phoenicians

"

and whilst engaged in his attack on the
drinking,

fortress of

Pagaba,
left

Peraea,

1

he

took

to

excessive
to his

which

soon

caused

his

death.

He

the

government of the kingdom

Queen Alexandra.
is

Of the reign
logical
frO'lIT

of

Alexander Jannaeus there
is

a large

number

of

coins,

but their chrono-

arrangement
Jehonathan,
of

somewhat

difficult.

3

There are
coins,

pontifical coins bearing the

names

of

and VT\T Jonathan,

and regal
re-struck

of

two

distinct

types,

bearing the
it

name only
proved

jrOliT Jehonathan. 3
pontifical

Many
it

coins occur,

and from examination

is

that

the

coinage was struck over the regal coins with the flower,
is

but as
of jrO*

far as the present evidence is available

only

the pontifical coinage with the
4

name

Jonathan that has been employed for the purpose of re-striking.

Are then the

pontifical coins

with the name jrOirP Jehonathan co-temporary
coins, as well as all those

?

Dr. Merzbacher has assigned 5 these re-struck
II.
6

with the name VTtf Jonathan, to John Hyrcanus
of

(b.c.

78-40),

who immediately on
Alexandra, and
the Pharisees.
herself
(for
;

the death
his

Alexander Jannaeus was made high-priest
left

by

his

mother
hands of

7

who with
The
is

mother

the management
is

of affairs pretty

much

in the

difficulty of

this

arrangement
exist)

the

fact

that the coins
star,

of

Alexandra

it

now

certain

that some

bear the type of the

and not that of

the flower
1

so that

had Hyrcanus
p. 247.

II. issued these coins, he should have re-struck
4

them on those

Neubauer, " Geog. du Talmud,"
Levy, "Jiid. Miinzen," p. 57;

2

Smith's "Diet, of the Bible";
p.

"Money," in Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
Poole, art.
vol.
v.

vol. xi.

De Saulcy ("Num. Chron." n.s. 1871, See p. 8G, No. 1. p. 239) quotes two examples of these re-struck coins
Is this correct ?

with the name jruiiT.
s 6

GO;

"Num.
p.

Chron." n.s.

1865,

p.

205;

1874,
ix.

"

Zeits. fiir

Num."
II.
is

1876, vol.
called

iii.

pp. 201-206.
(*JO»)
in

306; De Saulcy, "Rev. Num." 1864, vol. " Rev. Arch." n.s. 1872, p. 17. p. 384 3 De Saulcy (" Rev. Arch." n.s. 1872, p. 16) is mistaken stating that coins of these types have the name written ]T\'j*
vol. xiv.
;

Hyrcanus

Jtmnai
_

the

Talmud

(Derenbourg, " Essai," pp. 146-148).
in
;

,

^^

mL Jw]

.,
._

L

it

is

always *roin\

FIRST COINAGE OF
bearing the type of the star [Third Coinage].

ALEXANDER JANNiEUS.
is

S5

Moreover, he

described as a
'

man whom Alexandra
of his
it

made high-priest,
inactive temper

" because he did not care to meddle with politics,"
to disturb the public."
2

and " on account
the same time

was in no way disposed
were
struck

At

might
to

be

urged that they
3

by order
real

of

the

Pharisees,
of

who were
affairs,

" permitted

do
the

everything,"

and who "became the
authority."
i

administrators
of

public

and had

all

enjoyment of the royal
such an

But the law
Hyrcanus

succession

of

types seems

to

forbid

arrangement, and the coins that
star.

II. did strike, after his

mother's death,

bear the type of a

The

coins
:

of

Alexander

Jannseus

appear,

therefore,

to

be

capable

of

the

following

arrangement
1.

Regal coins with bilingual inscriptions and with the type of a
coins, re-struck

flower.

2. Pontifical

on No.

1,

with
JJ"0*

the

name

jrO*

1

;

and

pontifical coins, not

showing signs of re-striking, with the names
3.

and fn31!T.
star.

Regal coins with bilingual inscriptions, and with the type of a

First

Coinage.

REGAL COLXS WITH THE FLOWER.

Obveese.
1.

Reverse.

M.
"

'.).

"1*723PI

]^31^

,

Jehonathan Hammelelc.

BA2IAEQS AAEZANAPOY
Alexander),

(of

the

kinis

The King Jehonathan."

A

half-opened flower.

round a

circle,

within

which

an anchor with two cross-timbers.
D
Saulcy,

••Num. Jud."

pi.

ii.

Nos. 8 and 7; Madden,

"Jew. Coinage,"

p. 66,

Nos.

1

and

2.)

Obverse.
-'
-I-"-

Revebse.

2.

*|S»n jrOT, "The king Jehonathan,"
a

A
ii.

flower.

round

palm ?-branch.
IT.

(Coll. o\ U. v.

C.

!:•

ii

nardt,

"Nam. Chron."

n.s. 1862, vol.

pi. vi.

No.

.3;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 66,

No.

3.)

i.

" Anti.|."

\iii.

16, 2.
i.

3

.Tusijil).

" Antiq."

\iii.
i.

16, 2.
5, 2.

-

Joseph. " Bell. Jud."

5, 1.

*

Joseph. "Bell. Jud."

.

86

NUMISMATA OEIEXTALIA.
The
title of

"king," occurring in Hebrew and Greek, which had been bestowed upon him
1

by Salome Alexandra,
Pharisees, and
its

shows

that
his

these

coins

were
with

struck the

before

his

quarrel

with

the

adoption on

coins, coupled
2

Greek characters and type, was

probably one of the causes of the feud.

The

flower on these coins (especially No. 1)

is

very similar

to that

on the reverse of a

small brass coin of Antiochus VIII. Epiphanes, surnamed
allude to an alliance between Alexander and this king.
3

Gryjjus (or
of

Hook-nosed), and
the anchor
is

may

The type

probably

borrowed from the coins of the Seleucidas, and
sea-ports,

may

perhaps allude to the possession of the

which Alexander had gained and joined
copied

to his

kingdom. 4 Generally the types seem
Sidetes,
5

to
B.C.

have been

from the coins of Antiochus VII.

struck

at

Jerusalem

in

132-131, of which a description has been previously given.

Second Coinage.

a.

RE-STRUCK PONTIFICAL

COIN'S.

Obverse.
iE.
circle

Reverse.

BA£IA

.

.

.

Portion of wreath and of the
;

Two

cornua-copia?,

between which a poppy-head.

surrounding the anchor

according to the

engraving the letters rVPl> hut according to the
text

EH(De Saulcy, " Eev.

Num."

1864, p. 384, pi. svi. No.

1

Obverse.
2.

Reverse.

M.

ZANA. Two

cornua-copiae. 6

"Within a laurel wreath.
(De Saulcy,
op. cit. pi. svi.

No.

2.)

1

Joseph. "Antiq."

xiii.

12, 1;

"Bell. Jud."

i.

4, 1.

The

3

Cavedoni, "Bibl.
pi. Hi.

Num."
10.

vol.

ii.

p.

22; " Tresor de
etc.

Num

Talmud frequently names this king as "]?!3il *K3*, Jannai Hcbnmdek " the king Jannoeus " (Levy, " Jiid. Miinzen," p. 59, note 2). See p. 81, note 12, under Sect. C. Judas Aejstobulus. 2 The small _<E coin, with head on obverse, and star on the
and engraved by me (" Jew. Coinage," p. 68, note 5) as a coin of Alexander Jannm-us, perhaps issued by him during his quarrel with the Pharisees, is omitted, as I now
reverse, published

etdeGlyp."
4

No.

Joppa,

Jamma, Gaza, Eaphia, Anthedon,
xiii.

(Joseph.

" Antiq."
5 6

15, 4).

See p. 76.

Thecoin with the legend
it)

BA2IAEOS

AAEZANAPOY
de
l'Acad.
des
;

(or portions of

on the same

side as the cornua-copia:, pre-

served

at

Marseilles

(Barthelemy,

" Mem.

believe

it

to be either Syrian or Egyptian.

A

similar piece, with

Inscr. et Bell. Lettres," vol. xxiv. p. 61

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

a cornu-copia; on the reverse, is published by Dr. Merzbacher ("Zeits. fur Num." 1877, vol. iv. p. 365, pi. iv. B.), who is
also of this opinion.

Jud."
series.

p.

87;

" Jew. Coinage,"

Levy, "Jiid. Miinzen," p. 59, note 3; Madden, p. 68, note 5), is probably one of this re-struck

SECOND COINAGE OE ALEXANDER JANNiEUS.
Obteese.
1

87

Eeveese.
H" ahove the two cornua-copiee.

3.

M.

IIAE

.

.

fxb

-inn
Traces of a laurel wreath.
(De Saulcy,
op. eit. pi. xvi.

No.

3.)

Obteese.
T.
4.

Eeveese.

.E.

AEZA

.

.

jny

Two

eomua-copia?.

n jron

mm
"Within a laurel wreath.

Si:

(De Saulcy,

op. cit. pi. xvi.

No.

4.)

Obteese.
5.
.-E.

Revek-i:.

AAE

in

One

of the

two

cornua-copice.

n

p
i

ni hi)
it

Within

a laurel

wreath.
(De Saulcy,
op. cit. pi. xvi.

No.

5.)

Obteese.
6.
.-]:.

Eeveese.

Two
.

cornua-copise

;

above, the letters

AN.

pan
Six
(«<o

m
nn

»a («)

(De Saulcy,

"Mel

de

Num."

1877, p. 8G.)

The complete legend

of the pontifical type is as follows

:—

DHirn lani y-un pan ;nr

88
/3.

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

COINS—NOT RE-STRUCK—WITH THE NAME p}\

Obverse.
i.

Reverse.

je.

3.

mna
nambn

nw
nmn

Two

cornua-copia?,

between which a poppy-head.

».«.

[Mnmn nam

nn^n

pan pr
' '

«7b»«*A«n

JTalclcohen

Haggadol Vecheber Hajehudim.

Jonathan

the high -priest and the

Senate of the Jews,"

within a wreath of laurel or olive.
(De Sauley,

"Num.

Jud."

pi.

ii.

No. 5; Madden, "Jew. Coinage."

p. 69,

No.

1.)

The following
(2)

varieties occur
(«&)
(3)

:

p:v
n pan

(4)

an

py
in

n

pa
bn*
o/». clt.

Sn^n

m
>n
(De Sauley,

bnj

m
n.s.

n nam
No. 40.)

a
1871,

n na
(De Sauley,

"Num.

Chron."

(De Sauley,

op. «<•

No. 41.)

vol. xi. p. 238,

No. 39.)
1 less incorrect legends,

Other pieces bear more or
the re-struck series.
y.

and some may perhaps be classed among

COINS

WITH THE NAME pjin\

Obverse.
1.

Reverse.

M.

3.

1j-|>

Two

comua-copifc, between which a poppy-head.

anina

nnam
nrr
i-e.

[DMnmn nam l run pan piim

JcUnathan
"Jeho-

Hakkohen Haggadol Vecheber Hajehudim.

nathan the high-priest and the Senate of the Jews," within a laurel or olive wreath.
(Formerly Cab. of the late Mr.

Wigan

;

"Num.
1

Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. G9, No. 2 cf. De Sauley, " Num. Jud." Chron." n.s. 1871, vol. rvi. p. 238, No. 31.)
;

pi.

ii.

No.

1 1

;

De

Sauley, "

Num. Jud."

pi.

ii.

Nos.

3, 4,

G

;

cf.

Merzbacher, " Zeits.

f.

Num."

1876, vol.

iii.

p. 206,

Nos. 59-61.

.

.

COTNS OF

ALEXANDER JANN.EUS WITH THE NAME
:

jfiJIIT.

89

The following
(2)

varieties occur

in*

(3)

(4)

in*

an p:
Snjn
*n

^n p:
Sn:n
.

antrm
Sn:n
*n

p
n.s.

p
No. 28.)

p
Num." 1876, vol. iii. De Saulcy, op. cit.
pi.
ii.

nam

.

nam
op. cit.

nam

nn
(De Saulcy, " Num. Chron."
vol. xvi. p. 238,

DH
1871,

(De Saulcy,

(Merzbacher, "Zeits.
p. 198,

f.

No. 27.)

No. 44

;

cf.

No. 29;

"Num.

Jud."

No.

13.)

(5)

(6)

n^n*
Snj

{-)

win*
n:

3n p:
i

pa

|

pa
S
n

|

Snj
*

p
No.

n nani
*nn*

am
*nn*

nan
D*nn
cit.

D
30.)

(De Saulcy, op.

(De Saulcy,

op. cit.

No.

32.

(De Saulcy,

op. cit.

No.

33.)

nam*
n;

(9)

an p3

(io)

.

vr

pa am Si
*nn*
ojd. cit.

m p
am
No.
34.)

.

na

p

S
No. 35.)

am Sin nm
(De Saulcy,
op. cit. op. cit.

(De Saulcy,

(De Saulcy,

op. ct^.

No. 36; cf. Merzbacher, No. 40.)

(11)

(12)

.

in*

(13)

airv

pap
am
in*
(De Saulcy,
op. cit.

n^n

p
n*
No. 38.)

pan
i

p
pi.

nj («o

an Sin
d
»

Sin^n
?n*na

No. 37.)

(De Saulcy,

op. ci7.

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."

ii.

No.

14.)

:m*

(

is)

in*

(16)

pan

p
. .

nn pa
nan

sn
Sn:n
*n

m

p
p
(**o

Sin

p
S
No.

n*n n

nam
bit.)

nm
;

*nn
(Merzbacher, op.
cit.

No. 41

(Merzbacher, op.

cit.

43.)

(Merzbacher, op.

No. 45 cf. De Saulcy " Num. Jud." pi. ii. No. 12.)
«'r.

12

90

NTJMISMATA OEIENTALIA.

(17)

in*

Dn pi

bmn p
*m
(De Saulcy,

"Num.
is

Jud."

pi.

ii.

No. 10

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 70,

No.

3.)

The legend on No. 9
the word *D!Tl, and reads,

said

by De Saulcy

to

be complete

;

that of

No. 17 leaves out

if

correctly

engraved by

De
the

Saulcy, "Jebonatban the high-priest

and the Jews."
This
Pharisees.

second coinage was

evidently struck after

reconciliation of

the king with the

Third Coinage.

REGAL COINS WITH THE STAR.

1

Obverse.
JE.
3.

Reveese.

|?£}n

frOl!"!''

Jehonathan Hammelek,

BASIAEfiS

AAEZANAPOY

round an

anchor.

"The King Jehonathan."

Within the

inter-

mediate spaces of the sun with eight rays.
(De Saulcy,

"Num. Jud."

pi.

ii.

No. 9

;

Madden

Jew. Coinage,"

p. 67,

No.

4.)

This type was probably adopted

after

the wholesale massacre of his subjects, and
2

it

was

continued after his death by his widow Alexandra.
1

The
;

object on the obverse of these coins has been described
as a

by some numismatists
p. 89

" wheel" (De Saulcy, " Num. Jud." Poole, Smith's " Diet, of the Bible," s.v. Money), and

which numismatists have hitherto hesitated to designate as anything more definite than "a star," is in reality the leading This novel view of the import of the device type of " the sun."
has been freely adopted by Mr. Gardner in his article on " Ares as a sun-god, and solar symbols on the coins of Macedon and

by Eckhel (" Doct. Num. Vet." p. 477) as "a star," an opinion adopted by Levy (" Jiid. Miinzen," p. 58) and Cavedoni (" Bibl. Num." vol. ii. p. 22 ef. Madden, "Jewish
;

Coinage,"

p.

68),

who

suggests

that Alexander

may have

prided himself that he was fulfilling the prophecy of Balaam

"there shall come a star out of Jacob " (Numb. xxiv. 17). But been recently demonstrated by Mr. Thomas in his it has
paper

Thrace" ("Num. Chron." n.s. 1880, vol. xx. p. 59; cf.pl. Nos. 16, 17). In this case the supposed " star " on the coins of the Jewish kings, who so readily embraced Greek types, may be See p. 109, note 2. preferentially designated as "the sun."
2

The date |_.S.
ii.

(year

fi)

has been read by some (Neumann,

" On the
cf.

Indian

Swastika and
n.s.

its

Western counterxx. p.
vol.

P.

pi.

iii.

parts"

("Num. Chron."
the
figure

1880,

vol.

29, pi.
i.

ii.

No.

4

;

Bawlinson, " Anc.
so

Monarchies,"

pp.

161,

No. 2; cf. Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
coins,

87; Sestini, " Mus. Hed." P. iii. p. 118, Cavedoni, "Bibl. Num." vol. ii. p. 21, note 13;
fig. 6, p.

p. 70, note 8)

on the reverse of these

163),

that

largely

employed

by the Greeks,

but cannot be accepted without further proof.

ALEXANDRA.

91

E.

Alexandra,

b.c.

78

b.c.

69.

Alexander Jannocus, upon his death-bed, counselled his wife Alexandra 1
of her

to place a share

authority in

the

hands of the Pharisees.
so well, that the

Acting upon

this suggestion, she spoke to
life of

the Pharisees, and

succeeded

same men, who during the whole

the

defunct king had pursued him with an implacable hatred, honoured his
veneration,

memory with

the highest

and decreed
first

to

him

a

funeral more splendid than that of any of the kings before
eldest

him.

Her

act

was

to
II.,

make her
the

and weakest

son,

Hyrcanus

II.,

high-priest

;

but

the younger, Aristobulus
affairs.

who was an

active

and a bold man, she kept back from public
of

She consistently

left

management

the

government to the Pharisees,

who,
their

abusing the power bestowed upon them, put to death or threw into prison

many
to

of

former enemies.

In

b.c.

70

Alexandra

fell

ill,

and Aristobulus

II.

resolved

to

attempt

seize

the

government.

Having escaped from Jerusalem, he made himself
several important
;

king, and

in a short time
told
to

obtained possession of

towns.

The

Pharisees, frightened,
left

the

dying
the

queen

what

had taken place

but Alexandra,

who had no energy

continue

government, named Hyrcanus
they thought proper.

II.

her heir, leaving the Pharisees to carry into
B.C.

effect

whatever

She died in

69, after

having reigned nine years.

There
as

is

no longer any reason
his
2

to doubt the existence of genuine coins of

Queen Alexandra,

Mr. Reichardt has in

possession

a

specimen, on which he says the letters AIS of the

word BASI AIS

are quite clear.

Another example, with the legend BA£IAIS. AAEZANAPAC(P),
is

was discovered by De Saulcy some years ago, 3 and the third
already

the piece here engraved,

known

in 1854.

1

It has

been conjectured (Smith,

" Diet,
p.

of
71,

Biog."
note)

s.v.

very probable, more especially as the wife of Alexander Jannoeus
is

Balome;
Al<

cf.

Madden,
.'),

"Jew. Coinage,"

that

Janmeus (Joseph. " Antiq." xiii. 10, 1. 6), must not be confounded with Salome (also called Alexandra^, the wifeof JudasAristobulus(Joseph. "Antiq."
\andra, the wife of Alexander
xiii. 12,
1
;

called Salome in the Talmuds (inO ?^, pyobc, HVO^; cf. SaAa^iw, a daughter of Herod, Joseph. " Antiq." xviii. 5, 4— Derenbourg, " Essai," p. 102, note 2); and as the Talmuds pass
1

over in silence the reign of Judas Aristobulus, they would have

"

Bull.

Jud."

i.

4, 1),

and principally from the fact
oyhoiiKovra

probably stated
the sister of

if

the

that nyrcanusll., the son of Alexander Jannasus and Alexandra,

Jannseus had been a different person.

Salome mentioned under Alexander Salome Alexandra was
filled

was past eighty

y.rtrs

of age (t6t( Si ir\eiu> /xiv

t)

Simeon ben Schatah, who
\i~\

the

office

of

ytyovws Mryxavev grij.—Joseph. "Antiq." xv. 6, 3) when he was put to death by Herod, in B.C. 31, and consequently must have been born in b.c. Ill, before the death of Judas Aristobulus
i" B -c 105.

Ab-bet-dm
(K»tW,
i

(

JV3 2X, Vice-President)
Joshua ben Perahia,

under

the

Nasi

President)

whom

he eventually
1867, vol.

succeeded (Derenbourg,
p. Ill vol.
3

" Essai,"
cf.

p. 96).
iii.

"Wiener Num. Monatsh. von Dr. Egger,"
;

M.

de Saulcy, however,

who

believes that Alexander Jannseus

pi. iv.

No. 20

;

Merzbaehcr, " Zeits.
n.s.

f.

Num."
p. 204,

1876,
note;

married his brother's widow, though she was fifteen years his senior, proposed ("Rev. Arch." N.8. 1872, p. 16) to alter the text of Josephus, and to read seventy years instead of eighty

iii.

p. 201, pi. iv.

Madden,

"Num.

No. 54. Chron."
It
is

1865, vol.
if

v.

1874, vol. xiv. p. 308.

doubtful

the piece described by

(4/SSo^Koira instead of oy5o4)KovTa), thus making the birth of Hyrcanus II. to have taken place in b.c. 101, four years after the accession of Alexander Jannasus in b.c. 105. This seems

Alexandra,

Mr. Condor ("Bible Educator," vol. iii. p. 100) as one of is not a piece of Alexander Jannams (Madden, "Num.
Chron."
n.s. 1874, vol. xiv. pp.

309-310).

92

NXJMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Obteese.
iE. 3.

Reverse. an anchor.

BASIAIS.

AAEZ AN A. round

The sun with eight rays.
are the traces of a

In the intermediate spaces
legend, of which only

Hebrew

a
(Cab. of the late Mr.

J"|

(Tau)

is

discernible.

Wigan

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p.

72

;

cf.

De

Saulcy,

" Num. Jud."

pi. iv.

No.

13.)

In the engraving given by De Saulcy these traces are not
coin there appears to have been
far wrong.

visible,

but on examining the

some legend, and the suggestion

of

De

Saulcy

may
1

not be
to

The

T\

(Tau)

may

perhaps belong to a word rij?ft (Meleketh) Queen,
2

or

the

Chaldocan form of this

title,

K)lj?ft.

F.

John Hyrcanus

II. b.c.

69.

On
wishes

the

death

of

Alexandra, in
nine

B.C.

69,

John JEIyrcanus

II.,

who had held

the high-

priesthood during her reign of
of his

years, 3

assumed the government in accordance with the
II.,

mother

;

but his brother, Aristobulus

raised

an army, and attacking him

near Jericho, defeated

him and compelled him

to flee for

refuge to the citadel of Jerusalem.
short reign of

There Hyrcanus was obliged to sue for peace, and after a
resigned the

three months
life.
5

4

he

kingdom

in favour of his brother Aristobulus

and

retired into private

1

2
3

" Jud. Miinzen," p. 61. Cavedoni, " Bibl. Num." vol. ii. p. 23. Joseph. "Antiq." xv. 6, 4; xx. 10,
Levy,
(p. 84)

that he reigned "as
is

many mouths"

as years,

given in the second passage, the whole reign

and "six months" may have been

1.

I

have already

pointed out

that Dr. Merzbacher has assigned to

John

Hyrcanus II. (b.c. 78 dating from the accession of his mother, Alexandra to b.c. 40) all the coins both re-struck and not re-

struck bearing the

name and

title of

blin ]rOn

}I"I3\

which,

for reasons stated, I have attributed to Alexander
father.
4

Jannams, his

Joseph. "Antiq." xv.

only reigned "three

makes Aristobulus,

The statement that Hyrcanus 6, 4. months" is contradicted by another, which in b.c 63, to have reigned "three years and as
npbs
priori

many months"
foots,

(eTei 5e rpiTtp rr)s ffaaiXeias, Kal

rots

"six years and six months." This agrees well, as Aristobulus was sent prisoner to Rome by Pompey in B.C. 63, and six years and six months back from this date would bring us to B.C. 69, as the date of the accession of Aristobulus, and would thus be in accordance with the statement that Hyrcanus II. held the government only three months (Lewin, " Fasti Sacri," p. 10). It may be that Josephus has confounded "Aristobulus" with " Antigonus," who reigned just "three years and three months " ("Antiq." xx. 10), for Dion Cassius (xlviii. 26) calls " Antigonus " by mistake "Aristobulus" (Lewin, op. cit.). A statement of Josephus, of the time of the reign of Hyrcanus II.,
tends to

"Antiq." bring the commencement
Joseph.

xx.

10),

and consequently would
to

show that he could have governed only
death of Alexandra.

for a short time

of his reign

B.C.

66.

Another
6, 1).

after the

See under sect.

G. Aristo-

passage gives "three yearsand six months " (" Antiq." xiv.

bulus
6

II., etc., p. 94, note 2.
1,

There

is

probably a corruption in the text, and as

it is

stated

Joseph. "Antiq." xiv.

2

;

"Bell. Jud."

i.

6, 1.

——

;

ARISTOBULUS

II.

— JOHN

HYRCANUS

II.

RE-ESTABLISHED.

— ALEXANDER
Reverse.

II.

93

The following coin may be attributed
Obverse.
JE.
.

to this short reign

:


prnir).
in the

ASIAEQS

Anchor within

a circle.

ftn

p

(=*|Tton

Ma the

(De Saulcy, " Num. Chron."

n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 242,

No. 47
f.

;

Madden,

"Num.
iii.

Chron."

n.s. 1872, vol. xii. p. 2

;

1874, p. 310

Merzbacher, " Zeits.

Num."

1876, vol.

p. 207,

No. 62.)

G.

Aristobulus
II.

II.

b.c.

69

b.c.

63.

John Hyrcanus

re-established,
II.
b.c.

b.c.

63

b.c.

57.

Alexander
The peace
that

63

b.c.

57.

had been

effected

between the two brothers was only too soon destroyed.
I.,

The Idumaean Antipater, father
Hyrcanus
II.,

of

Herod

wishing to acquire the friendship of the weak-minded
intended to put

persuaded him that
fly

his brother

him

to death,

and ultimately
Aretas

induced him to

from Jerusalem, and take refuge with Aretas, king of Nabathsea.
Aristobulus was
defeated

in consequence invaded Judaea.
city

and besieged in Jerusalem, and the

would doubtless have been taken had not Scaurus, Pompey's lieutenant, whose assistance

Aristobulus had purchased for 400 talents, in spite of the similar offers of his brother, arrived
at the scene of

action and compelled Aretas
laid

to raise

the siege. 1

In

B.C.
2

63 Pompey himself

arrived in Judaea, and the rival brothers

their

claims before him.
surest

Pompey
of

declared in

favour of
getting

Hyrcanus, for he
Judaea

saw, in this
for the

weak

prince, the

means

sooner or later

possession of
to Jerusalem.

Romans.

Aristobulus

refused to abide

by
to

this decision,

aud

fled

Hearing of the advance of Pompey, he came out
of

meet him, and

offered

him a

large

sum

money.

Gabinius was

sent on to Jerusalem

;

but meeting with
against Jerusalem,

resistance,

Pompey threw
after

Aristobulus into
a
short
siege. 3

prison and advanced in

person
sons,

which was taken
1

Aristobulus
2

and his

two

Alexander

II.

and

to Pounpey for a time, but Pompey's departure from Asia, Scaurus invaded Arabia Petrsea, but withdrew on Aretas paying three hundred talents This (Joseph. "Antiq." xiv. 5, 1; "Bell. Jud." i. 8, 1). event is commemorated on a silver coin (Cohen, " Med. Cons." pi. i. ^Emilia, No. 1), struck in the curule a.'dilcship of Scaurus and his colleague, Publius Hypsaeus, in b.c. 58. On the obverse is the legend M. SCAVR. AED. CVR. {Marcus Scaurus

In b.c. 64 Aretas submitted

after

value of 500 talents.

him a present of a golden vine of the was so beautiful that it was called repnwK-fi "The Delight"; aud Strabo, according to Josephus ("Antiq." xiv. 3, 1), had seen it in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus at Rome. It is said to have borne the inscription,
Aristobulus had sent
It

" the
cit.

gift of

Alexander, the king of the Jews," but

how

this
lor.

could be has not been satisfactorily explained (see Joseph,
ed.

Havercamp).

Ewald supposes ("

Hist, of Israel," vol. v.

in
field

the exergue

REX ARETASi

and

in the

p. 398, note 5) that it

"was

certainly originally presented at a

EX

S.C.

tb''
i

type representing Aretas kneeling, holding

a camel

by the

bridle,

and presenting a branch of
It
is

olive.

The
by an

reverse refers to the capture of Priveraum, in b.c. 341,

ancestor of l'ublius Hypsams.

the most ancient coin bearing

ceremony of doing homage by the subjects of Alexander Jannams as a symbol of Palestine;" and that "according to the passing observation in Pliny ('Nat. Hist.' xii. 25) it was carried through Rome in Pompey's great triumph." Herod I., when
he rebuilt the Temple, bung
in

a contemporary important fact

Bom."

ed. Blacaa, vol.

ii.

p.

(Mommsen, "Hist, de la Mon. The name of Aretas 489, note 2).
of kings

the porch a large golden vine of

splendid workmanship (Joseph.

"Antiq."
of

xv.

11,

3;

"Bell,

was inscribed upon the tablet (Appian, "Bell. Mith." 117).

conquered by

Pompey

Jud."
3

v. 5,

4

;

Tac. "Hist."

v. 5, 5).

See

Chapter X.
much

Pompey

entered the

"Holy

Holies," and was

94
Antigonus,

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
were
sent
to

Rome,
II.

1

but

Alexander escaping on the way returned

to

Judasa.

After this victory Hyrcanus

was reinstated by Pompey in the high-priesthood, and made
a

governor of the nation, but was forbidden to wear
several

diadem. 2

But Alexander
coming
it

II. fortified

strong towns and made war upon Hyrcanus.
(b.c.

Gabinius

to the assistance of

Hyrcanus defeated him
intercession of his

57) with great loss near Jerusalem, and

was only through the
five

mother that he obtained a pardon.
five

Gabinius then divided Judaja into
at Gadara,
all

parts and appointed

councils, one at

Jerusalem, one

one

at

Amathus, one

at

Jericho and one at Sepphoris, and deprived Hyrcanus of

regal authority, assigning to
abolished,

him

only the care of the Temple.

The monarchic authority was thus
Another attempt of Alexander, in

and the Jews were

governed by an aristocracy.

B.C.

55, during the absence of
II.

Gabinius, was again frustrated by Gabinius on his return.

About the same time Aristobulus

and

his son

Antigonus made their escape from Rome.
Antigonus was
set at liberty.

Both were recaptured by Gabinius and
3

sent back, but

In

B.C.

54 Crassus

arrived in Syria, and Gabinius

surprised to

find

" nothing "
v.
5,

(omro
5;

S'ouSec

iJAoij

iv

auTw,

the

title

REX
;

(as

on the coins of Aretas, of which
Aristobulus

this is

an

"inde volgatum nulla intus deum effigie vacuain sedem et inania arcana," Tac. "Hist." v. 9; cf. Dion Cass, xxxvii. 16); but in the Temple he saw the golden table, the candlestick, etc., and 2000 talents of sacred money (Joseph. "Antiq." xiv. 4, 4; "Bell. Jud." i. 7, 6 cf. Tac. " Hist." v. 9 Livy, " Epit." 102); hut he took nothing from
Joseph.

"Bell. Jud."

imitation)

made submission, not to Plautius, but to Pompey himself (Mommsen, "Hist, de la Mon. Rom." ed. Blacas, vol. ii. p. 495). Bacchius is totally unknown,
moreover,

but
to

may have been some Arabian
vol.
v.

;

whom

chief of the Jewish persuasion Aulus Plautius dictated laws (Eckhel, " Doct. Num.
p.

;

Vet."

278).

Cavedoni thought (" Ragguaglio de

it

out of his regard to religion (ouSevbs tj^oto

Si'

evae0etav,

Precipui Ripostigle Ant. di Medaglie Cons, e di
note 96,

Fam."

p. 115,

Joseph.

"Antiq."
28),

xiv.

4,

Hierosolymis, victor ex

illo

Pompeius, captis fano nihil attigit," Cic. " Orat. pro

4;

"at

Cn.

Flaceo,"
Jerusalem.

contenting himself

with laying

a

tribute

on

It does not appear that

Pompey took any

title

connected with this victory, but that of Hierosolymarius seems
to have been bestowed

"

si

vero, qua; de

me

pacta sunt, ea non servantur

upon him contemptuously by Cicero in coelo sum:
;

Modena, 1854) that Bacchius was the name of Silas, tyrant of Lysias, which was a small town taken by Pompey in his victorious march from Damascus to Jerusalem (Joseph. "Antiq." xiv. 3, 2), but he later gave up this opinion, and says, "it is clear that it is the Greek name fiaKiceTos, and this name is not connected with any Hebrew form of the period" ("Rev. Num." 1863, p. 205).
i

ut sciat hie noster Hierosolymarius traductor ad plehem,

quam
ii.
ii.

Tip Se 'TpKavcji irahiv tt)c apxi*p<»o"ov7)v aTroBovs,
e7r€Tpe<|/€, SiciStj^o
;

t^v

p.cv

rod

bonam meis
Ep.
ix.

putissimis

orationibus gratiam retulerit:

quarum
lib.

zOvovs irpoGTaaiav

Si <pope?v iK&Avaev, Joseph.

exspecta divinam iraKwcjiSiav,"

"

Epist. ad Atticum,"

"Antiq." xx. 10
B.C. 40),
irptoTots d
is

cf. xiv.

4,

4

;

"Bell. Jud."

i.

7, 6.

The

The

late

Dean Milman ("
have attached
to the
'

Hist, of the Jews," vol.

reign of Hyrcanus, which lasted twenty-four years (b.c. 63

p. 47, note, ed.

1806), however, states that Cicero in so calling
to
'

dated from this period (^p|e 8e -npbs rots kvvia tois
elKocri,

Pompey seems
Pompey."
incorrect.
1

great

importance to

the

'Tpxavhs reffaapa Kal

"Antiq." xx.

10).

The

occupation of Jerusalem, even

among

the splendid services of

His reference

oration

"Pro Flaceo"

is

forty years {jfarrapaKovra) in another passage ("Antiq." xv. 6, 4) should be read -riaaapa koX (Ikocti (Lewin, " Fasti Sacri,"

The Due de Luynes has suggested ("Rev. Num." 1858, p. 384) that Aristobidus, who was brought to Rome and compelled by Pompey to follow his triumphal car (Appian,
"Bell. Mith."
117),
is

The nine years referred to are those in which he pp. 9, 52). held the high-priesthood during the reign of his mother
Alexandra, and the whole passage tends to prove that he could
only have governed for "three

months"

after her death.

See

no other than the Bacchius

Judceus

under Sect. F.
3

Hyrcanus

II. p. 92, note 4.

represented on a coin of the Plautian family (Cohen,

"Med.

A gain was the Temple entered and this time remorselessly plunall its treasures,

Cons."

pi. xxxiii.

Plaulia, 6).

Upon

the obverse he wishes to

dered of

consisting of the 2000 talents of sacred

recognize the head of the town of Jerusalem personified, and not
that of Cybele, and on the reverse the conquered Aristobulus
delivering himself

up

to

Pompey.

Besides Bacchius the

Jew on

this coin wears the pointed tiara of a

Jewish high-priest, and
'•pS

his

name in Hebrew could not but he cf. 1 Chron. v. 31 fioKKi, Numb, xxxiv. 22
;

Bucehi

(fiaicx'p,

vi. 36 [A.V. vi. 5,51]) Bucchiahu (QovKias Alex. jSokkicis, 1 Chron. xxv. This 4, 13), of which the Romans would have made Bacchius. opinion, however, is not likely, and in any case we ought to find
;

or

HTp^

;

money, which Pompey had not touched [see p. 93, note 3], and 8000 talents of gold, besides a huge gold ingot of the weight of 300 minoo, each weighing two and a half [Roman] pounds (worth say 15,000 gold shekels = £30, 000 iro\\€>v ovti fivpiaSwv See Appendix A. s.vr. Pound and Talent), which had been given to Crassus by the high-priest on condition that he would touch " Bell. Jud." i. 8, 8). nothing else (Joseph. " Antiq." xiv. 7, 1

;

That there was so much wealth accumulated is not surprising, considering that all Jews contributed (Joseph. "Antiq." xiv.

.

JOHN HYRCANUS
returned to Rome.
Julius

II.

RE-ESTABLISHED A SECOND TIME.
and Alexander
at

95
liberty
;

Caesar, in B.C. 49, set Aristobulus

but

Aristobulus was poisoned

by some

of

Pompey's

friends,

and Alexander was seized by order

of Pompey and beheaded at Antiocb.

H.
Hyrcanus
etbnarcb. 1
authority,
Galilee.

John Hyrcanus
II.

II.

re-established a second time,

b.c.

47

b.c.

40.

on bis restoration by Julius
bowever,

Caesar, in B.C. 47,

was made bigb-priest and
possessed tbe
real

Antipater,

wbo was made
sons,

procurator
2

of

Judaea,

and gave

to his

two

Phasael

and Herod,

the governments of Jerusalem and
in
his

On

account of some
feeble

severities

committed

by Herod

government,

he

was

summoned by the
Jew,

Hyrcanus before tbe Sanhedrin, but he appeared before them armed,
letter

and bearing in his hand a
a
rich

from Sextus Caesar
kindness

for his acquittal.

In

B.C.

43 Malichus,
be poisoned,

who had
in

received

much

from Antipater, caused him
of
Cassius, the

to

and Herod
Malichus.

revenge,
B.C.

and with the consent

governor of

Syria,

murdered

In

41 Herod and Phasael were appointed by Antony "tetrarchs" of Judaea

under Hyrcanus.

In

B.C.

40,

on the invasion
fell

of

Syria by Antigonus, aided

by Pacorus, the
him

king of Parthia, Hyrcanus and Phasael

into the hands of ears

Antigonus, but Herod escaped.
to incapacitate at

Phasael killed himself, and Hyrcanus had his
ever from holding the high-priesthood,
4

cut

off, 3

in order
to prison

for

and was then sent

Seleucia in Babylon,

where he remained

till

released, in B.C. 36,

by the Parthian King Phraates IV. (Arsaces XIII.)
respect, but in b.c 31
5

He was
death,

at first treated

by Herod with honour and
of

was by him put

to

when upwards
following

seventy or

eighty years of age,

on the pretext of having held

treasonable correspondence with Malchus, king of Arabia.

The

coins

have been

attributed

by M. de Saulcy
Hyrcanus

to

John

Hyrcanus, and

7, 2).

Indeed, the amount of gold annually carried out of Italy

I.

See Sect. B.

Hyrcanus

I. p. 75,

note

1.

Other

and the provinces in the name of the Jews led to the interference of Flaccns, who prohibited its exportation from Asia (" aurum, Judsorum nomine, quotannis ex Italia, et ex omnibus provinciis, Hierosolyma exportari soleret, Flaccus sanxit edicto, ne ex Asia exportari liceret." Cic. " In Flacc." 28), thereby showing that these religious offerings actually affected the markets of the Middleton, world Milman, " Hist, of the Jews," vol. ii. p. 50
;

decrees relate to Hyrcanus II. (Joseph.
;

" Antiq."

xiv. 8, 13-19,

21 These concessions were most frequently purchased 12, 5, 6). from the Romans with money, cf. the statement of Claudius
Lysias, the chief captain of the
St.

Paul

— " with a great
Rome

Roman guard
I this
;

at Jerusalem, to
i.e.

sum obtained
cf.

freedom,"

the

"Life of Cicero,"
xvi. 6,
1

p.

83.
;

Cf. Joseph.

"Antiq."

xiv.

10,

8;

2-7

;

xviii. 9, 1

Tac. " Hist." v. 5).
xiv.

Dion Cass. lx. 17). 2 The mother of Phasael and Herod was named Cypros [see Genealogical Table— Chapter VI.]. Four other members of the Herodian family bore this name (Joseph. " Antiq." xviii. 5, 4)
citizenship of

(Acts xxii. 28

:

Joseph.

"Antiq."
i.

10,

2-7, 9-12, 20;

cf.

12,

2-4;

(1),

d.

of

Herod

I.

by Mariamne, m. Antipater;

(2),

wife of

"Bell. Jud."

10, 3.

The

decree of the Senate,

made on the

which an Hyrcanus is also called " high-priest and ethnarch," is inserted in Josephus (" Antiq." xiv. 8, 5) under the reign of Hyrcanus II., but the decree is
motion of
a Tjueitu Valerius, in

very inconsistent in
the
it is

its

dates,

Roman

letter written

and is so similar in by the Consul Lucius
to

its

contents to

evident Josephus,

who omits
in the

Simon, that give the decree under Simon,
to
[see p. 63, note 2],

and grandd. of Phasael; (3), d. of No. 1, m. No. 3. Derenbourg (" Essai," p. 210, note 1) says, " ce nom, tiro probablement son origine de "ID3, Syr. ]J2)QO, Kvwpos (rj), nom du henne, qui, comme 'la fleur de lis' (Susanne, nju'lti'), a etc employee comme nom de lenime." 3 Joseph. " Antiq." xiv. In another passage (" Bell. 13, 10. Jud." i. 13, 9) it is said that Antigonus " bit them otf with his
I.

Agrippa
;

Alexas

(4), d. of

lave inserted

it

wrong place
p. 34)

own
s

teeth."

4

Levit. xxi. 16-24.
p. 91, note 1.

though Lewin (" Fasti Sacri,"

attributes the decree to

See under Sect. E.

Alexandra,

— —

96
were probably struck in
b.c.

NCMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
41, as

the type was exactly imitated

by Antigonus on

bis

accession in b.c. 40 (see Antigonus, Coin No. 1).

Obverse.
1.

Reverse.

JQ.

A

large flower, of

which the stem holds

A

large

to right a

bud and

to left a leaf.

palm

;

above, in
;

two

parallel lines,

n

|pdpi

beiow

snnb-n



4

flp|W

lira

forming the complete legend

nirn •nnnn hnyn {ran prnrv
Obverse.
2.

Eeverse.

M.

Same

type.

Same
*

type, but the legend as follows

ttiirv

— 'nn pan —
iii.

:

vrorn

.

.

tin
1874,

(De Saulcy, " Num. Chron."

n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 240, Nos. 44,

45; Madden, " Num. Chron."
1876, vol.
p. 207,

n.s. 1872, vol.

xii. p.

;

vol. xiv. p.

313

;

Merzbacher, " Zeits.

f.

Num."

Nos. 63, 64.)

It

is

impossible

to

attribute with

any certainty a large number of

coins

that were

issued in imitation of tbe coinage of Alexander Jannaous, probably during this period, some
of

which have been previously attributed

to

Alexander

II.

