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Gabriel Popescu University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Beckman Institute Quantitative Light Imaging Laboratory http://light.ece.uiuc.edu

Principles of Optical Imaging Electrical and Computer Engineering, UIUC

ECE 460 – Optical Imaging

6.1 Superposition of Fields

Interference is the phenomenon by which electromagnetic fields interact with one another. Interferometry has various applications from the movement of charge to spectroscopy and material characterization. Interference is the result of the superposition principle

E[ r , t ] = ∑ E j [ r , t ]

j

(6.1)

Intensity is the measurable quantity

I [r , t ] = E[r , t ]

Where

Chapter 6: Interferometry

2

(6.2)

**stands for time (or ensemble) average
**

2

ECE 460 – Optical Imaging

6.1 Superposition of Fields

Consider 2 fields E1 and E2 2 2 I [r , t ] = E1 + E2 + E1 ⋅ E2* + E1* ⋅ E2 Notes:

the dot product E1 ⋅ E2* Polarization is critical Parallel polarization offers the most interference

(6.3)

E1 ⋅ E2 = E1 E2 cos α

Assume parallel polarization

α

E1 E2

=> I = I1 + I 2 + 2 E1 E2 cos[∆φ[r ,τ ]]

∆φ

(6.4)

is generally a random variable For uncorrelated (incoherent) fields cos[∆φ ] → 0 => simplest case is a monochromatic field because it is fully coherent.

3

Chapter 6: Interferometry

6) φ = The phase shift ω0 = Frequency I max − I min Fringe contrast (visibility): γ = I max + I min I1 + I 2 + 2 I1 I 2 ⋅1 − I1 − I 2 − 2 I1 I 2 ⋅ (−1) 2 I1 I 2 => γ = = ∈ (1: 0) 2( I1 + I 2 ) I1 + I 2 I1 = I 2 => γ = 1 Chapter 6: Interferometry 4 .ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.5) I T (6.2 Monochromatic Fields I = I1 + I 2 + 2 I1 I 2 ⋅ cos[ω0τ + φ ] T = Time difference (6.

ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6. I1 I 2 gives a higher sensitivity Chapter 6: Interferometry 5 .7) I = 2 I (1 + cos[ω0τ ]) 2I π 2π 3π ω0τ Practical Advantages of Interference: a) Interference term is 2 I1 I 2 cos[ φ ] so if I1 is too small to be measured directly then I 2 can act as an amplifier.2 Monochromatic Fields For I1 = I 2 = I : I 4I (6.

ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6. interference is divided by 10 => high dynamic range c) Imagine we frequency shift E1 by ω = ω1 − ω2 => I1 I 2 ⋅ cos[ω1t − ω2t ] ∼ cos[ ωt ] => can tune ω to high frequency ( > 1 kHz) => Low Noise Chapter 6: Interferometry 6 .2 Monochromatic Fields Practical Advantages of Interference: b) Interference ∼ I1 I 2 => if I1 is divided by 100.

2 2 0 y 7 .ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6. δ [y+ ].3 Wavefront-Division Interferometry Interference is obtained between different portions of the same wavefront (next: amplitude-division) Young Interferometer The oldest interferometer x K y d − 2 d 2 z Small Slits Chapter 6: Interferometry d d 1° δ -functions: δ [ y − ].

ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.8) E[q y ] = ℑ[ E[ y ]] = E0 [e ig y +e − ig y y′ Remember q y = (chapter 3) λz d ] = E0 ⋅ 2 cos[q y ] 2 (6.10) Chapter 6: Interferometry 8 .9) Fringes → cos[ d ⋅ y′] 2λ z (6.3 Wavefront-Division Interferometry The field at the plane x=0 d d E = E1 + E2 = E0 (δ [ y − ] + δ [y+ ]) 2 2 Assume the observation plane is in the for zone => Fraunhoffer diffraction (Fourier) d 2 d 2 (6.

similar to scattering from ensemble of particles (chapter 5. Chapter 6: Interferometry 9 . pp 12) => use convolution to express the arbitrary shape.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.3 Wavefront-Division Interferometry Similarity relationship again: I d1 y′ I and d 2 y′ Note: using Fourier it is easy to generalize to arbitrary slit/particle shape.

ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.3 Wavefront-Division Interferometry We can use convolution to express arbitrary shape: a a y d − 2 d 2 = d − 2 d 2 V y S1 Other Wavefront-Division Interferometers a) Fresnel Mirrors Image S thru M1 and M2 M1 S S2 M2 virtual sources S1 and S2 S1 and S2 act as Young’s pinholes same equations S1 and S2 are derived from the same sources and therefore coherent 10 Chapter 6: Interferometry .

ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.3 Wavefront-Division Interferometry b) Lloyd’s Mirror S S′ S and S ′ M Young Chapter 6: Interferometry 11 .

3 Wavefront-Division Interferometry c) Thin films: S P n Films of oil break the white light into colors due to interference and phase = f (λ ) d) Newton’s rings: k h Circular fringes = rings Localized on the surface of lens Chapter 6: Interferometry 12 .ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.

The Michelson Interferometer: M L1 S BS 2 L2 electron ∆L ∆ Very sensitive to path length differences between ‘arms’ Eg.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6. It has been used to measure pressure in rarefied gases(place cell on one arm-> produce ∆φ Chapter 6: Interferometry 13 .4 Amplitude-Division Interferometry Interference is obtained by replicating the wavefront=>less amplitude in each beam.

4 Amplitude-Division Interferometry BS. temporal coherence. OCT.beam splitter assume thin for now! LetL1 . L2 be the lengths of the 2 areas => The intensity at the detector: λ Note: ∆ L = L2 − L1 = C (t 2 − t1 ) = Cτ τ = time delay ⇒ cos(ωτ ) I(∆ L)=I1 +I 2 +2 I1 I 2 cos(2π ∆L ) (6. etc Chapter 6: Interferometry 14 .ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.11) We’ll come back to Michelson with low-coherence light.

S S’ point sourceinter-fringe = f (n.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.transmission.4 Amplitude-Division Interferometry Other amplitude-division interferometry a) Plane parallel plate reflection. fringes are localized at infinity => Need lens θ n θ θ L P Chapter 6: Interferometry 15 . d ) → metrology d n S b) Plane parallel plate. Note: With plane wave incident.

d) Mach-Zender Interferometer Very Common Shear interferometry Tilt one mirror Fringes analysis of surfaces Sample Chapter 6: Interferometry 16 .ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.4 Amplitude-Division Interferometry c) Fizeau Interferometer: R M Fringes Reference surface P Used to test mirrors and other surfaces.

ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.12) δ = 2k0 d ⋅ n ⋅ cos θ ⇒ one pass phase shift 17 Chapter 6: Interferometry . 2 (1 − R) Fabny-Penot interferometry 2 δ (6. = I (i ) 1 + F sin 2 δ 2 I (t ) = I (i ) − I ( r ) 4R F= ⇒ Finess coeff.5 Multiple Beam Interference Reflection θ Lens d n Transmission F sin I( r ) 2 .

R2 reflectivities R increases narrower lines i. More reflection orders participate in interference In practice.e.5 Multiple Beam Interference Transmitted Intensity I( r ) I (i ) R1 R2 2kπ 2kπ + 2π R1 .ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6. Fabny-Perot gave accurate information about spectral lines(also called etalon) D Rayleigh Criterion: 1 1 2 S ∆ is fixed ⇒ etalon Chapter 6: Interferometry 2 lines are separated if: δλ ≥ FWHM δλ 18 .

limited temporal coherence. Chapter 6: Interferometry 19 .e.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.6 Interference with Partially Coherent Light So far. we assumed monochromatic light = fully coherent. extended source is used for interference? a) michelson interferometry M1 I (∆L) S BS ∆L ∆L D The contrast of the fringe is decreasing i. What happens when an arbitrary. broad-band.

e.6 Interference with Partially Coherent Light b) Young Interferometer : Ω d OA A Ac ≅ λ2 Ω k I1 + I 2 d k i. Limited Spatial Coherence Chapter 6: Interferometry 20 .ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.

13) = −∞ ∫ E (t ) ⋅ E *(t + τ )dt = autocorrelation function Chapter 6: Interferometry 21 . the mutual coherence function is: Γ(τ ) =< E (t ) ⋅ E *(t + τ ) >t ∞ (6. t ) .7 Temporal Coherence Coherence defines the degree of correlation between fields: Typical correlation at one point in space (typical coherence) Temporal correlation between fields at two points (spatial coherence) Given the field at one point E (r .ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.

