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Kiknadze detected and added to scholarly circulation. on the 5 . the author makes use of previously unknown manuscripts examined by him (Georgian synaxarions of the 13th and 14th centuries from the libraries of St Petersburg and the unpublished manuscripts of the most famous Georgian historian of the end of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. correlate the foreign sources such as that of Hafizi Abru and Abu Bakr al-Qutbi al-Ahri. which was never executed and an epistle of the year 1330 from the Catholic bishop of Sukhumi. This correlation proved the great importance of the data appearing in the work of Vakhushti Bagrationi. Kiknadze restores the complex internal and external political processes that occurred in Georgia from the 1390s until 1490s – the time of the invasions of Tamerlane. Peter Gerald. ii] a crusade in 1332. the days of king George V the Brilliant. [p. Remarkable is the fact that in the monograph the data concerning the events of the 14th century from the “Geography of the Georgian kingdom” by Vakhushti Bagrationi. In addition to the surviving Georgian and well-known foreign written sources. A comprehensive consideration and a new interpretation of the well-known European historical data. Dr. This was a very crucial time in Georgian history. Ivane Javakhishvili). Dr.Commendatory Foreword by Giorgi L. first brought to light for scolarly analysis and interpretation by the author and using all existing primary sources together with materials of different types. which are based on the now lost Georgian written sources of the 13th-14th century. among other documents. "The Eurasian State of Georgia in the Fourteenth Century". Kavtaradze [p. i] The monograph by Professor Vazha Kiknadze. on the one hand. with that of the Middle East. and puts forward a quite new vision of the events of historic character of this period. a letter of the year 1332 or 1333 of George V the Brilliant to the Valois king of France Philip VI (1328-1350) who planned together with Edward III of England. covers a period of Georgian history which has few written sources or other contemporary documentary materials. to the Archbishop of Canterbury – both in Latin. who released Georgia from Mongolian domination and reunited the country. prepared recently for publication in the United States of America by the Edwin Mellen Publisher. On the basis of these materials.
Such a pragmatic use of coinage for commercial or political intentions was not rare in Transcaucasia of the Ilkhan period. George VI the Small. iv] 6 . Michael VIII Palaeologus. hoped to form a coalition with Christian powers against the Muslims. Kiknadze’s study sheds light on the nature of relations between the Georgians and the Mongols.other. but Dr. Kiknadze based his research on the data of Anonymous Chronicler of the 14th century and of Vakhushti Bagrationi (1696-1757) and correlating them with the inscription in the church of Daba. Kiknadze to adopt a thoroughly well-reasoned opinion that the unification of eastern and western Georgia took place in 1330 AD and that the final liberation of Georgia from the Mongolian domination was brought about between 1327 and 1335. but of the much wider Middle Eastern area. special focus is concentrated on the complicated numismatic situation of 14th century Georgia. he [p. in the name of the the Great Khan Khubilai. Abaqa. struck coins with the names of the puppet Ilkhanian khans. whose power in reality had diminished by that time to a mere formality. The fact that Mongol coins were still struck in 14th century Georgia is generally explained in literature by the dominance of the [p. permitted Dr. Kiknadze proofs that the Georgian king. and of the Holy Spirit. While the obverse side of the coin has a legend and design in Uyghur. Dr. but as well the character of Mongolian dominance in Georgia. near Borjomi. the reverse bears a Christian cross and an Arabic inscription: “in the name of the Father. iii] Mongols in Caucasia at the time. etc. Vakhtang III and Demetre. The author has succeeded in correcting a whole range of historical dates. Dr. in the period of undoubted and strong Mongol dominance. This conclusion is a substantial contribution to Medieval history. George V the Brilliant (1318-1346) and his successor and descendant David IX (1346-1360). and of the Son. In the monograph. the unknown king of the 14th century. We can recall the silver dirham struck in Tbilisi under the Mongol Ilkhans by Abaqa (1265-1282). one God”. son-in-law of the Byzantine emperor. not only of Georgia or Transcaucasia. among them the years of the reign of various Georgian kings and political figures: George V the Brilliant. taking this step. only with the aim to strengthen their economic interests and to gain more influence in the commercial world of the contemporary Middle East. it gives us an opportunity to reconsider not only the time length. son of Hulagu.