But Alexander

II.

was never
either

king, and tbe only possible time during which be could have struck
(in
b.c.

money was

when

57) he

prevailed against Hyrcanus II., and capturing a portion of Jerusalem began

rebuilding the walls that had been thrown

down by Pompey, and
defeated
55,

failing in this, garrisoned
loss

Alexandreium, Hyrcanium, and
near Jerusalem
J
;

Machserus, but was
short
time, in
B.C.

by Gabinius with great

or during the

when he succeeded

in inducing the

Jews
I

to

revolt

again and was a second time defeated by Gabinius. 2

have therefore decided to classify these small pieces under the bead of " Uncertain
struck between the period after the death of Alexander Jannaeus, in
B.C.

coins

78,

and the

accession of Antigonus in B.C.

40."

Obverse.
*1.

Reverse.
.

M.

2

ZA

.

.

.

round

a

circle,

,

,

,

,

3

jl"0V

(=H3

jI"0V)-

Th e sun with

six

within which an anchor.
(Coll. of

rays, inside a beaded circle.

Rev. H. C. Reichardt, "

Num. Chron."
;

n.s. 1864, vol. iv. p. 176;
f.

1874, vol. xiv. p. 312

Merzbacher, "Zeits.

Num."

1876, vol.

Madden, " Num. Chron." n.s. 1872, iii. p. 208, No. 67.)

vol. iii. p.

2;

1

Joseph. "Antiq." xiv.

5,

2; "Bell. Jud."

i

8, 2.

Joseph. " Antiq." xiv.

6, 2, 3

;

"

Bell.

Jud."

i.

8, 7.

.

UNCERTAIN

COINS.

B.C.

78

B.C.

40.

97

This coin has been supposed by Mr. Reichardt either to have been struck by Hyrcanus II.
after

his

restoration,

B.C.

47-40,

or

by Alexander
also

II.,

whose

Jewish

name,

like

that

of
It

his grandfather

Alexander Jannacus, might

have been "Jehonathan" or "Jonathan."

would
letters

be desirable to find a more perfect specimen.

Mr. Reichardt informs me that the

EA

and the Hebrew 3 are quite

certain.

Obverse.
*2.

'

Reverse.
.
.

.£.2.

...

AAEEANA
tit. p.

Type

as No.

1.

(?)

J

CjmxSty]
;

\_A~\lexadras G[aiot].
circle.

The

sun with seven rays, within a beaded
(Coll. of

Rev. H. C. Reichardt, op.

175, No.

1

;

Madden,

op. tit. 1872, p. 3

;

1874, p. 311

Merzbacher, op.

cit.

p. 207,

No.

65.)

Obverse.
*3. JE. 2J.

Reverse.

BA
1

.

.

.

.

QS

AAEEANA. OY
op. cit. p. 175,

.

Kty

"7¥j?y

Alelcxadr.as.
circle.
cit.

The sun with eight
No. 66.)

Type

as No.
(Coll. of

rays, within a

beaded

Rev. H. C. Reichardt,

No. 2

;

Madden,

op. cit.

;

Merzbacher, op.

p. 208,

Obverse.
4.

Reverse.

M.
as

2.
1.

BASIAEQS AAEEANAPOY. Typo
(Merzbacher, op.

The

sun.

Traces of legend, but undecipherable.

No.

cit. p.

208, No. 68.

De Saulcy

states

2

that

many

of

these

small

coins

have passed through his hands on
determine
third
;

which may be seen

traces of

Hebrew

letters impossible to

but on one he thought
j .
.

he could recognize ]lj?£, on
are,

another pDlH,

and on

a

Vljn

These readings

however, to be received with reserve.
Obverse.

Reverse.
as No.
1.

5.

Lead.

.

ASIAEOS.

Type

Traces of

Hebrew legend

jron
(De Saulcy,


(

iSru


cit.

in three lines in the field,

....
No.
80.)

"Num. Chron."
Obverse.

n.s. 1871, pi. xi. p. 239,

No. 42

;

Merzbacher, op.

p. 214,

Reverse.

6.

Lead

ANAPOY.
(De Saulcy,

Type

as No.

I.

.

.

.

?V A = 7*1JD

within a
No. 69.)

circle.

op. cit. p. 239,

No. 43; Merzbacher,
2

op. cit. p. 209,

characters on this coin and on No. 1 (comp. seem to be similar to the "nail-headed" letters usual on Parthian coins (Thomas, " Num Chron." n.s. 1870, vol. x.
1

The Greek
3)

" Num. Chron."
Xos.
3,

n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 243; cf.

No.

pi. iv.

4, 5.

On

the

first

piece (No. 3;

"Num. Jud." p. 104) De
(?).

Saulcy proposes to read the name
suns have six rays.

A NTI.

retrograde

The

p.

142, note).

MADDEN

13

;

98

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Obverse.
7.

Reveese.
anchor.

2£.

3.

BASIAEf)£
Num. Jud."

AAEZANA. An
pi. iv.

The sun with eight
p. 75,

rays, within

headed

circle.

(De Saulcy, "

No. 11

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

No.

1

;

Merzbacher, op.

cit. p.

213, No.

Obveese.
8.

Reverse.

M.

3.

BASIA.

AAEZA.
pi. iv.

An
No. 12

anchor
;

(?).

The sun with seven
p. 75,

rays, within

headed

circle.

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

No.

1

;

Merzbacher, op.

cit. p.

213, No. 78.)

Obveese.
9.

Reverse.
Traces of legend.

JE. 2-2£. Portion of legend
or

— BASI.orBASIAEY.
.

The sun with eight
circle.

or seven rays,

BA£-

or

AE
as

or

BA£I
1.

.

.

OY

or

BAI
Nos.

.

.

.

within headed

AOY.

Type

No.

(De Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."

pi. iv.

2,

6-8

xx. 4, 5

;

Merzbacher, op.

cit. p.

213, No. 79.)

Obveese.
10.

Reverse.

JE.

A

large flower.

The same

flower.

Traces of

Hebrew

legend, also
or ? {?).

the Greek letter i (De Saulcy,

(?SYNEAPION
cit. p.

"Num.

Chron."

k.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 241,

No. 46

;

Merzbacher, op.

214,

No.

83.)

The same

flower

may

be

found

on some
2),

of

the

coins

of

John

II.
1).

Hyrcanus

re-

established a second time (Nos. 1

and

and on those of Antigonus (No.

Obveese.
11.

Reverse.
outside, traces

JE.
of

Anchor within a

circle;

Iu the middle of the

field ?

HP

;

abo ve,

[

B] A

;

below,

Hehrew legend

POi"! for |!"Dn,

?CAEY( = BA^IAEYI?HP ....).
n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p.

(De Saulcy,

op. cit. p. 248,

No. 58

;

Madden, " Num. Chron."

44

;

Merzbacher, op.

cit.

p. 214,

No.

81.

Obveese.
12.

Reverse.
traces of letters.

JE.

SametypeasNfo.il;
(De Saulcy,

Y BACI
op. cit. p.

.

.

and

in the field the letter
cit. p.

op. cit. p. 248,

No. 5$bis; Madden,

44; Merzbacher, op.

214, No. 82.)

The
doubtful,
of

last

two coins

are assigned

by De Saulcy

to

Herod

I.,

but

the

attribution

is

though they somewhat resemble pieces that have been restored to him
I.

(see coins

Herod

No.

21).

ANTIGONUS.
Obverse.
13.

99
Reverse.

JE.

Traces of

Hebrew legend;

in the field a

.

.

AAN

(BASIA ANTI??).

Large

circle,

within

star?
(De Saulcy,
op. cit. p. 245,

which probably an anchor.
No. 51
;

Merzbacher, op.

cit.

p. 212, p. 74.)

De

Saulcy proposes to attribute this piece to Antigonus, but with tres-grande

reserve.

I.

Amtigonus

(Mattathias), b.c. 40

b.c.

37.

Antigonus was the younger son of Aristobulus
brother Alexander II. carried to
his father,

II.,

and was with

his father
B.C.

and

his elder

Rome by Pompey
among

as prisoner.

In

55 he escaped with

who found numerous
and returned

followers

his countrymen.

War
;

was renewed, and Antigonus
be was, however,
at once

and

his father

were defeated by Gabinius and sent back to
to Judaea.

Rome

set at liberty

His endeavour, in

B.C.

42, to obtain the
;

kingdom with

the help of

his brother-in-law,

Ptolemy Mennseus, was defeated by Herod
of

but soon after he

again attempted to seize Judaea, with the aid
presents and promises, offering
to

the

Parthians,

whom

he had won over by

Pacorus as a bribe 1000 talents and 500 Jewish
This expedition was
in B.C. 40.
title

women

if

he would

assist

to restore

him

to the throne.

successful,

Jerusalem was

taken, and Antigonus was

made king by the Parthians

Herod, who had escaped,
of king of

having obtained through the influence of Antony the nominal

Judaoa, 1

now

marched against Antigonus.
assistance
of

After

a

long

siege, the city
it

was re-taken

in b.c. 37, with the
difficulty that

the

Roman

general Sosius, and

was with the utmost

Herod

could save from pillage the greater part of the capital.

Antigonus gave himself up

to Sosius,

who, after insulting him and calling him in derision Antigone, took him chained to Antony. 2

Antigonus was conveyed to Antioch, where,
executed with the axe
(b.c. 37),

at the instigation of

Herod, he was ignominiously
before used to a king. 3

a

mode

of treatment the

Romans had never

1

Joseph. " Antiq." xiv. 14, 4

;

"

Bell.

Jud."

i.
i.

14, 4.

Cons."
p.

p. 203,

who

has taken Zante, an island of Ionia
! ;

(?)

and

2 3

Joseph. "Antiq." xiv. 16, 2; "Bell. Jud."
xiv. 16, 4;

18, 2.
i.

Zacynthus for two different places
;

Joseph, (quoting Strabo) "Antiq." xv. 1,2; " Bell. Jud."
Pint.

18,3; " Antiq."
22,

"Ant." 36; Dion

Cass. xlix.

but unless Antony or 47) had some connexion with Zacynthus,
improbable.
writes,
'
'

"Med. Imp." 2nd ed. vol. i. Sosius can he shown to have
this

attribution
vol.
ii.

is

very
429)

who
ad of
it;

says that

"he was

scourged and crucified."

Coins of

Vaillant

("Num.

Ant.

Fam."

p.

Sosius are extant
\\-

commemorating thedefeatof Antigonus. T. Obv. Mark Antony
behind.

oculis integras in

Sed nos paulum torquent litteroe nummo Thcsauro Mcgis

ZA
Clir"};
'

quas ipsissimis
vidimus.

An

Z A.
be-

urbem

C.

SOSIVS

IMP.

Trophy,

'••• n Judaea seated

on round weeping, and
onus also seated,

arguunt? Josephus, Bell. Jud.' lib. 2, cap. 22 [ii. 18, 9], Zabulon Galilaea) civitatem nominat, de cujus pulcritudine sic ait quippe domus habebat similiter ut apud Tyrum et Sidona et Berytum aodificatas.' Sosius in ea pro
in

qua cusus

est

'

naked, with his hands behind him.

M.
The
p.

(Brit.

Mus.

:

cf.

Cohen,

"Med. Cons."
p.

pi.

lxvii.

No.

2.)

letters

ZA

have been
ii.

monetam signare potuit. Moris erat per iuitiales urbium nomina designare." Though I have not been able to discover any other "family" coins with initial letters of Cities, as the Lasi words of Vaillant would lead us to expect, it is
c\i ivitu^ iinpi iisis

litteras

supposed to stand for Zacynthus

(Bcger,

"Th. Brand."
;

much more

likely
;

that Zabulon
it

586

;

Rasche, " Lex."

s.v. Sosia,

1397

Cohen,

"Med.

pieces were struck

was the place at which these was " a strong city of Galilee " aud "of

]00

NUMISMATA OEIEXTALIA.

From

the coins of Antigonus

we

learn that

he adopted the Jewish name of

Mattatliiah,

being that of the founder of the Asmonajan dynasty.
Obveese.
1.

Reverse.
to

JE.

A

large flower, of

which the stem holds

A

large palm; above,

MTUl^
TVPt,

PI

|PDPl; below,
the

right a bud, and to left a leaf.

inn T13
ttpi
-opipi

forming

legend

him pin

rrnna mttatudh

ITakkohen Haggadol UacJieber Hajehudim.
(Coll. of

M. de Vogue, De

Saulcy,

" Num. Chron."

n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 240.)

This coin, as already mentioned,
struck in the
last

is

identical in every respect with
B.C.

some

of

John Hyrcanus
to

II.,

year of

his

reign,

41 [Sect.

II.],

and would seem therefore
b.c.

have

been issued by Antigonus immediately on his

accession

to the throne in

40.

A

similar

flower also occurs on some of the uncertain coins (No. 10 above).

Obveese.
*2.

Reverse

.

^.5.

[BASIAJEOC ANTITtONOY] round

JV

Wl
priest

S"IJ

jPD
the

PlTim

"Mattathias the high-

a wreath.

and

Senate of the Jews."
ffly,
i.e.

Two
1."

cornua-copiae,
(Coll. of

between which

"year

Rev. H. C. Reichardt,

"Num.

Chron." n.s. 18G4,

vol. iv. p.

177; Madden,

"Num. Chron."

n.s. 1874, vol. xiv. p. 314.)

Obverse.
*3.
iE.
5.

Reverse.
a wreath.

...

[A]NTITONO[Y] round

Tl "DPI 7

.

.

Two

cornua-copia?,

between

which
(Coll. of

%W,

i.e.

"year 2."

Rev. H. C. Reickardt,

op. cit. p.

177

;

Madden,

op. cit. p. 314.)

These coins were

struck

in

the

first

twT o years
reverse.

of

the

reign of

Antigonus,

B.C.

40 and

admirakle beauty," and, as Vaillant has recorded, " kad its houses built like those of Tyre, Sidon and Berytus" (Joseph. On other specimens, with 18, 9). "Bell. Jud." ii.
the type of an eagle, the letters

Tke

interpretation,

kowever, must be received with
Judicacapta

reserve.

These coins give us the

earliest representation of the

ZA

are in the field

on the

type, so frequent under Vespasian

and Titus

[see

Chapter. IX.].

;

COINS OF ANTIGONUS.
b.c.

101
1

39.

Coins of

the

first

year were

published

by Miormet, and by De Saulcy, 2 but were

not in sufficiently good preservation to be deciphered with certainty.
differ entirely

The

coins of

Antigonus

from those of his predecessors, and appear

to suggest the influence of Parthia. 3

Obverse.
4.

Reverse.

M.

5.

[BACIAJEOC ANTITONOY

round

a wreath.

TVflflb, OflniPttjl "OP! \t\ST\ " Mattathias the high-priest and the Senate of
the Jews."

p3l

Two
;

cornua-copipe.

(De Vogue, " Rev. Num." 1860,

p. 284, note

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p.

77

De
of

Saulcy, "

Num. Jud."

pi. v.

No.

1.)

The
compared

reverse
all

legend

is

adopted

from
the

the

corrections
cabinet,

De Vogue, who
and
is

carefully

the

available
It

examples in
at the

French

arranged in

a

very

unusual manner.
the

commences

bottom of the

left

side of the device immediately

under

cornua-copiae, then

at the second

M

turns between the two cornua-copiae, begins again at

the bottom of the right side under

the cornua-copiae, and finally ends at the top of the coin,

having formed a kind of

8.

Some specimens

of the coins of

Antigonus have only a single cornu-copiac.

Obverse.
5.

Reverse.
, ,

JE. 4.

BACIA60C

A[N]Tir. within a wreath.

H 7"U fPD
. .

!"lTin[ft]

Mattathiah Kohcn Gadol
.
.

.

"Mattathias high-priest.
leaf.

." Cornu-copioo

on either side a
(De Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."

pi. v.

No. 6;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 78; p. 243, No. 48.)

cf.

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

Cliron." n.s. 1871, vol.

ii.

Obverse.
6.

Reverse.

JE. 3£.

Wreath

?

(side-struck and very

much

[B]ASIA[EOS
lines
;

A]NTI[r]ONO[Y]

in

two

Btraighl

obliterated).

No

legend visible.

between them a cornu-copiae

filled

with

fruit or four flowers.
(Coll. of

Dr. Babington, "

Num.

Cliron." n.s. 18G2, vol.
2

ii.

p.

fii,

pi.

ii.

No.

1;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 70

)

1

Vol. v. p. 5G3, No. 55.

"Num.

Jud."

pi. v.

No.

2.

'

Cavedoni, " Bibl.

Num."

vol.

ii.

p. 25.

102
After the
first

NUMISMATA ORIEXTALIA.
publication of this coin in

my

" Jewish Coinage " I expressed
that
it

my
In

opinion,
justice,

from personal examination of the piece

itself,

was not a Jewish
I

coin.

1

however, to Dr. Babington's experience in these studies

must add that he informs me that
This coin
is

he

still

remains convinced that

his

attribution

is

correct.

remarkable as being

the only specimen of the coins of Antigonus which has a Greek inscription on the same side
as the cornu-copiae.

Obveese.
7.

Reverse.
in three lines

JE. 3

IAEQ. ANTITONOY,
(De Saulcy,

Anchor.

Legend,

if

any, completely gone.

within a wreath.

"Num.

Ckron."

n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 243,

No. 49.

Obveese.
8.

Eeveese.

M.S.

,

,

,

riTin. The

table of

shew-bread?

i

AN. = BAS. ANTir.).
(

Type (candelabrum)

off

the coin.
(De Saulcy,
op.
cit.

p. 244,

No. 50, who

deux traverses horizontales, qui relient jusqu'a l'evidence que l'objet represente ici n'est qu'une table.")
writes,
les

"

les pieds

deux a deux, montrent

This curious coin aided M. de Saulcy in proving
branched candlestick and four trees attributed

2

that the pieces with the type of the sevento the

by M. de Vogue
first
;

period which separates

the Arab conquest
essentially Jewish,

from the coining of the

money

of

the

Caliph

Abd-el-Melik, 3 are

and were issued by Antigonus
is

an attribution now recognized by M. de
:

Vogiie.

4

The following

a woodcut of the example referred to

Obveese.
9.

Eeveese.

M.

3.

Four
and

trees planted parallel, or
fruit.

bunches

The seven branched candelabrum ; around -which the
letters

of flowers

B

i.

and V

(

= BAS.

ANTIT.).

M. de Saulcy
this

has, however,

been misled in considering the "four trees" or "fruit" upon

coin to be

the "table of shew-bread."
of

The type

as

here represented
6),

may

be compared

with that on
similar

some
is

the

coins

of

Herod Archelaus (Nos. 5 and

on which a very

form

distinctly seen at the top
is

of the cornu-copiao evidently intended for " flowers
is

and

fruit."

It

to

be regretted that no drawing

given of No.

8,

and the description

of its type as the " table of shew-bread " can only be received with reserve.

1

"Num.

Chron."
2

n.s.

1865,

vol.

v.

p.

207;

1874,

vol. xiv. p. 316.
3

"Num.

Chron." n.s. 1871,

vol. xi. p. 244.

" Obv. Chandelier a sept branches.
. .

Traces de

legende

la periode qui separe la conquete Musulmane de remission des premieres monnaies nominales du calife Abd-elMelik." " Rev. Num." n.s. 1860, p. 291, pi. xiii. No. 8

salem pendant

;

illisible.

Mev. Quatre arbres plantes parallelement.
.

— Provenant

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"
4

p. 231,

Woodcut, No.

3.

de Syrie

Elle

me

parait done avoir ete frappee a Jeru-

De

Saulcy, op.

cit.

p. 244.

THE
These coins give the
stick

SE YEN-BRANCHED CANDLESTICK.

103
This candle-

earliest representation of the

seven-branched candlestick.

was taken from the temple of Herod by Titus and carried in triumph before the conqueror,
the

as

represented on
2

arch of
to

Titus; 1
the

but

as Josephus observes "its construction
griffins

was now
all

changed,"

perhaps
foot

alluding

hippocampi or

figured

on

its

base,

and in

probability the

was added by some Roman
catacombs, 3
5

artist.

Representations

of

the

candlestick

occur in

the

Jewish

on

Christian

glass

lamps, 4 and

on a sepulchral Christian

inscription of a.d. 400.

The Asmonrean dynasty commenced with
the Asmonaoan dynasty concludes.
Reland, "
See

a

Mattathias

;

with

the

coins of

a

Mattathia*

1

De

Spoliis

Templi," 1710.
It also

See

Chapter IX.

5

De

Rossi,

"

Inscr. Urb.

Rom." No. 489; Dr. Babington
cit. vol. ii. p.

2
3

"Bell. Jud."

vii. 5, 5.

art.

"Tombs" in Smith's and Cheetham's op.

1985,

Chapter

III. p. 36.

may be

seen on a bas-relief

found by M. de Saulcy at Tiberias (" Voyage autour de la mer

That the object is the Jewish candlestick has been questioned by Martigny (op. cit. s.v. Candelabres des Juifs), who
engraved.
asserts that it has never

morte," pi. xlvi.). 4 Martigny, " Diet, des Antiq. Chrct." s.v. Candelabres des Juifs Dr. Babington, art. "Lamps " in Smith's and Cheetham's
;

been found on Christian mural paintings,

nor on the sculptures certainlv Christian.

" Diet,

of Christ.

Antiq."

vol.

ii.

p. 922.

(

'

;

B

-

:8
sc Emc
U3 ,-H

CO
firsthu.

after

1—1

gc-.g.j
13

Felix,

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p1

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<

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M
1.

~
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«
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n
Acts, xxiv.

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24.

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ii.
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CHAPTER

YI.

COIXS OF THE IDTJiLEAN PRINCES.

A.

Herod

I.

suknamed the Great,

1

b.c.

37

b.c.

4.

Herod on
a friend

ascending the

throne,

after

the

death

of

Antigonus,

killed

all

the

members

of

the Sanhedrin, excepting Pollio and Sameas, and

immediately elevated to the high-priesthood
is

named Ananel, who came from Babylon, and
2

said to

have been one of the " stock
intrigues of

of the high-priests."

This

appointment, however, owing
it

to the

Alexandra, he

was obliged
his wife

to cancel,
;

and he then conferred

on

the

youthful Aristobulus, the brother of

Mariamne

but excited by jealousy he soon after caused
office.

him

to be

drowned whilst

bathing, and restored Ananel to the

The year

after

the

defeat

of

Antony

at

the battle

of

Actium

(b.c.

31)
his
;

Herod had an
kingdom, soon

audience with Octavius,

who made

peace with him, and confirmed
cities of

him

in

after adding Gadara, Samaria,

and the maritime

Gaza, Joppa,

etc.

and in

B.C.

23

the regions of Trachonitis, Auranitis, and Batanea.

Herod's

life

was troubled by a long
wife

series

of

bloodshed.

The aged
visit

Hyrcanus,

the

grandfather of

his

Mariamne, was put to death before his

to Octavius (b.c. 31),

1

Herod

I.

is

not
1

called gives

great

on

his

coins.

Josephus

may
day,

be derived from this source.

In that case

it

only contained

(" Antii|."

xviii. 5,

him the

title of great,

but Ewald

the same sort of boast as that of an Indian prince of the present

("Hist, of Israel," vol. v. p. 418, note 4) suggests that this surname is only intended to mean elder, to distinguish him from the younger Herod (Antipas), and compares the cases of 'EAicias 6 tiiyas (Joseph. "Antiq.'' xviii. 8, 4) and Agrippa the Great
(Joseph.

who

calls

himself Maharag'a

;

and

in fact

Agrippa, at any
not called

rate in the last passage cited ("

Antiq." xx.
6

5, 2), is

absolutely

&

peyas,

but,

as

on the coin,

fiiyas /3o(riAei/s."

"Alltiq."
9),

xvii.

2,

2;

xviii.

5,

1,4; xx.

5,

2;

cf.

Jost, in his " Geschichte des Judenthums " (p. 319, note), in speaking of " the tyrannical government of Herod, whom history
called,

" Yit."

in contradistinction to

Helcias, the keeper of the
8, 11),

as

it

sacred treasure (Joseph. "Antiq." xx.

and to Agrippa II. The title "Agrippa the Gnat" is confirmed by coins on which (see under Sect. he is styled BASIAEY£ P. Agrippa I. No. 2); but if, says Ewald, Agrippa I. was so iated " because he once more ruled over all Palestine in its wider extent, it would have been still easier to give Herod a

(the title

Great)

were in derision, the Great," says, " Perhaps this arises from a mistaken translation of N3"l,

METAS

which may also mean the elder.'''' He does not, however, say from what source he obtains this word (cf. Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 82, and Art. Herodian Family, in Kitto's "Cyc.
of Bibl. Literature," ed. Alexander).
2

Joseph. " Antiq." xv.

3, 1

;

but compare xv.

2, 4,

Upta tuv

t

title

although the coins of his reign hitherto found do

o.oi\\iotipoiv 'Av6.vt]\ov bv6p.aTt.

not bear the word

MET AD)

and the origin of

this

surname
14

maudbn

G

10
and Mariamne,
to

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

whom

he was passionately attached,
restraint
at

fell

a victim to his jealousy soon after
of

his return (b.c. 29).

Thus freed from

by the extirpation

most of the Asmonaean

family,
races,

Herod introduced heathenish customs

Jerusalem, such as shows, plays, and chariot
of

and on the completion of the building
to

Caesarea

Stratonis
to

he established Olympic
fifth year.

games and consecrated them
Notwithstanding
that

Augustus, ordering them
alienated
his

be celebrated every
him,

he

thus
fine

subjects

from

he greatly improved his

country by the number of

towns and public buildings that

he

erected.

He

built a

temple of Augustus at Panium (afterwards Caesarea Philippi) and a temple at Samaria, which

he converted into a Roman city under the name of

Sebnste.

He
of

also built

Gaba

in Galilee,

and Heshbonitis in
different

Peroca,

besides several

other

towns, which

he called by the names of
his

members
in the

of

his family, as Antipatris,

from the name
Phasael.
his

father Antipater, and

Phasaelis

plain of
it

Jericho, after

his

brother

He
friend

further rebuilt Anthedon,

on

the

coast, calling

Agrippias

or

Agrippeum,

after

Agrippa.

His grandest
in the

undertaking was the

rebuilding of

the

Temple

at

Jerusalem, which was commenced

eighteenth year of his reign

(b.c. 20).

This beautiful Temple, though erected in honour of the
hearts of
his

God

of

Israel, did

not win

for

him the

people, as

is

proved by the
eagle,

revolt,

which took place shortly before his death, when the Jews tore down the golden
he had fastened
to the

which

Temple, and broke

it to pieces.

On

his deathbed

he gave instructions

that some of the principal Jews,

whom

he had shut up in the Hippodrome at Jericho, should

be put to death after his decease, that

mourners might not be wanting

at his
1

funeral,

and

about the same time he ordered the massacre of the infants at Bethlehem.

Thus exasperated
in torments,

by endless

atrocities, the
B.C.

people would have openly revolted had not
4.
2

Herod died

aged 69, in the year

From
coinage.

the large extent of Herod's dominions, and the immense wealth that he bequeathed

to his kindred

and

to strangers,

we should
that

naturally expect to find a very numerous and fine
left

Though Josephus

says

he

to

his
3

sister

Salome

five

hundred thousand
and

[pieces] of silver that ivas coined (apyvpiov

iirt<Ti]fi,ov),

and

to Caesar, besides vessels of gold

1

Matt.
See

ii.

16. p. 57, note 1.

corroborated by another coin in the possession of

M.

W"alcker,

2

Chapter IV.

Upon
killed

the death of Herod,

bearing the letters
to read

|A

instead

of

AC.
11,

These
5;

he proposes

a

man named Simon put

the diadem on his

declared himself king.

He

was soon

own head and by Gratus (Joseph.
;

|A[ MNE i* c ]-

They

certainly cannot represent the date
xvii.

XI.
6, 3)

Josephus adds ("Antiq."

"Bell. Jud."

ii.

"Antiq." xvii. 10, G, 7; "Bell. Jud." ii. 4, 2, 3 cf. Tac. "Hist." v. 9). Upon his death another, one Athronges, set himself up for king, but was eventually defeated by Archelaus
and the Romans (Joseph,
3

that Augustus put Salome's house under the ethnarchy

of Archelam, and as according to De Saulcy {op. eit. Types iv. and v.) Archelaus struck coins also at Ascalon, some with the
letter

loc. eit.).

£

(for

£0vopxou),

all

were probably issued under the
I.

Salome the cities of Jamnia, Ashdod, and Phasaelis (Joseph. "Antiq." xvii. 8, 1), which was confirmed by Augustus, who added thereto the royal " Bell. Jud." ii. 6, 3). palace of Ascalon (" Antiq." xvii. 11, 5
to
;

Besides this

money Herod bequeathed

authority of Archelaus.

nerod
ii.

also struck similar coins at

Ascalon, some with the type of the two cornua-copise
Saulcy,
these
op.
eit.

(De
of

Types
are

and

iii.

No.

1).

None

attributions

alluded to in

De

Saulcy has suggested ("Ann. de la Soc. Franc,, de

Num.

et

the " Coins of the

Holy Land" ("

De Saulcy's work on Num. de la Terre Sainte,"

d'Arch." 1869, vol. iii. pp. 253-258, Type iii. No. 2) that the following coin was issued by Salome on receiving the gift of the palace Obv. Head of Augustus. Rev. Two cornua-copioe between them AC. He considers that this attribution is
;

1874, p. 178).

Salome,

who

died during the procuratorship of

M. Ambivius
Julia,

(a.d. 9-12, or a.d. 10-13), left all her possessions to

the wife of Augustus
ii.

("Antiq."

xviii.

2,

2;

"Bell,

Jud."

9,

1).

COINS OF HEROD
silver,

I.

107
1

ten millions of coined
that

silver,

and to others
of

five

millions,

yet from numismatic evidence
to the

we must conclude
to certain free
cities,

the

coinage
to

gold was
silver

interdicted in all countries subject

Romans, 2 and that the permission
and autonomous

strike

was only granted under
to

the

Republic

cities,

and under the Empire

some of the most important
Tarsus,
etc. 3

as

Alexandria,
a

Antioch of Syria, Coosarea of Cappadocia,
silver

Pompey had
from the

already

forbidden

coinage

to

be

struck in

most of the Phoenician mints, only a
find a

copper currency was

to

be employed. 4

So in Judsea we

copper

coinage only

time of the taking of Jerusalem by Pompey, excepting
the Jews again struck silver coins for
a
short time.

in

the time of the two revolts,

when
I.

All the copper coins struck by Herod

have Greek inscriptions only, and no Hebrew.

Their types, for the
coins.

most

part, are

borrowed

from Greek sources and from some

of the

Asmonaean

Obyeese.
1. JS..

Revebse.
infield

6.

A

helmet with cheek-pieces;

BASIAEOS HPOAOY,
left

a tripod, in the field to

to left a

palm?-branch.

L. T (year

3),

and in

field

to

right

the

monogram
(De Saulcy,

P
_

"Num.

Jud."

pi. vi.

Xo.

1

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 83,

No.

1.)

Obyeese.
2.

Reyebse.
a star;

JE.

6.

The same helmet; above,
palm ?-branch.

on

The same

as

Xo.

1.

either side a

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."

pi. vi.

No. 2

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 83,

No.

2.)

1 Joseph. "Antiq." xvii. 8, 1. According to Zonaras ("Aunal." 1. v. c. 16) Herod coined gold and silver money from the silver and gold he cut off the rich furniture, and from the vessels, which he took to assist the people suffering by famine in Judaea and Syria. Josephus ("Antiq." xv. 9, 2) relates his cutting the gold and silver off, but leaves out the words eit v6ni(TiJ.a, which are inserted by Zonaras. The silver money left by Herod must have been in denarii, and probably there

p. 23; Mommsen, "Hist, de la Mon. Rom." ed. and De Witte, vol. iii. p. 283). The small gold pieces of Amyntas, king of Galatia, said to have been struck under the authority of Antony (Mommsen, op. cit. pp. 300, 311), have been proved to be forgeries (L. Meyer, Num. Zeits. de Vienne," vol. iii. p. 437 Lenormant, " La Mon. dans l'Antiq." vol. ii.

vol.

vi.

Tilacas

'

'

;

p. 122).

Under the Empire the kings of the Uuspluirus coini-d, by special permission, a kind of gold (Lenormant, op. cit. vol. i.
202
*
;

is

in the account of Josephus. one exception to this rule under the Republic in the case of Coson, prince of Thrace, who, in B.C. 42, was permitted by
2

much exaggeration
There
is

p.

vol.

ii.

pp. 196, 430).

Eckhel, " Doct.

Num. Vet."

vol.

i.

p. lxxi.

The coining
196).

of

silver

money was
etc.

also permitted to certain kings of Mauretania,

Iirutus to strike gold coins, on

which

his

name appears

in full in

Cappadocia,
1

(Lenormant,
op. cit. vol.
i.

op. cit. vol.
p. 46.

ii.

p.

Greek letters—
Lucius Iirutus

KOSQN— and in

thejleld the letters l_. B. for Consul n.c. 509 (Eckhel, " Doct. Num. Vet."

Mommsen,

;

108
The
a
object represented
on.
1

NUMISMATA OPJENTALIA.
the obverse of
these coins has been generally considered to be

helmet

with

cheek-pieces,

but

Levy

2

follows

the

opinion

of

Cavedoni, 3
that

who though
upper part
of

previously inclined to regard the object as a
the object
is

galea cristata, says

now
in

the

severed from
a

the lower, and

the cheeks

are

not

the

right place, and that,

therefore, a vessel with

bell-shaped cover
is

seems a better description.

They

are,

however,
4

unable to determine what vessel
sees

intended.
it

On
an

the
altar,

reverse

is

a

tripod,

on which Levy
it.

a vase, whilst

Akerman 5

describes

as

with a flame coming out of
paganizing
spirit,

The

occurrence of a tripod on the coins of

Herod

illustrates his

as

he probably
the the

adopted

it

from the coins of the
Apollo.
6

Seleucidae,

where there no doubt
7

is

a connexion of

tripod with the worship of
censer, 8

Cavedoni

thinks

that

the object on

the reverse

is

which the

priest carried once a year

on the solemn day of atonement into the Holy
the

of

Holies, especially as

Herod, with the help of the Romans, conquered Jerusalem on
star

very day of atonement, and the
this successful

on

the

top

of

the helmet (No. 2)
side

may

also

refer to

event.

The two palm ?-branches on each

of

the

star allude

probably to

Herod's victories, or to the woods of palm which abounded in Judoea, and from which Herod
received a large revenue
9

though

Cavedoni supposes that they refer

to

the

" two olive

trees" of the prophet Zechariah's vision. 10

The year three has been referred by Eckhel 11
and by De Saulcy
12

to

the

year

of

Rome

718
;

(b.c.
it

3G),

to

b.c.

37,

the

actual year

of

the

capture of Jerusalem

but

may
of

be that the years on his coins count from the time
Judaea " from the

when he
(b.c.

received the title of "

King

Romans
or

in

714

40),

and

in this case his third year
B.C. 37,

would be 716
third year

(b.c. 38),

from the death
Cavedoni
13

of
is

Antigonus in
of

when

the

would be
crux

B.C.

35.

opinion that the

monogram
also

jp

is

the

ansata,

employed not
the
sign
of

only

on Egyptian

but

on

Assyrian monuments,

as

tion quotes the opinion of

and M. Raoul-Rochette. u
life,

in support of

his suggesis

De
be a

Saulcy, 15 however,

strongly opposed to this explanation, and
To«
or sign of
life, is

prefers seeing only a

monogram
value and

composed of

T and

P, suggesting that
;

it

may

mark

of

a contraction for TPia<> or rather
1

TPlxoXkov
p.

and with
sopra
14

this

view I

am

disposed to agree.
p.

Akerman,
o.s.

"Num.
vol.

111.

of

New

Testament,"

3;

"Num.
Jud."

le

Antiche Monete Giudaiche,"

18;

cf.

" Le Princ.

Oliron."
p. 127.
2
3 4 5

viii.
is

p.

135;

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

Quest, riguardanti la
15

Num.

Giud. diifmitivamente decise," p. 13.

Dr. Babington

also of this opinion.

"Jiid. Miinzen," p. 70, and note.

"Num.

" Hercule Assyr." 385. Jud." p. 128;
;

"Rev. Num." 1857,

p.

291;

"Bibl.

Num."
111.

vol.

ii.

p. 27.

"Jiid. Miinzen," p. 70.

"Bull. Arch, de l'Athen. Franc." 1855, p. 74. 1864, p. 390 16 From Wilkinson's "Popular account of the Ancient
p.

"Num.

of

New

Testament,"

3;

"Num.
ii.

Chron."
p. 6G.

Egyptians,"

vol.

i.

p. 277.

Sir G.

Wilkinson {he.

cit.)

says,

o.s. vol. viii. p. 135.
• ^ 8 »

" The

origin of the tau I
is

cannot precisely determine, but this
it

Dr. Babington, "

Num. Chron."
ii.

n.s. 1862, vol.

curious fact

connected with

in later times

— that

the early

"

Bihl.

Num."

vol.

p. 27.

Christians of
xvi. 12.

Egypt adopted
it,

it

in lieu of the cross,
it
;

which was

Uvpilov.
Ilor.

Thuribulum, Levit.
ii.

afterwards substituted for

prefixing

to inscriptions in the

"Epist."

2,

184.

See

Chapter VII.
486.

10
11

Zech.

iv. 2, 3, 12.

scriptions headed
vol.
iii.

"Doct. Num. Vet."

p.

12

"Num.
"
Bibl.

Jud."

p. 128. vol.
i.

and numerous inby the tau are preserved to the present day in See Madden, early Christian sepulchres at the great Oasis." " Christian Emblems on the coins of Constantine I. etc.," in

same manner

as

the cross in later times

13

Num."

p.

50

;

vol.

ii.

p.

27

;

" Nuovi

studi

"Num.

Chron." n.s. 1877,

vol. xvii. pp.

290-307.

COINS OF HEROD

I.

WITH THE MACEDONIAN SHIELD.

109

Obverse.
3.

Reverse.

JE.

4.

BA£IA£fil
38?

'

HPfiAOY.
field to left
I

A

helmet

The Macedonian

shield,
2

on which a disc or globe

with cheek-pieces.

In

f (year

surrounded by rays.

3= B.C.

or B.C. 35?);

in field to right the

monogram

.P. Wigan, Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"
p. 85,

(Cab. of the late Mr.

No. 3
I.

;

cf.

De

Saulcy, "

Num. Jud."

pi. vi.

No.

3.)

3

This coin, according to Cavedoni, 4 gives Herod
kings, as the
coins of

a claim to descent from, the Macedonian

emblems

of

the

helmet and
of

Macedonian shield are found on the small bronze
Demetrius
he
II.,

Antigonus Gonatas, and
not on those of

his son

Philip V., and other

Macedonian

kings, but
crest

Pyrrhus, although

twice possessed this
of

kingdom.
I.,

The great

which ornaments the Macedonian helmet on the coins
is

Herod
of

and especially on
on
a denarius of

those of Archelaus,

seen on
5

the head

of

Philip V., king
to

Macedon,

Quintus Marcius Philippus,

probably with
tail

reference

the helmet of

Alexander the Great,
feathers,

which was always distinguished by a
sideways. 6
It
is

and two very large white

which

fell

right

to

add that De Saulcy thinks Cavedoni's conjecture about Herod's
too

Macedonian descent a

little

hazardous, and

asks, " n'est-ce
7

pas

user trop largement
that the

du

droit d'interpreter les types des

monnaies antiques?"

It

may be mentioned

name

of Antigonus, the Asmona;an,

shows Macedonizing tendencies.

Obverse.
4.

Reverse.
a

M.A.
caduceus.

BASIAEfiS HPfiAOY round
In
;

winged
38?
_

A

pomegranate with leaves

?

field to left L.

V (year

3 = b.c

or B.C. 35 ?)

in field to right the
(British

monogram .p

Museum.

— Madden,
n.s.

'

'Jew. Coinage,"

p. 87,

No.

5.)

1

The specimen
ii.

of this coin in the collection of the Rev. Dr.

in the text (cf.
p. 206, note).

Madden,

"Num.

Churchill Babington has

BACIAEfiC

("Num. Chron."

The

piece given

Chron." n.s. 1865, by Akerman (" Num.
o.s. vol.
viii.

vol.
111.

v.

of

1862, vol.
2

p. 65).

Mr. Gardner, in his paper on " Ares as a sun-god, and solar symbiiK nil coin-. <>i Thrace and Macedon " ("Num. Chron." n.s.
shield

N. T." Mionnet
p. 486),

p.

3;

"Num.

Chron."

p.

135),

from
iii.

(vol. v. p.

5G5) or Eckhel (" Doct.

Num. Vet."
p. 86,

vol.

1880, vol. xx. pp. 54, 55), shows that "the whole Macedonian is of astronomical pattern, and belongs specially to a deity

No. 4), with the supposed date £|, has probably been misread, aud the
and published by
(" Jew. Coinage,"

me

worshipped as the sun"; and the interior device of this shield on the coins of nerod I. is identical with that adopted as

£|

=

who
the

P

(TPixa\Kov).

Indeed,

De

Saulcy

possesses

one of
p. 291),

is

these coins with the

whole type on certain coins of Uranopolis of Macedon
clt.

(Gardner, op.
3

pp. 56, 58, pi.

iv.

No.

15).

See p. 90, note 1.
the Rev.
II. ('.

An example of this coin in the collection of Reichardt (" Num. Chron." n.s. 1864, vol. iv. p.
the monojiTam

and so 1 "Bibl. Num." vol. ii. p. 28. s Cohen, " Medailles Consulages,
G

monogram ("Rev. Num." 1857, does Dr. Babington (Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
pi. xxvi.
rjs

p. 87).

Mareia, No.

5.

184)

is

without
'

Kal too xpavovs

rrj

X a TV
'

8ia7rpein;s

(KarepvOev eiaT^Ktt

irrtpov Aei/K($T?)Ti Ka\ /j.€yt0tt Oavfiaariy.

Plutarch, "in Alex." 16.

-p

>

and as

it

weighs 41 9 grain>. instead of
-

"Rev. Num." 1857,

p. 291.

88-8 grains, would appear to be the half of the piece described

110

NUMISMATA ORIENTAL! A.

De

Saulcy

lias

been fortunate enough to discover
l

at

Jerusalem two

specimens of

this

rare coin,

and has given

the

following revised description of the reverse, "

Une pomme

de
;

grenade, dont la tige est munie

de

chaque cote de deux folioles contournees en sens inverse

dans

le

champ, a droite

et

a gauche,

deux

grands neurons

en

forme de £."

On

one of

the examples these ornaments are wanting.
It is probable that the following coin is a badly-preserved

example of No.

4.

Obverse.

Reverse.
cacluceus

M.4.
(Coll. of

BASIAEOS HPOAOY. A
Rev.
II. C.

