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Its major function is to transport electric energy, with minimal losses, from the power sources to the load centers, usually separated by long distances. The design of a transmission line depends on four electrical parameters: Series resistance Series inductance Shunt capacitance Shunt conductance
The series resistance relies basically on the physical composition of the conductor at a given temperature. The series inductance and shunt capacitance are produced by the presence of magnetic and electric fields around the conductors, and depend on their geometrical arrangement. The shunt conductance is due to leakage currents flowing across insulators and air. As leakage current is considerably small compared to nominal current, it is usually neglected, and therefore, shunt conductance is normally not considered for the transmission line modeling.
Equivalent Circuit Once evaluated, the line parameters are used to model the transmission line and to perform design calculations. The arrangement of the parameters (equivalent circuit model) representing the line depends upon the length of the line.
A transmission line is defined as a short-length line if its length is less than 80 km (50 miles). In this case, the shut capacitance effect is negligible and only the resistance and inductive reactance are considered. Assuming balanced conditions, the line can be represented by the equivalent circuit of a single phase with resistance R, and inductive reactance XL in series (series impedance), as shown in Fig. 13.1. If the transmission line has a length between 80 km (50 miles) and 240 km (150 miles), the line is considered a medium-length line and its single-phase equivalent circuit can be represented in a nominal p circuit configuration . The shunt capacitance of the line is divided into two equal parts, each placed at the sending and receiving ends of the line. Figure 13.2 shows the equivalent circuit for a medium-length line. Both short- and medium-length transmission lines use approximated lumpedparameter models. However, if the line is larger than 240 km, the model must consider parameters uniformly distributed along the line. The appropriate series impedance and shunt capacitance are found by solving the corresponding differential equations, where voltages and currents are described as a function of distance and time. Figure 13.3 shows the equivalent circuit for a long line. The calculation of the three basic transmission line parameters is presented in the following sections
The AC resistance of a conductor in a transmission line is based on the calculation of its DC resistance. If DC current is flowing along a round cylindrical conductor, the current is uniformly distributed over its cross-section area and its DC resistance is evaluated by
RDC ¼ A
where r ¼ conductor resistivity at a given temperature (V-m) l ¼ conductor length (m) A ¼ conductor cross-section area (m2)
sin h g l Z Is gl IL
Load Vs 2 Y tan h (g l /2) g l /2
Equivalent circuit of a long-length transmission line. Z ¼ zl ¼
equivalent total series impedance (V),
Y ¼ yl ¼ equivalent total shunt admittance (S), z ¼ series impedance per unit length (V=m), y ¼ shunt admittance per unit length (S=m), g ¼ pﬃZﬃﬃﬃﬃYﬃﬃﬃ ¼ propagation constant.
2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Skin effect reduces the effective cross-section area used by the current. Temperature Spiraling of stranded conductors . Also. 13. is considered to reevaluate the AC resistance.1 Frequency Effect The frequency of the AC voltage produces a second effect on the conductor resistance due to the nonuniform distribution of the current. Bundle conductors arrangement . the conductor effective resistance is higher due to frequency or skin effect. obtained by differential equations and Bessel functions. For 60 Hz.02 Other variations in resistance are caused by . As frequency increases. rather than DC current. a further resistance increase occurs when other current-carrying conductors are present in the immediate vicinity. k is estimated around 1. the current tends to go toward the surface of the conductor and the current density decreases at the center. A skin correction factor k. This phenomenon is known as skin effect.If AC current is flowing. . and thus. the effective resistance increases. although in small amount.2.
the resistance of any conductor suffers the same variations.2. Table 13.2 Temperature Effect The resistivity of any conductive material varies linearly over an operating temperature.1 lists resistivity and temperature coefficients of some typical conductor materials . over normal operating temperatures. and therefore. As temperature rises.RAC ¼ RAC k (13:2) 13. the conductor resistance increases linearly.2.3 Spiraling and Bundle Conductor Effect . according to the following equation: T þ t2 R2 ¼ R1 (13:3) T þ t1 where R2 ¼ resistance at second temperature t2 R1 ¼ resistance at initial temperature t1 T ¼ temperature coefficient for the particular material (8C) Resistivity (r) and temperature coefficient (T) constants depend upon the particular conductor material. 13.
because of the lower cost and lighter weight compared to copper conductors. although more cross-section area is needed to conduct the same amount of current.59 10 8 243. aluminum-conductor-alloy(AAC). Overhead conductors. There are different types of commercially available aluminum aluminum-conductor-steel-reinforced conductor (AAAC).alloy- TABLE 13.1 Resistivity and Temperature Coefficient of Some Conductors Material Silver Aluminum Resistivity at 208CTemperature 1. .0 (V-m) Coefficient (8C) 2. and all-aluminum.83 10 8 228. reinforced (ACAR). LLC. are preferred over underground conductors because of the lower cost and easy maintenance. made of naked metal and suspended on insulators. Also. all-aluminum-conductor conductors: (ACSR).1 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. overhead transmission lines use aluminum conductors.There are two types of transmission line conductors: overhead and underground.
The resistance of each wound conductor at any layer. spiraled in opposite directions to hold the strands together. per unit length. 30 Conductors Steel Strands 7 Conductors FIGURE 13. A stranded conductor offers more flexibility and easier to manufacture than a solid large conductor.4 shows an example of aluminum and steel strands combination. surrounding a core of steel strands. ACSR is one of the most used conductors in transmission lines. However. It consists of alternate layers of stranded conductors. The purpose of introducing a steel core inside the stranded aluminum conductors is to obtain a high strength-to-weight ratio.4 Stranded aluminum conductor with stranded steel core (ACSR).Aluminum Strands 2 Layers. is based on its total length as follows: r sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃ2ﬃﬃ 1 1 Rcond ¼ A 1þ pp . the total resistance is increased because the outside strands are larger than the inside strands on account of the spiraling . Figure 13.
the total resistance of the stranded conductor is evaluated by the parallel combination of resistances per layer. with same diameter per layer. gives the resistance per layer as follows: 1 Rlayer ¼ n ðV= mÞ (13:5 ) P1 i¼1 Ri Similarly.ðV=mÞ (13:4) where Rcond ¼ resistance of wound conductor (V) sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ 1 2 1þ pp l turn cond¼ 2r p ¼ layer ¼ relative pitch of wound conductor ¼ length of wound conductor (m) lturn ¼ length of one turn of the spiral (m) 2rlayer ¼ diameter of the layer (m) The parallel combination of n conductors. .
are much higher than in dry weather.ductors and between conductors and ground. By increasing the number of conductors per phase. Corona. then meteorological conditions play a key role in its evaluation. can be reduced by increasing the total conductor surface. and the total AC resistance decreases proportionally to the number of conductors per bundle. Although corona losses rely on meteorological conditions. their evaluation takes into account the conductance between con. line configuration. and radio interference. Corona effect occurs when the surface potential gradient of a conductor exceeds the dielectric strength of the surrounding air (30 kV=cm during fair weather). there may be more than one conductor per phase (bundle config. the total cross-section area increases. audible noise. producing ionization in the area close to the conductor. Corona losses under rain or snow. the current capacity increases. and conductor surface condition. with consequent corona losses. however.In high-voltage transmission lines.uration) to increase the current capability and to reduce corona effect discharge. Conductor bundles may be applied to any 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. As corona effect is a function of conductor diameter. LLC. . for instance.
