ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE POWER PLANT FOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY
Lucien Y. Bronicki, Chairman ORMAT International Inc. 980 Greg St., Sparks, Nevada 89431-6039 - USA Tel: +1 775 356 9029, Fax: +1 775 9039 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Organic Rankine Cycle, Waste Heat Recovery, Cement Industry, Gas Compression Station
ABSTRACT Power Plants based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) have been increasingly employed over the last 20 years to produce power from various heat sources when other alternatives were either technically not practical or not economical. These power plants in sizes from 300 kW to 130 MW have demonstrated the maturity of this technology. The cycle is well adapted to low moderate temperature heat sources such as waste heat from industrial plants and is widely used producing 600 MW of electric power from geothermal and waste heat resources. The ORC technology is applicable to heat recovery of medium size gas turbines and cement plants, and offers significant advantages over conventional steam bottoming cycles. One such system, the 6.5 MW Gold Creek Power Plant is now in operation at a gas compressor station in Canada displacing some 25,000 tons of CO2 yearly. The Gold Creek Power Plant is owned and operted by a subsidiary of Transcanada Pipeline. A second system of 1.5 MW is operating at the Heidelberger Zement AG Plant in Lengurt, Germany. These environmentally friendly power plants are the first to be installed in these industries. The Cement power plant is recovering unused grate cooler heat and is generating electricity on a continuosly basis without interfering with the initial clinker production process, displacing some 7000 t of CO2 yearly. The use of ORC technology based systems has matured to a field proven and highly reliable technology. ORC have demonstrated advantages over conventional steam cycles and are particularly applicable to geothermal power plants and the recovery of waste heat, from small to medium gas turbines such as the compressor stations, while providing cost and environmental advantages. 1. INTRODUCTION A. Lengfurt Cement Power Plant
The ORMAT heat recovery system at the Heidelberger Zement AG Plant in Lengfurt is the first of such systems supplied to the cement industry. (Figure 1) This environmentally friendly plant recovers the unused grate cooler heat and generates 1,300 kW of electricity on a continuous basis, amounting to over 10% of the cement plant's internal electricity use, without interfering with the initial clinker production process. The waste heat recovery power plant will result in the saving of 7,000 tons of CO2 annually. Even for an optimized cement process, significant heat loss, mainly caused by the heat of the waste gases, still occurs. The heat balance of a kiln plant reveals that preheater waste gases and cooler exhaust air account for more than 30% of that heat loss. Waste heat sources may be directly used for drying of raw material, coal or intergrinding matter. However, there are numerous cement plants where this utilization is either not possible or not required and this unused heat is lost. The economic order of magnitude of such losses in a typical kiln line of 2000 t/d capacity with a 4-stage cyclone preheater and grate cooler, is as follows:
The preferred approach to overcome this economically unsatisfactory situation is to use the waste heat for the generation of electrical power. In particular. The main characteristics of the plant are: (a) gross generating capacity. This has increased the fuel consumption in the plant to unacceptable levels. the use of the relatively low temperature grate-cooler exhaust air. the conventional steam technology has certain implicit drawbacks with respect to the cement production process. 6.0 – $1. exhaust air temperatures have been raised. 5. Canada.000 kJ/kg. involves difficulties with respect to stable steam turbine operation due to the high moisture content in the turbine exhaust and pinch point interference problems in the boiler.2 MW.
.5 MW. and (c) net to the grid guaranteed capacity.5 MW Power Plant operating an ORC was commissioned in June 1999 as a bottoming system for an RB211 gas turbine driven compressor station at Gold Creek.100 kJ/kg (clinker) of unused heat is lost. Gold Creek Power Plant
A 6. (b) net output to the grid. 7.
Figure 1 – The Lengfurt Cement Heat Recovery Power Plant B. approximately 1. the annual loss to be attributed to unused process heat is approximately US $1. through additional fuel gas firing.6 million.85 MW at design conditions of +2oC ambient temperature at an elevation of 700 meters asl. ranging from 170°C to 300°C.Assuming a preheater waste-gas temperature of 350°C and grate cooler exhaust-air temperature of 275°C. in Alberta. a very significant expense for lost energy. However. When firing coal of a net calorific value of 23. In the past some cement plant operators have installed waste heat steam boilers in their plants and have utilized the process heat to operate a steam turbine generator set. in some cases beyond the level required for clinker burning. available at continuously varying temperatures. To overcome this drawback. (Figure 2).
In such cases the use of ORC in the bottoming plant offers a lower cost alternative with significant advantages in maintenance and reliability. Thermal energy in the waste heat stream is transferred to the ORC's vaporizer by nonflammable heat transfer fluid flowing through the Heat Recovery Unit. this concept is less attractive with smaller gas turbines. The resulting organic vapor drives the turbine. One way to increase efficiency and simultaneously limit NO2 emissions (per kW) in gas turbine power plants is to add a bottoming cycle to recover the gas turbine exhaust heat. The ORC working fluid is vaporized by the heat transfer fluid. However. or an additional compressor. of the small steam turbines.
2. Increased environmental concerns are promoting the desire for lower emissions and higher fuel economy. which is coupled to the generator. Such combined cycle power plants with steam turbines are successfully utilized with large size gas turbines.ORC Power Plant at Gold Creek Compressor Station As shown in this example the ORC technology presents the potential of substantial power recovery on existing and new gas turbine driven compressor stations. The organic motive fluid is selected to optimize power output for the gas turbine exhaust or waste heat stream.Figure 2 . primarily due to the high operating and installation costs per unit of power. despite the current relatively low and stable cost of fuel. The turbine exhaust vapor flows through the recuperator. is condensed and recycled by the motive fluid pump.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE ORC
A schematic of a bottoming plant based on an ORC is hown in Figure 3 for heat recovery from a gas turbine.