A

pitcher and palm?-braneh.
;

Reichardt, " Zeits. d.

D.M.G."

1857, pp. 155, 156

"Num. Chron."
p. 90,

n.s. 1862, vol.

ii.

p. 271,

No.

7,

pi. vi.

No. 4; Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

No.

15.)

Obverse,
5.

Reverse.
Aerostolium.

M.

3.

BASIAE[Q]S HPfiAOY.

A

palm or an ear of corn between two ornaments.

In field toleiti.. T (year 3=b.c. 38? orB.c.35?);
in field to right the

monogram Jc

.

(De Saulcy, " Num. Chron." N.S. 1871,

vol. si. p. 216,

No.

55.)

This coin

is in all

probability the same as the imperfectly preserved one in the collection of
d.

Mr. Reichardt ("Zeits.
p.

D.M.G." 1857,

pp. 155, 156;
p. 90,

"Num.

Chron."

n.s.

1862,

vol.

ii.

271, No. 8; Madden,

"Jew. Coinage,"

No.

16).

Obverse.
6.

Reverse.
to the right.

JE. 4.

No

legend.

Helmet

No
p. 91,

legend.
;

Two
De

cornua-copiae.

(Cab. of the late Mr. Wigan, Madden,

" Jew. Coinage,"

No. 19

cf.

Saulcy, "

Num. Jud."

pi. vi.

No.

4.)

Doubts have been cast as to whether

this

coin

is

Jewish
I.

or

not, 2 but the typos are in

accordance with those employed on the coinage of Herod
Obverse.
7.

Reverse.

iE. 3$.

A

tripod.
cit.

HqOJ(«'c) in the
No. 10
;

field.

(Reichardt, op.

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 90,

No. 18

;

incorrectly described in both works.)

1

"Num.

Chron."

n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 246,

No. 54.

J

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."

p. 129.

COINS OF

HEROD

I.

WITH THE TRIPOD.

Ill

Obverse.
8.

Reverse.
floral

JE. 4.
offerings

A
;

rude tripod, on winch a tray of

'

on each side a palm-branch.

BA[CI]A€OC (the last four HPUA.Y. around a wreath,
No.
1, pi.
ii.

letters

indistinct)

within which X.
p. 88,

(Coll. of

Dr. Babington,

"Num.

Chron." n.s. 18G2,

vol.

ii.

p. 6.3,

No. 2; Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

No.

G.)

Obverse.
9.

Reverse.

JE. 2 J.

A

rude tripod.
Dr. Babing-ton, op.
cit.

[BACIAGQC] HP.UA[OY].
No.
2, pi.
ii.

?

Portion of wreath.
7.)

(Coll. of

No. 3

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 88,

No.

Obverse.
10.

Reverse.

.E. 2i.

Tripod.

BACIAGWC HP
at the base (De Saulcy,
;

.

.

.

Y

around a wreath, open

within which X.
No.
52.)

"Num.

Chron."

n.s. 1871, vol. xis. p. 245,

Obverse.
11.

Reverse.

M.

3.

Tripod.

B AC

I

AG
53.)

Y.

Wreath opening

at the

base, but not containing X.

(De Saulcy,

op. at. p. 246,

No.

The
in

reverse of these coins represents not a helmet, but

a wreath formed very like an O,
the letter X, in
all

the

middle of three of

which (Nos.

8,

9

and 10)

is

probability the

initial letter of XaXicovs. 2

Obverse.
12.

Reverse.

M.

4.

A helmet?;

on each side a palm-branch.

BASIA

.

.

C HPCXIOY
Chron."

(sic)

round

a

wreath,

within the wreath the letter X.
(Coll.

of Rev.

H. C. Reichardt, " Zeits. d. D.M.Cx." 1857, pp. Madden, "Jew. Coinagi ," p. 90, No. 17
;

155,

156;

"Num.

n.s. 1862, vol.

ii.

p.

271, No. 9;

incorrectly described in all works quoted.)

This

coin

is

probably the

same as Nos.

8,

9

and

10.

The helmet on the obverse

is

most likely a
1

tripod.

Comp.

of Archelaus (Nos. 5
2

and 9, p. 102), and coins and 6, p. 116). De Saulcy, "Bull. Arch, de l'Athen. Franc." p. 74;

coins of Antigonus (Nos. 8

Madden, "Jew. Coinage."
Bopra
le

p. p.

88.
19)

Cavcdoni

(" Nuovi stndi

Mon. Ant. Giud."

does not agree with this in-

terpretation,

but prefers to see in

X the mystical Hebrew Tau.

112

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Obverse.
13.

Reverse.
,

JE.

3.

BACI.

HPWA.

round an anchor.

Two

cornua-copiae tied together at the ends, and the

poppy-head (De Saulcy, Levy), or two cornuacopise,

and

a

cadueeus

crossed

saltier-wise

(Caverloni,

Akerman).
p. 88,

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."

pi.

xx.

No. 6

;

cf.

No. 7

;

pi. vi.

No. 5

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

No.

8.)

The type

of

the anchor occurs on
case
to the

the

coins of Alexander Jannoeus

and Alexandra, and
I.

may

probably refer in this

maritime city of Caesarea, built by Herod

at the

place formerly called Strato's Tower.

It

may

also symbolize generally bis

extensive improve-

ments

to several

maritime

cities.

1

The type

of

the double

cornu-copiGD

occurs upon coins of

John Hyrcanus, Judas, Aristobulus, Alexander Jannams, and Antigonus.

The following

coins are rather smaller

:

Obverse.
14.

Eeverse.

M. 3 HPWAOY).

OC HPWA. (BACIAEOC
round an anchor.
(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."
pi. vi.

The same

as No. 13.

No.

7

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 89,

No

9.)

Obverse.
15.

Eeverse.

M.

3.

[BA]D.
(De Saulcy,

HPW., round an anchor
"Num.
Jud."
pi. vi.

The same
cf.

as

No.

13.
p. 89,

No. 6

;

xx.

No. 10

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

No.

10.

Obvehse.
16.

Eeverse.
in field to right of

M.

3.

HP (HPWAOY),
(De Saulcy, "

The same

as

No.

13.

anchor.

Num. Jud."

pi. vi.

No. 8

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 89,

No.

11.)

1

Joseph. "Antiq." xv. 9, 6.

COINS OF HEROD

I.

113

Ira
Obverse.
17.

m
Reverse.

JE.

3.

BACI.

HP.

(retrograde),

round an

The same

as No. 13.

anchor.
(De Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."

pi. xx.

No. 9

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 89,

No. 12.)

Obverse.
18.

Reverse.

M.3. BA. HPU). (BACIAEOC HPWAOY)
round an anchor.
(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."
pi. vi.

The same

as No. 13.

No. 9

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 90,

No. 13.)

Obverse.
19.

Reverse.
anchor

JE.

3.

H PWA. round an
(De Saulcy,

The same
letter

as No. 13.

Above the cornua-copire the

N.
p.

"Num.

Jud."

pi. xx.

No. 8

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

90,

No.

14.)

Obverse.
20.

Reverse.
circle.

JE.

No

legend

;

anchor within a
(De Saulcy,

The same

as

No. 13.
No.
57.)

"Num.

Chron."

n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 248,

Obverse.
21.

Reverse.
circle.

JE.

BACIAEY£

within a beaded

An

anchor -within a wreath or within a circle;
some, traces of letters.

on

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."

pi. iv.

Nos.

9,

10

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 75,

No.

2.)

These coins have been previously attributed by

me

to

Alexander

II.,

but M. de Saulcy

has obtained at Jerusalem another example of these pieces on which he thought he could read

BASIA— EYC H
llerod.

1
. .

-,

and

if

he

is

correct

in

the

letter H,

they would of course belong to

In any case I

am

not
1

now

disposed to class them to Alexander II.
n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 247,

Num. Chron."

No. 56.
15

114

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

1
Obverse.
22.

Reverse.

JE.

3.

BACIA

.

.

.

HPUA.
Jud."

on

either

No

legend.

An

eagle standing to right,

side of a cornu-copia).

(De Saulcy,

"Num.

pi. vi.

Nos. 10,

11,

12

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 112.)

These coins were in the

first

instance assigned

by De Saulcy
to

x

to

Herod

I.,

but Cavedoni, 2
Chalcis, the

Levy, 3 and after them the present writer, 4 attributed them
brother of Herod Agrippa
creature
I. (a.d.

Herod, king of

41-48), principally on the ground that an image of a living

did

not occur

on
5

any other
that

purely Jewish
pieces are

coin.

But

as

it

has

been

clearly

established

by De Saulcy

these small

always

found at Jerusalem,
it is

and

as

there

is

an invariable rule

that " small coins

do not

make long voyages,"

out of the

question to suppose that these, and these

only, out of
I

the coinage of Herod, king of Chalcis,

should have been carried by pilgrims to Jerusalem.

have already recognized the justice of

M. de Saulcy's remarks. 6

De
also

Saulcy found a reason 7 for a live symbol (the eagle), from the fact of Herod having

placed a large

golden eagle over the

great

gate of
to,

the

Temple, 8 suggesting that he might
after,

have placed an eagle on his coins previous
rise.
9

and even

the sedition

to

which

his

apparent breach of the law had given

B.

Herod Archelaus,

b.c.

4

a.d. 6.

Herod Archelaus,
disinherited
;

the

son

of

Herod

I.

and

Malthace,

but in the
to

final

arrangement he was
brother
Antipas.

left the "

had, by a first will, been kingdom " which had previously

been

assigned

his

elder
as

Archelaus
until

would
that

not

accept

the

title

of

" king,"

though
10

saluted

such
a

by the army,
sedition
after

title

should
at

be

confirmed

by Augustus.
he
quelled

Shortly
killing

after

was raised against him

the

Passover,

which

by

3000 persons,

which he
"Num.
Joseph,

set

out for

Rome, whither he was

1

3 <
5

" Num. Jud." p. 131. " Jud. Miinzen," p. 82.

J

"Bibl.

Num."

vol.

ii.

p. 35.

'

Jud."
he.

p. 131.
6, 2
;

* 9

Joseph. " Antiq." xvii.
cit.

"

Bell.

Jud."

i.

33, 2.

"Jew. Coinage," pp. 111-113. "Rev. Num." 18.57, p. 242;

"Antiq."
8,

viii.

7,

5;

Levy,

"
i.

Jiid.

1864,

p.

388;

"Num.

Miinzen,"
10

p. 132.
2,

Chron." n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 248. 6 " Num. Chron." n.s. 1865, vol. v. p. 206; 1875,

Joseph. "Antiq." xvii.
1,

4

;

"Bell. Jud."

33,

9;

vol. xv. p. 44.

ii.

1.

COINS OF

HEROD ARCHELAUS.
and
opponents, 1
Judaea,
that, if

115
and was appointed
Samaria,

quickly

followed

by
3

his
(or

brother
ruler
of

Antlpas
the

other

by
and

Augustus
several
title

Ethnarch

nation),

and

Idumsea,

cities

were apportioned to him, with a promise

he reigned virtuously, the
in

of king might be conferred upon him. 3

He, however, following

the

steps

of

his to

father,

committing

many

cruel

deeds,

and violating the Jewish laws, caused the Jews
at
last

complain loudly of his tyranny.

Augustus
to

paid attention to their
a.d.

frequent murmurs,

and Archelaus was summoned where he
died.

Rome, and

in

6

was banished

to

Vienne,

in

Gaul,
to

His dominions were confiscated, and attached to the
4

Roman Empire,

be

administered by Procurators.

This prince

is

called Archelaus

by

St.

Matthew and Josephus, and
the
is

'HpcoSrjs 6 IIaXatarlvo<i

by Dion

Cassius, 5

a

proof

that

he

also bore

name

of "

Herod "

in

common with
who

other

members
the

of

the Herodian

family, and as

he

the only Herodian prince of Judaja

bore

title of

Ethnarch, coins can
coins.
7

be

attributed

to

him with

certainty.

6

He

also styles himself

only "
of

Herod " on the
of the

The types

are

somewhat similar

to those of his father,

and

some

Asmonaean princes.

Obveese.
1.

Reverse.

.35.3.

H PU).

to the left of

an anchor

60 ji™ (€0NAPXOY)
with a gem.
No.
1
;

in

an

oak

wreath,

adorned

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."

pi. vii.

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 92,

No.

1.)

De

Saulcy has obtained two

new examples

of

this

coin,
8

and from them completes the

obverse legend

— HP— ^— O— Y— distributed

around the anchor.

Obveese.
2.

Reverse.
of a ship; above,

M.

3.

HP. round
?).

the

prow

£0N.
4

within an olive wreath,

a trident (?

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."

pi. vii.

Nos.

2, 3,

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
See Chapter VII. Mr. Akerman was the

p. 92,

No.

2.)

1

There

is

probably

allusion

to

his

journey

in

the

*
6

s

Lib.

lv.

57.

parable of the nobleman joint; into a far country to receive for

first

numismatist
Test."

who
p.

restored
to

the

himself a kingdom,

" But his

citizens

hated him and sent a

coins with the legend

HPWAOY G0NAPXOY
of

Herod
though

message after him, savin::, we will not have this man to reign ! " Luke xix. 12-27). See Chapter V. p. 62, note 3.
3 lie is called fSavtAevs by Josephus (" Antiq." xvii. 9, 2), and the verb j8a<7<Aeufi is used in St. Matthew (ii. 22). Antipas, who was only tetrarch, is called 6 0a<riAeis (Matt. xiv. 'J Mark vi. 14, 22, 25 27); and the tetrarch;/ of Lysanias is called by Josephus /WiAeiai/ it\v Avaaviov ("Bell. Jud." ii.
;

Archelaus

("Num.

111.

New

1846,

4),

Dr. Kitto had already suggested, in 1841, the probability of coins with the title ethnarch belonging to Archelaus (" Hist, of
Palestine," p. 716).
7

I

bearing the letter
»

have already alluded to the coins struck at Ascalon, ami APXOY), attributed by De £( =

£0N

Saulcy to Archelaus.

See Sect. A.

Herod

I.

p. 106, note 3.

11, 5).

See note 9 on p. 118.

"Num. Chron."

N.8. 1871, vol. xi.p. 249,

No.

61.

116

NUMISMA.TA ORIENTALIA.

With
suggested,
that
it
1

respect

to the

trident

on the obverse, as shown in the woodcut,
of eight other examples,

De

Saulcy has

from an examination

and with considerable probability,
is

is

nothing more than an w {Omega), and that this letter

a

portion of the word

HPWA.
Obverse.
3.

Reverse.

JE. 4.

HP. a double
Rev.
II.

cornu-copiae.
vol.

£ON.
ii.

a galley.
No. 11
;

(Coll. of the

C. Reichardt, " Num. Chron." n.s. 1862,

p. 271,

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 93,

No.

3.)

Obverse.
4.

Reverse.

M.

2*.

HPW.
PP)M

a double cornu-copioe.

,

,,

G0N
PA X
cit. p.

above a galley,

all

within a garland.

(Coll. of the

Rev. H. C. Reichardt, op.

271, No. 12

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 93,

No.

4.)

Obverse.
5.

Reverse.
cornu-copiae, united
2

M.

4£.

HPW.

a double
filled

۩NA.

Galley of five oars, without mast, having
(?)

below in one stem,
of grapes

with fruit
;

(?),

bunches
within a

on deck a tower
crescent
(?),

near the

bow

;

in field,

hanging from either side

all

and two

letters

above

(NX ?).

circle of dots.
(Coll. of

Dr. Bahington,

"Num.

Chron."

n.s. 1862, vol.

ii.

p. 66, pi.

ii.

No. 4

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 93,

No.

5.

Obverse.
6.

Reverse.
but traces of an
as
ill-

JE. 4.

Legend

illegible,

Legend
and

illegible.
sail
;

Galley of

five

oars,

with mast

formed A.

A

double

cornu-copiae,

No.

5,

near the

bow

in field crescent

and two

but no dotted

circle apparent.

letters
cit. p.

above (NX?).
p. 93,

(Coll. of

Dr. Babington, op.

66, pi.

ii.

No. 5

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

No.

6.)

An
De

example of Nos. 5 and
3

6,

but in no better preservation,
letters

obtained at Jerusalem by

Saulcy,

shows on the reverse the

G0NA— (P)XO.

.— 3L

;

and a specimen of No.

in Dr. Babington's collection has an

H

.

.

on the
3 4

left side of

the obverse. 4

1

2

" Num. Chron." n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 250, No. 63. Comp. coins of Antigonus (Nos. 8 and 9, p. 102) and a

" Num. Chron." "Num. Chron."

n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 249,

No.

59.

n.s. 1862, vol.

ii.

p. 66, note.

coin of

Herod

I.

(No.

8, p. 111).

COINS OF

HEROD ARCHELAt S.
T

117

Obverse.
7.

Reverse.

M.2±.

HP.

Type

unintelligible.
(British

A

galley and the letters
p. 94,

PC NX

in

two

lines.

Museum: Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
last

No.

7.)

The
word

letters

on the reverses of these
Cavedoni
l

three coins

probably show the elements of
5,

the

60NAPXOY.
6,
2

suggests
further
.

N with an Alcph on No.
explanation.

and N and Rosh or Tau
No.
7,

and X on No.
Saulcy,
these

but gives no

A

specimen of

published by

De
the

completes the obverse type ".
as

U)A.

a as

cornu-copige."

The types
anchor, 3

of

the reverses of
to

coins,

has

already

been

noticed

regards the
cities of

bear reference

sovereignty that Archelaus had over the

seaport

Coesarea, Sebaste,
ratified

and Joppe, which

were

conferred
will. 4

upon

him

by Augustus,

when

the

latter

the

main

points

of

Herod's

Obverse.
8.

Reverse.

M. U.

HPUAOY. A
a grape leaf.

bunch of grapes from

G0NAPXOY. A
caduceus.

helmet with tuft of feathers
;

which hangs

and cheek-pieces

in field to

left

a

small

(De Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."

pi. vii.

No. 7; Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 94,

No.

8.)

Obverse.
9.

Reverse.

M.

3*.

The same

as No.

I

eOH PXOY
pi. vii.

(sic).

The same type.
p. 94,

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."

No. 8

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

No.

9.)

Orverse.
10.

Reverse.
of grapes

M.

3.

[HP]WAOY.

Bunch

with

[G0NAPXOY.]
5
;

Ilnornamented caduceus."

part of the tendrils.
(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."
1

pi. vii.

No.

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
5

p. 95,

No. 10.)
564) from

" Xuovi studi sopra

le

antiche Monete Giudaiche," p. 20.

This piece
of

is

given by Mionnet
I)c

(vol.

v.

p.

(lie

:

3 *

" Num. Chroa." n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 249, No. 60. Alexander Jamueus, p. 86; Eerod I., p. 112. " Bell. Jud." ii. 0, 3. Joseph. " Antiq." xvii. 11, 4
;

Collection Chamillard.

Saulcy does not

know what

has

become

and only gives an imperfect representation from a Bimilar example in the collection of M. Ed. Delessert.
it,

118
The helmet and
caduceas seem

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
to bear allusion to his
I.
1

Macedonian descent, which has
2

also

been remarked on some of the coins of Herod
coins to bo a sign of Peace

Cavedoni

considers

the caduceus on these

and

Felicity.

C.

Herod Antipas,

b.c.

4

a.d. 40.

Herod Antipas was son

of

Herod the Great by Malthace, a Samaritan.
to

Though

" the
will,

kingdom " had been
he

originally left of

him,

yet

in

the
3

final

arrangement of Herod's
married
I.

was

named

"Tetrarch

Galilee

and

Peraea."

He

first

the

daughter

of

Aretas, king of Arabia Petraaa, but while on a visit to his half-brother Philip

he persuaded his

wife

Herodias to marry him, thus violating the

Jewish law.
loss.

Upon

this

Aretas invaded the
to

dominions of Antipas and defeated him with great

His government appears

have

been milder than that of his brother Archelaus, of
aside into Galilee,"
4

whom

Joseph was afraid, and "turned

though the Evangelists represent him

as cruel, tyrannical

and unscrupulous. 5

He

enlarged and adorned several places in his dominions, restoring Sepphoris and Betharamptha,
Tiberias, in

and founded a city on the Lake of Gennesareth, which he called

honour of the

Emperor

Tiberius, with

whom

he was in great favour.

6

After the death of Tiberius in a.d. 38,
to

and the accession of Caius, he was persuaded by Herodias
of king.
7

go to

Rome

to obtain

the

title

His nephew, Agrippa

I.,

who was much esteemed by
died.
I.
8

Caius, opposed

this request,

and accused him of treacherous correspondence with the Parthians.
exiled to Spain in a.d. 40,
his exile,

He was

consequently

where he eventually

His wife Herodias voluntarily shared

and his dominions were given to Agrippa
prince
is

This

called

Herod by

St.

Matthew,

St.

Mark,

St.

Luke, and in the Acts

;

and

Antipas and Herod by Josephus.
Coins of Herod Antipas bear the
1

title

Tetrarch?
when
the trial was adjourned on account of the absence of Agrippa; and a second hearing in Gaul, in the presence of Agrippa himself. The trial having been adjourned from Bains
to Lyons,

2 3

Seep. 109. " Bibl. Num."
Joseph.
1

vol.

i.

p. 58.

"Antiq." xvii. 8, 1; 'Hp^S-jjs & TtTpapxyi, rtTpapxovvTos Acts xiii. 1 is. 7 Luke iii. 19 Antipas had stealthily ttjs YaMXaias 'HpdSov, Luke iii. 1. "that fox," Luke xiii. 32) followed his brother (comp.
Matt. xiv.
; ; ;

;

Josephus wrote by mistake
ii.

"Bell. Jud."
(E. S.
vol.
i.

9,

6) the place of

(cf. " Antiq." xviii. 7, 2 condemnation (Lyons) for
;

the place of banishment (Spain).

It has also

been suggested
a

Archelaus to Borne to lay claim to the kingdom.
4
5

Ffoulkes, art. Herodias, Smith, "Diet, of the Bible."
p. 796, note) that the

Matt.

ii.

22.
;

town

is

Lugdunum Convenarum,

Matt. xiv. 9

Luke

iii.

19

;

xiii.

31.

Antipas put to death

town

ix.

John the Baptist (Matt. xiv. 3-12; Mark vi. 17-29; Luke 9), and it was to Antipas that our Lord was sent by Pilate
for
6
7

on the right bank of the Garonne, at the foot of the Pyrenees, now St. Bertrand de Comminget, as a town on the frontier like this would satisfy both passages of Josephus.
of Gaul, situated
9

examination (Luke
Joseph. " Antiq."

xxiii.

6-16).
;

The

title

xviii. 2, 3
;

"

Bell.
vi.

'O /3ao-<\€ws, Matt. xiv. 9

Mark

Jud." ii. 22, 25-27

9,
;

1.

part of a province.

Tetrarch properly means the prince of a fourth Thessaly was divided into four tetrarchics,
ix. p.

6 $ao-i\d<s

each ruled by a tetrarch (Strabo,
conferred upon Antipas

'Hp^Sijs,

Mark

vi. 14.

and

Philip
I.

8 Mr. Lewinisof opinion ("FastiSacri,"p. 261) thatthebanishment of Antipas to Spain was decreed, not at Baise, in a.d. 39, and states that the probability is, as was but in Gaul in a.d. 40 commonly the case in audiences before Caligula, there were two hearings; one at Baioe, when Agrippa's envoy was present, and
;

confirming the

will

of

Herod

fourths) of the kingdom, with the title
p. 62, note 3),

The title was by Augustus, when Archelaus had half (two Ethnarch (see Chapter V.,
430).
II.

into

two
ii.

tetrarchies (Joseph.
6,

Jud."

and Antipas and Philip the remaining half divided "Antiq." xvii. 11, 4; "Bell, Both Antipas and Philip are called Tctrarchs 3).

COINS OF

HEROD ANTIPAS.

119

Obverse.
1.

Reverse.

JE.S.

HP.

TGTPA.

(HPWAOY TG;

TIBGPIAC

in

two

lines within a wreath.

TPAPXOY.)

Palm-branch.
(Cab. des Medailles, Taris

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 97,

No.

1.)

Obverse.
2.

Reverse.

uE.

6.

HPUAOY
In
field L.

branch.

TGTPAPXOY. Ar (year 33).
Wigan
;

Palm-

TIBGPIAC
No. 16

in

two

lines within a wreath,

(Cab. of the late Mr.

" Tresor,"

»

pi. lis.

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 97,

No.

2.)

Obverse.
3.

Reverse.

M.

4.

HPW

TPAPXOY.
(De Saulcy, "

Same

TIBGPIAC

in

two

lines within a wreath.

type and date.

Num. Chron."

k.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 254,

No.

74.)

This piece

is

the half of No. 2.
Obverse.

Reverse.
.

4.

M.

Z.

.

.

WAOY

TG

.

.

.

Same type

TIB. within a wreath.

and date.
(De Saulcy,
op. cit. p. 254,

No.

75.)

Obverse.
5.

Reverse.
Infield J
.... T withm p u
p. 272, pi. vi.
,

M.2.
L.

H[PW]AOY. A
(year 33).
2

palm-branch. 1

a laurel wreath.
Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"
No.

,

,,

Ar

(Coll. of

Rev. H. C. Reichardt, "

Num. Chron."

>-.s.

1862, vol.

ii.

No. 5

;

p. 98,

5.)

in

the

New

Testament

(see

Table at commencement of
1)

this

Chapter,
kingdom
see

p. 104).

Lysanias (Luke Hi.

was

also a tetrarch,

References to the "Tresor" are to Ch. Lenormant's " Tresor de Numismatique et de Glyptique. Numismatique des
'

notwithstanding that Josephus in one passage calls his territory a
($a<ri\eiav

Rois Grecs," Paris, 1849.
: This date is omitted in the original woodcut and description, have to thank Mr. Reichardt for sending me an impression of the com, from which a new obverse has been engraved by

tV

Avaaviov, " Pell. Jud."
;

ii.

11, 5

;

but

" Antiq." xviii. 6, 10; xx. 7, 1 cf. xix. 5, 1). Herod I. was made tetrarch of Juda;a, together with his brother Phasael, " Bell. Jud." i. 12, 5). by Antony (Joseph. "Antiq." xiv. 13, 1
;

I

Mr. Utting.

120

NUMISMATA OEIENTALIA.

Obverse.
6.

Eeveese.

M.

4.

HPWA[OY
In
field L.

TeT]PAPXOY.

Palm-

TIB6PI AC

in

two

lines within a wreath.

branch.

AA

(year 34).
pi.

("Tresor,"

Ik. No. 17; Madden,

"Jew. Coinage,"

p.

98,

No.

3.)

De
appears

Saulcy
to

(op. cit.

p. 254,

Nos. 76, 77) publishes two examples of this coin, one of which
similar to No. 2.

be

a

large

piece

In Mr. Reichardt's cabinet there

is

also a

specimen a

size larger.

Obverse.
T.
7.

Reverse.

M.21.
In

HPOAOY TETPAPXOY.
field L.

Palm-

Tl

BE PI AC

in

two

1 lines within a wreath.

branch.

AZ

(year 37).

(Leake,

"Num.

Hell." p. 40

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 98,

No.

4.)

Obverse.
8.

Reverse.

JE.

4.

.

.

TPAPXOY.

Same type and

date.

TIBGPIAC
No.
78.)

in

two

lines within a wreath.

(De Saulcy,

op. cit, p. 254,

On
on the

these last two coins, as well as on those of
left of

the

year 43,

the

title

TGTPAPXOY

is

the

palm

;

on

all

other pieces

it

is

on the right.

Obverse.
9.

Reverse.

M.4.
L.

HPWAOY...
(year 38).

Same

type.

Infield

TIBC PI AC

in

two

lines

within a wreath.

AH

(De Saulcy,

op.

cit.

p. 254,

No.

79.)

De

Saulcy writes, " date un peu douteuse."

If the date is correctly read, it will correspond

to a.d. 34-35.

There

is

no reason

why

a coin with such a date should not exist. 2

1

I

am
in

indebted to the Rev. S. S. Lewis for an impression of

on the

obverse,

and type a

large

palm,

the

reverse

un254,

this coin,
tion,

which

is

now, with the

rest of Col. Leake's collec-

recognizable, has been catalogued by

De Saulcy

(op. cit. p.

Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge (Dr. Churchill "Cat. of a selection from Col. Leake's Greek Coins," p. 12, No. 76, 1867). 2 See Table at end of Section E. A piece with no legend
the

Babington,

No. 80) among coins of Antipas, but with the qualifying words, " Cette piece est-elle d'IIerode-le-Tetrarque ? Je me garderai
bien de l'affirmer."

COINS OF HEROD ANTIPAS.
These coins are struck at the city of
Tiberias,

121
as

which,
1

above stated, had been built
is

by Antipas

in

honour of

the

Roman Emperor
33,

Tiberius.

The plant on the obverse

supposed to be the carina communis, and to bear reference to the adjacent Lake of Gennesareth,
or

Sea

of

Tiberias. 2

The years
33-34.

34

and 37 of his

reign
3

correspond

to
it

a.d.

29-30,
in
a.d.

a.d. 30-31,

and
first

a.d.

M. de Saulcy has suggested

that

perhaps

was

29-30, the
live in
title

year of which
the

we

possess the coins of

Antipas, that he quitted Machoorus to

Galilee, in
is

town

of

Tiberias, of

which he was the founder.
in
full,

On number
is

5 the

Tetrarch
initial

omitted,
final

and

instead

of

TIB6PIAC
letters

the

name

abbreviated, and

the

T and
Siloam,

C

are the only two

given.

This coin was obtained at the

village

of

near Jerusalem.

Obverse.
10.

Re VERSE.
Palni-

M.

5.

HPQAHC TGTPAPXHC.
In
field L.

TAIO KAICAPI T6P MAN.
a wreath.

in four lines within

branch.

MT

(year 43).
pi.

("Tresor,"

Ik. No. 19; Madden,

"Jew. Coinage,"

p. 99,

No.

6.)

Obverse.
11.

Eeverse.

^.4
branch.

In

field L.

TETPAPX Mf (year 43).
vol.
iii.

Palm-

rAlfi

KAICAP.

TEPMANIKO

in

four lines

within a wreath.
p. 99,

("Tresor,"

pi. lis.

No. 20; Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

No.

7.

The

reverse of this coin, as puhlished by Eckhel,

Doct.

Num. Vet."
1

p. 486, has the legend

TAIO KAISA. TEPM. SEB.
Judsa by the procurator
Saulcy has
published

See No. 13.)

A
.

coin of the

Emperor Claudius,

in the possession of the

Rev. H. C. Reichardt, of which the following is a description Palm-branch. In field • • Obv. .
.

EAPOE KAAYA
13).

"Ann.

de la

very rare coin

L.lf

(year

Rev.

PLC

in

two

lines within a wreath.

Felix [see Chapter VII.]. M. de ("Num. de la Terre Sainte," p. 334; Soc. Franc;, de Num." 1869, vol. iii. p. 267) a of Claudius, struck at Tiberias Obv. No legend.

M.

3

—proves

that this type

was not only adopted by the

tetrarch Antipas.

On

his deposition in a.d. 40, Caius gave his
I.

dominions to Agrippa
his death, in a.d. 44,

(Joseph. " Antiq." xviii. 7, 2), and on

his principality returned to the Imperial

government

[see

Sect.

F.].

In the

first

year of Nero (a.d.

54-56) Agrippa II. received [see Sect. H.] a certain part of
Galilee, the city of Tiberias, etc. (Joseph.

"Antiq." xx.
a.d.

8,

4;

"

and a.d. 54, i.e. during the reign of Claudius, Tiberias was under Roman control. The date L.IT (year 13) can only refer to the
Bell.

Jud."

ii.

13,

2),

consequently between

44

Head bare. Rev. TIB L. in two lines within a wreath, and the date [_. (year 33 of the era of Tiberias) is assigned by him to a.d. 53. As, however, his coin is said to be en tresmauvais etat de conservation, it may be that his reading is erroneous, and that the piece is a similar one to that in the collection of Mr. Reichardt. That Claudius was a benefactor to Tiberias may be assumed from the fact that on the coins of Trajan and Hadrian struck at this town the surname occurs (De Saulcy, op. cit.).

— AT

AT

KAAYAieON
2

Cavedoni,

"

Bibl.

Num."

vol.

ii.

p. 34

;

cf.

Joseph. "Bell.

Imperial year,

i.e.

a.d. 53, the last year but one of the reign of

Jud." iii. 10, 8. 3 " Numismatique de
Franc, de

la Tilu'riadr," in the
iii.

"Ann.

de la Soc.

Claudius, and this date

may be found on

the coins struck in

Num."

1869, vol.

p. 270.

16

;

122
Obverse.
12.

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
I

Reverse.

IE. 5.
tree

HPQAHE TETPAPXHE. A
an
orange-tree

fig;

rAlO KAICA. TEPMANIKO
within a wreath.

in

four lines

or

laden

with

fruit

in

field to left

ETC,

to right

MT

(year

43).
;

(Formerly Cab. of Count Prokesch-Osten

De

Saulcy,

"Melanges de Xum." Jan.-April, 1877,

p. 92.)

Obverse.
13.

Reverse.

M.
branch

4.
;

HPOAHS TETPAPXHC.
in field L.

Palm-

fAlO KAIIA.

TEPIV1.

SEB. within

a wreath.

MA

(year 44).

(Eckhel,

" Doct. Num. Vet."

vol.

iii.

p. 486, after Vaillant

and Galland.)

The

earliest

known
The

coin of

Herod Antipas bears the date AT (year
been supposed to be the
class

33),

and was struck

in a.d. 29-30.

latest lias till recently a.d.

having the date
published

MT

(year 43), corresponding to
after Vaillant

39-40.

A

coin

has,

however, been
This
has

by Eckhel

and Galland bearing the date

MA

(year 44).
39. x
late

been

condemned on

the assumption that Antipas was banished in a.d.
question
(in

A

more

strict

examination of the
researches
2
)

which
that

I
a

have
coin

been

aided
this

by
date

the

Mr. Lewin's
really

valuable

seems

to

prove

with

might

have
I.

been

issued.

Herod

Antipas was deposed
Trachonitis
(a.d.

in the
3

fourth

year
I.

of

the reign of Agrippa
this

over the Tetrarchy of

40)

and
of

Agrippa
Caligula

had

Tetrarchy
therefore
a.d.

conferred

upon him
a.d.

a
4

few

days after
fourth
if

the

arrival

at

Rome,

and

about

April

37.

The
that
to

year

would thus

be

comprised
after

between April
April a.d.
40,

40
is

and April

a.d.

41,

so

Antipas was banished

shortly

there
(year

no reason for objecting

the issue of

a piece in Judcea bearing the date

L.MA

44), whilst

Antipas was absent

on his

trial.

D.

Herod Philip
Herod
5

I.

Herod Philip
the daughter of

I.

was the son

of

I.,

surnamed the Great, by a second Mariamne,
the husband of Herodias,
II.

Simon the

high-priest.

He was

by

whom

he

had a daughter, Salome, who married Herod Philip

Herodias,

contrary to the laws of

Eckhel, "Doct. Num. Vet." "Jew. Coinage," p. 99.
1

vol.

iii.

p.

486;

Madden,
No.
n.s.

8e «al

tV 'HpiiSov

irpo<rei\ri<p(is,

Joseph. " Antiq." xix.
I.

8,

2.

See under Sect. F.
p. 265,

Herod Agrippa
xviii. 6, 10.
1,

and Table at end of

2

"Fasti Sacri,"
p.

p.

xiii

;

p.

260, No. 1561;

Section E.
4

1592;
3

268,

No.

1610;

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

Joseph. "Antiq."

1875, vol. xv. p. 47.
T»)$ 4>iAi'ff7rou jx\v TtTpapx'tas

5

Joseph. " Antiq." xvii.
30,
7.

3

;

xviii.

5,

4

;

" Bell. Jud."

i.

th rpuriav &p£as,

t<£ TtrdpTtp

28, 4;

:

HEROD PHILIP
her
country, 1
I.

I.

123
her
half-uncle

divorced

herself

from

him
Herod

and

married

Antipas.

Herod

Philip

was omitted in the

will of

in consequence of the discovery that
I.
3

Mariamne

was conscious of the plots of Antipater, the son of Herod
I

by

Doris. 2

have already pointed out in

my
4

" Jewish Coinage,"

that the late Mr. J. Y.

Akerman

wrongly attributed coins
et

to this Philip,

and that

the editor of the " Tresor de Numisrnatique

Glyptique "

confounded

the

two Philips,
one of

and

I

attempted

to

make some
printed.
5

distinction

between them.
to

Unfortunately,
8,

my
now

references

was wrongly

The

reference

"Matt. xvi. 3," in note
It

should have been to
well
to

"Matt. XIV. 3."
the
three

may,

therefore,

be
is

as

give

passages

in

full

from

the

gospels in which reference
1.

made

to Philip I. laid

Matt. xiv.

3:

"For Herod [Antipas] had
sake,
his

hold on John, and bound him, and
wife."

put him in prison for Herodias'
2.

brother

Philip's

Mark
Luke

vi.

17

:

" For

Herod [Antipas] himself had

sent forth and laid hold
:

upon John

and bound him in prison for Herodias'
3.
iii.

sake, his brother Philip's wife

for he

had married her."

19

:

" But

Herod

[Antipas]

the

tetrarch,

being

reproved

by him

for

Herodias

his brother Philip's wife, etc." are,

There

then,

three

passages
I.,

in

which

allusion
II.,

is

made

to

a Philip
of

brother

of

Herod Antipas, and
is

as

Philip

and not Philip
the

was the husband
two
persons,

Herodias,

there

no

doubt

that

they allude

to

former
6

of

the

and distinguish

him

from his half-brother, the husband of Salome.

Herod Philip
Herod in Josephus.

I.

is

called

Philip

in

the

passages of

the

gospels

above quoted, and

Of

this

prince there are

no

coins.

E.

Herod Philip
of

II. b.c. 4.

a.d. 34.

Herod Philip

II.

was the son

Herod

I.

and Cleopatra

(Iepoao\v/j,iTi<;),

and was with

1

The marriage

of Herodias

was unlawful
still

for three reasons

first,

her former husband, Philip, was
xviii. 5, 4)
;

alive (tiiaaruaa fcc-ros,
still

Joseph. " Antiq."
alive
;

secondly, Antipas' wife was

and

thirdly,

by her

first

marriage with Philip she became
consequently forbidden by

"Ann. de la Num. Soc. Franc." 1869, vol. iii. p. 264), who, commenting on the two remainiug passages quoted by me, feared " qu'il n'y ait eu lu une confusion de noms." 6 There isamistake in the art. Herodias (in Smith's " Diet, of
the Bible ") by the Rev. E. S. Ffoulkes.
It
is

the sister-in-law of Antipas,

who was
4
;

here stated that

the Jewish law to marry his brother's wife (Levit. xviii. 16,
xx.

21

;

Alford,
Eitto's

Matt.

xiv.

Madden,

art.

Jlerodian

/.in
2 3
4

" Cyc.

of Bibl. Literature," ed. Alexander).
i.

Joseph. "Bell. Jud."
p. 100.

30, 7.

" Herodias first married Herod surnamed Philip, another of the sons of Mariamne and the first Herod, and therefore her full under This should read, "Herodias first married Herod surnamed Philip, the son of another Mariamne and the first
Herod, and therefore her half-uncle."
It
is

furtlirr said that

" Num.

111.

of X.

T." 1846,

p.

18

;

" Num. Chron."

o.s.

1845, vol.
5

viii.

pp. 133-162.

The question drew forth some remarks from De Saulcy in 1872 ("Note sur les Mon. de Philippe le Tetrarque," in the

" her paramour (Antipas) was indeed less of a blood relation than her original husband;" but this is again a mistake, as the relationship was just the same (see our Genealogical Table at

commencement

of this

Chapter on

p. 104).

;

124
his half-brothers, Archelaus

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
and Antipas, brought up
at

Rome.

1

lie received

as his

share of

the

kingdom the

tetrarchies of Auranitis, Batanea,

and Trachonitis, with a certain part of what

was

called the house of

Zenodorus.

2

He

is

mentioned only once in the
I.,

New
is
I.

Testament, 3 and

must not be
previous

confounded

with

Herod

Philip

of

whom

an

account

given

in

the

section.

He

married Salome,

the daughter of Herod

Philip

and Herodias.
4

He

built the city of

Caesarea Paneas,

more commonly known
of

as Csesarea

Philippi,

and bestowed

the

name

of Julias of

upon the town

Bethsaida in Lower Gaulonitis, in honour of Julia the
built

daughter

Augustus. 5
death.

deposited after his

He He

here

a

fine

monument, in

which

his

remains
a.d. 34),
life

were

enjoyed
of

a

reign

of thirty-seven years

(b.c.

4

and

showed himself

to

be a person

moderation and

peace

in

the

conduct of his
mildness.

and
left

government, always living in the country, and ruling with

equity and

As he

no children, Tiberius transferred his principality
Tbere
is

to the

Roman
coins

province of Syria.
the

not

a

shadow of

doubt that

certain

bearing

legend

(J)IAinnOY

TETPAPXOY
the
coins
of

belong to Herod Philip II.
since the

M. de Saulcy having,
this

publication
in

of

my

" Jewish

Coinage,"
at

carefully studied
Paris, 6

prince

which

exist

the

" Cabinet

de Medailles "

I

shall

be

able

to

lay

before

my

readers

a

more

complete

description

than tbat given in

my
to

former book.
I have, however, the pleasure of

commencing the catalogue with a specimen unknown

him

at that time.

1 Joseph. "Antiq." xvii. 1, 3; "Bell. Jud." i. 28, 4. Josephus, in " Antiq." xvii. 8, 1, calls Philip 'ApxeAaou o5eA<p<£

tetrarch are

known, of which the following

is

a description.

Obv.

ZHNOAQPOS [TETPAPXHS
Head
of Zenodorus,
to left,
I

yvqaly, own brother of Archelaus, but in other passages he gives
the correct relationship.
2

(apxiepeus)].

KAI APXHP. bare. Rev. NE.
;

KA
tov Z-qvoSwpov \eyo/J.eyov,
6
;

(Ne'oj Kaitrop)

L Z II
.

.

Head
Mus.

of Octavian, to right, bare

2vv

tici

yue'pei
;

oXkov

Joseph.

behind, a countermark.

Brit.

M.

This piece must have

" Antiq."
ofaou to

xvii. 11, 4

cf. xviii. 4,

ical /ie'pr)

rica tov Zr\vwvos

Trepi 'Id/xviav,

"Bell. Jud."

ii.

6, 3.

In B.C. 36 Auranitis,

been struck between b.c. 30-20, or probably between b.c. 30-27, The as in this year Octavian assumed the name of Augustus.
date
|_.