the various aspects of the political development of Georgia are discussed constantly as a background to the main stages of the state development of Ilhanian Iran itself. 7 . v] regain its sovereignty in the background of GeorgianIlhanian relations and to free the country from the Mongolian yoke. The author gives a detailed analysis of the article dedicated to George V the Brilliant by the well-known British scholar. and that the years of his reign shoud be therefore recorded as from 1318 to 1346. From the author's view-point. as was traditionally thought. Lang. The author suggests that in the information about George V the Brilliant’s struggle with the Mongol noyans of Azerbaijan in the 1330s. as in the Middle Ages a strong royal power was a helpful circumstance for the creation of a powerful state. in the person mentioned in the same Chronicle and referred to as Hieromonk (Priestmonk) Moses. The author pays especial attention to the specifying of the reasons contributing to the country's political integrity. A close examination of the Chronicle allows the author to consider the Chronicler as a contemporary of the events described and even as an eyewitness. Lang. Dr. Through a detailed study of documentary material and by discussing nearly all arguments put forth by Dr. Dr. all measures taken by George V the Brilliant. Kiknadze critically analyses the objective causes which helped Georgia to regain its independence: George V the Brilliant’s successful energetic activities. which helped Georgia to [p. Moreover. who accompanied the Georgian king Demetre II the Martyr (1270-1289) to the Mughan Valley and who was present at the time of his execution there on March 12. Kiknadze makes it obvious that the main conclusions reached by the British scholar are not entirely accurate. Moreover. A separate chapter is devoted in the book to the problem of identifying the Anonymous Chronicler of the 14th century. ought to be considered as a favourable precondition for his future successful fight against his country’s conquerors – the Mongols.came to the conclusion that the year of the accession of George V the Brilliant to the throne was 1318 and not 1314. Dr. 1289. Kiknadze believes that the Chronicler himself must be meant. including the bloody oppression of his opponents. as well as to the understanding of the causes. in reality was meant the invasion of Chobanid Hasan Küçük. David M.
the substrata of the system of feudal state organization. i.) Chief Researcher in the Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History & Ethnology Tbilisi. foreign rule. Taking into consideration the vastness of the territory conquered by the Mongols from Japan to Egypt and from [p. as well as abroad and the decline and powerlessness of the Ilkhanian state. Giorgi Leon Kavtaradze (Dr. earthquakes and devastating epidemcs. This monograph provides in this regard a new and well substantiated viewpoint. The monograph includes a separate chapter dedicated to the material and spiritual heritage dating from 14th century Georgia.both within the country. It is also very interesting which model of rule the Mongols were using in Georgia and whether it was or was not unique.. which were considered as forever lost. habil. Professor Vazha Kiknadze has actually managed to restore our past. This past has a special value for us. – it determines the subsequent development of the Georgian state.e. but also to a wide circle of readers. and what factors determined the country's liberation from their oppressors. Special attention is given to the great importance of what remained from the period of pre-Mongolian Georgia. despite all the cataclysms characterizing this epoch: invasions. based on extensive evidence which is partially unknown in scholarly literature and which was subjected to a thorough and scrupulous analysis. we hope that the Englishspeaking reader will be interested in becoming acquainted with the topic of Mongol rule in Georgia. vi] Indochina to Poland and the significant role they played in the history of the whole of Eurasia. showing the continuity of the local cultural traditions and the high level of cultural development of Georgia.D. when and how the Mongols ran out of power in Georgia. Georgia Founder of the Kavtaradze Centre of Caucasian & Anatolian Studies 8 . the author has succeeded in running back the pages of history. Ph. the period of the history of Georgia most shrouded in mist. not only to history.