Figure 13. spacers made of steel or aluminum bars are used. .d d d d d d (a) (b) (c) FIGURE 13. (b) three. To maintain the distance between bundle conductors along the line.5 shows some typical arrangement of stranded bundle configurations.5 Stranded conductors arranged in bundles per phase of (a) two. and (c) four. voltage but are always used at 345 kV and above to limit corona.
in.) wc ¼ convection heat loss (W=sq.) Heat dissipation by convection is defined as 0:0128pﬃpﬃﬃvﬃﬃ wc ¼ T 0:123 pﬃdﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Dt ðWÞ air cond (13:7) where p v ¼ atmospheric pressure (atm) ¼ wind velocity (ft=s) . in. the current-carrying capacity is determined mostly by the conductor resistance and the heat dissipated from its surface . in. The heat generated in a conductor (Joule’s effect) is dissipated from its surface area by convection and radiation given by I 2R ¼ S(wc þ wr ) ðWÞ (13:6) where R ¼ conductor resistance (V) I ¼ conductor current-carrying (A) S ¼ conductor surface area (sq.13.3 Current-Carrying Capacity (Ampacity) In overhead transmission lines.) wr ¼ radiation heat loss (W=sq.
.) E ¼ emissivity constant (1 for the absolute black body and 0. LLC. in.dcond ¼ conductor diameter (in.) Tair Dt ¼ air temperature (kelvin) ¼ Tc Tair ¼ temperature rise of the conductor (8C) Heat dissipation by radiation is obtained from Stefan–Boltzmann law and is defined as " wr ¼ 36:8 E 4 1000 Tc # 1000 Tair 4 ðW=sq: in:Þ (13:8) where wr ¼ radiation heat loss (W=sq.5 for oxidized copper) Tc ¼ conductor temperature (8C) Tair ¼ ambient temperature (8C) 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.
8) in Eq.Substituting Eqs.6) we can obtain the conductor ampacity at given temperatures rSﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃwﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃwﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ I R ð c þ rÞ ¼ ðAÞ (13:9) vﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ uS Dt 0:0128pﬃpﬃﬃvﬃﬃ T4 T4 ! u I ¼ tR c air T 0:123 þ 36:8E 100 04 ðAÞ (13:10) pﬃdﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃﬃ ﬃﬃﬃ air cond Some approximated current-carrying capacity for overhead ACSR and AACs are presented in the section ‘‘Characteristics of Overhead Conductors’’ [3.9]. (13. .7) and (13. (13.
an inductance is present.13. If the current varies with the time.2 Internal Inductance Due to Internal Magnetic Flux . The magnetic flux produced by the current in transmission line conductors produces a total inductance whose magnitude depends on the line configuration. Therefore. If the conductor is made of a nonmagnetic material. To determine the inductance of the line. Infinitely Long Conductor Consider an infinitely long. 13. 13.1 Inductance of a Solid.4.4. it is necessary to calculate. the magnetic flux changes and a voltage is induced. and the current is assumed uniformly distributed (no skin effect). the following factors: 1.4 Inductance and Inductive Reactance A current-carrying conductor produces concentric magnetic flux lines around the conductor.6. carrying current I as shown in Fig. Magnetic field intensity H 2. Magnetic field density B 3. as in any magnetic circuit with permeability m. Flux linkage l 13. solid cylindrical conductor with radius r. then the generated internal and external magnetic field lines are concentric circles around the conductor with direction defined by the right-hand rule. Round. defined as the ratio of the magnetic flux linkage and the current.
To obtain the internal inductance. a magnetic field with radius x inside the conductor of length l is chosen. The fraction of the current Ix determined by enclosed in the area of the circle chosen is px2 Ix ¼ I pr 2 ðAÞ (13:11) External Field I Internal Field r I . as shown in Fig. 13.7.
FIGURE 13. External and internal concentric magnetic flux lines around the 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. .6 conductor. LLC.
df Hx r Ix x dx I FIGURE 13.7 Internal magnetic flux. Ampere’s law determines the magnetic field intensity Hx . constant at any point along the circle contour as Ix I Hx ¼ 2px ¼ 2pr 2 x ðA=mÞ(13:12) The magnetic flux density Bx is obtained by .
m0 Ix Bx ¼ mHx ¼ 2p r 2 ðTÞ (13:13) where m ¼ m0 ¼ 4p 10 7 H=m for a nonmagnetic material. The differential flux df enclosed in a ring of thickness dx for a 1-m length of conductor and the differential flux linkage dl in the respective area are m0 Ix df ¼ Bx dx ¼ 2p r 2 dx ðWb=mÞ (13:14) px2 m0 Ix3 dl ¼ pr 2 df ¼ 2p r4 dx ðWb=mÞ (13:15) The internal flux linkage is obtained by integrating the differential flux linkage from x ¼ 0 to x ¼ r ðr lint ¼ 0 .
4. per unit length. becomes int m0 Lint I ¼ 8p ðH=mÞ ¼ (13:17) 13. At any point on an external magnetic field circle of radius y (Fig. 13. the magnetic field intensity Hy and the magnetic field density By .8). per unit length. the conductor inductance due to internal flux linkage.3 External Inductance The external inductance is evaluated assuming that the total current I is concentrated at the conductor surface (maximum skin effect). are I Hy ¼ 2py ðA=mÞ (13:18) B 2p y mH m0 I T (13:19) y ¼ y ¼ ð Þ .8p dl m0 I Wb=m (13:16) ¼ ð Þ Therefore.
.2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC.
then differential flux df.8 magnetic field. ðD2 External m0 dy ðD2 m0 D1 2 l1 2 ¼ 2p dl ¼ I D1 D1 . the differential flux linkage dl has the same magnitude as the 2p y dl df ¼ ¼m0 ðI dy Þ Wb=m (13:21) 2p y The total external flux linkage enclosed by the ring is obtained by integrating from D1 to D2 FIGURE 13. from point D1 to point D2.The differential flux df enclosed in a ring of thickness dy. for a 1-m length of conductor is df B dy ¼ y m0 ¼ I ð dy Þ Wb=m (13:20) y r I dy D1 x D2 As the total current I flows in the surface conductor.
as follows: m0 1 D m0 D lintl þ lext ¼ 2p I 4 þ ln r ¼ 2p I ln e 1=4 r ðWb=mÞ (13:24) lint þ lext m0 D H=m . the total external flux linkage from the surface of the conductor to any point D. is ðD lext ¼ r dl ¼ I ln 2p m0 D ðWb=mÞ r (13:23) The summation of the internal and external flux linkage at any point D permits evaluation of the total inductance of the conductor Ltot. per unit length. per unit length.y ¼ 2p I ln D ðWb=mÞ (13:22) In general.