Trachonitis,

Batanea and Paneas were in the possession of

Zn

(year

87)

will

consequently

Cleopatra, but after her death, in b.c. 30, they were farmed out
to Zenodorus or Zeno,

commencing

either in B.C. 117 or b.c.

fall into an era 114 (Eckhel, " Doct.

and were then known as the "house of

Lysanias "

(oIkos

Avaavlov,

"Antiq."

xv.

10,

1;

"Bell.

Jud." i. 20, 4). In b.c. 24 all these districts were taken away from Zenodorus on account of his robberies and given to Herod (Joseph, he. cit.), with the exception of Paneas, which
together with

Num. Vet." vol. iii. p. 497). The title of "tetrarch and high -priest" also occurs on the coins of Lysanias I. of Chalcis (Barthelemy, " Man. de Num. Anc." p. 281, Paris, 1851).
3 4>iAi7T7rou
4

TfTpapxovvTo^, Luke
t)

iii.

1.

Kaio-dpeta

*i\iinrou, Matt. xvi. 13;
xviii. 2, 1
;

Mark

viii.

27.
ii.

Oulatha

formed

the
i.

"house
p.

(Lewin, "Life of St. Paul,"
p. 90,

vol.

61;
in

Zenodorus" "Fasti Sacri,"
of
b.c.

6
iii.

Joseph. " Antiq."
10, 7;

4, 6

;

"Bell. Jud."

9, 1

" Vit."

71, 72.

No. 730), and which were added
Jud."
i.

20,

on the
;

death of Zenodorus, to Herod's dominions (" Antiq." xv. 10, 3

with that mentioned in contradistinction to Bethsaida of Galilee
s.v.

Some have identified this Bethsaida Mark viii. 22, and Luke ix. 10, iu
(see

Smith and Kitto,

"
.

Bell.
.
.

20, 4

;

t<£ -re 'HpciSj; Z-qvob'wpovTivbs

rerpapxlav

Bethsaida),

but there

is

very great uncertainty on this

«-7reTp€i((€, Dion Cass. liv. 9). An inscription is extant which has been held to show (J. Hogg, "On the Scriptural names of Baalbec," in the " Trans, of Roy. Soc. of Literature," n.s. vol. vii. [tirage a part pp. 28-32]) that Zenodorus was son of the tetrarch Lysanias, who was put to death by Antony in b.c. 36, and perhaps half-brother of the second Lysanias, tetrarch of Abilene (Luke iii. 1). Coins of Zenodorus the

and many think that there was really only one Conder, Bethsaida (Major Wilson, " Bible Ed." vol. iii. p. 170
question,
;

"Handbook
"
S.

to

the
p.

Bible,"

Matthew,"

123;

pp. 322-324; Rev. A. Carr, De Saulcy, "Travels," vol. ii.

p. 441, etc.).
6

"Notes

sur les

mon. de Philippe

le

Tetrarque," in the
iii.

" Ann.

de la Soc. Franc, de

Num."

1869, vol.

p. 264.

;

COINS OF

HEROD PHILIP

II.

125

Obteese.
•1.

Reverse.
.

M.

A.

.

.

ICAPI

.

.

ACTU.

Head

of

OiAinnOY TET
n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. 53,

.

.

.

Tetrastyle

temple;

Augustus

to the right, laureated.

between the columns L.
,;

IB (year 12).

(Madden,

Num. Chron."

No.

1.)

This interesting and.
Straight Street, Damascus,

rare

coin

is

in

the possession

of

the

Rev.
it.

"W. Wright,

of

21,

who

has kindly permitted

me

to publish

I have also to thank

Dr. Macaulay, of the Religious Tract Society, for lending

me

the electrotype of the piece.

Obverse.
2.

Reverse.
of

M.

4.

KAICAPI

.

.

.

Head

Augustus

to

OiAinnOY TET...
between the columns L.
p. 264,

Tetrastyle
IS (year 16).
loc. cit.

temple

the right, laureated.
(De Saulcy, "Ann. de
la Soc. Franc;, de

Num."

1869, vol.

iii.

No.

1

;

Madden, " Num. Chron."

No. 2

;

Coll. of

Eev. H. C. Eeichardt.)

This
("Doct.

is

perhaps the same piece
Yet."
vol.
iii.

as

that

published

by Panel, and afterwards by Eckhel
v. p.

Num.

p.

490)

and Mionnet

(vol.

567) with the

date

L.

KS.

Obverse.
3.

Reverse.

M.

4.

IE

.

.

.

PI.

Head

of

Augustus,

[OUAinnOY TETPAPXOY.
between the columns L.
frontal of the temple is
? ?

Tetrastyle temple

;

bare.

The summit

of the

crowned by a

A (reversed).

(Coll. of

De

Saulcy, op.

cit.

No.

5.)

Obverse.
4.

Reverse.

M.4.
laureated

SEBA.
;

Head

of Tiberius to the right,
<t>.

OlAintmOY

T£TPAXO[Y]

(sic).

Tetrastyle
!'.>)•

on the neck the countermark
No. 2
;

temple; between the columns L. I© (year
p. 101,

(De Saulcy,

op. cit.

" Tresor,"

pi. lx.

No.

1

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 54, No. 3.)

No.

1

;

" Num. Chron."

n.s. 1875, vol. xv.

126
This
the
is

NUMISMATA OKIENTALIA.
perhaps the
1

same piece
respect
to

as

that

published

by Mionnet
on the neck,

(vol.

v.

p.

567) with
is

date L. K0.
that
it

"With
is

the

countermark
of

M. de Saulcy
the

of

opinion

rather the

initial

the

name

of

Philip

of

Bathyra,
is

Zamaride, 2

than that of Philip the tetrarch himself.

A

specimen of this coin

in the collection of the

Rev. H. C. Reichardt.
there
is

The obverse legend reads [KAISJAPI

SEB[A$TQ], and above the head

a countermark of a star.

Obverse.
5.

Reverse.

M.

4.

SEBASTOY KAISAPO.
No. 3; "Tresor,"
pi. lx.

Head

of

OIA-[TE]TPA-PXOY.
between the columns L.

Tetrastyle

temple;

Tiberius to the right, laureated.
(De Saulcy,
op. cit.

AT

(year 33).
loc. cit.

No. 2; Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 101,

No. 2

;

"Num.

Chron."

No.

4.)

Obverse.
6.

Reverse.

IE. 4.

TIBEPIOE EEBAETOE KAIEAP.
of Tiberius to

OlAinilOY T6T

.

.

.

Tetrastyle

temple;

Head

right,

bare

;

before

it

a

between the columns L.

AZ

(year 37).

branch of laurel.
(Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
p. 102,

No.

3,

from Cabinet of the
cit.

late

Mr. "Wigan.

The

coin

now belongs
No.
5.)

to

M.

le

Comte Cahen

d'Anvers;

De

Saulcy, op.

No. 4; Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

loc. cit.

From
at present

this catalogue it appears that the only dates

on the coins of Herod Philip

II.,

as

known, are

L.

IB.,

L.

IS.,

L.

10.,

L.

AF~.,

and

L.

AZ.

F.

W. Madden.
8- 9

F. de Saulcy

IB 12 corresponds to a.d.
IS

16


,,


,,

12-13

A D. 11- -12.
j
,

I© 19

15-16

14- -15.

AT33

,,

,,

29-30
33-34

}

,

28- -29.
32- -33.

AZ37
1

,,

! ,

on the authority of De Saulcy (op. cit.) that the coins 4, with the dates |$ and |_. 10 are said to be the same as those published by Eckhel and Mionnet with the date L. KS (ye ar 26), and by Mionnet with the date [_. At the same time there is no reason why coins (year 29). hearing these dates should not have been struck by Philip II.
It
is

(cf.

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p.

101; see Table at end of

Nos. 2 and

|

Section).
2 A most rare and interesting coin of this prince is published by De Saulcy in the "Num. Chron." n.s. 1871, vol. xi. p. 1G0. He also attributes another specimen to Jakim ('la.Keip.os) his

K0

father.

COIXS OF
It will be seen that

HEROD PHILIP

II.

127
by De Saulcy, and a
result.

my

dates differ slightly from those given

table

given at the end of this section will show

how

I IB

have obtained this

Of these

coins,

those

bearing

the

dates

and

IS

were struck

during the reign of

Augustus, and those with the dates

AT and

AZ

during that of Tiberius.

With

respect to the piece with

the date 10,

De Saulcy

has raised

an objection,

to

the

following effect:

"Pour

celle

de l'an 10 nous devons admettre qu'elle a ete f rappee avant que la

nouvelle de la mort d'Auguste ne fut parvenue a Philippe le tetrarque, qui d'ailleurs comptait
sa

XIX

e

annee depuis

le

printemps de l'an

14

et

par consequent, quatre mois avant la mort

d'Auguste."
This theory of

De

Saulcy might be of

some value

if

his calculation, that the coins with
;

the date 10 were struck between a.d. 14 and 15, was positively certain
pieces to have been issued between a.d. 15-16, and

but I consider these
a.d. 14.

Augustus died the 19th of August,

In these circumstances the

effigy

on the obverse of the coins of Herod Philip

II. with the

date 10 would be that of the Emperor Tiberius.

As

regards the

place of issue of

the coins of Philip
at Caesarea

II.,

De Saulcy

is

strongly opposed

to the supposition

that

they were

struck

Philippi,

and consequently the type of
I.

the temple would not refer

to that built

near

Panium by Herod
at
Julias,

and dedicated
ancient

to Cassar. 1

He

is

of

opinion

that

they were

probably issued
is

the
fine

Bethsaida,

now

Tell-hum, and that the temple on the coins

no other than the
arises

synagogue of which one
" Julias "
is

admires the ruins

at
is
it

Tell-hum.

Here,
2

however,

a

difficulty,

certainly

"Bethsaida," but

Tell-hum?

Perhaps the type of the temple on these coins bears
costly

some allusion

to a portion of the

tomb

built

by Philip
of

II. at Julias (Bethsaida),

and in which he was buried.

The

effigy

the
it

Roman emperor on
suggested
a
3

these

coins

was a grave infringement

of

the

Mosaic Law.

But

has been

that

this

infraction

took place at some distance

from the centre
a son of Herod

of religion, in
is

town inhabited for the most part by Greeks, and besides
scrupled to break

not likely to have

the

national

Law

in order

to flatter

the masters of the world.
"

1

Joseph. "Antiq." xv. 10, 3;

Bell.
also

Jud."
been

i.

21. 3.

Fund Com. 1873; Dr.
with
p.

Farrar, "Life of Christ," illustr. ed.
p.

*

The

ruins

of

Tell-hum have

identified

139; Neubauer, " Geog. du Talmud,"
See
3

221).

Its actual

Chorazin (Rev. J. L. Porter, Kitto, " Cyc. of Bibl. Lit." ed.
Alexander,
t.v.

identification appears doubtful.

p. 124, note 5.

Chorazin) and with Capernaum (Major Wilson,
p. 18G, publ.

" Tresor de Num.

et de

Glyptique," p. 126.

" Our Work

in Palestine,"

by Palestine Explor.

TABLE TO ILLUSTRATE THE COINAGE OF HEROD ANTIPAS AND HEROD PHILIP

II.

Years op Antipas.

Years of
Philip
II.

Remarks.

B.C.

4
1

Death
2 3 4
5

of

Herod

I.

in

March,

b.c. 4.

2
A.D.
1

o-2 1
r

2-6 5-7

6
7

"

8

5-10

8 9 10
11

Banishment

of Archelaus.

8-H

9-1 2 io- 13 J-14 2-16 4-17

12 L. IB 13 14 15 16 L. IS 17 18 19 L. 10

Death

of Augustus,

August

19, a.d. 14.

20

8-21 9-22

21

20- 23 21- 24 22- 25
23
r.o

26

_27 ot— 28
5a-29 26
27 ~31

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
31

»

Ar

3~35
00

AA
L.

— 3b
L
-

34-37

35-fo
April

AZ AH?

32 33 L. 34 35 36 37 L.

Ar

AZ

20th year of Tiberius.

Death

of Philip II.

" " „

36~40 37 38 *i

f

Agrippa

I.

receives from Caius the Tetrarchy of Philip II.

3q-42

40
41

_43( ETO. ^ - Mf
1

\

44 **

i_
L

-

MA

Mr
Antipas banished to Gaul early in a.d. 40, and in the fourth year of Agrippa I. holding the Tetrarchy of
Philip II.

HEROD AGRIPPA

I.

129

F.

Herod Agrippa
at the latter

I.,

a.d.

37
b.c.

a.d. 44.

Herod Agrippa

I.

was born

end of

11,

and was the son

of Aristobulus

and Berenice, and the grandson of Herod
the death
of of

I.,

surnarned

the Great.

A

short

time before

Herod

I.

he was living

at

Home, and was brought up with Drusus the son
of

Tiberius,

and Claudius,

and contracted a friendship with Antonia, the wife
he was reduced
cause
to

Drusus
unable

the elder. 1
to
live

at

By his reckless extravagance Rome any longer. For this
was
appointed

poverty,

and

became
to

he

left

Borne
the

and

went

Judaea,
of his

and
sister

shortly

after

governor of

Tiberias,

through

instigation

Herodias and his wife Cypros.

Finding himself again in
Italy
to

difficulties,

and having quarrelled and he
there

with

Antipas,

he

returned

to

seek

an interview

with

Tiberius,

became

very friendly with Caius.

In

an

unguarded moment he expressed the wish that
reported to Tiberius, he was arrested
the
accession
of
Caius,

Cuius might soon succeed to the throne, which being

and

thrown
a. d.

into 37.
I.
2

prison,

where

he

remained

till

the

16th

of

March,

Agrippa

was immediately

set

at

liberty,

and Caius put a diadem upon his head and
with the
title

conferred upon

him the

tetrarchy of Philip
to take

II.

of

" king."

3

Soon after Agrippa had arrived

possession of his

new kingdom,
envoy,
title,

in

the second
title

year of the reign of Caius, Antipas hastened to Borne to ask for himself likewise the
of " king."

This,
;

however,

was

opposed,

first

by Agrippa's

and

secondly
into

by
exile

Agrippa in person
in Spain
[see

and Antipas, instead
C.].

of

gaining the royal

was sent

Section

This took place in a.d.
Galilee

40,

and Caius gave
I.
4

the

dominions of Antipas, consisting of

and
a.d.

Persia,

to

Agrippa
I.

In

40 Agrippa

was

at

Bome
5

in

high

favour with Caius,
to
set

interceding for the
statue in

Jews and begging that Petronius might be forbidden
the Temple.

up the

Emperor's

This request was granted.

On
empire.

the

24th of

January,

a.d.

41,

Caius

was

slain,

and Claudius

succeeded to the

For

the

services

rendered

by

Agrippa

I.

in

negociating

between

the

Senate

and

Claudius, the
of

new Emperor on
II., 6

his accession presented to

him

Juduca, Samaria, the tetrarchy

Lysanias
1

and the parts about Libanus.
1.
* 5 6

Joseph. " Anti<[."

xviii. 6,

Joseph. " Antiq."
Joseph. "Antiq."

xviii. 7, 2. xviii. 8,

2 1

els

Joseph. "Antiq." xviii. 6, 3-9. &ic\8ovoi>v fiivTOi ou TroWiiv i]n(puv ixerairffi^iafifvo^ avrhu Thv oIkov .... f ha S« rb SidSnun irtpnie-qat rrj K((paKfj,

7-9. 1;

Joseph. "Antiq." xix. 5,

"

Bell.

another

passage

Josephus

says

that

Caius

Jud." ii. gave

11, 5.

In
this
it

him

koI 0ai7iA(a KaS[<jTi\aw aurbv ttjs *i\'nrirov Terpapx'as.

Joseph.

tetrarchy (" Antiq." xviii. 6,10).

Caius probably promised

" Antiq."

xviii. 6,

10; " Bell. Jud."

ii.

9, 6.

and Claudius actually conferred

it.

MADDEN

17

130
Agrippa
I.

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

now

possessed the entire

kingdom

of his grandfather,

Herod

I.

He
country.

appears to have started to take possession of his dominions soon after. 1
I.

Agrippa

loved

to live

at

Jerusalem,
desire

and was a

strict

observer

of

the laws

of

his

Influenced by a

strong

for

popularity rather than from innate

cruelty,

he

" stretched forth his hands to vex certain of the Church." son of Zebedee, and cast Peter into
prison,

He
the

put to death James the
intention of
killing

elder,
also.

no doubt with

him

Tbis was frustrated by his miraculous deliverance from his

jailors

by the angel
in
building,

of the Lord. 2

Agrippa

I.,

like

his

grandfather Herod,
3

displayed

great

taste

and

especially

adorned the city of
the

Berytus.

In

a.d.

44 Agrippa celebrated games
for his safety.

at Caesarea in
festival

honour of
of the

Emperor

Claudius, and to

make vows

At

this

a

number

principal persons, and such as were of dignity in the province, attended.

The people

of

Tyre
it

and Sidon were in
is

all

probability also present, though not so recorded
I.

by Josephus, and whilst

stated

4

that

Agrippa
of

was "highly displeased" with them,

it

does not appear that any
in

rupture worthy
theatre
saluted
in

notice

had taken

place.

On

the

second
closing

day Agrippa appeared
his

the

a

garment interwoven with

silver.

On

address

to

the

people they

him

as a god, for

which he did not rebuke them, and he was immediately seized with

internal pains, and died five days after. 5

This fuller account of Josephus agrees
silver dress

substantially with
this
it

that

given

in
to

the Acts

;

the
I.

and the
ill

disease.

7

The

owl,

8

which on

occasion

appeared
to

Agrippa

as

the messenger of

tidings,

9

though on a former

had appeai*ed

him

as a

messenger of
the

good news, 10
the Acts.
12

is

converted by Eusebius, 11

who

professes to quote

Josephus, into

angel of

The death

of

Agrippa

I.

took place

when he had reigned

three

years over
his age,

all

Judaea.' 3

Josephus adds that he " departed this
year of his reign;
for

life

in the fifty-fourth year of

and the

seventh

he reigned four years under Caius Caesar
[a.d. 37-40],

[a.d. 37-41], three of
[a.d.

them

were over Philip's tetrarchy only

and in the fourth

40] he had that of

Herod [Antipas] added
1

to it

;

and
*

he reigned besides those, three
xii.

years

under the reign of

Joseph. "Antiq." xix.
Joseph. "Antiq." xix.

6, 1. 7, 5.

Acts

1-19.

3
4

Acts

xii.

20.

add that M. Ernest Renan (" Les Apotres," p. 251) is of opinion that the symptoms recorded hy Josephus suggest that Agrippa I. was poisoned, and that what is said in the Acts about
the equivocal conduct of the Phoenicians
that they took
6

5

Joseph. "Antiq."
1.

note

See Chapter IV. p. 57, xix. 8, 2. The Roman emperors were very fond of assuming to
title of

and about the care

to gain over Blastus,

the king's chamberlain,

themselves the
out ("

" God,"

as I

Num. Chron."

n.s. 1866, vol. vi. p. 272).

have in another place pointed Domitian in

corroborates this hypothesis.

2toA?V
T<j! ttjs

ep5u<xa,u€eo9 e|

apyvpov

Trenoirnxlv-qv truaav,

Josephus;

his edicts

commenced, Dmninus et Deus noster hoc fieri jubet (Suet. " In Dom." 13; Dion Cass, lxvii. 13). Caligula assumed the
exclaiming,
eTs

eVSuo-afieeos
7

ead^ra

fiaaiXiKTiv, Acts.
Ka.Tf(TTpc\f/£i>,

yao-rpbs aKyq/xaTi rhv fiiov
e|e'i|/u|6f,

Josephus

;

title,

xolpavos terra,

efs

/Sao-iXeus

(Suet.

"In

yei>6/j.evos
s 9

<TKaK-nK60pwTO9

Acts.

Calig." 22;
Kvptos

Nero is called 6 cf. Homer, "Iliad," ii. 204). by Festus (Acts xxv. 26), and Elagabalus was hailed as
Aurelian styled himself on his

Bov^ava

iw\ cxoiviov riv6s, Josephus.
8, 2.

ayye\oi kolkuv, Joseph. " Antiq." xix.
Joseph. "Antiq."
ii.

Kvpics (Dion Cass, lxxix. 16).

10

xviii. 6, 7.

coins

DEO ET DOMINO NATO DOMINUS 1MPERI ROMANI
0EOI £EBA£TO£
etc.

and
as

SOL
Cams.

» " H. E."
1!

ch. 10.

also

'EirdTa&v avrbv

&yye\os Kvplov, Acts
.

xii. cit.

23.

For an

The term
of

occurs frequently on coins

explanation of the confusion, cf Eusebius, he.

ed. Ileinichen.

Pergamus,

(For further particulars see
referred to.)

my
I

article in the

Excurs. II. vol.
13

iii.

p.

556

;

Alford, in
8, 2.

loc.

" Numismatic Chronicle," above

may, however,

Joseph. " Antiq." xix.

COINS OF

HEROD AGRIFPA

I.

WITHOUT NAME OF EMPEROR.

131

Claudius Caesar [a.d. 41-44], in which time he reigned over the fore-mentioned countries and
also

had Judaea added

to them, as also

Samaria and Ceesarea."

x

In another passage Josephus
[a.d.

writes, "

He had

then

(at

his

death) reigned
2

three years

41-44], as he had governed his tetrarchies three other years [a.d. 37-40]."

Let us see by means of a table which of these statements
March,
a.d. 37.

may

be taken as correct

:

Death
1st

of Tiberius.

Caligula.
I.

April, a.d. 37

— 38
39

Agrippa
year

receives the tetrarchy of Philip II.

—2nd
—3rd
4th

40
41

Agrippa

I.

receives Galilee and Peraea.

Death

of Caligula.

Claudius.

Agrippa

I.

receives Judaea

and Samaria.

—5th 42
43 44

—6th
—7th
Death
of

Agrippa

I.

in the

summer

of a.d. 44.

From
passage
of

this table there does not

seem to be much doubt that the figures in the
ones,

first

quoted

Josephus are the

correct

and that seven years and a few months may be
I.
3

considered to have been the length of the reign of Agrippa

His son being too young
of Syria
4

to

govern,

Claudius annexed

the

kingdom

to

the

province

under the procuratorship of Cuspius Fadus. 5

Herod Agrippa

I.

without name of Emperor.

Obverse.
1.

Heveese.
Umbrella.

M.

4.

BACIA£U)C ArPinA. 6

Three ears of corn springing from one
field, to

stalk

;

in the

right and

left,

L.

S (year

6).

(De Saulcy, " Nam. Jud."

pi. is.

No. 8

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p.

104
G.)

;

De

Saulcy, "

Mem.

de la Soc. Franc;, de

Num."

1869, p. 27, No.

1

Joseph. "Antiq." xix.
ph.
'•
l;. 11.

8, 2.
ii.

de

Num."

18G9, p. 35) has given a somewhat similar tahle,

Jud."

11. 6.

hut comes to the conclusion that Agrippa died some days before
the seventh year of his reign
*

1

kgrippa himself,
c.

Cainm,"

11),

in a.d. 40 ("Apud Pbilonem leg. ad enumerates the gifts of Caligula, ^x a p' <rw A""

was terminated.
xii.

Tac. " Hist." v. 9

;

"Ann."
2
;

23.

daviAt'iav,

iraKat fiiv jitas

x«P a s

(the tetrarchy

of

Philip

in

6

Joseph.

A.D. 37), ojflis 8f Kal eTe'pas ixei£ovos, ti\v Tpaxovlriv
Kal

\tyonfvqv

Sect.
6

" Antiq." H. Agrippa II.

xix. 9,

"

Bell.

Jud."

ii.

11, 6.

See

tV

ra\iAaiav (Tvvdtyas (the tetrarchy of Antipa.s in a.d. 40). le Chron. de la vie et des mon. des rois juifs
I

I have never seen this

name
vol.
ii.

written

ATPinriA
p.

on these

coins as given

hy Eckhel ("Doct. Num. Vet."

493) and by

ipa

Let

d'

Agrippa II.," in the

"Mem.

de la Soc. Franc.

Cavedoni (" Bibl.

Num."

p. 35).

:

132
Besides the date L.
coins

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
S
(7),

(year
L.

G),

Eckhel has published

l

the

following
states
2

dates

on

similar

— L.

6

(5),

L.

Z

(9),— all of which Mr. Reichardt

that he has in his

collection, as also a coin
|_.

with the date L.

H

(8).

Woodcuts
3

of the specimens with

the dates
Saulcy,

£ and

L.

were published by

me

in

1865 and 1875, which I here repeat.

M. de

however, though he has seen

casts

of

these

pieces, persisted

in

maintaining

that
6).

there
4

is

no coin of Agrippa

I.

of

this type

with any other date than the year L. S (year

Mr. Reichardt, the owner of the coins in question, has suggested the following explanation,

which merits attention
exist, it

5

" Eckhel

and Cavedoni
I.,

assert

that

if

a

coin

of

the

year 9 does

cannot belong to Agrippa

but to the second, inasmuch as the former only reigned
forgotten
that
is it

seven years.
of

Now,

these eminent

men have

we have

coins of the second year

Roman

princes

who only
1st

reigned a few months; nor

likely that they

were aware that

the Jewish kings counted their reign of
that

one day of

the
'

year for

a whole year,
fol.

commencing
So
if

year on

the

of

Nisan (Gemar. Bab. Tract,

Rosh ha-shanna,'

2b).

one

king ascended the throne the day before the 1st of Nisan, that one day would have been said
to be

the

first

year

of

that

king's

reign,

and on the following day, the
Agrippa,

1st of Nisan,

it

would have been

said

he entered upon his second year.

therefore,

though

only

reigning for the space of seven years, might put the ninth year on his coins, as

may

be seen

by the following
1

table
vol.

:

" Doct. Num. Vet."
"

iii.

p. 493.
ii.

qui n'a guere pu se tromper,

est, sur

ce point,

pleinement

2

Num. Chron."
p. 105.

n.s. 1862, vol.

p.

272

;

Madden, " Jew.

justifie

par

les chilfres.

A la

rigueur, en admettant l'inexactitude
. .

Coinage,"
3 4

de notre historien, lorsqu'il dit qu' Agrippa mourut &yuv
TTJs fiaaiAtlas ej85o,uoe,

.

"Num. Chron. "n.s. 1865, vol. v.p.207; 1875, vol.xv.p. 64. De Saulcy wrote (" Mem. de la Soc. Franc;, de Num." 1869,
:

on pourrait peut-etre evaluer

le

regne de
parait

ce prince a sept ans et quelques jours, ce qui pourrait legitimer
la

p. 45)

"A

en juger par l'etat des pieces en question,
certainement le

les dates

presence d'une date
;

|_.

H.

Mais une date

|_.

me

pour

ainsi dire seules,

ont ete preserves en bon etat et sont
fait

toujours inexplicable

d'ailleurs, les faussaires

ne manqueut pas

lisibles.

C'est

d'un
yeux,

bonheur

inoui',

et

a Jerusalem

!

"

(cf.

De

Saulcy,

d'autant plus extraordinaire a

mes

que sur plusieurs

vol. xi. p. 255).

I have again

"Num. Chron." n.s. 1871, examined the electrotypes in the
|_,

centaines d'exemplaires qui ont passe par

mes mains,

je n'ai

collection of Dr.

Babington bearing the dates

£

;

[_.

Z

jamais eu la chance d'en rencontrer un seul qui ne m'offrit la Mais cela ne me sufflt plus pour declarer que ces date |_. S.

monnaies doivent etre eonsidereescornmesuspectes." He therefore examines the question if Agrippa II. could possibly have struck any of these coins, especially the one with the date [_.
(year 9),
pieces could

and certainly satisfactorily proves that none of these by any possibility have been issued by Agrippa II.

by Mr. Reichardt, and these dates are certainly perfectly clear and distinct but to settle the question, the coins themselves must be submitted to Mr. Reichardt informs me that he has critical investigation. recently acquired a coin of Agrippa I. whose date is quite different -^-. He writes, from any previously known. The form is

L.

H

and L.

and

a ^ so casts furnished

;

|

I

am

quite of his opinion.
:

De Saulcy
dit

consequently concluded
lettres

can it stand This sign can certainly not be intended for S for ? If so we have a coin of the fourth year. However, I am
'
' ;

4

>

as follows (p. 46)
d' Agrippa

" Josephe

en toutes

que

le

regne

I"

n'a pas ete de plus de sept ans, puisqu'il est mort

The engraver may have been . . . a Jew, and for some unknown reason adopted this form for the
not certain of this reading.
numerical sign of
6

dans

le

haut par

Nous avons prouve plus cours de sa septieme annee. les ehifi'res qu' Agrippa Ier avait rec,u le titre de roi pour
de Philippe en avril 37.
II est

A"
n.s.
;

" Num. Chron."

1862,

vol.

ii.

p.

272

;

Madden,

la tetrarchie

mort vers

le

mois

"Jew. Coinage,"
p. 65.

p. 105

"Num.

Chron."

n.s. 1875, vol. xv.

d'avril 44.

Que Ton

s'y prenne

comme Ton

voudra, Josephe,

COINS OF AGRIPPA
Agrippa was made king by Caligula
790
u.c.,

I.

WITH THE TITLE GREAT.

133

before the

1

Nisan

a.d. 37,

counting this as his 1st year.

from
791

2nd
38 39 40
41

3rd
4th 5th
6th 7th

792 793
794 795 796 797

42

43
44

8th
9th

when Agrippa

died, in his fifty-fourth year."

"Whilst, however, admitting that there

might

exist

a piece with the date L.
L.

H (year

8),

and with greater improbability a piece with the date
" that neither at Copenhagen nor at Vienna, nor
in the "Wigan Collection (and

(year
in
is

9),

I

must again repeat

at Berlin, nor

the

British

Museum, nor
I.

De Saulcy now
(|_.

adds, nor at Paris),

there a piece of Agrippa

with a higher numeral than 6

S)."

l

The type

of

the

above
that

engraved coins of Agrippa

I.

has puzzled

many

numismatists.
to the
offered.

Some 2 have thought
feast of Tabernacles,

the

umbrella was a tabemaculum, and has

some reference

and that the ears of corn on the reverse alluded to the bread
that the umbrella

Levy throws out the suggestion
as

may

indicate a token of Agrippa's dignity,

we

find in all times with great

men and

princes of the East. 3

Obvekse.
2.

Reverse.

JE.

5.

BACIAEYC MEfAC ATPinnAC
Head
of

KAICAPIA
Female

H

flPOC [C6BACTO] AIMENI.
standing,

OIAOKAICAP.
with diadem
(" Tresor," pi.
Ix.

Agrippa

I.

to right,

figure

holding

rudder

and

(?).

cornu-copiae.
;

No. 3

Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 106 De Saulcy, " Mem. de la Soc. Franc, de Num." 1869, Madden, " Num. Chron." n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. 66, No. 2.)
;

p. 27,

No.

1

;

On
1

reference to

my

"Jewish Coinage,"

it

will be noticed that I omitted, on the reverse,

" Jew. Coinage,"
Eckhel,

p. 105. vol.
iii.

3

"

Jiid.

Miinzen,"
i.

p.

81.

See Rawlinson,

" Anc. Mon-

2

"Doct. Num. Vet."
vol.
i.

p.

493;

Cavedoni,

archies," vol.

p. 495.

"

liild.

Num."

p. 61.

134
the words
tion,

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

CGBACTO AIMENI,
1

as the editor of

the " Tresor," after a most careful examinarestores

was unahle

to trace these words.

De Saulcy now

AIMENI, which

is

corroborated

by the

cast of the coin itself.

The legend

KAIIAPIA
observed

H

HPOi SEBASTQ AIMENI may be found on
the
title

the

coins

of

Nero, struck at Caesarea of Samaria. 2
It

will

be

that

METAS
as

occurs

on

the obverse of
i

this

coin. 3
5

On
is

another piece,
the
title

struck at
Its

Anthedon-Agrippias, published by Sestini
description
is

and Mionnet,

there

METAA02.

follows:

Obverse.

Reverse.

JE.4.
of

BASIAEYS ArPinnA MErAAOS. Head
Agrippa
I.

AN0HAIQN BASIAEYS
cornu-copiae.

AI~PinnA.

Double

to left; before, L.

E (year

5).

De
que
pour
[le]

Saulcy has not a very high opinion of this coin, and adds, 6 "

II

n'est pas possible
J'ai

mot absurde
l'ethinque
it

MEI~AAO£ ne
[

soit

pas

le

resultat

d'une mauvaise lecture.
estropie

bien
If
this

que

? l'ethnique]

ANOHAION
a.d.

ne

soit

de

la

meme

facon."
to

genuine,
or
to

must have
coin

been issued about
in his

41-42.

De Saulcy

does not
7 8

allude

the previous
title

" Numismatique de la Terre

Sainte."
I.

The

OIAOKAICAP

occurs only

on the coins of Agrippa

1

It

must be mentioned that

this coin

is

engraved and published

with the words
his
p.
."9,

CGBACTQ AIMENI
Illustrations of
(cf.

"Numismatic

and no doubt correctly
Saulcy,

by Mr. Akerman in the New Testament," 1846, Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

was restored by Gabinius ("Antiq." xiv. 5, 3; Jud." i. 8, 4), and eventually given by Augustus to Herod I. ("Antiq." xv. 7, 3), who changed its name to Agrippias ("Antiq." xiii. 13, 3; "Bell. Jud." i. 4, 2)
4, 2).

It

"

Bell.

p. 107).

" Num. de la Terre Sainte," p. 116. Caesarea, originally " Strata's Tower," was built by Herod I. It was called Casarea Palestine or Kairrdpeta 2e/3a<rWj (Joseph. "Antiq." ryi. The harbour was named ^.tftao-Tos Kifj.i)v (" Antiq." xvii. 5, 1). " Bell. Jud." i. 31, 3). It was considered in the Talmud 5, 1 (Neubauer, " Geog. du Talmud," p. 92) as "the capital of
2

De

;

Agrippeum (" Bell. Jud." i. 21, 8), in honour of his Marcus Agrippa [see Sect. A. Herod I., p. 106]. It formed part of the dominion of Agrippa I., who possessed the whole kingdom of his grandfather Herod I., and who may therefore have issued the coin described in the text. The city was destroyed under Gessius Florus ("Bell. Jud." ii. 18, 1), but it appears to have been existing under the name Anthedon
or

friend

Tacitus (" Hist." ii. 79) speaks of it as " Judtea and Josephus (" Bell. Jud." iii. 9, 1) as " a very great city of Judaea" (fity'iarr) tt)s 'IouScu'as inJAis). After the destruction of Jerusalem it became the capital of Jud;ea. It was the residence of Felix and Festus (Acts xxiv. 27 xxv. 1), and Agrippa I. died there (Acts xii. 19). Its site has been

kings."

caput,'"

;

at the time of Julian (Sozomen, "Hist. Eccles." v. 9). A few autonomous coins with the name ArPinilEQNj as also some Imperial pieces of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander have been published (De with the name Saulcy, " Num. de la Terre Sainte," pp. 234-236).

AN0HAONOC
art not Ctesar's

identified with Kaisarieh.
3
* 5

See p. 105, note 1, under Sect. A. Herod "Lett. Num: Cont." t. v. p. 103, No. 1.

I.

friend" (ovk «T0IAO£ John xix. 12). The title <pl\os to0 Kaluapos was one of honour frequently given to tributary kings (cf. Joseph. "Antiq." xiv. 10,2; Bockh, "Corpus

8

Comp. "Thou

TOY KAISAPOS
364
;

" Suppl."
;

vol. viii. p.

see

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

Inscr." Nos. 2123,
St.

2124,
is

2130,

etc.),

but in the passage in

p.

108
6
7

"

Num. Chron."

n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. G8.

John the phrase

probably used in a general and not a

"Mem.

de la Soc. Franc." 1869, p. 55.

Anthedon was a city on the coast of Palestine, not far from Gaza, and was included amoug the cities taken by Alexander Jannams (Joseph. " Antiq." xiii. 13, 3; 15, 4 " Bell. Jud." i.
;

" a loyal supporter of the Emperor " " well-affected to Caesar" (Canon "Wcstcott, "Speaker's Com." N. T. vol. ii. p. 271 Alford, ad he). See coin of Agrippa I. under Claudius, No. 1.
technical sense, signifying
;

?

COINS OF

HEROD AGRIPPA

I.

UNDER

CAIUS.

135

Herod Agkippa

I.

vxder Caius.

Obverse.

Reverse.

1.JE.5.

SEBA:>T.

Head

to the left, laureated

BA Ar
De
Saulcy,

in front of the king holding a sceptre, in a quadriga to right.

("Tresor,"

pi.

lx.

No. 4;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 108; No. 2 Madden, "Num. Chron."
;

"M6m.de

la Soc.

Franc, de

Num."

1869, p. 27,

n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. G8,

No.

1.)

The
published

attribution of
1

this

coin

to

the

reign of

Caius

is

uncertain,

though Eckhel has
IE
. .
.

a

very similar piece from Froelich
Rev.
It
is

Obv. iE. II.

KAISAP. SEBAST. AS.
sceptre in quadriga.
"

Head

of

Caius.

BASIA.

ATPinnA

l~.

Emperor with

Struck at
la

Caesarea Panias.

not published by

De

Saulcy in his

Numismatique

de

Terre

Sainte."

De
records
assisted

Saulcy points out
his

that

my
I

original

description

and engraving are

incorrect,

and
not

decipherment,

which

have

above

given.

The

cast

of

this

coin

has

me.

Obverse.
T.
2.

Revebse.

M.

7.

Legend

illegible.

Bust

to

left,

NOM
BASIAEQS ArpinnA
infield.

Emperor holding

sceptre

laureated.

in quadriga to right.
(Collection of the Rev.

E.

C. Reichardt.)

The
of

letters

NOM.
|$

can only stand for NOMiafia,

and the legend be explained "the money
coin, but

king Agrippa."
letters

Indeed,
after
this

Mr. Reichardt writes that he can trace on the

very

faintly, the
is

NOM, which
or

I

am
in

unable to do on the two casts sent.
the
is

There
legend

a

corroboration

of

interpretation

coins

of

Domitian

with
later.

the

MONETA AVGVST., AVGVSTI,
Doct.

AVG.,

2

which
Cohen,

employed a few years
Imp." Nos. 375-381; 2nd

Num. Vet."

vol.

iii.

p. 491.

*

"MM.

cd.

Nos. 323-334.

136

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Obverse.
3.

Reverse.

M.

\\.

TAIQ KAI

.

.

.

Head

of Caius to the

BASIAE

(retrograde).

Victory walking to right.

left,

laureatetl?
pi.

("Tresor,"

lx.

No. 5;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
No. 3
;

p.

109;

De

Saulcy,

"Mem.
No.

de la Soc. Franc, de
2.)

Num."

1869, p. 27,

Madden, " Num. Chron."

loc. cit.

Obverse.
4.

Reverse.

M.

II.

Head

of Caius.

KAISAPEIAS ASYAOY ArPinflA BASIAEY.
Male
figure, standing,

holding a

roll.

(Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 109,

from Eckhel,
;

vol.

iii.

p. 491, after Vaillant

;

De

Saulcy,
69,

" Mem. de
3.)

la Soc.

Franc, de

Num."

1869, p. 27, No. 7

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

loc. cit. p.

No.

Eckhel
however,

is

of

opinion

that

this

coin

was

struck

at

Caesarea
description

Panias.
of

It

does

not, this

appear to be
his

alluded to

by De

Saulcy in the

the coins of

town

in

" Nuniismatique

de la Terre Sainte."

Herod Agrippa

I.

under Claudius.

(" Tresor,"

pi. lx.

No. 6

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 109.)

*

(Reicbardt,

"Num.

Zeits." "Wien,

1871,

p.

83;

Madden,

" Num. Chron."

n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. 70.)

Obverse.
1.

Reverse.

M.
The

8.

BAE. ArPinAE OIAOKAIEAP.
and crowned
of

Two

hands joined together within a wreath

;

an

king, head veiled, sacrificing,

Imperial head in countermark.

hy two females, one

which

is

Yictory.

COINS OF

HEROD AGRIPPA

I.

UNDER CLAUDIUS.
:

]37

As
1-

to the reverse legend, it has

been deciphered in the six following ways
BAC[«A^s]

AHMM
CYMXIA

POMAIQN CYMXI AT(?) MJKAHTON

ATPinnA

(Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

after

drawing in " Tresor ").

2[ti/j-S]

(<n/w.a X fa)

T[oS]
rig. la

AHMM

PQMAION

.

BACMM
CYM
"

ArPinnA

[>V

<tHKAHTON

(Cavedoni, " Princ. Quest,

Num.

Giud. diffinitivamente decise," p. 14).

3

KAHTON
Mem.
de la Soc. Fran9. de

A BAS ATPinA ....
Num."

XI

"

AY

HM POMAIQN

K

(De Saulcy, "

1869, p. 27,

No.

4).

4.

AHMM

PQMAIWM
XAM'"]
"

'

KM CYAAOXM
tit.).

AY[™0]

BALM'a] ArPinA[>

lUyaf]

KAHTON

[for

KAEITON]
5.

(Reichardt, op.

[*ia]|A
'

BACMW] ATMriA [^
'(?
'

tV M]

KAHTON
iii.

M

rhv

>]HMW

"

PQMAIWW

'

KM'

EYMMM IX AHMM
6.

XI

')

AY

(Mommsen, " Num.
-

Zeits." 1872, vol.

p. 449,

Wien).

PQMAIQM
T (Madden, [ 'M?]

KM' CYMMH' XIMwM'
Chron."
n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. 75).

AY|>oS].

BACMM
difficult

ATPinA

.

.

.

[<rw]KAHTON

'

"Num.

Which
allusion
to

of

these

six

readings

is

correct
coin,

(if

any

are),

it

is

to

say. 1

Without

a more perfect example of this rare

one can
I.,

only

make out

that

the legend bears
It

some

connexion

between Agrippa
alliance of

the

Roman
oaths,

people,

and the Senate.
all

was certainly struck on the
was given
of
to

Agrippa

I.

with Claudius, when
in

Herod's kingdom

him, and a
2

league made,

confirmed by

the middle of the

Forum

the city of Rome.

Obvebse.
2.

Reverse.

M.7
pi. lx.

C KAICAP C
No.
7

Head

ATP inn A
temple
;

.

.

.

Two

figures

-within

a

distyle

of Claudius to the right, laurcatcd ?
(" Tresor,"
;

hetween them a figure

seated.
p. 27,

Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 110; De Saulcy, "Mem. de la Soc. Pranq. de Num." 1869, Madden, "Num. Chron." he. cit. p. 76, No. 2.)

No. 5

;

This coin probably represents a ceremony taking place in the temple of the god
Gaza.
eight

Mama
;

at

We

read in the Life of
of

St.