Georgian synaxarions of the 13th and 14th centuries from the libraries of St Petersburg and the unpublished manuscripts of the most famous Georgian historian of last century. if I would become a historian. explaining their meaning and discussed various aspects of the Georgian and not only of the Georgian history. etc. 2013 at the Ilya Chavchavadze National Parlamentary National Library of Georgia in Tbilisi: Ladies & Gentlemen. Now I would like to recall an episode from my childhood. Kiknadze restores the complex internal and external political processes that occurred in Georgia since the late 13th century to the late 14th century – the time of the invasions of Tamerlane. Kiknadze’s book was published this January in the United States of America by Edwin Mellen Publishers and I’m very glad that I now have the opportunity to say a few words about it.Giorgi L. held on 21th of March. among them were books of the so-called anti-Soviet character. who released Georgia from Mongolian domination and reunited the country. To do everything possible to end the foreign domination was for the Georgians always the most desirable type of activity. the days of king Giorgi V the Brilliant. when I became a historian. that there is a lack of evidence about the time of king Giorgi the Brilliant and therefore the circumstances of the end of Mongol rule in Georgia are the least known. I was about 10-12 years old when the greatest pleasure for me was reading books on the history. strongly eJncouraged my passion. “The Eurasian State of Georgia in the Fourteenth Century (the Mongol Era and Its End)”. “The Eurasian State of Georgia in the Fourteenth Century (the Mongol Era and Its End)”. instead of doing my homework. I belong to people who believe that some events in our life are predetermined by our fate. so my grandfather’s request. choosing me the books which I needed according to his opinion. Kavtaradze speech delivered at the presentation of the book launch of Vazha Kiknadze. Dr. too.e.” He demanded of me to try to fill this gap. But at that time. Professor Kiknadze makes use of previously unknown manuscripts examined by him (i. 9 . bringing my grandmother and mother to fury. On the basis of these materials. so I finally got a chance to go a little closer to the time of king Giorgi the Brilliant. I think now that he had in his mind the words of Niccolo Machiavelli:”Everyone who wants to know what will happen ought to examine what has happened: everything in this world in any epoch has their replicas in antiquity. The monograph by Professor Kiknadze namely covers a very crucial time in Georgian history. and puts forward a quite new vision of the events of historic character of this period. My grandfather (Giorgi Leonidze). and even the memory about it.. Ivane Javakhishvili). first brought to light for scholarly analysis and interpretation by the author and using all existing primary sources together with materials of different types. In addition to the surviving Georgian and well-known foreign written sources. But from your fate there is no escape! Last summer. I received a very honorable to me offer from Professor Vazha Kiknadze to write the Commendatory Foreword to his monograph. He used to say. He spent much time with me. was completely erased from my mind. The fourteenth century AD is a period of Georgian history which has few written sources or other contemporary documentary materials. I was very impressed by the problems of ethnogenesis. Dr.
which is once again on the verge of two very different worlds – Central Eurasia and its periphery. I think that the English-speaking reader will be interested in becoming acquainted with the topic of Mongol rule in Georgia. will have again and again new opportunities to present a long and rich history of Georgia to the interested readers around the world. he has succeeded in running back the pages of history. – it explaines not only our history. Taking into consideration the vastness of the territory conquered by the Mongols from Japan to Egypt and from Indochina to Poland and the significant role they played in the history of the whole of Eurasia. The significance of this fact is difficult to overestimate. the monograph of Professor Kiknadze is the first book published in the United States by a professional Georgian historian. By the way.scribd. By the opinion of our colleagues: “as the collapse of the Soviet system and the historical methodologies it had promoted and enforced left a vacuum in the successor states. VI. so other his Georgian colleagues. mentioned that the Caucasian Gates (i. the period of the history of Georgia most shrouded in mist.geocities. rethinking and interpreting of national narratives were needed” (Eka Avaliani) – Vazha Kiknadze’s work fully meet these requirements. also referred to as the Inner Crescent – already Pliny the Elder (Plinius Magnus). Quite recently. which were considered as forever lost. Darial Gorge) divides the world in two distinct parts (NH. 30). it became obvious that new approaches. but also to a wide circle of readers. an often neglected period in history”. This book is rated as “the first and only detailed study of Fourteenth Century Eurasia.html or http://www. Professor Kiknadze’s monograph has been awarded by The Adèle Mellen Prize for its distinguished contribution to scholarship. I would like to express as well the hope that in the future as Professor Kiknadze. This past has a special value for us. but determines the subsequent development of our state.wetpaint. Nino Lazrishvili Back: http://www. in the first century. XII. Read by Dr. not only to history.The author has actually managed to restore our past.com 10 .ws/komblege/index.e. It should be noted that Kiknadze’s book came at the most right time.com/kavta or http://kavtaradze.
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