(13:25) Ltot ¼ I 2p ln ¼ GMR ð Þ
where GMR (geometric mean radius) ¼ e 1=4r ¼ 0.7788r GMR can be considered as the radius of a fictitious conductor assumed to have no internal flux but with the same inductance as the actual conductor with radius r.
13.4.4 Inductance of a Two-Wire Single-Phase Line
Now, consider a two-wire single-phase line with solid cylindrical conductors A and B with the same radius r, same length l, and separated by a distance D, where D > r, and conducting the same current I, as shown in Fig. 13.9. The current flows from the source to the load in conductor A and returns in conductor B (IA ¼ IB). The magnetic flux generated by one conductor links the other conductor. The total flux linking conductor A, for instance, has two components: (a) the flux generated by conductor A and (b) the flux generated by conductor B which links conductor A. As shown in Fig. 13.10, the total flux linkage from conductors A and B at point P is
lAP ¼ lAAP þ lABP (13:26)
lBP ¼ lBBP þ lBAP (13:27)
2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
IA A X rA B rB
FIGURE 13.9 phase line.
External magnetic flux around conductors in a two-wire single-
where lAAP ¼ flux linkage from magnetic field of conductor A on conductor A at point P lABP ¼ flux linkage from magnetic field of conductor B on conductor A at point P lBBP ¼ flux linkage from magnetic field of conductor B on conductor B at
point P lBAP ¼ flux linkage from magnetic field of conductor A on conductor B at point P The expressions of the flux linkages above, per unit length, are
DAP Wb=m (13:28 )
lAAP ¼ 2p I ln ðDBP GM RA
lABP ¼ D ðD
BBP 2p I ln
lBAP ¼ D
BAP dP ¼ 2p I ln D
DBP Wb=m (13:31 ) lBBP ¼ 2p I ln GMRBð Þ The total flux linkage of the system at point P is the algebraic summation of lAP and lBP lP ¼ lAP þ lBP ¼ ðlAAP þ lABP Þ þ ðlBAP þ lBBP Þ (13:32) m0 DAP D D B P D m0 D2 lP ¼ 2p I ln GMR D GMR D ¼ 2p I ln GMR GMR ðWb=mÞ (13:33) A AP B BP A B .
and the point P is shifted to A B A D A B B infinity.If the conductors have the same radius. then the total flux linkage of the system becomes DBP DAP D A P m0 D l ¼ p I ln (a) lAAP P ( b ) P lABP GM R ðWb=mÞ (13:34) FIGURE 13. Single-phase system. rA ¼ rB ¼ r.10 Flux linkage of (a) conductor A at point P and (b) conductor B on conductor A at point P. .
2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and the total inductance per unit length becomes . LLC.
the inductance is determined using a new GMR value named GMRstranded. then vﬃﬃﬃnﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃnﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ GMRA stranded ¼ ﬃﬃ tu u n YY Dij (13:36) i¼1 j¼1 vﬃﬃmﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃmﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ uY Y m u ﬃﬃﬃ Dij GMRB stranded ¼ t (13:37) i¼1 j¼1 Generally.35). For a line with stranded conductors. . evaluated according to the number of conductors.l m0 D H=m (13:35 ) L1-phase system ¼ I ¼ p ln GMR ð Þ Comparing Eqs.25) and (13. respect. (13. If conductors A and B in the single-phase system. the GMRstranded for a particular cable can be found in conductor tables given by the manufacturer. it can be seen that the inductance of the singlephase system is twice the inductance of a single conductor. are formed by n and m solid cylindrical identical subconductors in parallel.ively.
The GMRbundle is introduced to determine the final inductance value. the equation for GMRbundle.If the line conductor is composed of bundle conductors. is defined as GMRn ﬃﬃ bundle conductors ¼ pn ﬃdﬃﬃnﬃﬃ stranded (13:38 ) ﬃﬃ1ﬃﬃGﬃﬃﬃﬃMﬃﬃﬃﬃRﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ where n ¼ number of conductors per bundle GMRstranded ¼ GMR of the stranded conductor d ¼ distance between bundle conductors For four conductors per bundle with the same separation between consecutive conductors. up to three conductors per bundle.4. the inductance is reevaluated taking into account the number of bundle conductors and the separation among them.5 Inductance of a Three-Phase Line . the GMRbundle is evaluated as GMR4 ﬃﬃ 1:09p4 s stranded ﬃdﬃﬃ3ﬃﬃGﬃﬃﬃMﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃRﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ bundle conductors ¼ (13:39 ) 13. Assuming the same separation among bundle conductors.
IB. placed horizontally with separation DAB. 13. . Corresponding currents IA. B.The derivations for the inductance in a single-phase system can be extended to obtain the inductance per phase in a three-phase system. and DCA (where D > r) among them. Consider a three-phase.11. rB. LLC. DBC. and C as follows: fAP ¼ fAAP þ fABP þ fACP (13:40) where fAAP ¼ flux produced by current IA current IC on conductor A at point P on conductor A at point P fABP ¼ flux produced by current IB on conductor A at point P fACP ¼ flux produced by Considering 1-m length for each conductor. the expressions for the fluxes above are 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. and IC flow along each conductor as shown in Fig. three-conductor system with solid cylindrical conductors with identical radius rA. and rC. The total magnetic flux enclosing conductor A at a point P away from the conductors is the sum of the flux produced by conductors A.
fA fB fC DAB DBC DCA FIGURE 13. Magnetic flux produced by each conductor in a three-phase .11 system.
12) is evaluated as lAP ¼ lAAP þ lABP þ lACP (13:44) havin g m0 DAP Wb=m .m0 DAP Wb=m (13:41 ) fAAP ¼ 2p IA ln GMRA ð Þ m0 DBP fABP ¼ 2p IB ln DAB m0 ACP ¼ 2p C f I ln ðWb=mÞ (13:42) ðWb=mÞ DCP DAC (13:43) The corresponding flux linkage of conductor A at point P (Fig. 13.
(13:45 ) lAAP ¼ 2p IA ln GMRA ð Þ DAC A C A D A B C A C B B DBP B DCP DAP DAP DAP lAAP ABP lACP l .
(b) conductor B on conductor A at point P.(a) P (b) P (c) P FIGURE 13. and (c) conductor C on conductor A at point P. Three-phase system.12 Flux linkage of (a) conductor A at point P. 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. . LLC.
