# U N I T

8

**AREAS AND VOLUMES
**

Don Hunter, PLS California Department of Transportation

Introduction

Area is the surface within a set of lines, expressed in square units, as in “square feet.” The area within a triangle is the surface within three sides. The area of a circle is the surface within the circumference. One of the objectives of land surveys is to determine the area of a parcel of land. There are a number of methods used for calculating areas, including the use of double meridian distances and coordinates. Volume is defined as the amount of material occupying a certain space, expressed in cubic units, as in “cubic yards.” Data obtained from engineering design surveys are used to calculate earthwork quantities. The standard method for calculating earthwork quantities is the average end area method.

triangles. Calculate the areas of irregular polygons by double meridian distance and coordinate methods. sector. Calculate areas using the trapezoidal rule and Simpsons 1/3 rule. Calculate volume by average end area method. segment • Polygon • Triangle • Quadrilateral
8-2
.
Key Terms
Sector Polygon Quadrilateral Trapezoid Trapezoidal rule Latitudes Northings DMD End area Segment Regular polygon Parallelogram Trapezium Simpson’s 1/3 rule Departures Eastings Prism
Video Presentation Outline
Standard Geometric Figures and Area Formulas
• Circle. Calculate the areas of circular sectors and segments.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course
Performance Expected on the Exam
Calculate the areas of circles. quadrilaterals and regular polygons.

00'
Figure 8-1.
280.5 ft
Figure 8-2.0 ft 2+97 81.5 ft 5+04 68.8 7'
70.00'
125.00'
23 0.00'
225.00' = 90° L = 188. Division into simple geometric shapes.33' R = 160.Areas and Volumes
Irregular Polygons with More than Four Sides and Curved Sides
150.0 ft 5+43 70. Offsets to traverse line at irregular intervals.00'
220.5 ft 2+18 49.0 ft 4+54 25.
2 + 97
Traverse Line
5 + 04 5 + 43
4 +54
5 +94
8-3
.00'
Parcel A = 90° L = 251.00'
0 + 00
Lake
0 + 88
2 + 18
Station Offset 0+88 78.50' R = 120.

0 ft 78.5 ft 59.5 ft 69.0 ft
Station 3+05 3+30 3+55 3+80 4+05 4+30 4+55 4+80 5+05 5+43
Offset 79.0 ft 50.0 ft 87.0 ft
Figure 8-3.0 ft 68.5 ft 27.5 ft 65.5 ft 29.0 ft 40. .0 ft 78.0 ft 46. + n) 2 2
• Simpson’s 1/3 rule A = S [O1 + On + 4 (∑ Oeven) + 2 (∑ Oodd) 3
8-4
5 + 43
5 +94
.0 ft 71.5 ft 88.0 ft 58.5 ft 52.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course
0 + 00
Lake
0 + 55 0 + 80 1 + 05 1 + 30 1 + 55 1 + 80 2 + 05 2 + 30 2 + 55 2 + 80 3 + 05 3 + 30 3 + 55 3 + 80 4 + 05 4 + 30 4 + 55 4 + 80 5 + 05
Station 0+55 0+80 1+05 1+30 1+55 1+80 2+05 2+30 2+55 2+80
Offset 52. . Offsets to traverse line at regular intervals.5 ft 69.5 ft 50.
• Trapezoidal rule A=S ( O O1 + O2 + O3 + .

680 E 2.E3) + .Areas and Volumes
Areas of Polygons Formed by Traverses
Determine the area of Parcel A. + Nn (En-1 . • Area by coordinates A= 1 [N1 (En . . G.945 B N 1.530 E 2. plus the departure of the preceding course. The DMD of any course is equal to the DMD of the preceding course. B. F. Alegbraic signs must be considered.710 E 2.620 E 2. The DMD of the last course is equal to the departure of the last course with the opposite sign. 3. C.670 E 1.E1)] 2
• Area by DMD 1 A = ∑ DMD x LAT for each line 2
Area equals the absolute value of 1
A 2 Rule: 1. 4.150
D E F
N 1.
N 1.260
A
G
N 1. plus the departure of the course itself. E.E2) + N2 (E1 . 2.600 E 1.110 N 1.040
C
N 1.910
N 1. Start DMD calculations from the most westerly point in the traverse.
8-5
. The DMD of the first course is equal to the departure of the first course.000
• Area of a rectangle using maximum and minimum values of northings and eastings. D. .500 E 2.

The area of a parcel shown on a map is 6800 sq ft.88. (5) N 7128.55. E 9190. E 7933.65.999567. (2) N 6538. E 8117. What is the actual ground area? 2.88. E 9201.” The combination factor is O. What is the area. The corners of a parcel of land have the following coordinate values: (1) N 6472. in acres.11. of the parcel? 3.96. (6) N 7116. (3) N 8447. E 7939. What is the area in acres?
8-6
.64 (4) N 8457.77.88. The area on a map with a scale of 1:12000 as measured with a planimeter is 2. A1 and A2.07.41. Zone 2. E 7802.12. in ft A1 A2 = end areas
A1
A2 L
C L
Sample Test Questions
1. The map has a note stating “the bearings distances and coordinates are based on California Coordinate System.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course
Volumes
• Parrallelopipeds • Prisms • Volume by average end area Volume in cu yd L (A1 + A2
) 2V = 27
Where: L = Distance between end areas. 1927.54 sq in.