Porphyry, Bishop of Gaza, 3 "that there were in Gaza
of

temples,

the

Sun,

of

Yenus,

Apollo,

of

Proserpine,

and

of

Hecate

that

1

Fuller particulars concerning these various readings will be
in

found
pp.

my

papers
1879,

— "Num.
xix.

inner

circle

— HM POMAIQN
.

'

K

'

CYM
5,
1.

'

XI

Chron."
pp.

n.s.

1875,

vol.

xv.
in

AY.
2

69-76;
i-

vol.

20-21.

An

electrotype

"OpKid

k avTtZ

rffiverai wpbs rhv 'Ayplrnrav eVl ttjs ayopus

Dr. Babington'8 collection, and one of the best that I have seen,
.

i

to

^ive

the following

words and

letters;

outer circle

/ifcrris
3

Ivrrj 'PeoftaiW tt6\(i.

Joseph. " Autiq." xix.
v.

"Acta Sanctorum,"
vol.

vol.
iii.

p.

655,

quoted by Eckhel,

BAE ATPinA
MADDEN

KAHTON ...

A';

" Doct. Num. Vet."

p. 450.

18

138
which
is

NUMISMATA OPJENTALIA.
called

Hieron,

or

of

the Priests, 1
say, is

that

of

Fortune of the

city,

called

Tu^elov,

and that of Marnion, which, they
to

the

Cretan-bom Jupiter, and which they consider
in

be

more

glorious

than
god.

any other temple
Indeed,

existence
is

They

also

call

Marna
states
2

the

rain-producing
is

they

say

Mama
3

Jupiter."
in

Stephanus

also

" there

a

temple of
is,

the Cretan

Jove among

them, which

our time also they call

Mama,
to

that

born in Crete

(KprjTar/evrj) ."

There cannot, therefore, be
the god

much doubt

that

there was

at

Gaza a

temple dedicated

Mama, who,

according to the statements of the writers above quoted, was the

same as the Cretan Jupiter. 4
Obveese.
3.

Revebse.
El~ll

M.

II.

Head

of Claudius.

BASIAE. ATPin
wreath.
110

.

TIBERIEQN
De
Saulcy,
3.)

within a

(Eckhel, " Doct.

Num. Vet."

vol.

iii.

p. 492,

Franc, de

Num."

from Vaillant Madden, "Jew. Coinage," Madden, "Num. Chron." loc. 1869, p. 27, No. 8
;

p.

;

" Mem. de

la Soc.

;

cit. p.

78,

No.

Tiberias

was

the
to

name
Agrippa

of
I.

the

city

built

on

the

Lake

of

Gennesareth

by Herod

Antipas.
of

5

It

came

in a.d. 40,

when Caius

conferred upon

him

the dominions

Herod Antipas.
This piece
is

not alluded to by

De

Saulcy

in

his

work on the " Num. de

la

Terre

Sainte."

Herod Agrippa

I.

and Agrippa

II.

Obveese.

Eeveese.

*M
Agrippa

AEYC AT
I. to

Head

of

ATPinnA YIOY BAEIAEQE.
on horseback, cantering to right.

Agrippa
In the
B.
loc. cit.

II.

the right, laureated.

field,

under the belly of the horse, L.
(De Saulcy, "Rev.

Num."

1864, p. 394, pi. xvi. No. 9; Madden,

"Jew. Coinage,"

p. Ill

;

"Num.

Chron."

p. 78.)

1 De Saulcy, who quotes this passage ("Num. de la Terre Sainte," p. 209), gives this sentence as " celui qu'on appelait

in a distyle

temple" (De Saulcy,

"Num.

de la Terre Sainte,"

Herion
3

(^Hpoiou
title

(?)

ou 'Hpcuov

(?)

de Junon)."

2

In rd£a.

pp. 216-222, pi. xi. No. 4), and on other coins of Gaza there is a Phoenician mem, evidently the initial of the Phoenician name
of the

The

ZEYS KPHTATEN HS
Talmud
(JO)

occurs on the Greek

god Marna.

De

Saulcy has published

{op. cit. p.

210,

Imperial coins of Crete (Eckhel, " Doct. Num. Vet." vol. ii. p. 301). 1 Marna is identified with the Syrian mar ("10), found scores
of times in the

note) a very curious passage

in the signification of

Arahic
It

suffix

na
for

instead

of

the

Chaldee

Lord with the on, "our."

on this subject, which was pointed The passage, which is out to him by M. Francois Lenormant. taken from the fragment of Damascius (ed. Euelle, p. 97, Fragm. 3), runs as follows: 16 re bvofjia^ofitvov, io-riv tv0i7a
'6

means

therefore

"our Lord," and would thus be only

6p8ri jxia, Kal rpe'is irXayioi

eV

avTTjs,

fj

re Kopvcpa'ta Ka\ 5vo

fier'

Baal (^3), and consequently a fit Syriac rendering of Jupiter ("Jewish Chronicle," Feb. 9th, 1866). On several of the coins of Hadrian struck at Gaza there is the
another
legend

name

avTT)v

....
"

irapa

Tafaiois toC

Ai6s,

and

De

Saulcy adds,

" on

voit que e'est la description rigoureusement exacte

du
'

mem
notre

phenicien, initiale du
seigneur.'

mot Marna, dont
5

le sens litteral est

fAZA MAPNA,

with the type "Apollo and Diana

See p. 118, Sect. C.

Hekod

Antipas.

;

HEROD, KING OF CHALCIS.
This coin
is

—AGRIPPA

II.

139
David Bosanquet.
of

described

by Wise, who saw
1

it

in the hands of a friend,

There

is

a

woodcut given of

it,

and

it

somewhat resembles the coins

Antiochus IV.

Ejjiphanes,
Callinicus

king of Commagene, on which his two sons (BASIAEQ2 YIOl) Epiphanes and
are

represented

on
at

horseback. 2
Tiberias.
3

Agrippa

I.

appears
is

to

have

entertained
4

this

Antiochus
Sestini,
5

and other kings
attributed
to

A

similar
6

coin

described
piece
is

by Mionnet
in

froin
of

and

Anthedon-Agrippias.

This rare

the

collection

M. A. Parent. 7
The date
a.d.
L.

B

refers

to

Agrippa
8

I.

The second year
Agrippa
at
II.

of

Agrippa

I.

would

be

38-39.
of

"We know from Josephus
his

that that

was seventeen

years of age on
issued he

the death

father in
of

a.d.

44,

so

the

time

when

this

coin was

must have been a boy

about twelve years of age.

Gr.

Herod, King of Chalcis,

a.d.

41

a.d.

48.

There are no coins of Herod, king of Chalcis, struck in Judaea, 9 those given

to

him

in

my

" Jewish Coinage "

having,

as

we have

seen

(under Sect. A.

Herod

I.,

No. 22), been

restored to

Herod

I.

He
the

died in a.d.
Claudius.

48

10

and

his

kingdom was given

to

his

nephew Agrippa

II.

by

Emperor

II.

Agrippa

II.,

a.d.

48

a.d.

100.

Agrippa
father's

II.

was
a.d.

the
44,

son

of

Herod Agrippa

I.

and
of

Cypros.
age,

At

the
at

time

of

his

death,

in

he was only seventeen

years

and was

Rome, being

educated under the Emperor Claudius.

At

first,

Claudius was disposed to send the young

Agrippa
to

to

succeed his father in the kingdom, but being persuaded that he was too young
the
cares

undertake

of

a

large

kingdom, he

decided

to
11

commit

the government

of

Agrippa

II. to the supervision of a procurator,

Cuspius Fadus.

In the eighth year of Claudius, which

fell

between the 25th of January,

a.d. 48,

and

the 25th of January, a.d. 49, the uncle of Agrippa II., Herod,

King

of Chalcis, died, leaving

1

"Catalogue of Coins

in

the Bodleian Library," Oxford,

7

De
On

Saulcy,
9.

"Mem.

de la Soc.
8

Franc, de
himself

Num."
9,

1869,
1.

1750, p. 118. 2 Eckhel, " Doct.
»
* 5 8

p. 27,

No.

Joseph. "Antiq." xix.

Num. Vet."

vol.

iii.

pp. 258, 492.

'>

his coins struck in Chalcis

he

calls

B ASI AE YZ
"Doct. Num.

Joseph. "Antiq." xix. 8, 1. " Suppl." vol. viii. p. 3G4, No. 21.

HPQAH^ 0IAOKAAYAIO2
Vet."
vol.
iii.

(Eckhel,

p. 492).
;

"Lett.

Num. Cont."

t. vi.

p. 103,

No.

2.

See a coin of Agrippa

I. p.

134.

»

Joseph. "Antiq." xx. 5, 2 Joseph. "Antiq." xix. 9, 2

"

;

Bell. Jud." " BelL Jud.'"

ii. ii.

11, G.
11,
(i.

140
three
sons
:

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
Aristobulus,

whom whom

he

had
(the

by

his

first

wife Mariamne, daughter
I.

of

Joseph

(nephew

of Herod),

and
of

of

Olympias

daughter of Herod

by Malthace)
Bernice, his
the

;

and Bernicianus

and Hyrcanus,

both

he had by his second
these

wife

niece (daughter of
of

Agrippa
Agrippa

I.).

Claudius set

aside

children

and conferred

kingdom

Chalcis on

II.

1

Four years
a.d. 53), took

later Claudius,

having completed the 12th year of his reign (25th January,

from Agrippa

II. the

kingdom

of

Chalcis,

when he had been governor
II.,

thereof

for four years,

and gave him instead the tetrarchy of Philip

Batanea, Trachonitis, and

Abila, which last had been the tetrarchy of Lysanias. 2

This took place about February, a.d. 53.

On

the 13th October, a.d. 54, Claudius died and Nero succeeded him.
in the
first

Nero

year of

his

reign (a.d. 54-55) gave to Aristobulus, the son of Herod,
II. a certain

king of Chalcis, the government of Lesser Armenia, and bestowed upon Agrippa

part of Galilee, the cities of Tiberias and Tarichece, with Julias, a city of Peraea, and fourteen
villages near
it.
3

About
equivocal
in

a.d.

60,

Agrippa

II.

and Bernice his

sister

—concerning

the nature

of

whose

intercourse

with each other there had been some grave animadversions, resulting
Cilicia,

Bernice persuading Polemo, king of
It

to

marry her 4

—paid
soon

a

visit

to the

Roman
to

governor Festus, at Caosarea.

was before them that Paul made his famous speech which
"

drew forth the
Christian."
5

ironical

and contemptuous answer,

Thou

wilt

persuade

me

be a

After the

decease
to II.

of

Festus,

which took place probably about the end of
and,

a.d.

61, 6
this

Albinus was
time
that

sent

Judaea as Procurator,

according

to

Josephus, 7

it

was about
it

Agrippa

much

enlarged the city of

Coesarea-Philippi, calling

Neronias, in

honour of the Emperor Nero.

The

first

Jewish war commenced in the second year of the government of Gessius Florus
states
9

and the twelfth year of Nero, 8 and Josephus
the seventeenth year of Agrippa II.
It will therefore be necessary to

that

the twelfth

year of

Nero was

examine here the question of the dates recorded in the

passages of Josephus, as there

is

evidently some confusion in their details.

Agrippa

II. is

king of Chalcis in the eighth year of Claudius.

The eighth year

of

Claudius commenced 25th of January, a.d. 48, and ended 25th of January, a.d. 49.
1

Joseph. " Antiq." xx. Joseph. "Antiq." xx. Joseph. "Antiq." xx.

5,
7,

2; "Bell. Jud."
1;

ii. ii.

12, 1. 12, 8.

persuade
'

me

off-hand to he a Christian
(cf.

— eV

b\lyu>
iii.

'in brief,'
3),

2
3

"Bell. Jud."

iu

lew words,'

Trpoeypaxpa iv oKlyip, Ephes.

'tout

4; "Bell. Jud." ii. 13, 2. In this last passage Josephus mentions Abila, but it had already been given to Agrippa II. by Claudius (see note 2). * Joseph. "Antiq." xx. 7, 3. Cf. Juvenal, "Sat." vi. 158. 5 The Authorized Version (Acts xxvi. 28) has " Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian" (see Conybeare and Howson,
8,

d'un coup.'
6
'

It cannot

mean

'almost,' which would be irhp'

b\iyov or bxlyov 8ei."

See

Chapter VII.
9, 4.
1.

Joseph. "Antiq." xx.

8 9

Joseph. "Antiq." xx. 11,
T\pooe\ap.fiavz t»;c

apxV

& irAhfixos SwtitKarw fxkv erei rrjs

" Life
St.

of St. Paul," vol.
vol.
ii.

ii.

p. 367, note;

T. Lewin, "Life of

Ne'pojcoj yytfiovtas,

€7rTaKai8eKaTa; 8c rf;s 'Ayp'nrna /3a<riAefas,

Paul,"

p.
ii.

178,
p.

note

Com." N.T.

vol.

520).

"Speaker's Dr. Farrar ("Life and Work
;

Dr. Jacobson,

'Aprf/xiutov

nrjuSs.

Joseph.

"Bell.
to

Jud."

ii.

14,

4.

The

of St. Paul," vol.

ii.

p. 359, note) writes,

"You

are trying to

month Artemisius here May, a.d. 66.

alluded

corresponds

to

April

1

THE DATE OP THE FIRST YEAR OF THE REIGN OF AGRIPTA
The
a.d.
first

II.

141

year of Nero commenced
twelfth

13th of

October, a.d. 54, and ended 13th of October
a.d. 65,

55.

Consequently the

year of

Nero commenced 13th of October,

and

ended 13th of October,
If then the

a.d. 66.

month

of April, a.d. 66,

was included in the seventeenth year
of
it

of

Agrippa

II.,

we

shall find

by counting back that the month
a.d. 50,

April of the
is

first

year of Agrippa II.

would be the month of April,

from which

clear that the first year of

Agrippa

II.

could not be the eighth of Claudius, which was included between 25th of January, a.d. 48, and

25th of January, a.d. 49.
\Ye should therefore
the eighth."
Chalcis

perhaps read in Josephus

" in

the ninth

year,"

instead of

" in

was,

however,
took place,

taken
as

away from Agrippa
already

II.

when he had been governor
February, a.d.
of Claudius
53,
at

four years.

This

we have

shown, about

the

commencement

of the thirteenth year of Claudius.

The thirteenth year
to

commenced
49
for

25th of January, a.d. 53,

and four years anterior

that would

give

us a.d.

the

commencement

of the reign of

Agrippa

II. at Chalcis.

Were we
passage,

then to retain the words of Josephus "in the eighth year of Claudius" in one
in

we should perhaps read
comparative table

the other " the

eighteenth

year of

Agrippa," instead of

"the seventeenth."

A

*

will better elucidate the bearings of the above statements

:

25th January,
8th year of Claudius

A.JJ.


49

Agrippa
-

II. succeeds

Herod, king of Chalcis, at the close of

a.d. 48.

1
1

9th
10th

;>

;>

)>

!)

11th 12th

j y

>>

>)

>)

13th

;;

>)

_ _2 —50— 3 _51 -4 -'32 - 5 — 53— 6
54

2
3

4
5

-eud of the royalty of Chalcis after four years' government.

13th Octoher,
1st

year
!>

of

Xero
>>

2nd
3rd 4th oth
6th
7th 8th

>J

)>

!)

>)

— — - 55 -8 — 56— — 57—10
7 9
,

6 7
8

9

J J

tt

_J»_n

10
11

>>

;>

J J

>>

})

>>

9th

»
))

jt

10th
11th
12th

jj

>>

>>

J

I)

-59-12 - 60-13 - 61 -14 —62— lo - 63 -16 - G4 -17 -65-18
60
1

12 13
14

15 16
17
April, a.d. 66 ('ApTe^Kri'ou
fir\v6s)

Joseph. "Bell. Jud."

ii.

14, 4.

See also the

General Table

at end of this section.

142
All circumstances considered,

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
it

seems better to correct

the words

of

Josephus, "in the

eighth year of Claudius," to " the ninth year of Claudius," and to assume that the ninth year
of

Claudius,

i.e.

between January,
Chalcis.

a.d.

49,

and January,

a.d.

50,

was the

first

year of

Agrippa's

reign at

This era

ended four years

after,

in a.d. 53.

The seventeenth

year of Agrippa II. would in this case correspond to the twelfth year of Nero. 1

About February,

a.d. 53,

commenced the
of

era of the tetrarchy of Fhilip.
II.
(or, as

The

era of the actual

kingdom

Agrippa

I called

it

in

my

"Jewish Coinage,"
the addition was

the "era of Tiberias") commenced, according to

De

Saulcy, in a.d. 55,

when

made

to his territory.

Whether Agrippa

II. did

commence counting

this era in a.d. 55, or

at a later date, will be discussed presently in these pages.

In
the

a.d. 67, "Vespasian

conducted the

Jewish war which Nero had committed to him.
a.d.

In

month
siege

of

Artemisius (April
Iotapata,
of

—May),
fifth

67,

2

he entered
the

Galilee,

and after forty-eight

days'

took

on the
of

day

of
67. 3

month Panemus (June
the fourth
to

—July),

in the

thirteenth

year

the

reign

Nero, a.d.

On

day of the same month
Caesarea.

Vespasian returned to
taken.
4

Ptolemais, and

from thence proceeded

Joppa was then

Shortly

after Vespasian

removed from Caesarea and went
II.
5

to Caesarea-Philippi,

where

he spent twenty days with Agrippa
Tiberias and Taricheae, both of

which

cities

formed part of the kingdom of Agrippa
of

II.,

were next attacked by Vespasian " for
soon
surrendered,

the

sake
the

Agrippa," as Josephus
of

says.

6

Tiberias
7

and

Taricheae

yielded

on

8th

Gorpiaeus
II. 8

(August

—September).

Vespasian made a present of

many

of the prisoners to

Agrippa
to

Agrippa
his assistance.

II.

had for seven months been laying siege
II.

Gamala when Vespasian came

to

Shortly after Agrippa

was wounded in the right elbow by a

sling-stone. 9

Gramala was taken the 23rd of the month Hyperberetaeus (September

— October),

a.d. 67.

No
to Titus.

place

in Galilee

now remained but

the small city of

Gischala, and this surrendered

About February,

a.d. 68,

Vespasian entered Gadara, 10 and about May, Jericho. 11

Vespasian

then returned to Caesarea, where he heard of the death of Nero and of the accession of Galba. 13

Vespasian immediately sent his son Titus to Galba, to receive his commands as to the Jewish

war

;

Agrippa
13

II.

accompanied him.

On

their

way, at

Corinth, they heard of

the death
II.

of Galba

and that Otho had succeeded him.

Titus returned to his father,

and Agrippa

1

De

Saulcy

("Mum.

lie

la

Soc.

Franc, de

Num."

1869,

i

Joseph. " Bell. Jud." Joseph. "Bell. Jud."
Joseph. " Bell. Jud." Joseph. " Bell. Jud."

iii.
iii.

9, 1-4.
9, 7.

p. 37) has arrived at very similar conclusions.

See Madden,

5
6
7

Chron." n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. 105, note. The Rev. H. Browne, writer of the article " Chronology," in Kitto's " Cyclopaedia of Biblical Literature" (e'd. Alexander), referring
Agrippa II. to his uncle's dominions and to the passage in Josephus (" Bell. Jud." ii. 14, 4), says that "for eTCTaKcu8tKa.Tov we must read eVfeaicaiScKaToe " but if any
to the succession of
;

"Num.

Joseph. " Bell. Jud." hc.cit.
iii.

10, 10.
cit.

8
9

Joseph. "Bell. Jud." he.
iv.

1,2, 3.

I0

Joseph. " Bell. Jud."
Joseph. " Bell. Jud." Joseph. " Bell. Jud."

iv. 7, 3.
iv. 8, 1.

n

alteration should be

made

in this passage of Josephus,

it

should

n
13

iv. 9, 2.

surely be to " oKTw/caiSe'itaToi/," as the
2 3

Table shows.

Galba was killed January
i.

15, a.d.

G9 (Clinton, " F. E."

Jud." Joseph. "Bell. Jud."
Joseph.
Bell.

"

iii. iii.

7, 3. 7,

vol.

p. 52).

36.

OTHO.

VITELLIUS.

—DATE
During

OF THE ELECTION OF VESPASIAN.
this

143

continued his journey to Rome. 1

year

(a.d.

69)

the Jewish war was partially

suspended and Jerusalem was
Otho,

left to

the factions of John and the Zealots, and of Simon. 2
days,
died,

who reigned only

ninety- five

and

Vitellius,
five

who was
and

in

Gaul,
slain

was
on

chosen

emperor. 3

He

reigned

only

eight

months

and

days,

was

December 22nd,

a.d. 69.
fifth

Meanwhile Vespasian, on the

day

of

the

month

Daesius

(May

—June),

a.d. 69,

marched against those places which were not yet overthrown, and
but Herodium, Masada,
Machaerus, and Jerusalem. 4

left

nothing to the Jews
Vespasian again

After

these

successes,

returned to Caesarea, and there heard of the troubles at

Rome and

of the election of Vitellius. 5

Of the

election of Vespasian,

it

is

necessary to say more than simply to record the fact.

According

to the testimony of

Tacitus, 6 Vespasian

was elected emperor

at

Alexandria on

the 1st of July (Kal. Jul.), a.d. 69, and in
{quinto

Judaea,

where he then was, on the 3rd of July
{ante

nonas Julias),
7

and shortly

after, before

July 15

idus Julias),

through

all Syria.

Suetonius

makes the same statement

as regards the election at Alexandria on the Kal.

Jul.,

but with respect

to the election in Judaea, says quinto idus
1)
is

Julias (July 11).

The date given
hand,

by Tacitus (July
relates
9

considered

to be

the

correct
all

one. 8

Josephus,

on the other

that

when Vespasian had overthrown

the places near to Jerusalem he returned to

Caesarea,

and there heard that Vitellius was elected emperor.
the
soldiers at

Vespasian

and his army were

indignant, and

a

large meeting declared Vespasian

emperor, threatening him
to Tiberius

with death
the

if

he refused to accept the dignity.
of

Upon

this

he wrote

Alexander,

governor
of

Egypt and Alexandria (who had formerly
10

—from
on

a.d.

46

to a.d.

48

—been

procurator

Judaea

),

asking

his

support,

and the day

which Tiberius
a.d.

Alexander

administered the oath

to the soldiers, namely, the

Kalends of July,

69, is considered to

be the beginning of the reign of Vespasian.

The Jewish war, ending with the
in a.d. 70.

destruction

of

Jerusalem,

was concluded by Titus

Agrippa

II.,

who

resided at
of

Rome

after

the

destruction of
of

Jerusalem,

is

said

to
11

have

received the honours died at

the praetorship

and an accession

territory

from Vespasian.
100. 12

He

Rome

in the third year of the reign of the
II.

Emperor Trajan,
line.

a.d.

Agrippa

was the

last

Jewish prince of the Herodian

2; Tac. "Hist." i. 10; ii. 1, saw Otho or Vitellius who succeeded him, I cannot say, and he returned to Syria to join Ye-pasian some time in a.d. 69 ("Mox per occultos suorum nuntios excitus ab urbe Agrippa, ignaro adhuc Vitellio, celeri
1

Joseph. "Bell. Jud."

iv. 9,

8

See notes by Lipsius, Ernestius and Pagius to passages
vol.
i.

2,

4.

Whether Agrippa

II.

quoted; Clinton, "F. II."
p. 355.
9

p.

56

;

Lewin, "Fasti Sacri,"

"

Bell.

Jud."

iv.

10, 1-6.

10

See

Chapter VII.

navigatione properaverat."
-

— Tac.

This Alexander was afterwards a

" Hist."

ii.

81).

great friend of Titus and was

made a general
v.
1,

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 165, seq.
Vitellius
ii.

See

Chapter VIII.
69 (Tac.

him (Joseph. "Bell. Jud."

6),

J
••

entered
;

Home
"

before

18th July, a.d.

capture of Jerusalem (Joseph. " Bell.

of tbe army under and was present at the Jud." vi. 1, 3).
ii.

Eist"
*

91

Suet.

Vitell." 11).
iv. 9, 9.
iv. 10, 2.
7

Joseph. " Bell. Jud." Joseph. " Bell. Jud."

" Milman, "Hist, of the Jews," 4th ed. 1866, vol. Mason, in Smith's " Diet, of Biog." vol. i. p. 78.
lJ

p.

394;

5

UapeAa&e

tV apxV
iirl

^

KAauSi'oo,

r)i£r)0r)

5e

M

Hepui/ot,

6

"

IIi~t."

ii.

79-81.

" Vesp."

G.

Kal «ti

paWov

Oviairaaiavov, TeAeuTa 8e eVei rp'nt? Tpaiavov

144

NUMISMATA ORIFNTALIA.

ACRIPPA

II.

WITHOUT THE NAME OF EMPEROR.

Obverse.

Reverse.

*

M.

4.

BACIAEW.
"Num.

ArPinnOY.

Head

of

L.

I

(year 10).

An

anchor.

Agrippa
(Reichardt,

II. to the left, laureated(?).
cf.

Chron." n.s. 1864, vol. iv. p. 178; Madden, "Num. Chron." 1875, vol. xv. p. 110; Chron." n.s. 1862, vol. ii. p. 274; Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 115; and De Saulcy, "Mem. de de Num." 1869, p. 28, A. No. 1.)

Reichardt,

"Num.

la Soc.

Frane.

Remarks on

the

Coins of Agrippa II. without the name of Emperor.

The year 10 The year 10 The year 10
To which

of the

"era of Chalcis" answers

to a.d.

58-59.

of the " era of Philip " corresponds to a.d. 62-63.

of the "

kingdom

of

Agrippa " (De Saulcy)

is

a.d. 64-65, or of the " era of

Tiberias," a.d. 70-71.
of these years shall the coin be assigned?
first

Mr. Reichardt, 1 when he
years of his reign from his

published

this coin,

assumed that Agrippa

II.

counted the

father's

death

in a.d. 44, but that

he did not take the govern-

ment

at once

till

Claudius, in a.d. 53 (being the tenth year of his, Agrippa's, reign), bestowed

upon him the

title of

king, on which

occasion

he thought himself entitled

to cause coins to

be struck in his name as king.
I have already stated
2

that I

do not agree with the date given by Mr. Reichardt, and

that I did not consider that Agrippa II.

commenced counting the years

of

his

reign

till

he

succeeded his uncle Herod, king of Chalcis, at the close of a.d. 48.
Phot. " Cod." 33. Trajan, when in Germany, was adopted by Nerva in a.d. 97 (Victor, " Epit." p. 370 Plin. " Paneg." c. 8). Nerva died three months after, January 25, a.d. 98, when Trajan succeeded him. In a.d. 99 Trajan returned to Rome. His third year of government will therefore be a.d. 100. Froelich (" Reg. Vet." p. 95) is also of opinion that Agrippa II. died about a.d. 100. He says "Enimvero ... ex alio Josephi
;

inter paucos illos utique prater pancos, intra saeculum obiere Agrippa II. fuit, quern vo-rarov (postremum) Herodiadum
;

regnantium appellat Justus Tiberiensis,
smcuhon, ab Herodis obitu, decessit
;

...

qui

itaque post

igitur circa

annum

cen-

tesimum arm Christiana;."
Sainte,"

De

Saulcy
(p.

("Num.

de la Terre

1874) in one passage

316) says that Agrippa II.

:

died in a.d. 99, and in another (p. 335) in a.d. 100.

Mr. Lewin

ipsius testimonio Lib. xviii. Antiquit.
5, 3] satis certo

C. V. pag. 885 [xviii.

deducimus

;

100,

Agrippam

II. vitam finisse

proxime circa annum airoe Christi ita habet de Herodis Magni
;

("Fasti Sacri," p. 356, No. 2111) assigns his death to a.d. 99. Tillemont (quoted by Eckhel, " Doct. Num. Vet." vol. iii. I do not know on what p. 496) places his death in a.d. 93.
authority.
1

posteris,

Etye £i>tos eKarbf ircov t£65ov

avvefiT),

Trk^v bxlyuv,

ttoKKoX S'^aav, 5ia<p6apr)vat tows 'HpiiSov airoyovovs.
obiit

Herodes

"Num.

Chron."

n.s. 1862, vol.

ii.

p. 274.

anno ante seram Christi quarto

;

si

igitur posteri Herodis,

2

"Jew. Coinage,"

p. 115.

COINS OF AGRIPPA

II.

WITH OR WITHOUT THE NAME OF NERO.
which
this

145
inclined
to

Of the four
think,
as

different

dates

to

piece

could be assigned,

I

am

I

thought in 1864, * that the year 10 refers to the tenth year of the "Chalcian
reason, that

era," a.d. 58, for the

the right of
to,

striking coins with the head of

Agrippa
all

II.

must have been peremptorily put a stop
years, his coins bear either the

as in

the next

year, a.d. 59,

and in

future

head of a town or the head of a reigning emperor.
coin

I do not, therefore, think that this
or a.d.

was issued

as

late

as

a.d.

62-63, a.d.

64-65,

70-71.
this opinion is purely conjectural.

Still,

Agrippa

II.

with or without the name of Nero.

Obverse.
1.

Reverse.
of

iE.

6.

Legend
;

lost.

Head

Nero

to the right,

Eni-BACIAE-ArPinn-NEPO-NIE(N«p»mW)
within an olive crown.

laureated
("Tresor,"

in front, the lituus.

pi. lx.

No. 13

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p.

116,

No.

1

;

De

Saulcy, 2 p. 28, B. No.

1

;

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

loc. cit. p.

112, No.

1.)

Obverse.
2.

Re verse.
of

&.

4.

NEPQN.

Head

Nero

to the right,

Same legend and

type.

laureated.
("Tresor,"
pi. Ix.

No. 14
2.

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 116,

No. 2;

De

Saulcy, p. 28, B. No. 2

;

Madden,

"Num.

Chron.

loc. cit.

No.

De

Saulcy adds that he cannot see on this coin, as I had formerly given, the word

C6BACTOO-

Obverse.
3.

Reverse.
. .

M.2$.

NEPQN

KAI

.

Head of Nero

to

Same legend and

type.

the right, laureated.
(British

Museum

:

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 116,

No. 3

;

De

Saulcy, p. 28, B. No. 3

;

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

loc. cit.

No.

3.)

1

"Jew. Coinage,"
References, except

p. 116.

Soc. Franc, de
stated, are to

Num.

et

d'Arch."

p.

26

seq. Paris,

2

when otherwise
of the

De

Saulcy's

paper,

" On the Coins

Agrippas," in the

"Mem.

de la

Madden, " Supplement to Hist, of Jewish Coinage," Chron." n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. 101 seq.

in

1862; cf. " Num.

19

146

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Obverse.
4.

Reverse.

M.Z.

NEPONIAA

.

.

KAICAPI ArPinA.

BAC. [ArP. ETJOYC
comua-copiae
;

Al

TOY

KAIK.

Two

Turreted female head to the right.
(Formerly in the Cab. of the late Mr. Wigan;

hetween them a
De

caduceus.
;

Madeira, " Jew. Coinage," p. 117, No. 4

;

Saulcy, p. 28, A. No. 2

Madden,

"Num.

Chron." he.

cit.

No.

4.)

Obverse.
5.

Eeverse.

JE. 3.

BACIAGOC

(«&)

MAPKOY ArPinnOY.
117,

ETOYC A
the

I

TOY

within

a circle,

and around
).
i.

Hand

holding ears of corn and poppy-heads.
p.

monogram

^

(KC£ = KAI CK

(Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

De

Saulcy, p. 28, A. No. 3

No. 5; " Tresor," pi. lx. No. 15; Cavedoni, "Num. Bibl." [Italian work], pi. Coll. of the Rev. H. C. Reichardt.) Madden, "Num. Chron." he. cit. No. 5
; ;

No. G

;

Obverse.
6.

Reverse.

M.

3.

XAAKOYSroundadot.
(British

ET. RK.

Anchor.
p. 120,

Museum: Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

No.

6.)

Remarks on
Nos.

the

Coins of Agrlppa II. with or without the

name of Nero.

1,
i.e.

2,

and 3

are

undated.
is

Nos.

4 and 5 bear a double date

ETOYC A

I

TOY

KAIOs,
Nos.

"year XI., which
2,

also

VI."
at

1,

3,

and

4

were

struck

Csesarea-Philippi,

a

town,

as
a.d.

we have already
60-61.
all

mentioned, to which Agrippa II.

gave the name of Neronias about
the town
in

No.

5

has not the

name

of

which
learn

it

was

struck.

In
II.

probability

it

was

also

issued at

Neronias.

From

this coin

we

that

Agrippa

assumed the name

of Marcus

from Marcus Agrippa.
5,

"With respect to the date of issue of Nos. 4 and
pas
a
hesiter, l'an

De

Saulcy,
les

(p.

48) says
;

:

—"

II

n'y a

XI. de

l'ere

de Chalcis se repartit

sur

annees 59 et 60

l'an

VI. de
jolies

la royaute definitive sur les

annees 60 et 61.

C'est done dans l'annee 60

que nos deux

RE MARKS ON THE COINS OF AGRUTA
petites

II.

UNDER NERO.

147
:

monnaies d'Agrippa
ici

II. ont ete frappees a Cesaree

de Philippe," and adds in a note
et d'une

" II ne peut etre

question,

comme

le croit

Madden, d'une annee de Neron

annee

d'Agrippa II."
Nos.
It
1,

2,

and 3 are consequently

also classed

by De Saulcy

to

A.r>.

60.
la

may now
II.,"

be as well to say a few words

respecting the " ere
in a.d. 55,

de

royaute definitive
II. received

dAgrippa
from Nero

which De Saulcy makes

to

commence

when Agrippa

Galilee, Tiberias, Taricheoe, Julias of Perrea,

with other villages of Peraea.

It will be

remembered that from certain coins

of

Domitian bearing the date ET. KS (year 26),
(Cos.
(or,

and the designation of the twelfth consulship

XII.),

it

was thought that the true
it,

commencement of the era " de

la

royaute definitive"
a.d. 61. 1

as I called

"the era of Tiberias")

was in the eighth year of Nero,

These coins of Domitian, which
however, considered by

will

be

found

described

in

their

proper place, 2 are,

De

Saulcy to have no connexion with the " era of Agrippa

II"

but

with a " special era of the

town of Neronias," and he has consequently based his arrangement

of a portion of the series on the

commencement
the

of Agrippa's era of

from

a.d.

55.

But the
although
era

coins,

with or
struck
the

without
at

name
are

Nero, above
assigned
?

described

(Nos.
to

1

to

5),

undoubtedly

Neronias,

not

by De

Saulcy

the

special

of Neronias,

but to

era of Chalcis.
is

And why

Because the " year

XL, which
De Saulcy

also

VI.," could not

possibly belong

to

an era the

eleventh year of which would be in a.d. 71.
I quite agree with that the "year XI." refers to the Chalcian era, a.d. 59-60,
to

but
of
is

if

the coins of

Domitian above alluded
of the

can be considered as fixing the correct period
I

commencement

"era of Agrippa," then
3

am

still

of opinion that the

"year VI."

the sixth year of Nero, a.d. 59-60.

Further discussion of the dates on these coins of Domitian will be given

in loco.
4

As

to

No.

6,

this interesting little coin

has been

assigned by Cavedoni
it

to

Agrippa

II.

He
of

says,

"The
II.,

year R K,

that

is

26,

5

of this Xu\kov<; coin, if

denotes a year of the reign
ruins

Agrippa

coincides with

a.d.

73

[read

a.d.

74],

at

which time nothing but

remained of the Temple, but this small piece of money might very well have served for the
offerings

which the Jews were compelled
Agrippa."

to

bring every Sabbath to the synagogue during the
is

reign of

This attribution, though not proved,
p. 131.

not

improbable, as

the type of
which year he

1

Madden, "Jew. Coinage, "

"unknown
terra-

era," commencing in a.d. 5G,

in

2
3

See under Domitian, Nos. 11, 12, 13, 14.

suggests that the change of

name from
Cf.

Ca-sarea to Neronias

may
n
s.

The doable date
of

receives

some confirmation from the
tin-

have taken place, and therefore that the
also equivalent to a.d. 6G.

ETOYC A

I

(11) is

drachms
vol.

Antiorh marked with the year of

reign of

Nero

Madden,

"Num. Chron."

those of the Caesarean era (Eckhel,
iii.

" Doct. Num. Vet."

1879, vol. xix. p. 21.
i

p.

Prof.

Mommsen

281; Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 118, note 8). is of opinion (" Num. Zeits." vol. iii. p. 449,

"
.

Bibl.

Num."
of

vol.

ii.

p. 39.
it

Eckhel (" Doct. Num. Vet."
to

jjj. s

1872, Wien) that the

TOY

p 286) has suggested

thai

may belong

Commagene.
vol.
iii.

KAI C^
it
i-

(6)

maybe
t<i

referred to
p.

The proposal
cf.

Mr. Conder ("Bible Educator,"

the "sixth yearoi Agrippa II.," dating from the era commencing
in a.d. 61, and therefore that

99;

"Handbook

to the Bible," p. 25) to read this date

equivalent
it

a.d.

'•;.

For

PK =120
"Num.

of the Scleucidan era,

cannot be entertained (Madden,

the other date, he supposes that

may

be reckoned from an

Chron."

n.s. 1874, vol. xiv. p. 301).

148
the anchor
is

NUMISMATA OEIENTALIA.
of

common

occurrence on
the

the coins of Herod
of

I.,

and

may

even he found on a

coin of Agrippa II. without

name

Emperor

(p. 144).

The word XAAKOY2 has been

supposed by Sestini
since,
case,

'

to indicate rather

the

name

of

a magistrate than the

name

of

a coin,

says

this
2

writer,

we ought

to

have

XAAKON
is

and not

XAAKOYI
(on

in the nominative

but Eckhel

has rightly argued

that
of

^aX/covs

the proper nominative, and quotes the
of

authority of

Pausanias, 3 who,

speaking

the people

Pharae

the
call

left
it

bank

of the

Kamadtza, near Prevezo*), says that they have a country coinage and
eTTi^copiov,

chaleus (vofiia/xa

KaXelrat

Be

^a\«roO?

to

vdfiia/j,a).

There cannot be the slightest doubt that the
of the piece. 5

word

xaX.Kov'i

on

this coin indicates the

name

Agrippa

II.

with the name of Vespasian.

Obverse.
1.

Reverse.

JE.

8.

AYTOKPA. OYEC. KAICAPI CBACTO
Head of Vespasian
to the right, laureated.

ET. Al BA. ATPinnA.
head standing
cornu-copia3.

Deity with modius ou

{sic).

to left, holding ears of corn

and

(British

No.

Museum: Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 121, No. 1; cf. "Tresor," pi. The specimen published by De Sauley, p. 28, C. No. 1, has the 1.

lxi.

No. 1;

"Num.

Chron." he.

cit. p.

114,

obverse legend

AYTOKPA. OYECI1A.

CGBACTO.)

1!

VERSE.

Reverse.

Pot. 7. AYTOKPA. OYECnA. KAICAPI CGBACT. Type as No. 1. Small head as

ETOY.

HI

BA. AfPinriA.

Type

as

No.

1.

countermark on neck.
(" Tresor," pi.
lxi.

No. 3

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 122, No. 3 De Sauley, potin and not M. Madden, " Num. Chron." loc. cit.
; ;

p. 29, C. p.

115,

No. 2, who says that the piece No. 2.)

is

of

1

2 3

"Lettere," vol. i. p. 53. " Doct. Num. Vet." vol.
Lib.
vii. c.

iii.

p.

286.

22.
s.v.

*
5

Smith's " Diet, of Geography,"

Phara?.

Another specimen of this coiu is in the Hunter Museum. Three other coins are known with the word xoAkoOs on them,

and they probably belong to Antioch in Syria (Pelleriu, "Lettre," ii. pi. iv. 2; Hunter, pi. 68). Two of them have on the obverse a female head and one a male laureated head (perhaps Nero); two of them have the date AIP and all three have on the reverse a quiver and bow (Eckhel, "Doct.

Num. Vet."

vol.

iii.

p. 286).

COINS OP AGRIPPA

II.

WITH THE NAME OF VESPASIAN.

149

Obverse.
3.

Reverse.

-E.

8.

AYTOKPA. OYECIIACI
Type
as No.
Paris;
1.

ETOY. KS BA. AfPinntA].

Type

as

No.

1.

ACTQ.
cf.

(Cabinet des Medailles,

De

Saulcy, p. 29, C. No. 3;
.
.

AYT

AP!

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 122, No. 4, from an impression received from M. Cohen; Madden, "Num. Chron." loc. cit. No. 3 a second example in Paris has the obverse legend C6BACT., and on the reverse a crescent above the right arm of the goddess; a third in the British
;

Museum

reads

AYTOKPA. OYECnACI. KAICAPI C6BACTW.)

Obverse.
4.

Reverse.

M. 8. AYTOKPA. C6BACT. Type as No.
pi. lxi.

0YECI~1ACI. KAICAPI
1.
p.

ETOY.

KZ BA. ATPinnA.
arm
;

Type

as No.

1.

Star above the right
123,
loc.

of the goddess.

(" Tresor,"

No. 4;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

No. 5; De Saulcy, cit. No. 4.)

p.

29, C.

No. 4

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

Obverse.
5.

Reverse.

JE.

7.

AYTOKPA.
Type
as
;

OYECnA
1.

ETOY. KO BA. AI~innA

{sic).

Type

as No.

1.

ACTO.
Tresor,"

No.

pi. lxi.

No. 5

Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 123, No. 6 De Saulcy, p. 29, C. No. 5, who adds entre mes mains porte AfPinnA " Madden, " Num. Chron." loc. cit. No. 5.)
;
>

:

"

TJn exemplaire

With, respect to this
a

coin,

De

Saulcy says that " Lc No. 3 de Madden,

p.

125, attribue

Titus, doit etre
lxi.

notre No. 5 [the coin
|_.

No.

5,

above

described]

de

Vespasien.

('

Tresor,'

pi.

No.

6,

avec

K0

BA.

Nous ne savons d'ou

sort cette piece)."

150
The No.
in

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
3
to

which De Saulcy makes allusion was published by me from
There are no
traces

a

specimen

the

British

Museum.

on

it

either

of

TITO
of

or

OYEC.
that

Nor can
it

anything certain be

gathered
of
Titus.

from

the

portrait,

though

I

was
in

opinion

was

more
of
L.

like

the

face

Moreover,
the
this

I

felt

corroborated
(pi. lxi.

my
6),

views from the fact but with the legend

a

similar

coin

being
obverse

engraved in
legend

" Tresor "
coin
is

No.