ðDBP m0 DBP lABP ¼ D A B ðD CP BBP dP ¼ 2p DAB ðWb=mÞ IB ln DCP m0 (13:46) lACP ¼ D A C BCP dP ¼ 2p IC ln D A C ðWb=mÞ (13:47) where lAP ¼ total flux linkage of conductor A at point P lAAP ¼ flux linkage from magnetic field of conductor A on conductor A at point P lABP ¼ flux linkage from magnetic field of conductor B on conductor A at point P lACP ¼ flux linkage from magnetic field of conductor C on conductor A at point P Substituting Eqs.44) and rearranging.45) through (13. we have m 0 .47) in Eq. according to natural logarithms law. (13. (13.
49) is algebraically correct according to natural logarithms law. The same applies for the denominator in the expressions ln(DAP). where IA þ IB þ IC ¼ 0. However. and ln(1=DAC) must have the same dimension as the denominator.DAP DBP DCP lAP ¼ 2p IA ln GM RA þ IB ln D A B þ IC ln D A C ðWb=mÞ (13:48) m0 1 1 1 þ IB GM RA ln D A B þ IC ln DAC lAP ¼ 2p IA ln m0 þ 2p ½IA lnðDAP Þ þ IB lnðDBP Þ þ IC lnðDCP Þ ðWb=mÞ (13:49) The arrangement of Eq. (13. Assuming a balanced three-phase system. as the calculation of any natural logarithm must be dimensionless. and the flux linkage of . ln(1=DAB). and shifting the point P to infinity in such a way that DAP ¼ DBP ¼ DCP . the numerator in the expressions ln(1=GMRA). (13.49) is zero.48) into Eq. and ln(DCP). then the second part of Eq. (13. ln(DBP).
the flux linkage expressions for conductors B and C are m0 1 1 1 þ IB D B A ln GM RB þ IC ln D B C ðWb=mÞ (13:51) lB ¼ 2p IA ln m0 1 1 1 D C A þ IB D ln C B þ IC ln GM RC ðWb=mÞ (13:52) lC ¼ 2p IA ln .conductor A becomes m0 1 1 1 þ IB GM RA ln D A B þ IC ln D A C ðWb=mÞ (13:50) lA ¼ 2p IA ln Similarly.
Calculating the inductance values from the equations above and arranging the equations in a matrix form we can obtain the set of inductances in the system 2 lA 3 2 LAA LAB LAC 32 IA 3 4 lB 5 ¼ 4 LBA lC LCA LCB LBB LBC 54 IB 5 LCC IC (13:53 ) where lA. LBC. three different inductances (self and mutual conductor inductances) exist. and C field of conductor A at point P LAB. and therefore. Instead. and C LAA. LLC. lB. LCB. LBB. B. LBA. LCC ¼ self-inductances of conductors A.The flux linkage of each phase conductor depends on the three currents. LAC ¼ mutual inductances among conductors 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. the inductance per phase is not only one as in the single-phase system. . B. LCA. lC ¼ total flux linkages of conductors A.
However.50) we have m0 1 1 1 lA ¼ 2p ð IB IC Þ ln GM RA þ IB ln þ IC ln D D m0 D D IC GM RA ln GMRA lA ¼ 2p IB ln m0 D Wb=m . the flux linkage of each conductor. (13.With nine different inductances in a simple three-phase system the analysis could be a little more complicated. For a balanced three-phase system (IA þ IB þ IC ¼ 0. a single inductance per phase can be obtained if the three conductors are among them (symmetrical arranged with the same separation arrangement). From Eq. will be the same. per unit length. where D ¼ DAB ¼ DBC ¼ DCA. or IA ¼ IB IC).
With asymmetrical spacing. However. Therefore. Therefore. the equivalent inductance per phase is D m0 phase ¼ 2p L ln ðH=m Þ (13:55 ) GMRp hase 13.lA ¼ 2p IA ln GMRA ð Þ (13:54 ) If GMR value is the same for all conductors (either single or bundle GMR).6 Inductance of Transposed Three-Phase Transmission Lines In actual transmission lines. the inductance will be different for each phase. with a corresponding unbalanced voltage drop on each conductor. the phase conductors cannot maintain symmetrical arrangement along the whole length because of construction considerations. it is possible to assume symmetrical arrangement in the transmission line by transposing the phase conductors. In a transposed system. the single-phase equivalent circuit to represent the power system cannot be used. even when bundle conductor spacers are used.4. the total flux linkage expression is the same for all phases. each phase conductor .
and the calculation of phase inductance derived for symmetrical arrangement is still valid. the average distance geometrical mean distance (GMD) substitutes distance D. 13. the inductive reactance per unit length is GMD XLphase ¼ 2pf Lphase ¼ m0 f ln GMRp hase ðV=mÞ (13:57) A C C A AB B B C . The inductance per phase per unit length in a transmission line becomes GMD m0 phase ¼ 2p L ln GMRp hase ðH=m Þ (13:56 ) Once the inductance per phase is obtained. In this case.occupies the location of the other two phases for one-third of the total line length as shown in Fig.13.
. 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC.l/ 3 l/ 3 l/ 3 FIGURE 13.13 Arrangement of conductors in a transposed line.
either solid or stranded (m) GMD ¼ p3 ﬃDﬃﬃﬃAﬃﬃBﬃﬃDﬃﬃﬃﬃBﬃﬃCﬃﬃDﬃﬃﬃﬃCﬃﬃAﬃﬃ ¼ geometrical mean distance for a three-phase line (m) d ¼ distance between bundle conductors (m) n ¼ number of conductor per bundle f ¼ frequency (Hz) 13. by the number of conductors.5 Capacitance and Capacitive Reactance Capacitance exists among transmission line conductors due to their potential difference.For bundle conductors. The expression for the total inductive reactance per phase yields GMD XLphase ¼ m0 f ln GMRbu ndle ðV=mÞ (13:58) where GMRbundle ¼ (d n 1 GMRstranded)1=n up to three conductors per bundle (m) GMRbundle ¼ 1. as in the single-phase transmission line case. and by the number of conductors per bundle and the separation among them.09(d 4 GMRstranded)1=4 for four conductors per bundle (m) GMRphase ¼ geometric mean radius of phase conductor. To evaluate the capacitance between conductors in a surrounding . the GMRbundle value is determined.
at an outside point P separated x meters from the center of the conductor. 13.5.medium with permittivity «. The charge qþ produces an electric field radial to the conductor with equipotential surfaces concentric to the conductor. the total electric flux leaving a closed surface is equal to the total charge inside the volume enclosed by the surface. The resistivity of the conductor is assumed to be zero (perfect conductor). Therefore. and the electric field strength of the surrounding.1 Capacitance of a Single-Solid Conductor Consider a solid. uniformly distributed on the surface. 13. cylindrical. which results in zero internal electric field due to the charge on the conductor. According to Gauss’s law. it is necessary to determine the voltage between the conductors. long conductor with radius r. in a free space with permittivity «0.14). There is a constant electric field strength on the surface of cylinder (Fig. and with a charge of qþ coulombs per meter. the electric field flux density and the electric field intensity are q q (13:59) DensityP ¼ A ¼ 2px ðCÞ Electric Field Lines Path of Integration .