14) = I ⇒ irradiance So Γ = E ⊗ E Appl y again the correlation theorem (Eq 2.7 Temporal Coherence Note: Γ(0) = E (t ) 2 (6. the autocorrelation function Γ(τ ) relates to the optical spectrum of the field: ∞ Γ(τ ) = ∫ S (ω ) ⋅ e− iwτ dω 0 Chapter 6: Interferometry Wiener-Kintchin theorem.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.15) So.16) 22 .30) ℑ[Γ] = E (ω ) E *(ω ) = E (ω ) = S (ω ) = Spectrum ⇒ FTIR 2 (6. (6.

∞ (6. apply shift theorem (Eq 2.17a) (6. spectrum is centered onω0 Assume spectrum is S (ω − ω0 ) . u = ω − ω0 0 Complex degree of coherence Γ(τ ) γ (τ ) = ∈ » (6.1) (6.17b) where Γ(τ ) = − ∫ ω S (u ) ⋅ eiuτ du.16 with 5.19) 23 .7 Temporal Coherence ! Compare 6.18) ⇒ Γ(0) Chapter 6: Interferometry γ (τ ) ∈ (0.31) ⇒ Γ(τ ) = Γ(τ ) ⋅ eiω0τ .28 ! It applies even when E(t) does not have a Fourier Transform Typically.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.

7 Temporal Coherence Measuring the temporal coherence: Michelson interferometer S Etotal = E1 + E2 M2 E1 Irradiance: 2 I =< E1 (t ) + E2 (t + τ ) > (6.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.2 can be measured separately by moving M 2 Re[Γ(τ )] access to Re(Γ) directly.21) = 2 I1 + 2 Re[Γ(τ )] M1 I1.20) E2 τ Assume: E1 = E2 I = I1 + I '2' + E1 (t ) E2 *(t + τ ) + E *1 (t ) E2 (t + τ ) ∆ (6. S τ ω0 Chapter 6: Interferometry ω 24 .

∆λ = ∆ ( 2π c ω ) = 2π c ∆ω Coherence Length: (6.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.24) ∆λ =λ ∆ω ∆L = lc ω2 ω => ∆λ λ = ∆ω ω lc (≅ 2 − 3µ m) 25 .7 Temporal Coherence The degree of coherence γ (τ ) S (ω ) Spectral width τ τ c = coherence time ≡ width of γ (τ ) Γ(τ ) = ℑ[ S (ω )] ⇒ ∆ω ⋅τ c = constant λ0 = c ⋅ T = c ⋅ 2π (6.22) τc ∆ω ω0 ω Interference occurs only if Broad spectrum(∆λ = 100nm) => short Chapter 6: Interferometry ω0 .23) lc = C ⋅τ c Rule of thumb: λ0 2 lc = (6.

ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6. white light. etc. M 1 2 3 4 a a a S d D d >> lc Chapter 6: Interferometry 26 . femtosecond laser. With broad band light). Sources: SLD. consider a transparent.8 Optical Domain Refrectometry Low-Coherence interferometry ( inter. LED. layered structure under investigation.

2. fiber optics. 1987-HP. we retrieve R L1 L2 L3 L4 ∆L ⇒ The interface are resolved ⇒ Reflectivity give info about refractive index ⇒ L1.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.8 Optical Domain Refrectometry Scanning M.3. ODR: Successful for quantifying lasers in waveguides.fiber optic reflectometer. Chapter 6: Interferometry 27 . etc.4 determine position of interfaces.

a depth-resolved reflectivity signal is retrieved => can resolve regions inside tissue(e. MIT M D Coupler Scan beam x-y Scan M -> z Tissue = continuous superposition of interfaces. Tumors). 1991. Scanning M. Penetrates 1-2 mm deep in tissue.g.9 Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT) Optical technique capable of rendering 3D images from think biological samples.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6. Fujimoto’s S 2x2 group. Chapter 6: Interferometry 28 . => Typically implemented in optical fiber configuration.

e. ℑ measure S(ω ) → Γ(τ ) Galvo-scanning group delay.9 Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT) If mirror is swept at constant speed v: ⇒ z=vt ⇒ Phase delay: φ = 2kz = 2kvt (2 means back and forth) (6.25) ⇒ Frequency shift: ∆ω = φ = 2kvt Dopler Shift The detector is recording a high-frequency signal Low-noise Dynamic range can easily reach 10 orders of magnitude! i. can record reflectivities from 1 to 1/10 billion!(100 dB) Various Technological Improvements: Spectral domain OCT: instead of scanning M.fast Chapter 6: Interferometry 29 .ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.

ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.trade z-resolution for S (ω ) information Since 1991. Dermathology. etc Recently combined with SHG.instead of scanning on x.9 Optical Coherence Tomography(OCT) Various Technological Improvements: Spectral encoding. cardio.000 OCT papers published. ~1. Currently applied in: Oftalmology. illuminate with λ(x) Spectroscopic OCT. molecular imaging Chapter 6: Interferometry 30 .

there is extra material (eg.10 Dispersion Effects on Temporal Coherence What happens if on one area of the Michelson interferometer.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6. Glass)? M1 d S M2 ∆ Chapter 6: Interferometry 31 .

26) ω0 ω1 ω 32 .10 Dispersion Effects on Temporal Coherence How does broad band fields propagate through dispersive materials (such as glass)? Think pulses! n(ω ) k n(ω ) ω0 ω ω Above resonance d S (ω ) Incident spectrum Below resonance The phase delay through a transparent material: φ (ω ) = k (ω ) ⋅ d = k0 ⋅ d ⋅ n(ω ) Chapter 6: Interferometry Taylor expansion of n(ω ) around the central frequency: S (ω ) (6.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.

d ω ω0 2 ∂ω 2 n(ω0 ) => φ0 = n(ω0 ) ⋅ k0 ⋅ d = dk 1 d 2k φ (ω ) = φ0 + ⋅ d ⋅ (ω − ω0 ) + ⋅ ⋅ d ⋅ (ω − ω0 ) 2 ... dω 2 dω 2 Definitions: dk (6.27) = v = group velocity dω = β 2 = group velocity dispersion (GVD) Different colors have different group velocities Chapter 6: Interferometry 33 d 2k dω 2 ....ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6...10 Dispersion Effects on Temporal Coherence dn 1 ∂2n n(ω ) = n(ω0 ) + (ω − ω0 ) + (ω − ω0 ) 2 + .

29) Γ12 (τ ) = ∫ W (ω )e −iωτ dω 0 (6.30) Chapter 6: Interferometry 34 .28) Riding with pulse (v=0) 1 φ (ω ) β2 ⋅ ω 2 So 2 Cross-Spectral density: φ (ω ) S (ω ) ω0 W (ω ) = E1 (ω ) ⋅ E2 *(ω ) Then.g.10 Dispersion Effects on Temporal Coherence E. Pulse: blue red vblue < vred parabolic phase: (6.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6. the cross-correlation function is ∞ (6.

10 Dispersion Effects on Temporal Coherence ∞ Γ12 (τ ) = ∫ W (ω )e − iωτ d ω is the generalization of (6.31) i.34) 35 .32) Γ12 (τ ) = ℑ[W ( ω )] = ℑ[ S (ω )e 1 − i βω 2 2 1 − i β 2ω 2 2 ] (6. For the “unbalanced” Michealson. the cross-spectral density is W (ω ) = E1 (ω ) ⋅ E2* (ω ) = E1 E2* e The cross-correlation function: 1 i β 2ω 2 2 = S (ω )e 1 i β 2ω 2 2 (6.33) Remember convolution theorem: Γ(τ ) = ℑ[ S (ω )] v ℑ[e Chapter 6: Interferometry ] = Γ 0 (τ ) v h(τ ) (6.e 0 generalized Wiener-Kinntilin Theorem.ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.

10 Dispersion Effects on Temporal Coherence h(τ ) = ℑ[e ] Useful Fourier Transform relationship for Gauss functions: e − bω 2 F 1 i βω 2 2 → i 1 2b τ 2 t2 − e 4b (6.35) h (τ ) = e 2β iβ φ (τ ) ∼ τ 2 a ls o p a ra b o lic φ (τ ) V Chapter 6: Interferometry lc 36 .ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6.

is important to balance the interferometer=> minimum coherence length lc gives the depth resolution Chapter 6: Interferometry 37 .ECE 460 – Optical Imaging 6. in OCT.10 Dispersion Effects on Temporal Coherence φ (τ ) V The coherence time is increased Frequency is “chirped” So.

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