What is the area of that portion of Lot 15 south of the R/W?
LOT 15
A
N 60
N 89° W
50
50
S 00° 47' 32" E 330.27'
PARCEL 1
D
S 84° 59' 35" W 372. Point “A” is also the SE corner of Lot 15.
A highway.
B C R
S 89° 12' 28" W 402. Calculate the area of Parcel 1. is to be acquired from the owner of Lot 15 as shown on the sketch.383'
5.00' = 104° 59' 00"
A
N 15° 46' 32" W 305. R/W 100 ft wide. Point “A” is the centerline B.45'
E
°W
8-7
.Areas and Volumes
4.00'
R = 50. of a curve with a radius of 1000 ft. C.

' E 0 5° 3 N 6
7. Centerline grade at 35 + 50 is 887.5.3 50
8-8
2:1
30' Ease men t
N
27' 25' 25'
Road Template
. Required: A. The property owner has agreed to accept $7500 per acre in severance fees for the area that lies northwest of the northwest line of the easement.0 and at 36 + 00 is 888.0 20 89. as indicated in the plat shown below.0 50
X-Section Notes
92.0 20 890. The settlement for the area within the easement is a separate consideration and it may be neglected. 1983 LS A utility company proposes to acquire an easement across the land of a local property owner. What is the area for which compensation to the landowner is
appropriate?
B.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course
6.6 25 90.0 15 90. Problem C-4.5 35+50 90.0 50 91.0 50 88. What fee is ultimately to be paid to the landowner?
G 90° S 87° 45' E
6' 522. Use the following road template and cross section notes to calculate the earth work quantity for the roadway between station 35 + 50 and 36 + 00.4 36+00 889.0
93.
2%
2:1
2%
-1.

37.000 sq ft per sq in. 6806 sq ft Use the formula for computing area by coordinates. Divide the grid area by the combination factor squared.000.Areas and Volumes
Answer Key
1. Calculate the area by either coordinate or DMD method for polygon ABRCDE and add the sector RBC.000 x 2.3 acres 43. each sq in of the map is 1000 x 1000 ft or 1.
5.560 ft2 4. 3. 3.54 = 58.513 acres 1 in = 1000 ft scale.
LOT 15
A C N 89° W B
50 50
N
60
°W
R
8-9
. therefore. 2. 1.310 acres Angle BAR = Difference in bearings between the south line of Lot 15 and the radial to A = 61°.000.

Angle ARB = N24° 38' 24"E Angle RBC = Difference in bearings between south line of Lot 15 and RB.938 acres
8-10
.
(Cont.(112° 58' 42" + 61°) = 5° 21' 36" Bearing of RB = Bearing RA .Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course
5.) By law of sines angle ABR = 112° 58' 42" Angle ARB = 180 . = 66° 21' 36" = 180° .2 (66° 21' 36") = 47° 16' 48" 2 2 2 Area of segment = π r Δ r sin Δ 2 360 = .

DE = 522.02 ) 2 43560 = .63 x 400.12 .926 x $7500
N
8-11
. ' E 0 5° 3 6 N
30'
B.
E D
A.926 acres = $6943.6 .37
Ease
men t
CF = 522.
Solve right triangles ABC and DEF for AB and DE
G
S 87° 45' E
90°
C A B
F
6' 522.52 = 447.AB .15.96 ft Payment = .Areas and Volumes
6.59. Solve right triangle CFG for base FG and height GC Area = 1 FG x GC ( ) 2 43560 = 1 ( 201.6 .

5 32
.5 -27
87 27
35 + 50
8-12
.
88.
89. 88 -25
93 90 87
.
90.1 -36 91. 86.2 -38
.
Volume to be calculated by average end area.
C L
92.5 0 .Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course
7.4 0 .6 -25 .
85.
90.5 -25 91.0 20 . 88 25
89. 87 0
90.5 25
89.0 -20 .0 15 .
90.1 34
.5 0
87 -27
87 27
36 + 00
C L
93 90 87 86.

1 (20 .(25)) = 4350.90 Area = = 405.0) = 2335.
(Cont. For the end area at station 35 + 50 (A1) 87 (25 .25) = 783. Coordinate pairs are composed of elevation (N) and distance left (-) or right (+) of the centerline of the template (E). The two end areas can be calculated using the coordinate method for determining the area of a polygon.0) = -3420.0
89.(-27)) = 2335.5 (0 .5 91.27) = -623.20) = -3580.5 (-25 .0 86.4
90 (-38 .5 85.0
89.Areas and Volumes
7.0 85.5 (-20 .) First.5 (27 .0
90 (0 . place the road template at the correct elevation on each cross section.0 86.5 (34 .90 2
203 sq ft
End area at 36 + 00 (A2) by coordinate method = 154 sq ft 2 volume in cu yd = L (A1 + A2) 27 50 (203 + 154) = 27 2V = 661 V = 330 cu yd cut
8-13
.34) = -3060.2 (-27 .(-38)) = 1111.5 ∑ = -405.(-20)) = -638. Generate the intersection of the 2:1 side slopes with the ground line.

Appendix. Moffitt. and Harry Bouchard. New York. Raymond E. McGraw Hill. Francis H. Sixth Edition. Eighth Ed.Caltrans LS/LSIT Video Exam Preparation Course
References
_________________. 1987. PA. Scranton. 1981... et. Foote.. al. Francis S.
8-14
.. Surveying Theory and Practice. Surveying. Davis. California Department of Transportation Survey Manual.
International Textbook Co.