LLC.P2 P1 dx x1 x2 + q + Conductor with Charge q+ r r l FIGURE 13. . 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.14 Electric field produced from a single conductor.
the capacitance between points P1 and P2 is evaluated as .DensityP EP ¼ q 0 « ¼ 2p« x ðV=mÞ (13:60) where DensityP ¼ electric flux density at point P EP ¼ electric field intensity at point P A ¼ surface of a concentric cylinder with 1-m length and radius x (m2) 10 9 « ¼ «0 ¼ 36p ¼ permittivity of free space assumed for the conductor (F=m) The potential difference or voltage difference between two outside points P1 and P2 with corresponding distances x1 and x2 from the conductor center is defined by integrating the electric field intensity from x1 to x2 ðx2 dx ðx2 q dx q x2 V1 2 ¼ EP ¼ x1 x x1 2p«0 ln x ¼ ðVÞ 2p«0 x1 (13:61) Then.
and point P2 is located at ground surface below the conductor (x2 ¼ h). then the voltage of the conductor and the capacitance between the conductor and ground are q h 0 Vcond ¼ 2p« ln r ðVÞ (13:63) q Ccond ground ¼ V 2p«0 ¼ h ðF=mÞ (13:64) cond r ln .q C1 2 ¼ V 2p«0 ¼ ðF=mÞ (13:62) 1 2 x1 ln x2 If point P1 is located at the conductor surface (x1 ¼ r).
charge q on conductor B generates a voltage VAB–B between conductors.5. Similarly.rB q+ q− l . The conductors are energized by a voltage source such that conductor A has a charge qþ and conductor B a charge q as shown in Fig.2 Capacitance of a Single-Phase Line with Two Wires Consider a two-wire single-phase line with conductors A and B with the same radius r. separated by a distance D > rA and rB. 13. The charge on each conductor generates independent electric fields.15. Charge qþ on conductor A generates a voltage VAB–A between both conductors. D D qA qB A A + r B rB − A rA + B −.13.
q+ q− FIGURE 13.15 Electric field produced from a two-wire single-phase system. . LLC. 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.
VAB–A is calculated by integrating the electric field intensity. on conductor B from rA to D VAB A ¼ ðD rA q D (13:65 ) EA dx ¼ 2p«0 ln rA VAB–B is calculated by integrating the electric field intensity due to the charge on conductor B from D to rB VAB B ¼ ðr EB dx ¼ B q hrB i ln (13:66 ) D 2p«0 D The total voltage is the sum of the generated voltages VAB A and VAB B hrB i q VAB ¼ VAB A þ VAB B ¼ 2p« 0 D ln rA q ln 2p« D q ¼ 2p«0 D2 ln rA rB 0 . due to the charge on conductor A.
the capacitance from either line to ground is twice the capacitance between lines VAB VAG ¼ VBG ¼ 2 ðVÞ (13:70) .(13: 67) If the conductors have the same radius. then the voltage between conductors VAB. for a 1-m line length are q D 0 VAB ¼ p« ln r ðVÞ (13:68) CAB ¼ p«0 D ðF=mÞ ln (13:69) r The voltage between each conductor and ground (G) (Fig.16) is one-half of the voltage between the two conductors. rA ¼ rB ¼ r. Therefore. and the capacitance between conductors CAB. 13.
q CAG ¼ AG V 2p«0 ¼ ln D ðF=mÞ (13:71) r q+ A C A G q CAG + VAG CBG q − A + − B VAB .
LLC.VAG VBG CBG VBG VAB B q− − FIGURE 13.16 line. Capacitance between line to ground in a two-wire single-phase 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. .
and rC. and the space between conductors are DAB. rB.5. DBC. and DAC > rA. Also.3 Capacitance of a Three-Phase Line Consider a three-phase line with the same voltage magnitude between phases. the effect of earth and neutral conductors is neglected. rB. The expressions for VAB and VAC are 1 DAB rB DBC VAB ¼ 2p« 0 qA ln A r þ qB ln AB D þ qC ln AC D ðVÞ (13:72) 1 DCA C DB rC VAC ¼ 2p« 0 qA ln A r þ qB ln AB D þ qC ln AC D ðVÞ (13:73) . DBC. and DAC (where DAB. and rC). The conductors have radii rA. The expression for voltages between two conductors in a single-phase system can be extended to obtain the voltages between conductors in a three-phase system. and assuming a balanced system with abc (positive) sequence such that qA þ qB þ qC ¼ 0.13.
with the same radii for the conductors such that rA ¼ rB ¼ rC ¼ r (where D > r). the expressions for VAB and VAC are " 1 VAB ¼ 2p« 0 "D # r þ qB ln " r # "D## þ qC D qA ln D ln " 1 ¼ 2p«0 qA ln "D # r þ qB ln " ## D r ðVÞ (13:74) " 1 VAC ¼ 2p« 0 "D # r þ qB ln "D # " r ## þ qC D qA ln D ln " 1 ¼ 2p«0 qA ln "D # r þ qC ln " ## D r ðVÞ (13:75) .If the three-phase system has triangular arrangement with equidistant conductors such that DAB ¼ DBC ¼ DAC ¼ D.
Therefore. ﬃﬃﬃ where VAN is the line-to-neutral voltage. substituting VAB and VAC from Eqs.67) and (13. VAN can be expressed in terms of VAB and VAC as VAB þ VAC VAN ¼ (13:76) 3 and thus.68) we have "" 1 VAN ¼ 6p« 0 "D # r "D # þ qB ln " ## D ! r" þ ln " r ## "D # qA r " r ### þ qC D ln qA ln " 1 ¼ 6p«0 2qA ln þ r qB þ qC ð V Þ (13:77 ) ln D .Balanced line-to-line voltages with sequence abc. expressed in terms of the line-toneutral voltage are VAB ¼ pﬃ3ﬃ VAN ﬀ 30 ¼ and VAC ¼ VCA p 3 VAN ﬀ 30 . (13.
LLC. . or qA ¼ (qB þ qC ) then.Under balanced conditions qA þ qB þ qC ¼ 0. the final expression for the lineto-neutral voltage is 1 D 0 VAN ¼ 2p« qA ln ðVÞ r (13:78) 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.
However. Solid conductors with zero resistivity (zero internal electric field) 2.4 Capacitance of Stranded Bundle Conductors The calculation of the capacitance in the equation above is based on 1.The positive sequence capacitance per unit length between phase A and neutral can now be obtained. However. Charge uniformly distributed 3. In a line with stranded . Because of the presence of other charged conductors. and therefore the estimated capacitance is different. Equilateral spacing of phase conductors In actual transmission lines.5. the resistivity of the conductors produces a small internal electric field and therefore. this effect is negligible for most practical calculations. the difference is negligible for practical purposes. the electric field at the conductor surface is smaller than the estimated. the charge distribution is nonuniform. The same result is obtained for capacitance between phases B and C to neutral qA ANVAN C ¼ 2p«0 ¼ ln r D ðF=mÞ (13:79) 13.