. in $/kW.
The distinguishing features of an ORC cycle have been treated in numerous papers (Ref. Therefore. For an ORC plant the turbine and piping sizes are smaller and thus less costly due to the fluid density differences. (d) modular construction to ensure rapid implementation and low erection costs. there is no freezing in the condenser. Also. to avoid clinker production setbacks. (c) simplicity in operation and maintenance. Thermodynamic Cycle
For moderate enthalpy heat sources. 2. Since organic fluids have a low freezing temperature. the control system. 4). Practical Characteristics of the ORMAT ORC
The ORMAT ORC based systems on ORMAT Energy Converter (OEC) has been designed to operate in heat recovery systems converting the low-temperature heat sources available in the cement and other industries into electricity. superheating of the organic vapor prior to delivery to the turbine is not required. ORC cycles offer many advantages over the conventional steam cycle. B. primarily due to the simplicity of the turbine. and the balance of plant. The condensing pressure in an organic cycle is generally above atmospheric thus eliminating the need for complex vacuum and gas purging equipment that is utilized in a steam condensing cycle. even at extremely low ambient temperatures.Figure 3 – Heat Recovery Power Plant Using an Intermediate Heat Transfer Loop A. unlike steam which becomes wetter during the expansion process. with design criteria as follows: (a) matching of the OEC design to the specific characteristics of the heat source. 1. note that when the organic vapor expands in the turbine it becomes superheated or dryer. (f) flexibility to
. (e) low maintenance costs and high system availability. (b) no interference with normal operating modes of the host cement plant. 3.
ORC cycles have demonstrated advantages over conventional steam cycles and are particularly applicable to geothermal power plants and the recovery of waste heat. APPLICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE WITH ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE SYSTEMS A. In these cases the geothermal heating source may be a low temperature brine. For example. or to supply reliable power in hazardous environments such as unattended offshore gas platforms. including automatic synchronization and safe shut-down. most OEC plants have utilized air-cooled condensers. Approximately 600 MW of geothermal power plants using this technology have been installed in 18 countries. a 750 kW OEC unit was installed in 1985 at Union Carbide (California) utilizing industrial waste heat in the form of a mixture of superheated process steam and non-condensable gases. 3. and zero pollution or waste (such as blowdown from cooling towers). ORMAT has produced over 3000 units which have been manufactured for various applications. there is less concern of freezing with the OEC.g. the ability to perform all of the maintenance. no chemicals for cooling tower water-treatment purifying. Also. Obviously. C. are employed in remote areas to produce power along oil pipelines for valve operation and cathodic protection (e. a moderate enthalpy two-phase flow. In areas where water is scarce air cooling is preferred. However. with power ratings from 200 to 3000 Watts. These units. 4. The earliest units. Japan and in the People’s Republic of China. known as ORMAT Energy Converters (OEC). were designed for both high availability and low maintenance. control and battery charging. small OEC systems are pre-assembled as packaged units in sizes that correspond to many gas turbine bottoming cycles. the TransAlaska pipeline). Early Heat Recovery Applications
OECs. and (g) fully automated design. as pointed out. CONCLUSIONS
The use of OEC has matured to a field-proven and highly reliable technology. using the same ORC principle.. communications.g.
. on-site is an advantage appreciated by plant owners and operators. B. have also been used to recover industrial plant waste heat (either steam or fuel gases). Similar units have also been installed in Europe. The availability of such standard packages significantly reduces the front end and custom engineering cost of the bottoming cycle. Other advantages should not be overlooked.enable operation with changing heat source conditions. These units have been installed in over 55 countries and have accumulated over 150 million operating hours. 125 MW geothermal power plant in the Philippines). OEC modules ranging in power from 1 to 30 MW have been installed in over 40 geothermal power plants (e. Geothermal Power Plants
The application of ORC cycles to recover the heat from geothermal resources has steadily increased and achieved general acceptance. or a high enthalpy steam dominated resource. which results in less maintenance. Microturbine For Unattended Distributed Power
Initial demonstration and commercial application of ORC cycles began over 30 years ago. yet this is not a practical solution with small steam turbines due to the large piping sizes and cost of the vacuum system. for telemetry. while providing distinct cost and environmental advantages. with demonstrated mean time between faults (MTBF) of over 20 years. Furthermore. The higher availability possible with the OEC units means fewer power outages resulting in a consistent and reliable power supply. including overhaul.
1995. 439-456. Dusseldorf 1984.Y. ORC-HP Technology. VDI Venag.. ORC-HP Technology.Y. pp. Sustainable energy Supply System – Organic Vapor and Steam Organic Combined Cycles Enable Economic Utilization of Geothermal and Waste Heat Sources”. L. G. L.Y. Bronicki. “Experience with High Speed Organic Rankine Cycle Turbomachinery”. Bronicki.. Bronicki. 1. Lappeenrata. Dusseldorf 1984.
4. 685-696.5. Conference on High Speed Technology. VDI Berichte 539. pp. Japan. Finland. “An Economically Viable.
. “Integration of an ORC in a Steam and Gas Turbine Unit (Stag Unit) with and without Facilities for District Heating”. 1988.
2. VDI Venag.
REFERENCES Peppink. “Twenty Five Years Experience with Organic Rankine Fluids in Turbomachinery”. L. Tokyo. Verein Deutshcer Ingenieure “Association of German Engineers) VDI Berichte 539. World Energy Conference.