KG BA. C6BAC, but
that
it

The
the

of

clearly
|_.

drawn

AYTOK. TITOC KAICAP
ATPinnA,
by me, and
is

reverse

legend,

which

is

given as

K0
it

BA.

so obscure,

is

quite

impossible to
type,

distinguish

any portion
i.e.

of

with certainty.
that described

The
given by

reverse

though, of both these coins
" Victory
is

that described

in the " Tresor "

is

to

the

right,

holding wreath

and palm-branch," whilst

the type

De

Saulcy (No. 5)
is

the goddess

with modius.

Moreover, there
should not exist, as

no reason

why

coins of

Titus with

the date L.

K0, or ETOY.

K0

we

shall see later [see

under Titus, Nos. 9 and 10].

Remarks on

the Coins of

Agrippa II. with

the

name of Vespasian.

De

Saulcy's

Arrangement

(p.

49).

—No.

1,

with the date ET.

Al, year 14 of the "ere
i.e.

definitive,"

was struck immediately

after the election of Vespasian

in the

month

of July,

a.d. 69, probably at the metropolis of one of Agrippa's tetrarchies.

No.

2,

with the date

ETOY.

HI,

year 18 of

the same era, was struck at the same town

between the years a.d. 72 and 73.
No.
lifetime
3,

bearing the date

ETOY. KS
it

(year 26), in the same town, and certainly during the

of

Vespasian

;

but

cannot be dated
74-75.
is

from the " ere

definitive," but

from the " era

of Chalcis,"

and represents

a.d.

No.

4,

dated

ETOY. KZ

(year 27),

also dated

from the "era

of Chalcis,"

and was struck

in a.d. 75-76.

No.

5,

ETOY. KO

(year

29),

dated from the same era, and was issued in a.d. 77-78,

the year that preceded the death of Vespasian.

De
dates.

Saulcy also observes that the two groups are distinct in the manner of marking the

In the former the units precede the

tens, in the latter the tens precede the units.

My
known

Arrangement.
I

—No.
De
that

1,

date

ET. Al
(|_.
I

(year

14).

Similar

coins

with this date are

of Titus (L.

A) and Domitian

A), which are described in

loco.

All are attributed by
It

Saulcy to a.d. 69.

may be remarked

on the coin of Titus there are the
to

titles
till

of Autohrator and
after

Scbastos,

which might lead one

suppose that

it

was not issued

the death of

REMARKS ON THE COINS OF AGRIPPA
Vespasian in a.d.
assigned,
79, but there
is is

II.

UNDER VESPASIAN.
to

151

no era giving that date
that,

which

it

could possibly be
his

and

it

more than

likely

as
a.d.

Titus was associated with
71,
1

father

in

the

tribunitian power,

and made Imperator
and

in

that he was considered in
in all

Syria to be

the real colleague of Vespasian,
I

to participate

the Imperial honours.

am

not,

however, of

De

Saulcy's opinion respecting the date of issue of these pieces.
II.

In

a.d.

68,

on the death of Nero, as I have above shown, Agrippa

accompanied

Titus on

their

way

to

war against the Jews.
sion his of

Rome to receive orders from Galba about the prosecution of the On the road they heard of the death of Galba and of the accesII.

Otho,

and whilst Agrippa

continued his

journey to Rome,

Titus returned

to

father.

Did Agrippa

II.

return to

Vespasian without seeing Otho or Vitellius,
69,

and could he
?

have been with him so early as July, a.d.
I cannot with certainty say.
2

when Vespasian was proclaimed Emperor
of Vespasian,

In any case
Domitian,

it

seems to

me

excessively improbable that
II.,

coins

Titus,

and

with

the

name

of

Agrippa

should

have been

issued at

the

very moment

when Vespasian was
at
this

elected Emperor,

and in the very midst of the excitement taking place

time.

"When the Jewish war was concluded,
Palestine and at
his
territory,

in

a.d.

70,

and

matters were
II.

more

settled

in

Rome, Vespasian

is

said to

have presented Agrippa
inclined to think that

with additions to
of

and I

am
of

therefore

the more
XII.,

the coins
their

Domitian

with the dates
give us the
assigned.

ET. KS and COS.

and

to

which I

shall

allude in
of

proper place,
II.

standard

an

era

to

which many of

the

coins

Agrippa

may be

Assuming

this

to

be the case,
I

the coins

of

Vespasian, Titus,

and Domitian, with the

dates ET. Al, and
I for

L.

A

were struck in

a.d. 74-75.

do not think that anything can be gathered from the difference of

the expression

the

word "year"
2.

— ET.
HI

and L.
(year
18).

No.
coins,

Date ETOY.
according to

This

belongs

to

the

same

era

as

the

previous

and,
3.

my

theory,

should be assigned to a.d.
26).

78-79.

No.

Date ETOY.

KS (year

I

agree with

De

Saulcy that this date must he
74-75. 75-76.
77-78. 3

reckoned from the " Chalcian era," and that the coin was issued in a.d.

No. No.

4.
5.

Date ETOY. Date ETOY.

KZ

(year

27).

Also "Chalcian era."
Also "Chalcian era."

Issued in a.d. Issued in a.d.

(year 29).

1

Eckhel,

" Doct. Num. Vet."
1.

vol. vi. p.

351.

are apotheosistic coins, and
deaths.

must have been coined

after their

2 3

See page 143, note
It

"In

fact," he writes,

"he who could in
[see

the year 87 entitle

may be
iii.

mentioned

that

Prof.

Mommsen ("Num.
is

Domitian Ao/xeTiavhs Kaiaap
venieutly place

Zeits." vol.

pp. 453-457, 1872,

Wien)

of opinion,
iii.

and

so

divus

Vespasianus

under Domitian], could confrom heaven again upon
Cf.

agrees with Eckhel ("Doct.

Num. Vet."

vol.

p. 495), that

earth."

I do not,

however, agree with this hypothesis.
n.s. 1879, vol. xix. p. 22.

the coins of Vespasian and Titus, with the years 2C, 27, and 29,

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

152

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

AGR1PPA

II.

WITH THE NAME OF

TlTXJS.

Obverse.
1.

Reverse.

M.
Head

7.

AYTOKP

.

.

.

CAP

TIT.

CCBAC.

L.

IA BACI. ATPinOY.
standing
to
left,

Deity (without modius)
ears
of

of Titus to the right, laureatcd.

holding

corn

and

cornu-copiae.
(De Saulcy [from
his

own

collection], p. 29, D.

faussement cette piece a Vespasien."

— " Tresor,"
work
is

No.

1

;

lie

adds,
lxi.

"No.
No.
2.

2 de

Madden, 'Jew. Coinage,'
in the
.

p. 121 et 122, qui
is

attribue

pi.

The drawing
. .

"Tresor"

very indistinct, but

the description given in the text of that

AYTOKPA. OYEC
Chron." he.
cit. p.

CEBACTO.

I

do not doubt that

De

Saulcy's attribution

is

correct;

Madden,

"Num.

119,

No.

1.)

Obverse.

Reverse.
.

* o

M.
Type
as

AYTOKP. TITOC KAIC
No.
1.

CCB.

L.

IA

BAC.

ATPinn.

Victory walking to the

right, holding a
p.

palm and a crown.
loc.cit.

(Reiihardt,

" Numismatische Zeitschrift," 1871,
with the legend
pi. |_.

83

seq.

Wien
cf.

;

Madden, " Num. Chron."

No.

2.

De De

Saulcy, p. 29, D.
vol. v. p. 572,

No.

2, describes a variety

IA.

BAC. ATPinOY.

The

coin

is

also published

by Mionnet,

No. 110;

and in the "Tresor,"

lxi.

No. 7;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," pp. 126, 127.

Saulcy publishes a

barbarous piece of the same type, D. No.

3.)

Obverse.
a.

Reverse.

^.
as

AYTOK
No.
1.

.

.

.

KAIC.

CGBACT.

Type

ET.

HI

BA.

ATPinnA.

Type

as

No.

2.

(Coll. of the

Eev. H. C. Eeichardt.)

.. .

COINS OF AGRIPPA

II.

WITH THE NAME OF

TITUS.

153

Obverse.
4.

Reverse.

M.

7.

AYTO
1.

ACTOC.

Type

ETOY.

10

BA.

ATPinnA.

Deity with modius
holding ears of

as No.

on head standing to the

left,

com and
(Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 124, No.
legend
1,

comu-copife.

from the specimen

in Paris;
;

De

Saulcy, p. 29, D. No. 4,
loc. cit. p.

who

reads the obverse

AYTOK ....
Obverse.

KAIC.

CCBACTOC

Madden,

"Num. Chron."

120, No. 3.)

Reverse.

5.

M.7. AYTOKP. TITOC KAICAP C6BAC.
Type
as

ETOY.

K.

BA.

ArPin

.

Victory

walking

to

No.
v. p.

1

the right holding a crown and a palm-branch.
;

(Mionnet, vol.

573, No. 113

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 123, note 3

;

" Num. Chron."

loc. cit.

No. 4

;

Collection of the

Rev. H. C. Reichardt, but with the date

ETO.

K.)

Obverse.
6.

Reverse.

M.

7.

AYTOKP. TITOC KAICAP CCBA.
1

ETO.

KS

BA.

ATPinnA.

Type

as

No.

5;

Type

as No.

before the Victory, a star.

(Formerly Cab. of the late Mr.

Wigan
;

;

British

Nos. 10, 11

De

Saulcy, p. 30, D. No. C

Museum; Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 125, No. 2; cf. "Tresor," Madden, " Num. Chron." he. cit. No. 5.)
;

pi. lxi.

Obverse.
7.

Reverse.

M.
as

.

TOC KAICAP CGBAC.
1.

Type

ETO.
a

KS

B.

.

.

TPinn
the

.

Type

as

No.

5;

No.

crescent above

arm which holds the

crown.
(De Saulcy,
p. 30,

D. No. 5

;

Madden,

"Num. Chron."

loc. cit.

No.

6.)

Obverse.
8.

Reverse.

M.

6*.

AYTOKP. T
1

KAICAP CGBAC.

ETO.

KZ

BA.

ATPinnA.

Type

as

No.

5;

Type

as No.

in the field, a crescent.
v. p.

(Mionnet, vol.

573, No. 117; Madden,

"Jew. Coinage,"

p. 126, note 3

;

"Num.

Chron."

loc. cit.

No.

7.)

MADDEN

20

154
Obveese.
9.

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
Reyebse.
L.

M.
Type

AYTOK. TITOC KAICAP C6BAC.
as

K0
p.

BA. ArPinnA.

Type

as

No.

5.

No.

1.

("Tresor,"

p].

ki. No. 6

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

125

;

" Num. Chron."

he.

cit.

No.

8.)

Obveese.
10.

i

Reveese.

M.
as

7.

AYTOK
1.

CEBACTU.
:

Type

ETOY. KO BA. ArPinn.
No. 3

Type

as No. 5.

No.

(British

Museum

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 125,

;

" Num. Chron."

he-

cit. p.

121,

No.

9.)

I

have
is

already
a

made some remarks on Nos. 9 and
coin
of
Titus.

10,

under "Vespasian, No. 5."

No. 9

certainly

No.

10

may

be a Vespasian.

Remarks on

the

Coins of Agrippa II.

icith

the

name of

Titus.

De
in a.d.

Satjlcy's

Arrangement

(p.

50).

—No.

1,

with the date L.

IA (year 14), was struck

69
2, 4,

[De Saulcy has a misprint

of 79],

counting from the "era of

Agrippa."

No.

with the same date, but a different type, belongs to the same year.

No.

with the

date

ETOY. 10

(year 19), was

struck in

a.d.

73-74.

De
in

Saulcy here remarks that perhaps

we should read KO
later, as

(29),

and that then we should

have a piece struck at the same time as the
a.d. 77-78.

No. 5 of Vespasian, and issued at Chalcis
specimens of the coins of Domitian,

He, however, modifies this view

with the date
Nos. 6 and
in a.d.

ETO.
7,

10,

are

in

existence.

with the date

ETO.

KS (year

26),

were struck on the " Chalcian era"

74-75.

De

Saulcy observes that the " year 26 " of

the

" era of Agrippa "

corresponds to a.d.

80-81, and that one might attribute these coins to that year after the death of Vespasian.

He

however adds that the existence of coins of Vespasian with the same date makes him
last

doubt the value of this

hypothesis.

COINS OF AGRIPPA

II.

WITH THE NAME OF DOMITIAN.
Date
L.

155

My
I

Arrangement.
have
given
2.

— Nos.
HI

1

and

2.

!A
for

(year 14).

under

Vespasian

my
No.

reasons

assigning

the

date

a.d.

74-75

to

Nos.

1

and
3.

No.

Date ET.

(year

18).

4.

Date ETOY.

10 (year

19).

For the same
a.d.

reasons the coins with these dates would have been struck in a.d.

78-79 and
Saulcy.

79-80.

No.

5.

Date ETO.

or

ETOY. K
a.d.

(year 20).
to

Not mentioned by De

The

coin with this date

must be assigned

the same era as the previous ones,

and

would have been issued in
Nos.
6 and
8.
9. 7.

80-81, and on Sept. 13th, a.d. 81, Titus died.

Date ETO.

KS

(year

26).

No.
No.

Date ETO.
L.

KZ

(year 27).

Not mentioned by De Saulcy.

KO

(year 29).

No. 10.
5,

ETOY. K0

(year 29).

See the remarks on this date
10.

under the coins of Vespasian, No.
I

and Titus, Nos. 9 and

may

here remark that the arrangement of the coins of Titus (Nos. 6
1

— 10),

previously
II.,

adopted by me,
not issued
struck
till

was founded upon the supposition that coins
after

of Titus, with

Agrippa

were

the death

of

Vespasian

in

a.d.

79,

and that consequently they were
II. received the tetrarchy of
it

on the

era

commencing from the time when Agrippa
53.

Philip from Claudius in a.d.

I

at

the

same time suggested that

was possible they
his
father.

might have been issued on the " Chalcian era " during the lifetime of

De
I

Saulcy gives no coins whatever to the era of the " tetrarchy of Philip."

am now

disposed

to

accept
coins
of

my

former suggestion, and

to

consider that these coins

are cotemporary with

the

Vespasian bearing the same dates,

and issued on the

" Chalcian era."

ETO. KS ETO. KZ
L.

(year 26)

will
a.d.

therefore represent

a.d.

74-75.

(year 27),
29),

75-76.
(year 29),
a.d.

K0

(year

or

ETOY. KO

77- 78. 2

Agrippa

II.

with the name of Domitian.

Obveese.
1.

Reverse.

M.

4.

AOMITI
:

.

.

KAICAP.

Head

of

L.

IA
the

BAC.
left,

ATPinOY.
De

Victory standing to

Domitian
(British

to the right, laureated.

writing on a shield.
;

Museum

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

cf. "Tresor," pi. lxi. No. 12 p. 127, No. 1 " Num. Chron." he. cit. p. 123, No. 1.)
;

Saulcy, p. 30, E. No.

1

;

Madden,

'Jew. Coinage," p. 126, and

Table

II. p. 324.

2

See p. 151, note 3.

156
Obverse.
2.

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
Reverse.

M.

AOMITIANO.

Type

as

No.

1.

ETOY.

HI

BA.

AfPinriA.

Type

as No.

1.

(Collection of the Rev.

H. C. Reichardt.)

Obverse.
3.

Reverse.

M.Z
pi. lxi.

KAICAP.
No. 13
;

Type

as No.

1

ETO. 10 BA. ArPinn
p.

.

Galley.
Madden, " Num. Chron."

(" Tresor,"

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

128, No. 2

;

De

Saulcy, p. 30, E. No. 2

;

loc. cit.

No.

2.)

Obverse.
4.

Reverse.

JE.

AOMITIANOC KAICAP.
1.
v. p.

Type

as

ETO.

Kl~

BA.

ATPinriA.
is

Victory

standing,

No.

writing on a shield which
574, No. 122
;

placed on her knee.
No.
3.)
1

(Mionnet, toI.

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 131, note 9

;

"Num.

Chron."

loc. cit.

Obverse.
5.

Reverse.

M.6. AOMET. KAICAP.
to the right, laureated,

Bust of Doniitian
aegis.
p. 128,

ETO.

KA

BA.

ATPinnA.

Victory flying to

with

right.

(" Tresor,"

pi. lxi.

No. 14

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

No. 3

;

De

Saulcy, p. 30, E. No. 3

;

Madden, " Num. Chron."

loc. cit.

No.

4.)

Obverse.
G.

Reverse.

M.
No.

4.
1.

AOMIT. KAIC. TEPMA.

Type

as

ETO.

AK

BA.

ATPinnA.

Victory

standing

to right, placing left foot on helmet,

and writing

on shield.
("Trevor,"
pi.

In

field, to left, a crescent.

lxi.

No. 15

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 128,

No. 4

;

De
5.)

Saulcy, p. 30, note to E. No. 4

;

Madden, " Num.

Chron."

loc. cit.

No.

1

De

Saulcy, p. 31, in a note

.•ays,

" Je doute

fort de l'existeuce de cette piece

;" but he gives no reasons for his opinion.

COINS OF AGRIPPA
7.

II.

WITH THE NAME OF DOMITIAN.
Date
De
illegible.

157

iE.

A

similar piece.

In

field,

to right, a star.
p.

("Tresor,"

pi. Ixi.

No. 9

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,'

129;

Saulcy, p. 30, note to E. No. 4
)

;

Madden, " Num. Chron."

loc. cit. p.

124, No. 6

Obverse.
8.

REVERSE.

M. AOMET. TEPMA.

Type

as No. 1.
E. No. 4
;

O.

KA

BA.

ATPinnA.
cit.

Type

as No. G.

(De Saulcy,

p. 30,

Madden, " Num. Chron." he.

No.

7.)

Obverse.
9.

Reverse.

M.
as

4$.
1.

AOMET. KAICAP r£RMAN.
Madden,

Type

ETO.

KA

BA.

ATPinnA
E.

within a wreath.

Xo

(British

Museum:

"Jew. Coiuage,"

p.

129,

No. 5;
cit.

De
8.)

Saulcy, p.

30,

No. 6

;

Madden,

"Num.

Chron.

he.

No.

Obverse.
10.

Reverse.

M. H.
as Xo. 1.
pi. lxii.

AOM6T.
No.
1

KAIC. r£RM.

Type

ET.

KE BAC. ATPin.

Palm-tree.

("Tresor,"

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
he.
cit.

p. 129,
is

No. 6;

No.

9.

A

similar piece

given by

De Saulcy, p. 30, E. No. 7; Madden, "Num. Chron." De Saulcy, p. 30, E. No. 5.)

Obvebse.
11.

Reverse.
F.

M.6. IMP. CAES. DIVI VESP.

DOMI-

EI1I S.

BA.
C.

ArP.

;

in the field,

ET. KE; below,

TIAN

.

.

.

XII.

Type

as

Xo.

1.

In the field one sideSALVTI, and on

the other

AVGVST.

Large square altar with

ornaments on the compartments of the door.
(Sestini,

"Descriz.

d.

Med. Ant, Gr.

del
p.

Mus. Hederv."
55; Madden,

t. iii.

p. 120,

No. 10;
loc. cit.

Mionuet, Suppl.

viii. p.

380, No. 5;

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

Chron."

No.

10.)

Obverse.
12.

Reverse.
F.

M. CA. D. VESP. GER. COS. XII. Type as
IM.
Eckhel,

DOM. AV.
1. vol.
iii.

SALVTI AVGVST.
KS.
Altar.

S.C.

Elll

BA. ArPl. ET.

Xo.

" Doct. Num. Vet."

p.

494

;

Madden, " Num. Chron."

loc. cit.

No.

11.)

158

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Obverse.
13.

Reverse.
F.

M.

IM.

CA.
xTi.

D.

VES.
Head
aegis.

DOM. AV.

-

EI

!!

BA. ATPI.
caduceus.

Two
In

cornua-copiae;
field,

between

GER. COS.

of

Domitian to the

them a

ET.

KS.

At

foot

right, laureated,

with

of the cornua-copiae, S. C.
;

(Formerly Cab. of the late Mr.

Wigan

British
;

Museum; Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
Mionnet, vol.
v. p.

p.

130,

No. 8;

cf.

"Tresor,"
loc. cit.

pi. lxii.

No.

3

;

De

Saulcy, p. 31, E. Nos. 13 and 14

575, No. 130

;

Madden, " Num. Chron."

No.

12.)

Obverse.
14.

Reverse.

M.

Legend and type

as No. 13.

Em
p. 130,

BAC. ATPI.
KS.
pi. lxii.

In

field,

S.

C.

In exergue

ET.
(British

Museum

:

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

No. 9

;

cf.

" Tresor,"
loc. cit.

Nos. 4 and 5
13.)

;

De

Saulcy, p. 31, E. No. 15

;

Madden, " Num. Chron."

p. 125,

No.

Obverse.
15.

Reverse.

M.
No.
1.

5.

AOMITIAN.
Two

KAICAP.

Type

as

ET. KS BACI. ATPinnA.

Victory standing to

countermarks.

right, placing left foot on helmet,

and writing

on shield.
("Tresor,"
pl.
Lxii.

No. 2

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
;

p. 129,

No. 7;

De

Saulcy, p. 31, E. No. 11,
loc.

who

states that

he has a

specimen with
other varieties the legend

ETOY. KS BACI. ATPin.
of this
coin,

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

cit.

No.

14.

De

Saulcy also publishes some

E. Nos. 8

(?),

9,

10, 12,

without the countermarks, one of which has a star placed between
is

ETO. KS BA. *ArPI~inA

(««).

There

a similar piece in the Collection of Dr. Babington.)

Obverse.
16.

Reverse.

M.
No.
1.

AOMITIANOC KAICAP.
pl.
lxii.

Type

as

ETO. KZ BA. AI~PinnA.
131,

Two
1G

cornua-copia?.

("Tresor,"

No. 6;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
Chron."

p.

No. 10;

De

Saulcy, p. 31, E. No.

;

Madden,

"Num.

loc. cit.

No.

15.)

.

COINS OF AGRIPPA
Obvehse.
17.

II.

WITH THE NAME OF DOMITIAN.
Reverse.

159

JE.

AOMITIANOC KAICAP.
" Nuniismatische

Type

as

O* .YOT3 AliniqiA

.AS.

Type

as No. 15.

No.

1.

(Reichardt,

Zeitechrift," 1871, p. 83, seq.

Wien; Madden, "Num. Chron."

loc. cit.

No.

16.)

Obverse.
18.

Ee verse.
.

M.
to right.
lxii.

rEPM A N

I

Bust of Domitian

ETO.

AA

(?)

BA. ArPinnA.

Victory walking

to right.

(" Tresor," pi.

No. 7

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

p. 132

;

De

Saulcy, p. 31, E. No. 17
;

;

Mionnet, Supp.
loc. cit.

viii.

p. 380,

No.

6,

gives the obverse legend

AOMET.

KAIC.

r£PMANI

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

No.

17.)

Obverse.
T. 19.

Reverse.

J£. 2£.
lxii.

.

TO
8

-

AOM.
18,

Type

as

No.

1.

BA.

ATP.

ET.
;

EA
I.

within a crown.
p. 132,

(" Tresor," pi.

No.

it is

impossible to trace any legends from the drawing

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"

No. 12

;

De

Saulcy,

p.

32, E.

No.

who

says that he possesses a specimen with

AOM

on obverse, and the reverse legend
is

readable; Madden, "
the Rev.

Num. Chron."

loc. cit.

No.

18.

The

cut of the reverse here given
iii.

from the coin in the possession of

H. C. Reichardt.

Eckhel, " Doct.

Num. Vet."

vol.

p.

496, describes a similar but larger coin (2E. II.) from

Hardouin, with the reverse legend Efll

BACI.AfPin. £T. A£.)

Obverse.
JE.
(tie)

Reverse.

7.

AYTOKPA. AOMITIA. KAICAPA
Type
as

ETOY.

EA BA. ArPinnA.

Turreted female

TEPMANI.

No.

1.

standing to left on the prow of a vessel (?), holding in right hand ears of corn
a cornu-copiae.
(?)

and

in left

(British

Museum

:

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
No. 6; De Saulcy,

p. 132, No. 14; Coll. of Rev.

H. C. Reichardt, "Num. Chron."
Chron."
loc.

n.s. 1862, vol.

ii.

p. 276, pi. vi.

p. 32,

E. No. 19

;

Madden,

"Num.

cit.

p. 126,

No. 19.)

Obverse.
21.

Reverse.
.

JE. 5*.

AYTOKP.
1

.

.

CAP TEPMANI.
Chron."
n.s.
;

ETOY. EA BA. ATPinnOY.
to the right, holding

Victory marching

Type
(Coll. of

as No.

crown and palm-branch.
p.

Rev. H. C. Reichardt,

"Num.

1862, vol.

ii.

p.

275;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
loc. cit.

132, No. 13;

Do

Saulcy, p. 32, E. No. 20

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

No.

20.)

160

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

AgRIPI'A II. WITHOUT THE

NAME OF

DoiIITIAN.

Obverse.
22.

Reverse.
to the right.
p. 132,
loc. cit.

M.

2.

BA. ArP. Turretedhead
k. No. 12
;

ET.
No. 11
;

AA.
De

Cornu-copia;.
;

("Tresor,"

pi.

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

Saulcy, p. 28, A. No. 4

Madden, " Num. Chron.

No.

21.)

Remarks on

the

Coins of Agrippa II. with the name of Domitian.

De
a.d.

Saulcy's

Arrangement

(p. 51).

—No.
is,

1,

with the date L. IA (year 14), was struck in

69,

on
3,

the " era of Agrippa."

No. No.

with date ETO. 10 (year 19), in a.d. 73-74, on the same

era.

4, 5,
6,

with date ETO. KT (year 23), with date ETO.
7,
6,

as already stated, doubted

by De Saulcy.

No.
Nos.

KA

(year 24).

8,
7,

9,

with the date
8,

AK

or

KA
on

(year 24).
to

On
It

Nos.

and
is

appears the type of Victory standing
x
;

the right, similar to

No. 5

;

on No. 9 the legend
is

within a wreath
again
to

all

the

title of

Germanicus occurs.
(p.

necessary

here
;

quote
le

De

Saulcy's

own words

52)
il

:

— " Mais
certain

ici

se

presente une difficulte

Domitien porte
titre,
a,

titre

de Germanique.

Or

est

que ce

prince n'a pris officiellement ce

Rome, qu'en Fan
titre,

84, lorsqu'il etait seul sur le trone.

Nous devons pour expliquer
analogue
a
celle
et

la

presence de ce
a

avoir recours a une hypothese tout-a-fait

qui

seule

pu

nous

faire

comprendre

pour Titus l'emploi

des

titres

Autokrator

Sebastos,

du vivant de son

pere.

Nous savons qu'en 70 Domitien
et

entreprit

contre les Germains une guerre

que son pere n'avait pas ordonnee,

que

cette conduite
flatteur,

un
il

peu inconsideree

lui

valut

un blame

severe de la part de Vespasien.

Quelque

et

y en avait suremeut en Syrie, aura profite de cela pour faire donner a Domitien un
qu'il n'avait pas merite,

titre

mais qui devait

lui plaire fort, puisqu'il se l'appliqua plus tard."

1

No.

9,

though given in De Saulcy's

list

(p. 30),

under E.

point to the
printed
;

No. 6, is not alluded to by him in his remarks (p. 52). The whole of the numerical references in De Saulcy's paper, from this

No.

8,

end of the paper (pp. 52-54) are incorrectly No. 6 should be No. 7, No. 7 should he and so on up to No. 19, which should be No. 20.
for instance,

REMARKS OX THE COINS OF AGRIPPA
De
Saulcy, therefore, classes these coins

II.

UNDER DOMITIAN.
a.d.

1G1
72-73 of the

with the date " year 24 " to

" era of Chalcis."

No. 10, with date
a.d. 73-74.

ET.

KE

(year

25),

is

given to the

same

era,

and was struck

in

No. 15, with date ET. KS (year 26),
No. 16, with date ETO.

to a.d. 74-75.

KZ

(year 27), to a.d. 75-76.
for

We
KA
to

thus
i.e.

have,

says
a.d.

De

Saulcy,

Domitian an uninterrupted

series

of

coins

from

KZ,

from

72 to a.d. 76.
No. 11, with date ET.

Nos. 11, 12, 13, 14.

KE

(year 25)

;

Nos. 12, 13, 14, with date

ET. KS (year 26).

The date

of

these coins

is

fixed

by the
coins

Cos. XII. on the obverse.
in

Domitian was consul
necessity,

for the twelfth time in a.d. 86.

The

question must then,

of

have been

struck in this year.

But

says

De

Saulcy

(p.

53)

:

— " Que

devient la date ET. KS, l'an xxvi.
II.
II

?

elle

ne rentrc

dans aucune des eres employees par Agrippa
cette

faut done necessairement admettre que

annee represente
et

celle

d'une ere particuliere de

ville.

On
la,

a cru que le type des cornes

d'abondance
ville la

du caducee, qui
dont

se recontre sur des imperiales
;

de Tiberiade, classait a la merae

monnaie

nous nous occupons

mais

e'est

une attribution bien hasardee.

N'avons-nous pas en

effet

rencontre plus haut une piece de Neronias offrant precisement le

meine type

?

Or,

si

la

piece etait de

Neronias, ville dont nous avons fixe
l'ere,

a,

l'an

60

l'in-

auguration sous ce nouveau nom, l'an xxvi. de

dont

le

point de depart a

pu coincider

avec cette inauguration, serait precisement l'an 86, annee du douzieme consulat de Domitien.

On

ne trouvera pas mauvais, j'imagine, que je m'en tienne

a.

cette solution,

que je n'abandonII est vrai

ncrai,

qu'4 la condition qu'on m'en offrira une plus probable et plus naturelle.
la

que cela n'explique pas
tout deviner."

presence de la formule

S.

C,

mais je n'ai pas

la pretention

de

"With respect to the date

KE, De Saulcy adds
[read ET.
J.-C.

(p.

56), " Cette fois,

nous nous trouvons

en face de
Domitien,

la date L.

KE
a.

(l'an xxv.)

KE] correspondant au meme 12 e consulat de
ce 12 e

e'est-a-dire

Fan 86 de

Nous en devons forcement conclure que
et xxvi.

consulat a ete reparti sur les

deux annees xxv.

de

l'ere

de Neronias."

No. 18 with date ETO.
This reading
is

AA
it

(year 31).

doubtful.
that
if

The
is

date

may

be

AA

(34).
in
II'

De Saulcy
a.d.

says

the year xxxi. of Chalcis, then the piece was struck

79-80;
is

if

year xxxi. of the "era of Agrippa,"
date, the
coin,

then in a.d. 84-86
" era of
Chalcis,"

[read 85-86].

xxxiv.
issued

the correct
a.d.

according to

the

would have been
titles

in

82-83, the year
if

in

which Domitian would have taken the
in a.d.

Autokrator

and Sebastos; and

on the "era of Agrippa,"

86-87 [read 88-89].

De

Saulcy believes that ETO.
JtADDES

AA

is

the correct reading.
21

102
Nos. 19, 20, 21,

NUMISMATA ORIENTALLY.
with date

ET. or ETOY.

EA

(year 35),

De Saulcy

considers

to

have

been struck on "the Chalciau era" in
No. 22 with date ET.

a.d. 83-84.'

AA

(year 34).

This coin, though mentioned by
to

De

Saulcy in his

list

(p.

28, A. No. 4),

is

not alluded

by him

in his remarks.

My
No.

Arrangement.

—No.

1.

Date

L.

I

A

(year 14).

I have given,
2.

under Vespasian,

my
18).

reasons for assigning these coins to a.d. 74-75. 2

Date ETOY. HI (year

No.

3.

Date ETO. 10 (year
in a.d.

19).

For the same cause these coins were issued
No.
Nos.
4.
5,

78-79 and

a.d. 79-80.

Date ETO.
6,

Kl~

(year 23).

7,

8,

9.

Date ETO.

AK

or

KA

(year 24).

No. 10.

Date ET.

KE

(year 25).

No. 15. No. 16.

Date ET., ETO. or ETOY. KS (year 26). Date ETO. KZ (year 27).
No.
4,

With

the exception of

ETO.

Kl~

(which

is

doubted by

De

Saulcy,
to

but for no
" Chalcian

specific reason),

De

Saulcy, as above shown, has attributed all these

coins

the

era," placing the issue of the earliest of

them

in a.d. 72-73.

This attribution
of
so early a

is

made notwithstanding

that there
era,

are

no

coins of

Yespasian and Titus

date
title

that

can be given to this

and that on the pieces with the date

AK

or
It

KA
is

the

Gennanicus occurs.

quite true, as

De

Saulcy observes, that in a.d. 70 Domitian made an expedition
4

with Mucianus against the Germans, 3 and numismatists have not been wanting
coins bearing

in assigning

the
title

title of

Gennanicus to dates earlier than a.d. 84, in which year Domitian

assumed the
certainly

at

Rome.
at

But

these

coins

have in
title

all

cases

been misread.

There are

no coins issued

Rome
it.

with this

earlier

than a.d. 84, and there are none
at

issued after this year

without

The

coins of

Domitian struck

Alexandria help to cor-

1

It will be seen that

De

Saulcy

is

not certain. about the date

during the long reign of Domitian.
suggestion
(as

I

do not think that this
is

No. 18, but that he positively assigns Nos. 19, 20, and 21 to the "era of Chalcis." I have failed to discover the distinction which led to this opinion. z Cavedoni (" l'rinc. Quest, riguardanti la Num. Giud." " Nuovi Studi sopra le Ant. Mon. Giud." p. 16, note
of
;

regards the coins of Agrippa II.)

tenable.

5) thinks that the coins of Agrippa II. and Domitian with the type of Victory standing writing on a shield, as also the coins withthe legend 10 A?, A^

p.

25,

note

Eckhel (" Doct. Num. Vet." vol. iii. p. 441) considers the coins with the legend IOYAAI A? Ai were struck in some Greek city; and De Saulcy (" Num. de la Terre Sainte," p. 79) is of opinion they were certainly struck in Palestine, and probably at Csesarea. See Chapter IX.

EAAOKYI

YAA

I

EAAOKYI

were probably struck at Nicopolis in Juchica. Nicopolis was founded after the capture of Jerusalem in a.d. 71. It was formerly called Emmaus, and when Judsea was put up for sale,
Titus assigned this place for the habitation of 800 men whom he had dismissed from the army (Joseph. " Bell. Jud." vii. 6, 6).

Suet. " Dom." 2 Tac. " Hist." 68, 85, 86. See Eckhel, " Doct. Num. Vet." vol. vi. p. 396. Martial (Lib. ii. "Epig." 2), as Eckhel has observed, who was most fulsome
3
;

4

in his praise of Domitian, only intended to hint that

Domitian

was worthy
dedication

of the title of Germanicus. of his

The same

poet, in the

eighth book,
title
is

gives

Dacicus,

but this

not found

Domitian the name of on his coins (Madden,

He
and

is

therefore of opinion that the dates
('-6),

|A

(U),

AK

(24),

"Num.

Chron."

n.s. 1866, vol. vi. p. 268).

KS

correspond to a.d. 83, 93, 95, and were struck

;

COINS OF DOMITIAN
roborate this.

WITH THE TITLE GERMANICUS.

163

The

title
1

TEPM.

first

occurs on his Alexandrian coins of the third year struck

at the close of a.d. 83.

Is

it

then at

all

probable that in Syria
title

—and

in Syria only

—coins
?
it

of

Domitian would

have been struck with the
Besides, in
find coins of

of Germanicus as early as a.d. 72-73

I think not.
will be necessary to

my

opinion, to

corroborate

De

Saulcy's arrangement,

Vespasian and Titus with the dates Kl~ and KA, and these at present have not

been discovered.

To what

date then shall these pieces be assigned?
2

Here

is

the difficulty.
coins
of

In the system adopted by me,

based on the dates of the
to

Agrippa
I

II.

and

Domitian with the twelfth consulship,
coins
to

which I

shall

presently

allude,

assigned these

the

" era of Tiberias,"
fell

and in

this era the dates of

these coins,

with the date

AK
the

and

KA

(24), exactly

in

the year a.d. 84-85, the very time of the assumption of

title of

Germanicus by Domitian.
raised

The objection that may be
assigned by

against
to

my

attributions
is

is

this,

that
title

on the coins
of
Ccesar,

me

to

the years from a.d. 83
to the

a.d. 96, there

only the

and

Domitian succeeded

Empire
is

in a.d. 81.

This objection, however,

not a very serious one, and even

De

Saulcy in his system

has been compelled to give the coins with date
find that coins of

EA

(35)

to

the year a.d. 83-84.

For I

Domitian are existing issued after his accession
title of

at various cities of Palestine

and Syria without the

Scbastos.

At
a.d.

Neapolis, with the legend

AYTOK. AOMITIAN02
IMP DO
84
4
;
. .

KAISAP, and date

L. Al

(year 11)

=

82-83

3
;

at Sebaste, with the legends

.

CAESAR

or

CAESAR

IMP.

DOMITIAN, and date

L.

Canata with the legend AOMITI.
died in a.u. 96.
It

KAICAP and
kingdom
the

date

©P ZNP

(year (157)

109)

=

a.d.
5

and

at

=

a.d.

93

and Domitian

may

be mentioned
II.,

(1)

that the
to

of

Chalcis, at

some period after

it

was taken

away from Agrippa
Chalcis,
6

was given
still

rightful heir, Aristobulus,

son of Herod, king of

and that he was

king of Chalcis about the years
it

a.d. 74-75,

during the reign
then

of Vespasian,

and

(2)

that

under Domitian

was added

to

the

Roman Empire, and

received the
I

name

of Flavia?

am,

therefore,

inclined

to

think

that

no coins bearing the name of Domitian were

issued on the " Chalcian era."

Though,

after the

Jewish war, Judaea, Galilee, and a great part of Idumoea were wasted,

the dominions of Agrippa II. were for the most part respected, 8

and though Domitian de-

manded the payment
1

of

the Jewish tribute with the utmost severity, 9 and allowed the most

Eckhel, op. cit. vol. iv. p. CO. " Jew. Coinage," p. 131.

«
7 8

Joseph. " Bell. Jud."

vii.

7,

1.

Eckhel, "Doct.

Num.

Vet."

vol.

iii.

p.

265.
ii.

'
4

s

De De De

Saulcy, "

Saulcy, Saulcy,

Num. " Num.

de la Tcrre Sainte," p. 1\i.

Milman, "Hist, of the Jews," 4th
13.

ed. 1866, vol.

p.

400.
12.

de la Terre Sainte,"

p.

276.

"Num.

de la Terre Sainte," p. 400.

" Judaicus fiscus acerbissime See Chapter X. and Appendix
9

actus est." Suet.
II.

"Dom."

1G4
horrible atrocities to be

NUMISMATA OEIENTALrA.
committed,
1

it

seems

likely, as

we

possess coins of
left in peace.

Agrippa

II.

and

Domitian undoubtedly struck in

a.d. 86, that
i.e.

Agrippa

II.

was

The
to
a.d.

latest dated

Jewish coin,
" Chalcian

ET. or ETOY.
falls,

EA
is

(year 35), attributed

by De Saidcy

83-84 of

the

era,"

in

my

arrangement, in the year a.d. 95-96,
not
2

the year previous to the death of

Domitian, and there

much doubt

that

in

this year

the Jews were included in the persecution of the Christians.

The

dates of the coins, according to

my
(23)

arrangement, will therefore be

:

KT
or

= a.d. = a.d.
= a.d.

83-84.

(

(24)

84-85.

AK
KE
KS

)

(25) (26)

85-86.

KZ
have shown

= a.d. 86-87. (27) = a.d. 87-88.
the
attribution of

I

my

reasons for

disagreeing with

these

coins

to

the

" Chalcian era," and I have recapitulated

my

original theory as to

their arrangement.

I am,

however, able to

make another

suggestion.

De
Philip."

Saulcy, as I have previously stated, 3 assigns no coins to the

" era of the tetrarchy of

Could these coins be given to that era
It

?

commenced

in a.d. 53, and, consequently, coins with the dates

KT

(23) would correspond to a.d. 75-76.

>>

>>

a.d.

76-77.

a.d.

77-78. 78-79.
79-80.

M
>>

) J

a.d. a.d.

!!

and would

all

have been struck previous
title

to

his accession in a.d. 81.

There

still,

however,

remains the difficulty of the

Germanicus, and I

am

not disposed to press this suggestion.

We
1

may now

pass on to examine the curious and important coins of the 12th consulship

of Domitian.
Suet, in he.
s

Dion Cass,

lxvii. 13, 14.

3

See remarks on the coins of Titus,

p.

1.').').

COINS OF THE XII

th

CONSULSHIP OF DOMITIAN.

1G5

No. 11.
No.
12.

Date ET.

KE

(year 25).

Same

type.

Date ET. KS (year 2G).

Nos. 13, 14.

Date ET. KS (year 26).
the

No.

11,

with

the

date

ET.

KE and with
;

legend

SALVTI AVGVST.,
1

is

puhlished,

as

above stated, by Sestini and Mionnet
piece frottee,

also

by De Saulcy,

and

is

there described as " une

passee

de la Collection AVigan dans celle de M.

le

Comte Cahen d'Anvers."

I

do not remember seeing this piece in the
It has, however, escaped

the notice of

Wigan Collection. De Saulcy, as it had
3

already escaped mine
4

when

I issued

my

" Jewish Coinage," that Eckhel, 2 from Hardouin

and Froelich, publishes a similar

piece (see No. 12), but with the date ET. I

KS

(year 26).

should

have been inclined
11),

to

doubt the reading of the piece given in Sestini and
accept
as

Mionnet (No.
piece from the
It
is,

but suppose that
Collection.

we must

correct

the description of the same

Wigan

therefore, necessary to

conclude with

De

Saulcy that the 12th consulship of Do-

mitian extended over two years (25 and 26) of the era of the town in which these pieces

were struck.
\Ve have already
A.i».

seen

that

the date of

all

these

coins

is

fixed

by the

Cos. XII. to
II.,

86, that

De

Saulcy, in

order to corroborate his theory of

the coinage of Agrippa
II. as

shows that they could not belong to any of the eras of Agrippa

given by him, and

that he therefore assigns them to a special " era of the town of Neronias," commencing about
a.u. 60-61.

A

corroboration

of

this

theory would
5

seem

to

be found

in

the

remarkable

coin

of

Domitian published by

De

Saulcy.

The following

is

the description

:


Reverse.

Obverse.

IMP.

CAE.
. .

DIVI
.

VESP.
XII.

F.

DOMITIAN.
of Domitian
to

MONETA
the
left,

(CAES)

(?)

AVGV.

S.P.

Deity

to

AVG

COS.

Head

holding in right hand a balance and in
;

the right, laureated.

left a

comu-copia)

ahove, in the field, to right

and

left,

ET.-KS;

below S. C.