Most transmission lines do not have equilateral spacing of phase conductors. transposing the phase conductors balances the system resulting in equal line-to-neutral capacitance for each phase and is developed in the following manner. and third section of the transposed line are 1 DAB r DAB VAB first ¼ 2p« 0 qA ln r þ qB ln AB D þ qC ln AC D ðVÞ (13:80) 1 DBC r D DAC VAB second ¼ 2p« 0 qA ln r þ qB B ln C . DBC. However. Consider a transposed three-phase line with conductors having the same radius r. and DAC . This causes differences between the line-to-neutral capacitances of the three phases. DBC. and DAC > r.conductors. and with space between conductors DAB. second. This produces a negligible difference. Assuming abc positive sequence. where DAB. the expressions for VAB on the first. the capacitance is evaluated assuming a solid conductor with the same radius as the outside radius of the stranded conductor.
second. and third section of the transposed line are 1 DAC DBC r VAC first ¼ 2p« 0 qA ln r þ qB ln AB D þ qC ln AC D (13:83 ) 1 DAB DAC r VAC second ¼ 2p« 0 qA ln r þ qB ln DBC .þ qC ln DAB ðVÞ (13:81) 1 DAC r DAB VAB third ¼ 2p« 0 qA ln r þ qB ln AC D þ qC ln BC D ðVÞ (13:82) Similarly. the expressions for VAC on the first.
we have the final expressions of VAB and VAC in the transposed line 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.þ qC ln AB (13:84) D 1 DBC DAB r VAC third ¼ 2p« 0 qA ln r þ qB ln AC D þ qC ln BC D (13:85 ) Taking the average value of the three sections. . LLC.
the phase-to-neutral voltage VAN (phase voltage) is VAB transp þ VAC transp VAN transp ¼ .VAB transp VAB first þ VAB second þ VAB third ¼ 3 1 qA ln DAB r 3 DAC DBC þ qB ln DAC DAC DBC ðVÞ þ qC ln (13:86) ¼ 6p«0 r3 DAB DAC DBC DAC DAC DBC VAC first þ VAC second þ VAC third VAC transp 3 ¼ 1 ¼ 6p«0 qA DAB þ qB DAC DAC DAC DBC ln DBC þ r3 qCDAC DAC DBC ðVÞ (13:87) ln r 3 DAB DAC ln DBC For a balanced system where qA ¼ (qB þ qC).
The expression of re is similar to GMRbundle used in the calculation of the inductance per phase. Therefore. except that the actual outside radius of the conductor is used instead of the GMRphase. an equivalent radius re conductor and is determined by the number of conductors per bundle and the spacing of conductors.1 3 DAB DAC DBC r3 þ DAB DAC DBC ¼ 18p«0 2 qA ln r3 þ ðqB qC Þ ln 1 ¼ 6p«0 DAB DBC qA ln r 3 DAC 1 ¼ 2p«0 GMD qA ln r ðVÞ (13:88) where GMD ¼ p3 ﬃDﬃﬃﬃAﬃﬃBﬃﬃDﬃﬃﬃﬃBﬃﬃCﬃﬃDﬃﬃﬃﬃCﬃﬃAﬃﬃ ¼ geometrical mean distance for a three-phase line. For bundle conductors. the expression for VAN is replaces the radius r of a single 1 GMD 0 VAN transp ¼ 2p« qA ln e r ðVÞ (13:89) .
from phase to neutral can be evaluated as CAN transp ¼ V qA 2p«0 ¼ GMD ðF=mÞ (13:90) AN trans p ln re 1 1 GMD ln ¼ XAN transp ¼ 2pfC AN trans p ðV=mÞ (13:91) 4pf «0 re . per unit length.where re ¼ (dn 1r)1=n ¼ equivalent radius for up to three conductors per bundle (m) re ¼ 1. the capacitance and capacitive reactance.09 (d3r)1=4 ¼ equivalent radius for four conductors per bundle (m) d ¼ distance between bundle conductors (m) n ¼ number of conductors per bundle Finally.
then the electric field lines will go from the conductor to the earth. 13. If the earth is assumed as a perfectly conductive horizontal plane with infinite length. .5 Capacitance Due to Earth’s Surface Considering a single-overhead conductor with a return path through the earth.17). perpendicular to the earth’s surface (Fig.5. separated a distance H from earth’s surface.13. the charge of the earth would be equal in magnitude to that on the conductor but of opposite sign. LLC. 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.
+ + + + + + q + + H − − − − − − − − Earth's Surface FIGURE 13. .17 Distribution of electric field lines from an overhead conductor to earth’s surface.
and C to earth’s surface. 13. and qC B0. and C0. and C carrying the charges qA. Figure 13. DAA0 .18). B0. B. and DC are perpendicular distances from phases A. DB. 2 qA ln 1 6 DAB r rB þ qB ln AB D DBC 3 þ qC ln AC D A 7 VAB ¼ 2 p« 6 D D D 7 (13:92) ðVÞ 06 4 qA ln D A B 0 D qB ln B B 0 D qC ln BC0 5 7 . B.To calculate the capacitance. The same principle can be extended to calculate the capacitance per phase of a three-phase system. DBB0 . Voltage VAB can be obtained as and their respective image conductors A0. and C0. DA. and C to the image conductors A0. and DCC0 are the perpendicular distances from phases A. lying just below the overhead conductor (Fig. B. the negative charge of the earth can be replaced by an equivalent charge of an image conductor with the same radius as the overhead conductor.19 shows an equilateral arrangement of identical single conductors for phases A. qB.
AA0 A B 0 AC0 + + + + + q++ +q + + 2H Earth’s Surface .
.− − − − − −-q − − − Equivalent Earth Charge FIGURE 13. 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC.18 Equivalent image conductor representing the charge of the earth.
B qB Overhead Conductors A qA C B qC D DA DC DAA = 2DA Earth’s Surface DBB = 2DB DCC = 2DC A −qA C −qC Image Conductors B −qB .
as the conductors have equilateral arrangement.19 line. Arrangement of image conductors in a three-phase transmission As overhead conductors are identical. then r ¼ rA ¼ rB ¼ rC. Also. expressions for VBC and VAC are 1 " "DCA0 # "D # "DCB 0 #! " r # "DCC0 #!# VBC 2p« ¼ 0 ln qA D B A0 þ ln r qB ln D B B0 þ ln D qC ln D BC 0 ð V Þ (13:94 ) 0 VAC 2p ¼ « " qA ln "D# r ln "DCA 0 #! 1 . D ¼ DAB ¼ DBC ¼ DCA " 1 VAB ¼ 2p«0 qA ln "D # r ln "DAB 0 #! þ qB " r # D ln "DBB 0 #! DAB0 ln qC "DBC 0 ## ð Þ (13:93 ) DAA0 ln DAC0 V Similarly.FIGURE 13.
the phase capacitance CAN. per unit length. through algebraic reduction. is AN qA C ¼ V ¼ .DAA0 qB ln "D D CB AB 0# 0 þ ln "r# qC D ln "DCC 0 #!# ðV (13 :95 ) DAC0 Þ The phase voltage VAN becomes. VAB þ VAC VAN ¼ 1 D 3 "p3 ﬃDﬃﬃﬃAﬃﬃBﬃﬃ0ﬃDﬃﬃﬃﬃBﬃﬃ Cﬃﬃ0ﬃDﬃﬃﬃCﬃﬃﬃAﬃﬃ0ﬃ #! ¼ 2p«0 qA ln r ln p3 ﬃDﬃﬃﬃA ﬃﬃAﬃﬃ0 ﬃDﬃﬃﬃﬃ BﬃﬃBﬃﬃ 0ﬃDﬃﬃﬃ CﬃﬃCﬃﬃ ﬃ0ﬃ ð V Þ (13:96 ) Therefore.
That term represents the effect of the earth on phase capacitance. the capacitance increment is really small.p3 2p«0 AN ln hDi ln ﬃDﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃDﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃD ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ ðF=mÞ A B CA0 B C 0 0 (13:97) r p3 ﬃDﬃﬃﬃAﬃﬃAﬃﬃ0ﬃDﬃﬃﬃﬃBﬃﬃBﬃﬃ0ﬃDﬃﬃﬃCﬃﬃCﬃﬃﬃ0ﬃ Equations (13. except for the term ln 0 0 0 0 ((DAB =3 DBB0 DCC0 )1 DBC DCA )1=3=(DAA ) included in Eq.97) have similar expressions. LLC.97). (13. . However. and is usually 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.79) and (13. increasing its total value.
2a Conductors (ACSR) Characteristics of Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced CrossSection Area . TABLE 13. LLC.2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.
1 44.81 12.181 0.4 51.5 44.29 12.3 59.8 44.20 13.2 44.1 42.3 52.1 47.17 35.5 41.7 26.2 42.19 11.196 0.8 42.48 14.3 53.75 13.08 9.15 15.78 15.56 13.0 22.189 0.10 13.1 54.1 57.42 9.3 58.95 31.186 0.9 31.319 0.189 0.0 34.4 X0 (MV/km) 0.4 56.9 47.Diameter Aluminum Approx.87 10.81 11.329 Hz Reactances (Dm ¼ 1 m) Code – Joree Thrasher Kiwi Bluebird Chukar Falcon Lapwing Parrot Nuthatch Plover Bobolink Martin Dipper Pheasant Bittern Grackle Bunting Finch Bluejay Curlew (kcmil) 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 776 515 312 167 156 781 590 590 510 510 431 431 351 351 272 272 192 193 114 113 033 (mm2) 1407 1274 1171 1098 1092 902 806 806 765 765 725 725 685 685 645 644 604 604 564 564 523 Layers 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 (Amperes) 258C 24.5 47.10 34.8 38.180 0.299 0.80 47.312 0.7 24.75 9.191 0.2 34.5 49.198 1 380 1 370 1 340 1 340 1 300 1 300 1 250 1 250 1 200 1 200 1 160 1 160 1 110 1 110 1 060 .321 0.8 56.306 0.2 40.3 51.95 12.75 45.4 26.5 GMR (mm) 20.0 50.194 0.9 45.92 16.190 0.14 17.1 42.21 36.2 40.68 12.9 51.07 32.1 46.14 13.197 0.302 0.34 8.3 45.39 14.5 26.4 508C 26.4 38.80 10.21 37.311 0.316 0.303 0.20 35.9 48.6 46.2 33.314 0.00 10.54 DC 258C 21.175 0.62 Core (mm) 13.16 34.196 0.191 0.0 68.25 36.07 44.8 40.1 30.324 0.33 8.91 15.4 29.33 18.24 38.323 0.07 8.1 35.80 X1 (V/km) 0.3 43.9 53.28 10.77 44.193 0.99 14.06 14.194 0.190 0.23 37.53 11.6 53.4 37.63 13.0 30.9 50.7 39.2 45.0 27.9 62.4 47.95 8.318 0.7 29.316 0.9 46.9 36.0 50.69 39.7 37.0 32.5 49.187 0.178 0.4 52.93 18.0 31.7 39.75 40.20 38.30 12.0 758C 28.6 43.6 55.182 0.1 37.9 35.00 33.9 63. Current.07 12.320 0.322 0.8 57.71 8.Carrying Capacity 60 Resistance (mV/km) AC (60 Hz) Total (mm2) 1521 1344 1235 1146 1181 976 908 862 862 818 817 775 772 732 726 689 681 646 636 603 591 Stranding Al=Steel 84=19 76=19 76=19 72=7 84=19 84=19 54=19 45=7 54=19 45=7 54=19 45=7 54=19 45=7 54=19 45=7 54=19 45=7 54=19 45=7 54=7 Conductor (mm) 50.9 48.5 32.2 28.326 0.193 0.28 15.294 0.84 31.3 64.37 17.3 58.329 0.327 0.
76 3 840 81. 3rd ed. 258C air temperature. 1987.31 8.2 10. Brooks=Cole.. and frequency of 60 Hz. J.332 0.67 0. Ortolan 560 1 033 525 45=7 30.5 82.2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.342 0.206 Current capacity evaluated at 758C conductor temperature.2 90. and Sarma. .S. 2002. California.. Palo Alto.78 7. With permission. 2nd ed. Power System Analysis and Design.4 mi=h.199 Crow 409 715 362 54=7 26. LLC. M. wind speed of 1.7 12..5 57.22 0. Glover. Sources : Transmission Line Reference Book 345 kV and Above.70 3 1 060 56. With permission.3 68. Electric Power Research Institute.D.8 63.2 98.
LLC.2b Conductors (ACSR) Characteristics of Aluminum Cable Steel Reinforced Cross-Section Area .2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. TABLE 13.