(The S

is

placed between the two basons of the balance.)

The

letters S.

P.

on the reverse are interpreted by De Saulcy as Sub

Paiu'o,

and are
coins

taken to be the

Latin equivalent of the words YIIO

flANeiQ, which occur on the
which

of Panias from the time of Aurelius.

De
1

Saulcy

gives

a

woodcut

of

this

rare
2

coin,

differs

considerably
"Eeg. Vet."
p. 111.

from

"

Num.

de la Terre Sainte," p. 316.
vol.
iii.

*

" Doct. Num. Vet."

p. 494.

*

"Num. "Num.

Herod."

4

de la Terre Sainte," p. 315.

1G6
his
description.

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

On

the

obverse
is

the
the

word CAE.
coin
it

is

CAES.,
to

and

the

legend
the

stops

at

AVG.
on the

Whether COS.
reverse
these

XII.

on

is

impossible

say from
is

cut,

whilst

the word CAES., which

De Saulcy
two

has queried,

drawn quite
P. ?
?

distinctly.

With

errors in view, ought one to accept as quite certain the letters S.
S.

Can they
I suppose,

not have

been mistaken for
that

T., the last

letters of

the word

AVG VST.

however,

there

is

no other course but to receive as correct De Saulcy's description

and

attribution. 1

In these circumstances there seems much probability in De Saulcy's argument, that the
coins
of

Agrippa

II.

with the dates ET.

KE and ET. KS and COS.
a

XII.

were struck at
place to that of

Neronias (Panias), and in this case would have been issued in

different

the other coins of Agrippa II. and Domitian (Nos. 10 and 15), also with the dates

ETO. KE

and ETO. KS,
I

to

which I have previously alluded in the
whilst

earlier portion of these remarks.

have already observed 2 that

De

Saulcy has assigned the
to

above coins to the
the same era those

" era of Neronias," he has not assigned, and for very good reasons,
pieces issued under

Nero which were undoubtedly struck
the

at this town.

For the
is

absence of
account,

name
adds,

of
3

Agrippa
"ce
que

II.

on this coin of

Domitian,
c'est

De

Saulcy

unable
n'a

to

but

he

nous
II.

pouvons

affirmer,

que

jusqu'ici

on

pas

retrouve

une

seule

piece

d'Agrippa
le

posterieure

a

cette

date.

Aurait-il

done ete decide qu'a partir de cette annee 86,
sur
les

nom
as

de l'Empereur seul paraitrait desormais
II. ?

monnaies emises dans

le

royaume dAgrippa
of

Cela est fort possible."
present
existing,

In

my
till

arrangement, however, the
a.d.

coins

Agrippa

II.,

at

were

issued

96.
It

has been suggested
firstly,

4

that

these coins

of

Domitian and Agrippa
receives

II.

were struck at

Tiberias,

because the legend

SALVTI AVG VST.
of
Stilus, 5

some corroboration from a
type of
the two
in

coin

of

Trajan

bearing the type
occurs

and,

secondly,

because the
in
if

cornua-copise also

on the

coins

of

this
it

Emperor

issued
as

this

town. 6

But

the

face of the rare coin published

by De Saulcy,

would seem

this

theory could not be

supported.

Be

it

as
a.d.

it

may, there

is

not

the

slightest

doubt
to

that

the pieces in question were
of

struck in

86,
7

which date would equally apply

the

" era

Neronias,"

or

to

the

"era of Tiberias."
1

I

had hoped

to ohtain

some time since from M. de Saulcy

correct in respect to the date

ET.

IS.

This should be

ET.

1

a cast of the coin, but this gentleman informed Mr.

Head

that

[year

90=a.d. 110] (De Saulcy "Num. de
No.
6).

la Terre Sainte,"

he had sold his collection to Hoffmann, disposed of it to some Russian nobleman.
2
3
4

who

in his turn

had

p. 336,
7

See the coins of Agrippa II. under Nero, p. 147.

"Num.

de la Terre Sainte," p. 316.
p.

"Tresor,"
Mionnet,

129;

Cavedoni, " Principali Questioni
6

vol. v. p.

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 131; rig. la Num. Giud." p. 16, note. De Saulcy, " Num. de la 484, No. 56
;

"era of Neronias" and the " commence at the same time (see the Table). It may be that all the coins assigned by me to the "era of Tiberias" were really struck on "that of Neronias." If De Saulcy has read a coin of Marcus Aurelius Ccesar correctly,
It will be observed that the of Tiberias

" era

it

Terre Sainte," p. 335.
6

The

description in

Mionnet

(vol. v. p.

484, No. 54)

is

in-

would appear that the name "Neronias" was borne by it was abandoned on Aurelius succeeding to the Empire ("Num. de la Terre Sainte," p. 316).
Csesarea Panias up to his time, but

REMARKS ON THE COINS OF AGRIPPA
"With respect to Tiberias,
the
it

II.

UNDER DOMITIAN.
to

1GT
II.

is

certain

that

this

town belonged

Agrippa

from

time

when

it

was given
it

to

him by Nero

till

his

death in a.d. 100, and that immecoins
of

diately

on his decease

again formed part of the

Roman Empire,
to

Trajan being

extant bearing the dates 80

and 81

of

Tiberias, corresponding

a.d.

100 and a.d. 101. J

On

the peculiar legends on these coins various surmises have been made. 2
the letters S.

De

Saulcy, 3
i.e.

in speaking of

C,

thinks that they

may

probably refer to a local senate,

to a decision of the college of Decuriones.

The legend SALVTI AVGVST.
occurs on the coins issued at

(or

AVGVSTI)
4

here found on the coins of the 12th consulship
(a.d. 84, a.d. 85),

Rome
it is

in the 10th

and 11th consulship

and on

a very rare coin of the 12th consulship.
years justifying this legend,
fearing his
death,
5

Whether
;

Doinitian had any serious illness in these

impossible to say

but

it

would seem

as if to

he was constantly
be made for his

and he may perhaps have wished frequent prayers

health and safety.

No. 17.

Date ETOY.

K0

(year 29).
it

This coin was not
to a.d.

known

to

De

Saulcy; had

it

been,
to

I presume he would have attributed

77-78 of the "era of Chalcis."

According
to a.d.

my

arrangement

it

may

either belong to a.d.
(?).

89-90 of the "era of Tiberias," or

81-82

of the

"era of Philip"

No. 18.

Date ETO.

AA

(year 31).

It

may

either belong
(?).

to

a.d.

91-92 of the "era

of Tiberias," or to a.d.

83-84 of the "era of Philip"
Date

Nos. 19, 20, 21.
a.d.

ET.

and

ETOY. EA
to a.d.

(year

35).

These

may

either
(?).

belong

to

95-96 of the "era of Tiberias," or
No. 22.

87-88 of the "era of Philip"

Date ET.

AA

(year 34).

De

Saulcy would, I suppose, have attributed this coin
to a.d.

either to a.d.

82-83 of the " era of Chalcis," or
the "era of

88-89 of the " era of Agrippa."
or to a.d. 86-87 of

It

may

either belong to a.d. 94-95 of
(?).

Tiberias,"

the

"era of

Philip "

The turreted female head on

this coin, instead of the
II.

head of the Emperor,
4),

may

be com-

pared with that on the coin of Agrippa

under Nero (No.

struck at Neronias.
II.,

In order
I

to exemplify the different dates that

may

be assigned to the coins of Agrippa

have drawn up a Table showing the various proposed arrangements, which I trust will
assist

much

the student of this interesting series of coins.
is

I must, however, confess that the whole question

most

difficult,

and I should be un-

willing to speak positively as to the actual correctness of

many

of the dates.

1

De

Saulcy, "

Num.

de la Torre Sainte," p. 335.
vol.
iii.

2

Eckhel,

"Duct. Num. Vet."

p.

4'J5;

Madden,

"Jew. Coinage," p. 130. • Num. de la Terre Sainte," p. 316. 4 Cohen, "Med. Imp." 2nd ed. No. 420.
;

5 "Annum diemque ultimum jam pridem suspectum vitse AdoUscentulo habebat; horam etiam, necnon et genus mortis. For some Chaldaei euncta pncdixerant." Suet. "Dom." 11.

peculiarities of this
in the

"Num.

would-be " God and Lord," see Chron." n.s. I860, vol. vi. p. 200, seq.

my

paper

)

TABLE TO ILLUSTRATE THE
DE SAULCY'S ARRANGEMENT.
REMARKS.
Chalcian Era.

Era of the Tetrarchy of Philip

Era of
II.

Kingdom

of Agrippa.

Era of Neronias.

Death of Herod Agrippa

I.

Death

of Herod, king of Chalcis, in the 8th year of Claudius; Agrippa II. succeeds at close of a.d. 48.

'

Chalcis taken

away from Agrippa
of Claudius

II.

He is appointed to Tetrarohy of
when 12th year
Death

Philip,

was com54_ 55"
56
5 ?_ 6 7 8

pleted, about February, a.d. 53.
of Claudius. Nero. Agrippa II receives from Nero Galilee, Tiberias

Tarichese, Julias of Peraa, etc.

2
3

Sixth year of Nero.

58 59_

9 10
11

4

ETOTC

AI

TOT KAI CK
(and *fl)

5

Agrippa II. enlarges Csesarea Philippi, and calls it Neronias.

60 61"
62"
63_ 64_ 65 66"
67 68"

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

6
7

ETOTC AI TOT KAI UZ
(and >flj

10
11 12

Twelfth year of Nero; Agrippa II. Jewish war begins. Capture of Jotapata. Surrender of Tiberias
17th year of

13 14 15
l

Death of Nero. Galba. Otho.
Vespasian

Vitellius.

20
69_ 70_ 71 72"
21

16

14
15

'

ET. AI Vespasian Aug. L. I A Titus Aug.
L.

Emp.

Titus and Domit. CtBsars,
in

ia Domitian

Caes.

Domit. expedition

Gaul and Germany.

[Conquest of Jud;ea.

22 23
24 ETO.
|

17 18 19
(

9
10 11

16 17 18

73 25 ET. 74
Aristobulus, son of Herod, king of Chalcis, was about this time still king of Chalcis.)
(

v£ AK

Domitian

Ca3s.

20
...

ETOT. HI Vesp. Aug

12 13

KE Domitian

Cass.

21

ETOT. 10 Titus Aug, 19 ETO. IS Domitian Caas.
(

26
J

ETOT. Kr Vespasian Aug. ETO. Kr Titus Aug.
ET.

22 23
24

20

14

75
76 77
j

(


j

Kr

Domitian

Cses.

j

\

ETOT. KZ Vespasian Aug. ETO. KZ Domitian Cses.

21

15

28 29 ETOT.

22 23
24

16 17
18

K0

Vespasian Aug.

25 26

78'
30

Death of Vespasian.

Titus.

I
80
81
'

31

ETO.

AA

Domitian

Caes.

27
28 29 30 31 32
33 34 35 36 37 38 39

25
26 27 28 29

19

Death

of Titus.

Domitian.

82
,s:;

32 33 34 ... 35 ET. or ETOT.

20
21

EA Domitian
Cses.

22 23
24

84

[Imp. and
36
! '

Domitian takes the name of Germanicus.
85
Cos.

30
31

867
XII. (twelfth consulship)
of Domit.

37 38

ETO.

AA

Domitian

Caes.

25
26

32 33
34 35 36 37 38 39 40
41

|ET KECos.xn.Dom.Aug,
I

87'
39

ET.KrCos.xii.Dom.Aug

27

89" 90" 91" 92] 93 94"

40
41

Death

of Domitian.

Nerva.

95 96_ 97"

Death of Nerva.

98 99 Death of Agrippa II. in 3rd yearof Trajan. 100

Trajan.

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
51

28 29 30
31

40
41

42 43 44 45 46 47

42 43 44 45

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39

Note.

— The queries placed against certain dates in my arrangement do not mean that the reading

.

COIXAGE OF AGRIPPA

II.

MY ARRANGEMENT.
Chalcian Era.

Era of the
Tetrarcuy of
1'hilip II.

Era of Tiberias
or

Era of
Neronias.

Kingdom

of Agrippa.

REMARKS.
Death

_44

of

Herod Agrippa

I.

45 46
48 "49
_50 51 52 ,53

Death of Herod, king of Chalcis, in the 8th year of Claudius; Agrippa II. succeeds at close of a.p. 48.

Chalcis taken

away from Agrippa

II.

He is appointed to'Tetrarchy of
when
1

Philip,

_54 55
8 9 10 L.
11

2th year of Claudius was comI pleted, ahout February, a.d. 53. Death of Claudius. Nero. Agrippa II.
receives

^56 "57
I

from Nero Galilee, Tiberias, Taricheae, Julias of Persea, etc.

ETOTC AI TOT KAI

_58 _59
(j;

Sixth year of Nero.

(and -ft)
12 13 14
15

60
61

Agrippa II. enlarges Caesarea Philippi, aud calls it Neronias.

"62 63 64 65 66 67 68

16 17 IS 19 20
21 9

Twelfth year of Nero 17th year of Agrippa II. Jewish war begins. Capture of Jotapata. Surrender of Tiberias
;

Death of Nero. Galba. Otho.
69 70 71

Vitellius.

22 23
24

10
11

Vespasian Emp. Titus and Domit. Ccesars Domit. expedition in Gaul and Germain/. [Conquest of Jud«a.

72
73

12 13
|

25

26
(

ETOT. Kr Vespasian
ETO.

Aug-.
14

Kr

Titus Aug.

ET. AI Vesp. Aug. L. IA Titus Aug.
L.

74
I

14
(

IA Domit.

Aristobulus, son of Herod, king of Chalcis, was about this time still king of Chalcis.

Caes.

(

27
I

ETOT. KZ Vespasian Aug. ETO. KZ Titus Aug.

23

?

ETO. Kr Domit.

Cses.

15

15

75 76

28 J"
( (

24

P

ETO.
ET.

Domit. Cses.
Cses.
. .

16

16

ETOT.

K0 Vespasian Aug. 25 L.orETOT.(F) K9 Titus Aug.
-D
l

77
':

KE Domit.

17
(

30

„ fi f ? ET.,

ETO. or ETOT. Kr
[Domit. Caes.

ETOT. HI Vesp. Aug.
ET. HI Titus Aug.
...

78
18

is
(

31

27 28 29
30
31

?

ETO. KZ Domit.

(

Caes.

...

32 33 34 35

ETO. IO Domit. Caes. 20 ETO. or ETOT. K Titus Aug
I

19

ETOT. HI Domit. Cses. ETOT. I© Titus Aug.

79
19

Death

of Vespasian.

Titus.

20
21

80
"81

?

ETOT. K0 Domit.
ETO.

Cses.

21
...

Death of Titus.

Domitian.

"82
^83

?

AA

Domit.

Caes.

22 23 ETO.

KT Domit.
[

Cses.

...

22 23

84 36 37 38
39 32
24

ETO.

*t

Domit.
Caes.

Caes.
...

24

Domitian takes the name of Germanicus.
85 "86
E^' ^^
Cos.

33 34 35
36 37 38 39 40
41
?
?

25 ET.
ET.

KE Domit.
KZ

25
Cos. xii. Dom. Aug, 26 J (ET.KrCos.xii.Uom.Aug

AA

Zb

,,|ET.,
\

ETO. or ETOT.

Kr

ET. or ETOT. EA Dora. [imp. and Caes.

27 ETO.

[Domit. Cass. Domit. Ca-s. ...

XII. (twelfth consulship)

of Domit.

*87

27

40
41

ETOT.
ETO.

K0

Domit. Caes.
Cses.
...

42 43 44 45

28 29 30
31

89 "90
"91 "92 "93

AA

Domit.

46
17

42
43 44
16

ET. AA ET. or ETOT.

EA Domit.
Caes.

48 49
51

[Imp. and

32 33 34 35 36
37 38

46 47

94 "95 "96 "97 "98 "99
"11)0

Death of Domitian.
Death of Nerva. Death of Agrippa

Nerva.

Trajan.
II. in 3rd

39

yearof Trajan

is

doubtful, but that the coins

may perhaps belong

to the era of the

Tetrarchy of Philip II.

22

CHAPTEE

VII.

COINS STRUCK EY THE PROCURATORS OF JUDiEA.

Ox

the banishment of Archelaus, in a.d.
l

6,

Judaea was

made a Roman

province, and Augustus

appointed Publius Sulpicius Quirinus

propraetor of Syria, and sent Coponius, a

man

of the

Equestrian order, as the
death.
2

first

procurator of Judaea, under him, with the power of

life

and

About the end

of

the

year

a.d.

9,

or

the

commencement
in

of

a.d.

10,

Coponius
does not,

returned to Rome, and Marcus Ambivius succeeded

him
as

the

government.
that

He

however, appear to have remained very long in

office,

we

find

Annius Rufus was

procurator of Judaea at the death of Augustus in a.d. 14, 3 and that Tiberius, on his accession,
sent Valerius Gratus
to succeed

him

in

a.d. 15. 4

Gratus remained in Judaea eleven years,
(cf.

1

This Quirinus
St.

is

the same as the Cyreuius governor of Syria
(ii.

terms are used by Josephus indiscriminately
9,

"Antiq."
Pilate
is

xix.

mentioned by another place
note)

Luke

2).

I have already pointed out in n.s.

2;

xx.

5,

1;

"Bell. Jud."
3,
1)

ii.

11,

6).

called

("Num. Chron."
late
7, note)

1865, vol.

v.

p.

208,

("Antiq."
used
xxiv.)

xviii.

that

the
p.

Abbe Cavedoni suggested

(" Principali

in

the

New
;

Testament (A.V.
xx. 20
;

tiyendv (Lat. presses), and this term is " governor ") of Pilate
cf .

that I should have written Quirinitts and principally on the authority of an inscription given by Marini ("Atti e Monumenti degli Arvali," pp. 782, 787), and I showed that no reliance could be placed on it as regards correct orthography moreover that there was another inscription, certainly authentic, having the form Quirinus, and that Quirinus was the correct Latin form of Cyrenius. The arguments pro and con of these inscriptions, and their importance as regards " the taxing of Cyrenius," have

Questioni,"

(Matt, xxvii. 2
;

Luke

Luke iii.

1)

;

of Felix (Acts xxiii.

and not

Quirinus,

;

been carefully collected together by Mr. W. R. A. Boyle (" The Inspiration of the Book of Daniel," p. 573, seq. London, 1863),

and he certainly proves that there

is

not the slightest ground for

The Roman Imperial and of Festus (Acts xxvi. 30). Joseph. cf. government is called Tjye/j.ovla (Luke iii. 1 "Antiq." xviii. 6, 9). The word A occurs on a coin of Nero struck at Perperene in Mysia (Eckhel, " Doct. Num. Vet." vol. ii. p. 474; vol.iv.p.243),andthe title Ell ITPOIIOY is found only once in the whole series of Greek Imperial coins on a coin of Vespasian struck in Bithynia in genere (Eckhel, op. cit. vol. ii. p. 404; vol. iv. p. 249). A specimen of this coin is in the British Museum. It was coined by L. Antonius Naso, who may perhaps be identified with Antonius Naso, a tribune of the pnetorian troops, a.d. 69 (Tac. " Hist." i. 20
;

HTGMONI

;

considering the inscription with Quirinus a forgery, but that the
inscription in Marini with Quirinius

Smith's "Diet, of Biog." vol.
occurs in

and the " Fasti Verriani "

Luke
8),

viii.

3,

for

The word iwlrpoiros Herod Antipas's "steward" (cf.
ii.

p. 1142).

both afford internal evidence that their authority and general correctness are not to be depended on. Cf. Dr. Meyer (" Krit.

Matt. xx.
Cf.

and

in

Gal.

iv.
i.

2

it

is

translated

"tutor."
4,

Joseph.

"Bell. Jud."
;

30,

5;

"Antiq."
ov

xvii.

2;

Exeg. Komm. iiber das N.T." vol. ii. p. 222, Gottingen, 1844) and Alford (" Greek Test." Luke ii. ver. 2). 2 Joseph. " Antiq." xviii. 1, 1 "Bell. Jud." ii. 8, 1. The
;

2 Maccab.
3

xi. 1

xiii.

2

;

xiv. 2.
i(f>'

AiaSe'^eTai S« kcu rovrov "Avvios 'Pov<pos,

57) teal

TeAeuTo

procurators were, however, responsible to the governors of Syria

The proper Greek and many of the procurators are so called by Josephus (Cumanus, " Antiq." xx. 6, 2; Felix, "Antiq." xx. 7, 2 "Bell. Jud." ii. 12, 8; 8, 5 Florus, "Antiq." xx. 11, 1), and the office iTriTpowriC' Antiq. "xx. "Bell. Jud." ii. 12, 1); on the other hand Josephus 5, 1;
(Joseph, passim; Tac.
xii.

"Ann."
is

54).

rendering for procurator

{mrpo-wos,

"Antiq." xviii. 2, 2. * Joseph. "Antiq." loc. cit. It seems probable, as also Mr. Lewin has observed ("Fasti Sacri," p. 150, No. 1033), that Augustus employed the same policy as regards the tenure of
KaTo-ap.
office of

— Joseph.

the procurators as he did with the

proprietors (Dion

;

;

Cass. Hi. 23), namely, to keep
so, if

them

in office three years,

and

Coponius was appointed in a.d. 6, his term of three years would end in a.d. 9 his successor, Ambivius, would be recalled
;

("Antiq." xviii. 2, 2; and Albinus by the title

xx. 8,

11;

9,

1)

calls

Gratus, Festus

in a.d. 12,

and Annius Rufus in a.d.

15.

of iirapxos (Lat. prafcetus), but the

THE PROCURATORS OF JUDJ3A.
and was succeeded by Pontius Pilate about the end of
ten years,
a.d. 26. ' to

171
Pilate

beld tbe government

when he was deposed by

Yitellius,

and sent

Rome

in a.d. 35 or a.d. 36. 2

Yitellius then appointed a friend of his, Marcellus, to take charge of the affairs of Juda3a. 3

The death

of Tiberius took place

on March 16th,

a.d. 37,

and Caligula succeeded him.

Marullus was then sent by the new emperor as procurator of Judaea, 4 and in the same
year Agrippa
I.

received the tetrarchy of Philip, 5 and in a.d. 40 Galilee and Perasa, 6 and on
in
a.d.

the accession of Claudius,

41, Judaea
a.d.
I.

and Samaria and the tetrarchy

of Lysanias II. 7

Marullus was probably recalled in
year,

41 by Claudius,

who succeeded

to the

empire in this

when

the

kingdom
of

of
a.d.

Agrippa

was
I.

as large as that of his grandfather,
died,

Herod

I.

In the summer

44 Agrippa

and Claudius nominated Cuspius Fadus, a

Roman
father's

knight,

—Agrippa

II.

being considered too young to undertake the government of his

kingdom. 8
a.d.

In

46 Tiberius Alexander

9

succeeded Cuspius Fadus, but the former did not long

retain his appointment, for in the eighth year of the Emperor Claudius (a.d. 48) Ventidius

Cumanus was nominated
Samaritans, the causes of
Syria,

procurator. 10

A

quarrel having

arisen between

the Jews and the

dispute were eventually submitted to

Quadratus, the President of

who

ordered both parties, as well as Cumanus, to go to

Rome

to

lay the case before

the Emperor.

Agrippa
6uch

II.

was

at this

time at Rome, and exerted himself on behalf of the Jews, to

effect that

Claudius condemned the Samaritans and exiled Cumanus. 11

This took place about a.d. 52.
5 6
7

1

''EeScKa «tt) SiaTptyas iv

rrj

'lovtiaia,

I1<jvtios 8e
;

SiaSoxcs ai>T$ i)Kiu.

— Joseph.

" Autiq."

xviii. 2, 2

cf.

UiXaros " Bell.

Joseph. " Ailtiq."
Joseph. " Antiq."

xviii. 6,

10;

"Bell. Jud."

ii.

9, 6.

xviii. 7, 2.

Jud."
*

ii.

9,

'-'.

Joseph. "Antiq." xix.
p. 129,

niAa-ros Sena €T€(nv Siorpiifas eVl 'lovSaias

els "P&iM-qv rjirel-

Chapter VI.
8

"Bell. Jud." ii. 11, 5. 5, 1 under Sect. F. Herod Agrippa I.
;

See See

yero.

—Joseph. "Antiq."

xviii. 4, 2.

The

actual date of Pilate's

Joseph. "Antiq." xix.
p. 139,

recall is a matter of

controversy.

Clinton ("F.

R."

vol.

ii.

Chapter VI.
9

" Bell. Jud." ii. 11,6. 9, 2 under Sect. H. Agrippa II.
;

p.

236), adopting Lardner's opinion ("Credibility," vol. i. pp. 94-96, 371-377), thinks that Pilate's tenth year ended in September or October, a.d. 35. Norisius (vol. iii. pp. 516-517)
it

Joseph.

"Antiq." xx.

5,

2;

"Bell. Jud."

ii.

11,

6.

Tiberius Alexander was the son of Alexander the Alabarch of

places

at the

end of a.d. 36, and

this latter

view

is

taken by

Alexandria and nephew of Philo (Joseph. "Antiq." xviii. 8, 1; xx. 5, 2). Alexander, the father, appears to have been
the same as Alexander Lysimachus the Alabarch,

Mr. Lewin ("Fasti Sacri," p. 172, No. 1160; p. 247, No. 1493). The arguments pro and con are of too lengthy a nature to be
produced here.

who was im-

prisoned by Caligula and set at liberty in a.d. 41 by Claudius.

De Saulcy ("Num.

de la Terre Sainte," p. 69)

Another of

his sons,

Marcus, was the
I.

assigns the deposition of Pilate to a.d. 38.
3 Joseph. "Antiq." xviii. 4, 2. He is styled eVi/ueArjTTJr, " manager." * With the title of Mippareh. 'iTnrdpxv 8e br\ rrjs 'IouSoi'ar Joseph. "Antiq." xviii. 6, 10. Josephus fVireVirei MdovWov.

the daughter of Agrippa
in the Acts

(Joseph.

first husband of Bernice, "Antiq." xix. 5, 1). He

has also been identified by some as the "Alexander" mentioned
Tiberius Alexander was a renegade (Joseph. and under Nero became procurator of Egypt (Joseph. "Bell. Jud." ii. 15, 1; Tac. "Ann." it. 28; "Hist."
(iv.

6).

" Antiq." xx.
11;
ii.

5, 2),

("Bell. Jud."
officer

ii.

11,

5)

gives the

same

title to

Jucundus, an

i.

74).

He

was the

first

in Juda>a in the time of
St.

Gessius Floras.

Mr. Lewin
Marcel/us

ledge the emperor Vespasian (see

Roman governor to aeknowChapter VI. p. 143, Sect. H.

(" Life of

Paul,"

vol.

i.

p.

25

note) thinks that the

Agrippa
l0

II.),

and was made general of the army under Titus
1, 6).

sent by Yitellius has been confounded with the Man/llu* sent by
Caligula, and
if

(Joseph. "Bell. Jud." v.

so the

Jews, on the deposal of Pilate, would

'Oy$6q> Tf/s Khavhiov Kaiaapos apxv*
Cf.
is

have been left without a governor until the arrival of Marullus. I, miner (" Credibility," vol. i. p. 92) is of opinion that there was no procurator between the removal of Pilate and the reign of
Agrippa.

xx. 5, 2.

"

Bell.

Jud."
xx.

ii.

12,

1,

Joseph. "Antiq." « Tf <where the appointment of
of Chalcis.

Cumanus
12, 1-7.

placed after the death of

Herod
2,

" Joseph.

"Autiq."

6,

1,

3;

"Bell.

Jud."

ii.

:

1*70
JI

-t

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
The period
of the actual dismissal of

Cumanus and

the appointment of Felix

x

is

difficult

to

determine.
(a.d.

Josephus seems to place the
52),

removal of
successor;
states
2

Cumanus
whilst

in

the
3

twelfth

year of
of

Claudius
in
a.d.

and

names Felix

as

his

Tacitus

speaks

Felix
joint

52 as jampridem Judcece impositus, and

that

Cumanus and Felix were

procurators,

Cumanus having
ttoWwv

Galilee

and Felix Samaria, which may perhaps receive some
4

corroboration from the testimony of St. Paul

"

Forasmuch

as

I

know

that thou hast been

of many

years

(e'/c

£to)v)

a judge

unto this nation."

This cannot, however, be ac-

cepted as positive proof of the correctness of the statement of Tacitus, 5 and the

"many

years"
still

probably extend from a.d. 52 to a.d. 58, the year when Paul was speaking.
procurator under
Taricheao and
Judaja.
7

6

Felix was
Julias of

Nero,

who, at the time when he
of

gave to

Agrippa

II.

Persea,
rest

Tiberias

Galilee

in

a.d.

55,

made Felix

procurator

over

the

of

Felix was superseded about a.d. GO.
Porcius Festus was sent by Nero to JudaDa as the successor of Felix about a.d. GO. 8
procurator
died

Tbis
sent

about the end of a.d. 61, and Nero,
9

when the news reached Rome,

Albinus in his place early in a.d. 62.

In

a.d.

61 Albinus, who had been one of the

most unjust of the

Roman
sub

procurators,

was superseded, 10 and Gessius Florus was appointed procurator of Judaea. 11
says
Tacitus, 12
13

" Duravit tamen,"
;

" patientia Judaais usque

ad

Gessium Florum procuratorein

eo

bellum

ortum."

1

Antonius Felix

(Tac.

"Hist."

v.

9);
;

Claudius

Felix,

date a.d. 56 for the succession of Festus

is

considered by

Mr.

(Suidasin KXavSios).
xii.
;

Felix only (Josephus

Acts; Tac.

"Ann."

Conder

to

be proved by the clear statement of St. Jerome in his

Suetonius {Joe. cit.) says that he 54 Suet. " Claud." 28). was the husband of three queens. According to Tacitus ("Hist." v. 9) he married [first) Drusilla, the granddaughter of Antony and Cleopatra. It is known that he married Drusilla, the sister Of his third wife nothing is of Agrippa II. (Acts xxiv. 24). known. 2 Joseph. "Antiq." xx. 6, 3 "Bell. Jud " ii. 12, 8. 7, 1
; ;

"In
in

Evangelistas ad

Damasum
as

prnefatio," that this took place
is

the

second year of Nero, and that the point
yet

decisive

unless conflicting evidence

unknown can be brought
;

against
9 ,n

it.

Joseph. "Antiq." xx.
It

9, 1

;

has been suggested

(Smith's

vi. 5, 3. "Bell. Jud." ii. 14, 1 " Diet, of Biog." s.r.

Albinus) that this procurator afterwards received

further ap-

3

"Ann."

xii.

54.

4

Acts xxiv. 10.

pointments, and

may be

identified with Lucceius Albinus

made

According to Suetonius ("Claud." 28) and Victor ("Epit." Lugd. Bat. 1648, p. 3G1) it would seem as if Felix had held
a military command,

5

by Nero procurator of Mauretania
(a.d. 68) added Tiugitana.

Csesariensis, to

which Galba

A

report obtained that he disdained

perhaps

during the procuratorship

of

the

title of

procurator (sprcto procuratoris vocabulo), and had

Cumanus. Whiston, in his note to the passage of Josephus ("Bell. Jud." ii. 12, 8), throws doubts on the statement of Tacitus, and Mr. Lewin ("Fasti Sacri," p. 297, No. 1777)
considers

usurped the diadem and the name of Juba (Tac.
58).

"Hist."

ii.

He
59).

was shortly

after, together

with his wife, assassinated,

but Vitellius took no notice of these transactions (Tac. he.
cit.
11

" a palpable error." 6 Lewin, " Life of St. Paul," vol. ii. " Fasti p. 159, note 87 Sacri," p. 316, No. 1865. 7 Joseph. "Bell. Jud." ii. 13, 2. "With respect to Abila,
it
;

Joseph. "Antiq." xx.

9,

5; 11,

1

;

"Bell. Jud."

ii.

14, 2.

mentioned in

this passage as part of p. 140,

"the

gift of

Nero," see
14, 1;

Chapter VI.
8

under Sect. H. Agrippa II.
8,

Joseph. "Antiq." xx.
27,

9;

"Bell. Jud."
here

ii.

Acts

xxiv.

xxv.,

xxvi.

The

dates

given

are

wholly at
This writer
Nero,

variance with those recently laid before Biblical students by Mr.

Conder ("Bible Educator,"

vol.

iv.

p.

27 seq.)

states that Festus succeeded Felix in the second year of

"Hist." v. 10. 13 The Jewish war broke out in the second yew of the government of Florus and the twelfth year of Nero (Joseph. "Antiq." xx. 11, 1). The twelfth year of Nero, which, as we have seen under Sect. H. Agrippa II. (Chapter VI. pp. 140-142), corresponded to the seventeenth year of Agrippa II., was current between the 13th of October, a.d. 65, and 13th of October, a.d. 66, and it was in the month of April, a.d. 66, that the war began (Joseph. Florus was therefore made procurator "Bell. Jud." ii. 14, 4).
before April, a.d. 65.

12

a.d. 56, and Albinus to Felix in a.d. 58.

The

fixing of the

. .

.

LIST OF

THE PROCURATORS OF JUDAEA.
1
:

173

The

list

of the procurators of Judaea will therefore be as follows


A.D.

A.D.

1st

Pr icurator Coroxius

..

6-1
10
9

2nd

Marcus Ambiyius

12
13

10

3rd

;>

Axxius Bufus

12
. .

14
15

J3

4th

j j

Valerius Gratis

15

..

25 26

5th 6th
7th

jy

Pontics Pilate
M.iRCELLUS

.

..

26-!!
36

>>

36—37
37—41
King
.

>>

Marullus
[Agrippa
I.

of Judaea 41

— 44.]
44—46 46—48

8th
9th

>>

Cuspius Fadus

>j

Tiberius Alexander

10th
11th

,,

Yextidius Cumanus

)>

Claudius or Antoxius Felix
Porcius Festus

.

12th 13th 14th

j j

n
»>

Albixus 2
Gessius Florins

48—52 52—60 60—61 62—64
64—66

REIGX OF AUGUSTUS FROM THE EXPULSION OF ARCHELAUS,
The copper
coins

a.d.

G— a.d.

14.

struck

in

Judaea

by the Roman procurators, from the expulsion of

Archclaus, do not exhibit any sign or symbol that might be offensive to the religious feelings
of

the Jews, thus departing from the usual
in the case of

Roman custom

;

and though some of the Pro-

curators, as

Pontius Pilate, attempted to introduce images and other symbols

1

Sabinus,

who

is

called

by Josephus ("Antiq."
for

xvii. 9, 3),

2

Annas was not a procurator and successor
Jerusalem

of

Albinus,

a-

and again Bell. Jud." ii. 2, 2) "the procurator of Syria," has by some been counted among the procurators. It has been suggested by the Rev. Dr. Farrar (Kitto's " Cyc. of Bibl. Lit." ed. Alexander, i.v. Procurator) that the passage in Josephus ("Antiq." xviii. 2, 2), in which it is stated that "Tiberius tent Valerius Gratus to be procurator," is probably the
Caesar's steward
(eirlrpoiros)

"

Syrian affairs,"

erroneously stated by Mr. Grove (Smith's "Diet, of the Bible."
s.v.
]).

reason
[fifth

for
It

this,

as -ntn-mAs [suit) has been read ni^xitToi would seem, however, that Sabinus was only a
I.

vol. i. p. 1010), and by me ("Jew. Coinage," was high-priest during the interim before the arrival He assembled the of Albinus (Joseph. "Antiq." xx. 9, 1). Sanhedrin and brought before them James the brother of Jesus and other Christians. For this be was deposed, alter a rule ol The words " brother of Jesus" are supposed to three months. be interpolations (Rev. F. Meyrick, Smith's "Diet, of the Bible," vol. i. p. 925; J. E. Ryland, Kitto's "Cyc. of Bibl.

135), but

procurator alter the death of Herod

until affairs

Lit."

ed.

Alexander, vol.
p. 158, note 9).

ii.

p.

459;

el.

Madden,

"Jew.

were

settled.

Coinage,"

See

Chapter VIII.

174
of abhorrence to the Jews, 1 yet

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
they forbore from placing such emblems on the coins. This

may

be accounted for by the coins being under the surveillance of the Emperor and Senate,
into,

whereas the actions of the Procurators could not always be looked

and they doubtless

thought that they could introduce the forbidden symbols without the matter getting to the
ears of the Emperor.

Their folly more than once caused their
representation of

recall.

The

coins bear, ac-

cordingly, as a ride, the

a plant, the

name

of

the reigning Caesar, and the

year of his reign in Greek characters.

The

dates

on the coins of the procurators struck

during the

reign of
2

Augustus are

calculated on the era of the

"Anni Augusti," which commenced

in b.c. 27.

Coponius, First Procurator, a.d. 6

a.d.

1U-

1st year,

a.d. 6-7.

Obvebse.
1.

Reveese.
ear of

M.

3.

KAICAPOC.

An

com.

A
No.
1

palm-tree, from which hang hunches of dates.

In field,
(Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
p. 136,
;

to right

and

left,

L.

Ar
1.)

(year 33).

"Num. Chron."

n.s. 1875, vol. xv. p. 179,

No.

M. de Saulcy

states

3

that he

is

only acquainted with two examples of this rare piece,

one in the "Cabinet des Medailles" at Paris, 4 the other which was formerly in the Collection
of

the late
6

Mr. Wigan, and which was
also

so

published by myself. 5

But Mr. Eeichardt has

stated

that he

possesses

a

specimen of this coin.

1

Joseph. "Antiq."

xviii. 3,

1

;

"Bell. Jud."

ii.

9, 3.

1

" Rev.

2

Mommsen, "Hist,
iii.

de la

Witte, vol.
p.

p.

326, note

138; " Num. Chron." n.s. of the type employed during the reigns of Augustus described by Cavedoni (" Bibl. Num." vol. i. p. 65, No. 1; vol. ii.
39,
iii.

Mon. Rom." ed. Blacas and De 3; Madden, "Jew. Coinage," 1875, vol. xv. p. 176. The coins

paper
read

Num." 1853, pi. xi. fig. 3, and p. 193 note. De Saulcy wrote that the Cabinet des Medailles

In

this

at Paris

contained a specimen on which
|

AT,

it might be fancied that one could but owing to the bad preservation of the piece it

p. vol.

No.

1;

p.

40;

cf.

Eckhel,
|_.

"Doct.
(year 30)

Num. Vet."
and
|_.

p. 497)

with the dates

A

AA
end

must consequently be misread. of Chapter. 3 " Num. de la Terre Sainte," p. 71.
(year 31)

See

Table

at

was doubtful if this reading could be received. The engraving however clearly shows AT. 5 "Jew. Coinage," p. 136, No. 1. 6 "Num. Chron." n.s. 1862, vol. ii. p. 274; 1876, vol. xvi. Mr. Reichardt further states that he possesses a coin p. 316.
with the date

A6

(35)

=

a.d.

8-9.

Cf.

Madden,

"Jew.

Coinage," pp. 137, 138.

COINS STRUCK BY AMBIVIUS

AND RUFUS.

175

Marcus Ambivius, Second Procurator,

a.d.

9 —

12
a.d.

a.d. 9-10.

Obverse.
2.

Reverse.
as

JZ.

3.

Same legend and type

No.

1.

Same type
L.

as

No.

1

.

In

field,

to right

and

left,

AC
p.
1
;

(year 36).

(Formerly

in the Coll. of the late

Mr. Wigan

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
pi.
iii.

136, No. 2;

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."
cit.

p. 138,
2.)

pi. viii.

No.

1

;

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

de la Terre Sainte," p. 72,

No.

Madden,

"Num.

Chron." he.

No.

This coin

may have been
of a.d.
10.

issued

by Coponius, who was removed

at

the

latest

at

the

commencement

Annius Rufus, Third Procurator,

a.d.

-

13

n

a.d. t-

15'

A.D.

12-13.
Obverse. Reverse.
as No.
I.

3.

M.

4.

Same legend and type

Same type
L.

as No. 1.

In

field,

to right

and

left.

A0

(year 39).

(De Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."

p.

139, pi.

viii.

No. 2
iii.

;

Sainte,"

p. 72, pi.

No. 2

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 136, No. 3; Madden, " Num. Chron." he. cit. No.
;

De
3.)

Saulcy,

"Num.

de

la

Tern

This coin
of
a.d.

may have been

struck under Marcus Ambivius,

who was removed

at

the end

12.

176

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

A.D.

13-14.
Obverse.

Reverse.
as No.
1.

4.

2E. 4.

Same legend and type

Same type
L.

as

No.

1.

In

field,

to right

and

left,

M

(year 40).
;

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."

p.

139, pi.

viii.

No. 3
pi.

;

Saiute," p. 72,

iii.

No. 3

De Saulcy, Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 136, No. 4 Madden, " Num. Chron." loc. cit. No. 4.)
;

"Num.

de la Terre

A.D. 14-15.

Obverse.
5.

Reverse.
as

JE. 4.

Same legend and type

No.

1.

Same type
L.

as No.

1

.

In

field,

to right

and

left,

MA
p.
;

(year 41).

(Formerly in the Coll. of the late Mr.
pi. viii.

Wigan

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
pi.
iii.

137, No. 5;

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."

p.
5.)

139,

No. 4

;

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

de la Terre Sainte," p. 72,

No. 4

Madden, " Num. Chron."

loc. cit.

No.

These

two

coins

were

undoubtedly

struck

by Annius
14.

Rufus,

who was

superseded

immediately on the accession of Tiberius in a.d.

The type

of

the palm-tree on these coins commemorates the groves of palm for which

Judaea was famous,

and from which Herod
described
omitted,
in
as

I.

derived a

large revenue. 1
(pp.

The
Cavedoni,
reject

six

coins

my
I

"Jewish

Coinage"

139-141),
at

after

Sestini

and

are

now

distrusted

their

attribution

the time,

and now

finally

their

claims to a Jewish origin.

REIGN OF TIBERIUS,
Augustus
died
the

a.d.

14— a.d.
the

37.

19th

of

August,

a.d.
1st,

14, 2
lie,

and
27,

"

Anni

Augusti," which wo

have seen were computed from January the
latest date of

ceased in the forty-first year,

—the
1 to

which we possess procuratorial coins struck during the reign of
coins issued under Tiberius (as far as at present
L.
IH),
i.e.

this emperor.

The new
18
1

known) bear dates from

(L.

A

to

from

a.d.

14-15
2,

to

a.d.

31-32.
p. 108.
2

" Herodis palmetispinguibus."

Ilor. " Epist."

ii.

184. See

Chapter VI.

XIV. Eal.

Sep/. (Suet.

"Aug."

100).

THE REGNAL TEARS OF TIBERIUS.
It
is

177
computed from the 19th
of

almost certain
Kal.

that
a.d.

the
14,

regnal years of Tiberius were
after

August

(xiv.