27 10.343 0.3 105.38 10.20 10.206 0.70 10.1 116.212 .3 96.82 10.3 115.2 91.5 106.2 82.33 X1 (V/km) 0.0 115.97 9.7 101.Diameter Aluminum Approx.55 23.209 0. Current.4 97.346 0.208 0.5 88.8 126.3 106.8 96.208 0.4 110.207 0.21 23.342 0.210 0.1 11.9 91.2 92.349 0.88 25.7 91.2 101.54 24.4 96.208 0.0 110.4 101.1 98.39 8.7 91.9 115.78 3.209 0.1 101.9 125.06 9.4 101.5 106.58 10.347 0.353 0.06 10.208 0.21 24.3 116.5 87.4 9.0 97.3 110.1 9.82 24.3 105.82 9.1 104.3 508C 90.9 104.63 25.22 Core (mm) 8.08 8.27 8.3 105.76 25.351 0.Carrying Capacity 60 Resistance (mV/km) AC (60 Hz) Reactances Hz (Dm ¼ 1 m) Code Stilt Grebe Gannet Gull Flamingo Scoter Egret Grosbeak Goose Rook Kingbird Swirl Wood Duck Teal Squab Peacock Duck Eagle Dove Parakeet Total 2 (mm ) 410 388 393 382 382 397 396 375 364 363 340 331 378 376 356 346 347 348 328 319 (kcmil) 716 716 666 667 667 636 636 636 636 636 636 636 605 605 605 605 606 557 556 557 (mm ) 363 363 338 338 338 322 322 322 322 322 322 322 307 307 356 307 307 282 282 282 2 Stranding Al=Steel 24=7 45=7 26=7 54=7 24=7 30=7 30=19 26=7 54=7 24=7 18=1 36=1 30=7 30=19 26=7 24=7 54=7 30=7 26=7 24=7 Conductor (mm) 26.347 0.8 91.75 Layers 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 (Amperes) 840 840 800 800 800 800 780 780 770 770 780 780 760 770 760 760 750 730 730 730 DC 258C 81.28 8.62 25.46 8.211 0.66 7.1 92.5 106.70 10.1 88.212 0.8 115.346 0.4 105.5 8.2 90.347 0.4 25.4 110.1 88.25 25.347 0.3 101.349 0.42 9.15 24.3 92.353 0.81 10.352 X0 (MV/km) 0.7 96.88 25.344 0.5 87.208 0.210 0.6 758C 98.6 87.21 10.3 105.88 23.0 105.5 96.31 25.4 105.42 10.342 0.208 0.46 11.21 10.9 GMR (mm) 10.4 25.28 4.04 8.344 0.18 10.208 0.2 92.1 116.0 97.25 25.3 92.4 92.0 97.76 6.212 0.210 0.4 91.3 110.3 110.21 24.6 115.45 10.344 0.72 9.345 0.8 258C 82.4 101.27 9.207 0.00 9.9 91.4 110.4 96.208 0.54 9.82 23.6 96.4 106.5 81.346 0.0 97.3 92.7 96.1 125.08 10.
2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.47 3. 2nd ed. 2002. and Sarma. 3rd ed.4 mi=h. and frequency of 60 Hz...S.D.4 125.2 115. With permission.358 0.214 Waxwing143 267 135 18=1 15.232 Current capacity evaluated at 758C conductor temperature. Glover..1 2 460 217. With permission. J.386 0. California.7 8. Osprey 298 556 282 18=1 22.1 239.4 105.00 0. . 258C air temperature. 1987. LLC. M.66 0.7 261.8 218.1 6. Sources : Transmission Line Reference Book 345 kV and Above. wind speed of 1. Electric Power Research Institute. Palo Alto. Brooks=Cole.47 2 740 104. Power System Analysis and Design.33 4.
LLC. TABLE 13.320 0.5 42.9 46.3a Characteristics of All-Aluminum-Conductors (AAC) Cross-Section Area Carrying Capacity Diameter Approx.3 14.26 0.2 1591 orStranding (mm) 61 36.5 AC (60 258C 508C 758C (mm) (V=km) (MV=k Hz) 39.2006 by Taylor & Francis Group.93 Layers 4 (Amperes) 258C 1380 36.190 . CurrentResistance (mV=km) 60 Hz Reactances (Dm ¼ 1 m) Code (mm2) kcmil Coreops 806.
258C air temperature. With permission. J. Power System Analysis and Design. and Sarma. 2002. .3 #4 AWG 7 4. Palo Alto.4 2214. and frequency of 60 Hz. wind speed of 1. Electric Power Research Institute. Glover.S.4 2443.4 mi=h.71 0. M.Peachbe 13.2 2652 1.. 1987.. 2nd ed.481 0. California. 3rd ed. Sources : Transmission Line Reference Book 345 kV and Above..289 Current capacity evaluated at 758C conductor temperature.67 1 140 2214. With permission. Brooks=Cole.D.
Carrying Resistance (mV=km) Reactances (Dm ¼ 1 m) Hz AC (60 EVEN DC Hz) XL XC . Current. LLC.2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. TABLE 13.3b Characteristics of All-Aluminum-Conductors (AAC) 60 Cross-Section Area Capacity Diameter Approx.
Sneezewor 126. 2002. 258C air temperature.40 1 420 232.235 Current capacity evaluated at 758C conductor temperature.. 1987..S. 3rd ed. Electric Power Research Institute.. J. California. Brooks=Cole. M.4 mi=h. With permission.7255.7 250 7 14.45. Glover. and frequency of 60 Hz.2 232.396 0.6 278. Palo Alto. Sources : Transmission Line Reference Book 345 kV and Above. 2nd ed. wind speed of 1. Power System Analysis and Design. and Sarma. With permission.D.21 0. .
Z. Power System Analysis. because distances from overhead conductors to ground greater than distances among conductors. where a cmil is the cross-section area of a circular conductor with a diameter of 1=1000 in. M. of ACSR conductors.ance.2a and 13. Boston. Stevenson. 5.6 Characteristics of Overhead Conductors Tables 13. respectively. John Wiley and Sons.L. The tables include also the approximate current-carrying capacity of the conductors assuming 60 Hz. The size of the conductors (cross-section area) is specified in square millimeters and kcmil. Brooks=Cole. Electromechanical Energy Devices and Power Systems. 1999. 2. 1982. inductive reactance and capacitance react. 1979.. Jr. 1994. Elements of Power System Analysis. Power System Analysis and Design.A. Inc. References 1. John Wiley and Sons.D. 4th ed. .D. 4. Yamayee. Ch. New York. Tables 13.A. J. Power System Analysis. are always 13. H.. MA. 3rd ed. and Bala.3a and 13. W. wind speed of 1.3b present the corresponding characteristics of AACs. and conductor and air temperatures of 758C and 258C.2b present typical values of resistance...S. McGraw-Hill. New York.neglected. and Sarma.. New York. Glover.. Saadat.4 mi=h. J. McGraw-Hill. per unit length.. Jr. Gross. 3. 2002.
. and Rittenhouse. Power Systems. The Power System in the Steady State. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. The Ronald Press Company. 2nd ed. 1966. B. Gungor. J. Electric Power Research Institute.. Barnes.C. Electric Power Transmission. Transmission Line Reference Book 345 kV and Above.. 1988.. FL. New York.R. 1954. Their Design and Installation. Orlando. Zaborszky. London. Chapman and Hall. . 8. 9.6. C. Power Cables.W. 1987. 2nd ed.. 7. Palo Alto. J. CA.
2006 by Taylor & Francis Group. LLC. .
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