Sept.),

the death of

Augustus, and his tribunitian years

from June 27th
therefore

(v.

Kal.

Jul),

a.d. 4,

the year of his adoption. 1

His second year would

commence on the 19th

of

August, a.d. 15, and Valerius Gratus, as we have seen,

was sent by Tiberius

as procurator in a.d. 15.

Valerius Gratus, Fourth Procurator

a.d.

15

25
a.d,

26-

1st year, a.d.

14-15.
Obverse.

Reverse.

1.

M.

3.

IOYA.-CEB.

(?) in

two

lines within

Two

cornua-copiae,

between which a poppy-head
(?).

a wreath. (De Saulcy,

above, L.
Jud."
p. 102, pi.
p. 73, pi.
iv.
iii.

A
;

(year 1)

"Num.

No.

1

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
Madden,

p.

150

De
183,

Saulcy,

"Num.

de la Terre Sainte,"

No. 5

;

"Num.

Cbron."

loc. cit. p.

No.

1.)

1

Cf.

Lewin, "Fasti Sacri,"

p.

liii,

and

p.

143, No. 994.

monuments, or
to be

coins, is a trace of

any such epoch of Tiberius

Dr. Thomson (Smith's "Diet, of the Bible,"
toI.
i.

s.v.

Jesus Christ,
calculated

met with."

p. 1074) says,

"The

rule of Tiberius

may be

either

from the beginning of his sole reign after the death of Augustus, a.u.c. 767 [a.d. 14], or from his joint government with Augustus, i.e. from the beginning of a.u.c. 765 [a.d. 12]. In the latter case the fifteenth year of Tiberius [Luke iii. 1] would correspond with a.u.c. 779 [a.d. 26] " and Dr. Farrar considers ("Life of Christ," illustr. ed. App. p. 735) "that there is good ground to believe that St. Luke dates the year of the reign of Tiberius from his association with Augustus as joint emperor in a.u.c. 765 (a.d. 12)."
;

With respect to Dr. Thomson's and Dr. Farrar's theory, one which has been adopted by Norisius, l'agi, Ussher, Lardner, Hales, Greswell, and others, Clinton ("F. R." vol.ii.p. 237) writes, "they have no other reason for selecting that particular year [a.u.c. 765=a.d. 12] as the epoch than because it is adapted to their
own dates for the With reference
it

ministry of the Baptist."
to the Rev.

H. Browne's remark about

coins,

appears that certain coins of Tiberius, struck at Antioch,

with the legend

KAI£AP £EBA£T02
vol.
iii.

"nd dating from

a.d. 12-14, have been described by Morell, Vaillant, and other

The Rev. H. Browne
states,

(Kitto's
i.

" Cyc.
p.

of

Bibl.

Lit." ed.

numismatists, but their authenticity has been doubted by Eckhel
(" Doct.

Alexander, s.v. Chronology, vol.

515)
of

on the contrary
'

Num.

Vet."

p.

277)

;

whilst

other genuine

"

St.

Luke's
the

date

'

fifteenth

Tiberius

(iii.

1)

coins of Tiberius,

issued also at Antioch,

bear the date

EM
A
for

interpreted

by

constant

rule

of

the

Imperial

annals

(45) of the Actian era, i.e. a.d.

14-15, with the letter

(and also of the Canon), denotes the year beginning August,
a.d. 28, and ending
in the

the first year of his reign, and the date

ZM (+7),

i.e.

a.d. 16-17,

same month
it

of a.d.

29.

Re-

with the
p. 278; I
is

letter \~ for the third year of his reign (Eckhel, op. cit.
cf.

ferred to the current consular year,

or 29.

Taken
1

in

the Jewish sense,
1

may mean it may be
even
1

either a.d. 28

the year beTisri, a.d. 27.

may add
of

Lewin, " Fasti Sacri," pp. Iiv, 154, No. 1044). that Mr. Lewin (" Fasti Sacri," p.

liii)

ginning either

Nisan or

Tisri, a.d. 28, or

opinion

"that the reign
14,

of

Tiberius

as

beginning
in
tin.'

The

hypothesis of a dating of the years of Tiberius from an
earlier

from 19th August, a.d.

was as well known a date

epoch

by three years than the death of Augustus, which, from the sixteenth century downward, has found favour with many learned men, will not bear examination it is unknown to
;

time of Luke as the reign of Queen Victoria in our

own

day,

and that no single case has ever been or can be produced in which the Tears of Tiberius were reckoned in any other

the early ecclesiastical writers, and nowhere in histories, on

manner."
23

178
This
attribution

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
coin

was

at

one
to
4

time

ascribed
2

by De Saulcy

l

to

Judas
it

Aristobulus,

but

the

was objected
3

by Cavedoni,
did not
at

who
first

considered

that

should be attributed to

Julia Augusta.

De Saulcy
above

accept this suggestion, with

which, however,

he now concurs. 5

The
that
it

piece
is

described

appears
of

to

be
the
6

in

the

British
that

Museum,

and

I

presume
read
the

from a careful
I
7

examination

piece

itself

De

Saulcy has

date

L. A.

may remark

that he describes
I

the obverse legend as
in

IOYA.— CEB.
L.

(?),

whilst
clearly

his engraving

shows the legend as

IOYA— AC
the coin

two

lines.

The date

A
it

is also is

given.

It

is,

however, uncertain

how

may

be truly described, as

in a very

imperfect state of preservation.
wreath,
It

The most

that can be seen on the obverse
doubtful).

is

i!~ .,•'

within a

and on the reverse
is

L.

A

(very

possible

that

this

coin

may have
a.d.

been struck

by Annius Rufus, who was
till

still

in office

on the 19th of August,
that
it

14, and Valerius Gratus did not arrive
to

a.d.

15.

I

may add

would be desirable

find

a more perfect specimen of this piece.

2nd year, a

d.

15-16.
Reverse.
lines within a laurel

Obverse.
2.

2E.

3.

KAI-CAP
Bibl.

in

two

Two

cornua-copiffi,

between which L.

B (year

2);

wreath.
(Cavedoni,
p. 142,

above TIB.

"

Num."
De

vol.

i.

p. 66,

No. 11

;

vol.

ii.

p. 48,

No.

1,

from the Ducal Museum at Parma
iii.

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
Chron."
loc. cit. p.

No. 3;

Saulcy,

"Num.

de la Terre Sainte," p. 73, pi.

No. 6; Madden,

"Num.

184,

No.

2.

Specimens also exist in the Cabinets of Dr. Churchill Babington and the Rev. H. C. Reichardt.)

Obverse.
3.

Reverse.
lines

M.

4.

IOY—AI A

in

two

within a wreath.

Ear

of

corn;

in field,

to

right

and

left,

L.

B

(year 2).
(De Saulcy,

"Num.

Jud."

p.

141, pi.

viii.

No. 7;
pi.
iii.

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
7
;

p. 142,

No. 2;
No.

De
3.)

Saulcy,

"Num.de

la

Terre

Sainte," p. 73,

No.

Madden, " Num. Chron."

loc. cit.

1

" Num. Jud." pp. 102, 103,
(?)•

pi. iv.

No.

1.

De

Saulcy here
(?)

coins with Greek inscriptions,

'

Judah the King

'

and

A

I() r

described the legend on the obverse as

—A

IOYAA — BA£IA.

Mr. Poole
ii.

(Art.

Money

in Smith's "Diet, of

the

Bible," vol.

p.

413), as I have

elsewhere stated ("Jew.

Coinage," p. 150, note 3), adopted De Saulcy's opinion only as a " probable attribution," and describes the coin under " copper

2 "Bibl. Num." vol. ii. Antigonus (?)." p. 48, No. 5, p. 50. 3 Madden, "Jew. Coinage," This Julia is the mother p. 150. 4 " Rev. Num." 1857, p. 297. of Tiberius and not the wife. s " Num. de la Terre Sainte," p. 73.
6

Op.

cit.

"'

Op.

cit. pi. iii.

No.

5.

)

COINS STRUCK BY VALERIUS GRATUS.

179

3rd year, a.d. 16-17.
Obverse.
4.

Reverse.
comua-copise,
right

M.
and

3.

TIBEPIO[Y] above two
;

KAI-CAP

in

two

lines within a wreath.

between which a caduceus
left,

in field, to

L.

V (year

3).
;
;

Babington, (De Sauley, " Bull. Arch, de l'Athen. Fran?." 1855, pp. 5, C Reichardt, " Num. Chron." n.s. 1862, vol. ii. p. 274 " Num. Chron." n.s. 1862, vol. ii. p. 67, pi. ii. No. 6 Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 143, No. 5 De Sauley, " Num. de la Similar coins in the British Museum and Terre Sainte," p. 73, pi. iii. No. 8; Madden, "Num. Chron." loc. cit. No. 4. former Wigan Collection read (*' c ) BE
; ;

T

I

I

POC

.

Obverse.
5.

Reverse.

iE.

3.

KAI— CAP in two lines within a wreath.
la

A

triple

lily;

in field,

to

right

and

left,

L.

T

(year 3).
(De Sauley, " Num. de
Terre Sainte," p. 74,

No. 9. This variety was unknown Num. Chron." loc. cit. p. 185, No. 5.)
pi.
iii.

till

published by

De Sauley

;

Madden,

Obverse.
6.

Reverse.

M.4.

IOY—AI A
"Num.
Jud."

in
p.

two

lines within a
viii.

wreath

Same type and

date as No. 5.
;

(De Sauley,

142, pi.

Sainte," p. 74,

pi.

No. 8; Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 142, No. 4 De Sauley, iii. No. 10; Madden, "Num. Chron." loc. cit. No. 6.)

"Num.

de la Terre

4th year, a.d. 17-18.
Obverse.
7.

Reverse.
a vine-leaf.

JE.

3.

TIBEP[IOY] above

KAICAP
L.

above a diota; in
(year 4).
pi.
iii.

field, to

right and left,

A

(Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

p. 145,

No. 8;

De

Sauley,

"Num.

de la Terre Sainte," p. 74,

No. 11;

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

loc. cit.

No.

7.)

Obverse.
8.

Reverse.
Diota
;

M.

3.

IOYAIA
]).

above a vine-leaf.
;

in field, to right

and

left,

L.

A
la

(year 4).
Terre Sainte,"

(Formerly in the Coll. of the late Mr. Wigan
74, pi.
iii.

No.

12, a very imperfect engraving

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 144, No. 7; De Sauley, " Num. de Madden, " Num. Chron." loc. cit. No. 8.)
;

;

180
Eckliel
(year
later
1).
1

NTJMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
and Cavedoni
3 2

describe

the second of these coins

(No. 8) with the date L.

A

De Saulcy
5

gave them both (Nos. 7 and 8) to the "year 1"; but a few years
4

he corrected
Cavedoni

this date to " year 4."

has published similar pieces to No.
within

8,

with the dates L.

A and
as

|_.

A, and

the legend

IOYAIA

a

wreath.
8

He

states

6

that

he has taken their description from

Mionnet

7

but I have shown
within
L.

that these coins

are not described

by Mionnet

having the

name IOYAIA The date
ascribed
to

a

wreath,

but above
is

a

vine-leaf.

A

(year 4)

no doubt the correct
9

one
to

for

these

coins.

The
date
10

piece
|_.

Augustus

by Cavedoni,

with

similar

type

No.

7

and

the

A

(year 30),

L. A, and should be ascribed to Tiberius. has suggested n that the diota on these coins may probably represent one of the Cavedoni

should certainly be read

wine-cups, which

Julia and her husband

Augustus presented

to the

Temple

at Jerusalem,

and

which in the First Revolt was melted with other sacred utensils by order of John of Gischala. 12

Obverse.
9.

Reverse.
in three lines within

M.

4.

TIB— KAI-CAP
" Num. Jud."
la

[IOY— AIA.]
L.

A

palm.

In

field, to

right and

left,

a wreath.
(De Saulcy, p. 143, wanting in these descriptions.
pi. viii.

A

(year 4).
p. 144,

No. 3 [read

9]

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"

No.

6.

Perfect examples exist in
pi. iv.

De

Saulcy' s Collection and in the British
loc.

The name Museum.

IOYAIA
De

is

Saulcy,

" Num. de

Terre Sainte," p. 75,

have the legend retrograde,

De

Saulcy,
14

No. 1 " Num. de

;

la

Madden, " Num. Chron." Terre Sainte," pi. iv. No.

cit.

p.

186, No. 9.

Examples sometimes

2.)

Eckhel
incorrectly.

13

and

Cavedoni

cite

this

coin

with

the

date

L.

A

(year

1),

but

probably

5th year, a.d. 18-19.
10.

iE.

3.

Same obverse and
pi. iv.

reverse as *No.
;

9.

Date L.

£

(year 5).
;

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."
Sainte," p. 75,

Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 146, No. 10 No. 10 De Saulcy, " Num. de la Terre Madden, " Num. Chron." loc. cit. No. 10. The piece published by Eckhel, " Doct. Num. Vet." vol. iii. p. 497, and Cavedoni, "Bibl. Num." vol. i. p. 65, No. 8; vol. ii. p. 49, No. 2, with the legend IOYAIA C£ is probably misread, and the letters C£ should be [_. 6. Cf. De Saulcy, "Num. Jud." p. 142; Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 145, No. 9.)
p. 143, pi. viii.
;

No. 3

1

" Doct. Num. Vet."
"Bibl.

vol.
i.

iii.

p. 498.

9

2 3
4
'•

Num."

vol.

p. 65,

No. 5

;

vol.

ii.

p. 47,

No.

2.

10
11

6 > *

"Num. Jud." pp. 140, 141, pi. viii. Nos. 5, 6. "Bull. Arch, de l'Athenceum Francais," Jan. 1855, pp. 5, 6. " Bibl. Num." vol. i. p. 65, No. 4 vol. ii. p. 47, No. 1. " Bibl. Num." vol. ii. p. 47, note.
;

" Bibl. Num." vol. i. p. 65, No. 2 Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 139. " Bibl. Num." vol. ii. p. 49.
'Att(x (to S'ouSe
irtfi(p6€VT<tii'

;

vol.

ii.

p. 39,

No.

3.

13

ruu

virh

tov 2e/3a(TToC Kal

Trjj

yuvaiKOs

avrov
13

a.Kparu(p6pwv.
vol.
i.

"

Bell.

Jud."
vol.

v. 13, 6.

" Doct. Num. Vet."

iii.

p. 498.

" Suppl." vol. viii. p. 377, Nos. "Jew. Coinage," p. 339.

67, 68.

14

"

Bibl.

Num."

vol.

p. 66,

No. 10

;

ii.

p. 49,

No.

1.

.

COINS STRUCK BY VALERIUS GRATUS.
6th year, a.d. 19-20.

181

Eckhel 1 and Cavedoni 2 have
the third

both described a piece similar to the type employed in
L. S

year (see No.

6)

with the date
that

(year

6).

De
L.

Saulcy

3

has always doubted
3).

the

reading,
4

and

is

convinced

the

date

should

be

T

(year

I

am

of

his

opinion.

7th year,

a.d.

20-21, to

10th year,

a.d.

23-24.
to

No

coins of

these years

have been up

the present time discovered.

11th year, a.d. 24-25.
11.

M.

3.

Same obverse and
Num. Jud."
iv.

reverse as No. 9.
;

Date L.

I

A

(year 11).
;

(De Saulcy, "

p. 144, pi. viii.

Sainte," p. 75, pi.

No. 4

;

No. 11 Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 146, No. 12 Madden, " Num. Chron." he. cit. No. 11. A piece formerly

De

Sauley,

" Num. de

la

Terre

in the late

Mr. Wigan's Cabinet

has the date

|_.

A I.)
of
this

The
Cavedoni,
6

coin
is

type

with the

date

L.

I

A

(year

14),

published

by

Eckhel 5

and

most likely misread.
attributes this coin to Pontius Pilate.

De Saulcy
ans,

nous voyons reparaitre une monnaie a

He says: Jerusalem. On ne

" Apres un intervalle de six

peut guere se rendre compte

de cette reapparition qu'en admettant l'arrivee en Judee d'un nouveau procurateur, desireux
de rendre

hommage
quite
;

a

l'empereur regnant.
la

Or Valerius Gratus

fut

remplace

par Pontius

Pilatus en l'an
It
is

26 de J.-C, dont
true,
first

premiere moitie appartient a l'an 11 de Tibere."
states,

as

De
in

Saulcy
of

that

Pontius

Pilate

succeeded Valerius Gratus
not,

in
to

a.d.
fall

26
in

the

portion

the eleventh

year of

Tiberius does

however, happen
as

this

year,

but

the

year a.d.

24.

Moreover, though
is

no

coins have

yet

been discovered of the years " 6 " to " 10," there

no reason
of
similar

why

they should not
to

exist.

Eckhel 7 and
date
L.

Cavedoni 8 have
9).
9

both

published

pieces

type

No.

9,

with the

(year

This coin,
12th

therefore,

should be attributed to Valerius Gratus.

year,

a.d.

25-26.
this year

No
1

coins

of

up

to

the present time discovered.
« «

" Doct. Num. Vet." vol. iii. p. 497. " Bibl. Num." vol. i. p. 65, No. 6 vol. ii. p. 47, No. 3. 3 J'Num. Jud." p. 142; "Num. de la Terre Sainte," "
;

" Doct. Num. Vet."

vol.

iii.

p. 498.
;

P4

5

-

Cf. "

Jew. Coinage,"

p. 146,

No.

11.

Num." vol. i. p. 66, No. 10 '" Doct. Num. Vet," vol. iii. p. 498. 8 " Bibl. Num." vol. i. p. 66, No. 10 a See my note in " Jew. Coinage," p.
Bibl.

"

vol.

ii.

p. 49,

No. No.

i

;

vol.

ii.

p. 49,

1.

147, note 3.

182

NUMISMATA OMENTALIA.

Pontius Pilate, Fifth Procurator.,
13th year, a.d. 26-27, to 15th year, a.d. 28-29.

a.d.

26

3
a.d,

36-

A

No

coins of these years

up

to the present time discovered.

16th

year,

a.d.

29-30.
Obverse.

Heveese.
L.
IS (year

12.

M.
16).

3.

TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC
"Num.

IOYA1A KAICAPOC.
together.

Three ears

of corn

bound

Simpulum.
Jud."
p.

(De Saulcy,

144, pi. ix. Nos.

1,

2;

Madden,
pi. iv.

"Jew. Coinage,"
No.
5.

p.

147,

No. 13;

De
date

Saulcy,

de la Terre Sainte," p. 75,
p.

The example given by De
p.

Saulcy,

"Num. "Num. Jud."
should

144,

pi.

ix.

No. 3; Madden,

"Jew. Coinage,"

147,

with the
p.

doubtless read

Chron."

loc. cit.

L. IS. No. 12.)

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

de la Terre

Sainte,"

75;

|_. S, Madden,

"Num.

Eckhel 1 and Cavedoni 2

have given
really

coins of
exist. 3

the

same

types,

with

the

dates

L.

H

and

L.

I

A.

They probably do not

Julia,

the mother of Tiberius, died in a.d.

29.

Obverse.
13.

Reverse.
Lituus.

M.

3.

[TIBEP]IOY KAICAPOC.
Jud."
p.

L.

IS (year 16) within a wreath.

(De Saulcy,

"Num.

145, pi. ix. No. 5;
iv.

Sainte," p. 76, pi.

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 149, No. 14; No. 6 Madden, " Num. Chron." loc. cit. No.
;

De
13.)

Saulcy, "

Num.

de la Terre

17th
14.

year,

a.d.

30-31.
reverse as No.
ix.

M.

3.

Same obverse and
Jud."
p.

13,

excepting that the date
p.

is

L.

IZ (year 17).
la

(De Saulcy,

"Num.

146, pi.

No. 6
iv.

;

Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
;

149,

No. 15; De Saulcy, " Num. de
p. 189,

Terre

Sainte," p. 76, pi.

No. 7

Madden,

"Num.
2

Chron."

loc. cit.

No.

14.)

1

" Doct.

Num. Vet."

vol.

iii.

p.

498.
3

"

Bibl.

Num."

vol.

i.

p. 65,
3.

No. 9

;

vol.

ii.

p. 49,

No.

3.

See

my

note in " Jew. Coinage," p. 147, note

—— —

i

COINS STRUCK BY PONTIUS PILATE.

183

18th year, a.d. 31-32.
15.

J£. 3.

Same obverse and
Num.
Jud."

reverse as No. 13, excepting that the date
Nos. 4 and 7
iv.
;

is

L.
;

IH (year 18).

(De Sauley, "

p. 146, pi. ix.

Sainte," p. 76, pi.

No. 8

Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 149, No. 16 Madden, " Num. Chron." he. cit. No.
;

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

de la Terre

15.)

Cavedoni

l

gives a coin of this

type with the date

[_.

I

A

(year

11),

and quotes one

from

Sestini

2

with the same date.
of

Both are probably misread.
coins
3

The new type

the last three

was evidently adopted by Pontius
in
a.d.

Pilate after

the death of Julia, the mother of Tiberius, the strong weakness Tiberius
is

29,

and may have been suggested by

known

to

have had for augurs and astrologers. 4

Marcellus, Sixth Procurator,

a.d.

36

a.d. 37.

There are no coins up to the present time known struck by Marcellus.

REIGN OF CARTS

(Caligula), a.d.
a.d.

37— a.d.
37
a.d.

41.

Marullus, Seventh Procurator,

41.

There are no coins in existence struck by Marullus.
issued,

In

all

probability

none were ever

as

in April,

a.d.

37,

Agrippa

I.

received from Caligula the tetrarchy of Philip II.,

and in

a.d.

40 Galilee and Persea, and struck coins in his own name as king. 5

REIGN OF CLAUDIUS,

a.d.

41— a.d.
a.d.

54.

Cuspius Fadus, Eighth Procurator,

44

a.d. 46.

Agrippa
considered too

I.

reigned

till

the

summer

of

a.d.

44,

when he

died,

and

his

son

being

young

to undertake the

government, Cuspius Fadus was appointed procurator.

No
1

coins, have,

however, been discovered that could have been issued during his procuratorship.
2.
7.

"Bibl.
"Descr.

2
3

Num." vol. ii. p. 48, No. Num. Vet," p. ')17, No.

Hardouin, was struck in Judaea— Obv.

TIBEPIOY KAITime
most
cars

CAPOC
of corn
6

Rev.

AYTOKPATOPOC.
stalk.

Madden, "Jew. Coinage," pp. 148, 149. 1 Joseph. "Antiq." xviii. 6, 9; Suet. "Tib." 69. Cavedoni (" Bibl. Num." vol. ii. p. 48; cf. Madden, " Jew. Coinage," p. 150) has supposed that the following coin, taken from

growing on the same Alexandrian origin.
See

JE.

But

it is

likely of

Chapter VI.

p. 129, Sect. F.

Hekod

A

-. i:

i-i-a

J.

— —

184

NTJMISMATA ORIENTALIA.

Tiberius Alexander, Ninth Procurator,

a.d.

46

a.d. 48.

No

coins

up

to the present time discovered.

Vkntidius Cumanus, Tenth Procurator,

a.d.

48

a.d. 52.

No

coins

up

to the present

time discovered.

Claudius or Antonius Felix, Eleventh Procurator,
Felix,
as

a.d.

52
in

a.d. 60.

we have

seen,

was appointed procurator about

a.d.

52,

the twelfth year

of

Claudius, but

no coins have been found of this year.

Those discovered are of the thirteenth and following year.

13th

year,

a.d.

53-54.
Obverse.

Reverse.
.

1.

M.

4

KAICAP re

.

.

Two
IT

.

.

.

AIA AT— Pinni— NA

in four

lines

within

palm -branches placed crosswise; below, L.
(year 13).
(De Saulcy,

a wreath.

"Num.

Jud."

p.

149, pi. ix.

Sainte," p. 76

No. 9; Madden, "Jew. Coinage," p. 151, No. 1; De Saulcy, Madden, " Num. Chron." loe. cit. p. 190, No. 1.)
;

"Num.de

la

Terre

This
It

coin

is

very rare, and
in

is

the only example

that

M. de Saulcy has

ever seen.

was formerly

the

Wigan

Collection.

14th year, a.d. 54-55.
Obverse.
2.

Reverse.

JE.

4.

Tl.

KAAYAIOC KAICAP r£PM.
crosswise
;

IOY— AIA AT— Pinm-NA
a wreath.

in four lines within

Two
L.

palm-branches placed
14).

below,

IA (year
"Num.

(De Saulcy,

Jud."

p.

149, pi. ix.

No. 10;
No. 9

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"
;

p.

152,

No. 2

;

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

de la Terre

Sainte," p. 7G,

pi. iv.

Madden, " Num. Chron."

loe. cit. p.

191, No. 2.)

COINS STRUCK BY FELIX.

185
represent

Those

two

coins

are

probably
l

the

only

ones

which

the

family name

of

Agrippina
Groecarum,"

Julia.
2

Cavedoni
is

quotes an inscription of Ilium from the " Corpus Inscriptionum

which

dedicated

IOYAI[AI]

2EBASTHI ArPinriEINH[l] by Claudius and
a.d.

his

sons, the Caesars

Nero and Britannicus, about the year

53 or 54.

Nero and Britannicus

Ccesars.

14th year, a.d. 54-55.
Obverse.
JE. 4.

Reverse.

N6PW. KAAY. KAICAP

round

two

Palm-tree; above,

BPIT.; below, KAI.
14).

;

to right

shields

and two small javelins placed crosswise.
p. 150, pi.
ix.

and

left,

L.
;

IA (year
De

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."

No. 11

;

Madden, " Jew. Coinage,"
;

p. 152

Saulcy,

" Num. de

la Terre Saiute,"

p. 77, pi. iv.

No. 10

Madden,

"Num.

Chron."

loc. eit. p.

191.)

Specimens of this coin with the date L.
but have been probably misread.

I

A

(year 11) are given

by Eckhel 3 and Cavedoni, 1

REIGN OF NERO,

a.d.

54— a.d.

68.

Claudius or Antoxtus Felix, Eleventh Procurator

(continued).

5th year, a.d. 58-59.

Obverse.

Reverse.

M.

4.

L.

G KAICAPOC.
p. 150,

Palm.
pi. ix.

NGP— UNO— C
Madden, "Jew. Coinage,"
p.

in three lines within a wreath.

(De Saulcy, " Num. Jud."
]>.

No. 12;

153;

De

Saulcy,

"Num.

de la Terre Saiute,"

77,

pi. iv.

No.

11.

Varieties of this coin read
;

N6PONOC [sometimes
pi. iv.
3
4

retrograde] and
;

N£PU)N,

De

Saulcy,

"Num.
192.)

Jud."

pi. ix.

Nos. 13, 14

" Num. de

la

Terre Sainte,"

Nos. 12, 13, 14

Madden, " Num. Chron."

loc. cit. p.

1

-

p.

" BibL Num." vol. ii. p. 52, note. No. 3610. Quoted incorrectly by me in "Jew. Coinage," 152, note 9, from "Gruter" (Cavedoni, "Principali Questioni,

" Doct. Num. Vet."
" Bibl.

vol.

iii.

Num."

vol.

i.

p. 66,

p. 498 No. 14

;

vol. vi. p. 254.
vol.
ii.

:

p. 52.

etc.," p. 7).

24

— —

186

NUMISMATA ORIENTALIA.
This coin M. de Saulcy has assigned to Porcius Festus.

In any case the coin was issued in
procuratorship of Felix (see our Table).

a.d.

58-59, and these years were current during the

6th year, a.d. 59-60.

No

coins

up

to the present time discovered.

Porcius Festus, Twelfth Procurator,

a.d.

60

—end

of

a.d. 61.

7th year, a.d. 60-61, to 8th year, a.d. 61-62.

No

coins of these years

up

to the present time discovered.

Albinus, Thirteenth Procurator,

a.d.

62

a.d. 61.

9th year, a.d. 62-63, to 10th year, a.d. 63-64.

No

coins of these years

up

to the present time discovered.

Gessius Florus, Fourteenth Procurator, a.d. 64

a.d. G6.

11th year, a.d. 64-65, to 12th year, a.d. 65-66.

No

coins of these years

up

to the present time discovered.

A

Table

is

appended

to illustrate the coinage of the Procurators of Judaea.

'

TABLE TO ILLUSTRATE THE COIXS OF THE PROCURATORS OF JUD.EA.
'Anni Augusti," era commencing
1

Dates on
Coins of Procurators.

Actual Years
of

Jan. B.C. 27.

Remarks.

Procurators.

May, A.D.

2-33
35 36 37 38 39 40

l.
L.

Ar
2 l\> Coponius

Archelaus banished.

Judoea becomes a

Eoman

province.

A€

3)
1

L.

AC
A0

2
3 L. L. L.
1

]

Ambivius

—41
A.D
14 15"
1st vear of Tiberius

M MA
A?
B r

2
3

Eufus
19th August, a.d. 14, death of Augustus. Augusti." Accession of Tiberius.

End of "Anni

16 —3rd 17 —4th 18 —5th 19 6th 20 7th 21 8th 22 —9th 23 10th

—2nd

L. L. L.
L. L.

1

19th August, ad. 14, Eufus Gratus arrives in a.d. 15.

still

in office.

Valerius

2
3

A
e

4
.

b

. f

(Valerius Gratus

05-Hth 26- 12th „-13th ;'— 14th
29~15th
of>

L.

1A

10
11

n
2
3 L. IsL. IZ
L.

Pontius Pilate appointed towards the Gratus deposed. end of a.d. 26.

— 16th 01 — 17th
o"*— 18th

4
5

Pontius
Pilate

IH

{{— 19th of— 20th
*t-21st

6 7

^-22nd ,-— 23rd
37 38_
-1st year of Caligula

1°,
1

Marcellus

Deposal of Pilate. Marcellus appointed. a.d. 37, death of Tiberius.

March

16th,

Caligula.

Marullus procurator.

-2nd 39_ -3rd 40_ -4th

Marullus
Claudius began to Jan. 24th, a.d. 41, Caligula killed. Marullus recalled. reign the next day.
,

41
Jan. 25th 41

1st year of Claudius 42 -2nd„ 43

,

,

„.

,.

Agrippa

I.

king of Judaea.

44— 3rd \\—4 th
a

— 5th 46 -6 47 — 'th 48
a
».,
1

,,

I)
\\
1

Cuspius Fadus
Tib. Alexander

Death of Agrippa I. in summer of a.d. 44. Cuspius Fadus appointed procurator.
Tiberius Alexander procurator.

49-8th 50-9th

2 3

sV—10th

Cumanus

Death of Herod, king of Chalcis. Ventidius Cumanus Agrippa II. succeeds Herod. procurator.

^-1 lth
53- 12th 54— 13th ) 14th yearof Claudius .- \ 1st year of Xero.
L. ir L. IA

4

n
2

Felix procurator.

3

Death

of Claudius, 13th Oct. a.d. 54.

Nero.

)>

Felix

5<H n ?
59

— oth
th

L. €
1

61—

fi9— 8th

2
'
1

Festus

Festus procurator.

^-9th 64- 1,,!

u Albinus
;;

Albinus procurator.
Gessius Florus procurator. 17th year of Agrippa II. Jewish war commences.

S-^th

2

Florus
J

CHAPTER

VIII.

MONEY STRUCK DURING THE FIRST REVOLT OF THE
Gessius

JEWS.

Florus, who, as previously

stated, 1

succeeded Albinus in a.d.

64,

proved even a

greater tyrant than his predecessor.

Already, under former Procurators, had the enmity of

the Jews towards their oppressors found vent in
short time.
their

many
suitable

outbreaks, which lasted for

only a

These insurrections were always quickly subdued, and the Jews only postponed
independence
to

attempts for attaining

a

time.
It

The conduct
was owing
hostility

of

Florus

in

oppressing the people helped to drive them to insurrection.

to certain

events

happening
parties
laid

at

Cocsarea,
to

that the

Jews were brought

into

direct

with Pome.
the

Two
several

claim

the

city,

the Greeks and the Jews.

The claim
Jews

of

former findin

ing

favour

with

the

Romans,

and

the
of

religion
Cajsarea,

of

the

having

been

instances insulted

by the inhabitants

the

Jews broke out

into

open

rebellion.

Florus, instead of

hastening to Cassarea to quell the flame of the war, further insulted the
seventeen talents from the treasure in the Temple,

oppressed Jews by attempting to obtain

pretending " that CaDsar wanted them."
that

We

must pass over the account of the fearful tumult
only allude
to

ensued,

of

Queen Bernice's pleading barefoot before Florus, and
II.

the

famous speech that Agrippa

made
avail.

to the Jews,

2

entreating

them

to pause ere they

made
of

war with Pome.

It

was

of

no

Hitherto

it

had been customary for the governor

the Temple to offer sacrifices for the welfare of the
of the Temple,
1

Poman Empire
4

;

but Eleazar, the captain
so,

3

the son of the high-priest Ananias,
p. 172.

refused to do
6, 2;

massacred the
ii.

Roman

See

Chapter VII.
is

" Antiq." xx.
all

"Bell. Jud."

12, 6).
4,

2

He

styled

by

St.

Paul as "expert in
the

customs and
3),

irpoo-Tarrjs

tov Upov, in 2 Maccab.

iii.

[See note 4.] The rendered " governor of

questions which are

among
i.

Jews"

(Acts xxvi.

and

the Temple," was doubtless the same officer as the <TTparr)y6s of
the
*

Josephus ("Contra Ap."
{0av/xa<riwTaTos, cf.

9) calls

him "a most wonderful man"

New

Testament and Josephus
is

[see

Chapter IV.

p. 55, note],

"Antiq." xviii. 5, 3, 6a.vp.aTos a^iuTaTov). 3 'S.Tparriybs .... iraTs 'Avdvov [read 'Avai/iou] tov apx'eptats, He is not Joseph. "Antiq." xx. 9, 3; "Bell. Jud." ii. 17, 2. the same as Eleazar, son of Ananus, high-priest under Gratus, see p. 190, note 4). This a.d. 15 (Joseph. " Antiq." xviii. 2, 2
;

Paul was " God shall smite thee, thou whited wall" (Acts xxiii. 3). He was the son of Nebedanis, and was appointed to the high-priesthood by Herod, king of Chalcis, in
This Ananias
the high-priest before
said,

whom

St.

tried,

and of

whom

he

the place of Joseph, son of
5, 2).

Camydus (Joseph. "Antiq." xx.

was a Jewish and not
of the priests

a

Roman

officer,

who had

the

command

and Levites employed to keep watch over the tov Upov is spoken of by St. Luke " The priests that v. 24). (xxii. 4, 52) and in the Acts (iv. 1 kept the door" (2 Kings xii. 9; xxv. 18) are mentioned by Josephus (tovs (pvAao-aovTas to Upov yyefiSvas, "Antiq." x. and when, before the taking of Jerusalem, the gate of 8, 5) the Temple opened of its own accord, those who kept watch in the Temple ran and told the captain (Spct/tuWes b"oi tov 'Upov
Temple.

A

OTpaTr)yos

;

In a.d. 52 he and his son Ananus [see note 3] were sent bound to Rome by order of Quadratus to answer charges brought against them by the Samaritans, but were soon released ("Antiq." xx. C, 2; "Bell. Jud." ii. 12, 6). He appears to have been high-priest with Jonathan, who was killed by order He must of Felix ("Bell. Jud." ii. 12, 6; "Antiq." xx. 8, 5).
have been deposed just before the departure of Felix to Rome ("Antiq." xx. 8, 8), but from his wealth obtained great influence
at Jerusalem

;

("Antiq." xx.

9, 2).

He

was eventually

killed at
17, 9).
4).

<pvAaKes tfyyttAav

tb aTpaTriyu, "Bell. Jud."

vi. 5, 3).

Ananus,
(Joseph.

the commencement of the Jewish war ("Bell. Jud."

ii.

another of the sons of Ananias, also held this

office

He must

not be confounded with Ananus (see p. 190, note

ELEAZAK THE SON OF ANANIAS.
garrison,

— ELEAZAR
of

THE SON OF SIMON.
His principal act after
this

189
was

and remained master of the town for some time. 1

the war he

waged against Manahem, the youngest son
and
killed.

Judas of Galilee,

whom

he eventuharassed

ally defeated at

Cestius Gallus, the governor of Syria,

who had heen much

Beth-horon hy Simon,

son

of

Gioras,

encamped

at

Scopus.
it;

Thence, after three days'

delay, he advanced towards Jerusalem
at
last

and laid siege to
Temple,
but

and, after several days' fighting,

attempted

to

break

into

the

was vigorously repulsed by the

Jews.

Suddenly, calling off his troops, he
insurgents,

retreated to his camp, whither he was followed by the
to Beth-horon,

and eventually retiring

the

Roman army was

completely defeated.

This took place in a.d. 66.

The part

that Eleazar, son of Ananias, took in the history of

which we are

treating,

was not of very long duration.

Immediately after the defeat of

Cestius Gallus, he was sent with others into Idumaoa in military
is

command, and nothing more

known

of

him.

2

Already in these early struggles had Eleazar, the son of Simon, 3 signally distinguished
himself

among

the Zealots, and especially

when he returned
Yet
as

to

Jerusalem with a great part
spirit,

of the treasures taken

from Cestius and the Romans.

he was of a tyrannical

the office of

governor of the city was not granted to him, but this post was given jointly

to Joseph, the son of Gorion, 4

and Ananus the high-priest.

The

Zealots, however,

were deall so all

voted to Eleazar, for the " want of money, and the artful tricks used by him, brought
about, that

the people were

circumvented, and submitted themselves to his authority in

public affairs."
Galilees

Generals were also chosen for the provinces, and amongst them, for the two
r

and the city of Gamala, Josephus the Historian, w ho afterwards assumed the name

of Flavius.

He

fulfilled

his

arduous duty with great prudence and energy, and was conrival

tinually

engaged in thwarting the plots of his

John, the son of Levi, of

Gischala.

Josephus neglected nothing in order to place Galilee
his devices

in a proper condition for resistance, but

—with

all their

ingenuity

— failed
to

to hinder the efforts of the
fell.

Romans

;

and

at last,

after
a.d.

a
67,

wearying siege of 48 days, the city of Jotapata
Josephus surrendered himself
still

On

the capture of this city,

Vespasian,

who, though putting his prisoner in

chains,

treated

him with

considerable

distinction.

In quick succession

the

cities

of

Tiberias, Taricheac,
also

Gamala, and Gischala, which the above-mentioned John held in possession,

were captured.
After the
fall of

Gischala, John, son of

Levi, escaped to Jerusalem, where he was re-

ceived in the most

flattering

manner, for being a
of

man

of

subtle

powers, he soon obtained
at

a very influential position.

The character given

him by Josephus, with whom he was
far
to

enmity,

is

by no means favourable, and though after-circumstances went
of

justify the

correctness

the

Historian's

views,

it

is

not unlikely that

personal

antipathy

may have
between
Jud."
ii.

sharpened his invectives.
1

In the mean time dissensions were predominant
*

at Jerusalem
"Dell.

Joseph. "Bell. Jud."

ii.

17, 2.

This Joseph, son
4),
is

of

Gorion (Joseph.
Gorion,
lie

2
3

Joseph. "Bell. Jud."ii. 20, 4.

20,

called in another place
iv. 3, 9).

the son of Joseph

Though not the son

of a high-priest, he

was

still

of priestly
1).

(" Bell. Jud."

was

slain at the

commencement

of

race yivos ix tSiv Uptwy, Joseph.

"

Bell.

Jud."

iv. 4,

the tumults by the Zealots (" Bell. Jud."

iy. 6, 1).

190
the
factions

NU1TISMA.TA ORIENTALLY.

and

their

leaders,

which had no doubt contributed much
cities

to

the fall of

the

Galilaean cities.

The
still

fugitives

from these

were very

bitter against the cautious

Moderate
Gioras,

party,

who were

very powerful at Jerusalem, and had banished Simon,
himself
in
his

son of

who had
Gallus.

previously distinguished

the overthrow of
bandits,

the
his

Romans under
abode
at

Cestius

He

had,

in

consequence,

with

taken

up

Acrabattine,

but an army having been sent against him by Ananus, he retired and leagued himself with
the robbers (Sicarii
1

)

who had taken

possession of

the fortress of Masada.

Affecting to join the party of Ananus, John of Gischala was in frequent correspondence

with the Zealots,
of
their

who continued

mercilessly to oppress

the people and to

make them

victims

extortions.

All power in the people to resist these harpies
paralyzed, and
3

—enemies

more deadly
2

than the Romans

— seemed
of

it

was not

till

" Gorion the son of Joseph,"
of

and

Simeon the son

Gamaliel,

had encouraged them, and Jesus son

Gamala, and Ananus

the son of Ananus, had long and eloquently harangued them, that they were moved, and that

they demanded to be led to battle against them.
into

The

result

was a

civil

war

in the city,

which the Idumaeans, by request
still

of

Simon,

soon entered,

making the

contests of

the

factions

more dreadful.
was
slain,
4

Ananus, against

whom

the animosity of the Zealots was particu-

larly directed,

and a general massacre of the people followed.
all

"With the death of

Ananus, of whose justice and vigilance Josephus speaks in high terms,
out.

hopes of peace died

At length most

of the
to

Idumasans

left

the city, and the Zealots,

who now found themselves
of

masters, did not

cease

practise their iniquities.

While the Holy City was the scene
to

continual and fatal dissensions, and the

Romans were advancing

subdue

it,

another enemy
of Gischala,

appeared, in the person of Simon, son of Gioras.

As
had,

cruel, as relentless as

John

he was, however,
collected
The

a

man

of

less

ability.

He

during the insurrection in Jerusalem,
its

a considerable army, and encamping before
named from using small swords
from the Persian
(£i(ploia),

walls

made war upon
" Tit."
loc.

the city from
father Gamaliel

1

Sicarii were so

kavrov 5iop0aW<r0ai,

cit.).

Ilis

not

much

different in length

acinaces,

but

somewhat crooked and like the Roman sicce (Joseph. "Antiq." They used to murder people in the daytime, and iu xx. 8, 10). the midst of the city, with these weapons, which they concealed
under their garments. Jonathan the high-priest, in a.d. 57, was slain by them, and they were so cunning, that when those they had stabbed fell down dead, they themselves took part in the indignation against the murderers ("Bell. Jud." ii. 13, 3).
!

was the celebrated Jewish doctor, "the Beauty of the Law," and grandson of Hillel. He it was who pleaded the cause of St. Peter and the other Apostles (Acts v. 34-40), and was the preceptor of St. Paul (Acts xxii. 3). He is said to have died eighteen years before the destruction of Jerusalem, nis son
Simeon, of
city.
* Ananus was the last of the five sons of the high-priest Ananus (or Annas, St. John xviii. 13 Joseph. "Antiq." xviii.
;

whom we

here