14.4
14.5
Name
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
Meaning
Reset
One 0, no 1s
Two 0s, no 1s
Two 0s and one 1
Two 0s and Two 1s
One 1, no 0s
Two 1s, no 0s
Two 1s and one 0
One 0 and one 1
Meaning
Reset
Last input was 0, 100 has never occurred
Last input was 01, 100 has never occurred
Last input was 1, 100 has never occurred
Last input was 10, 100 has never occurred
Last input was 0, 100 has occurred at least once
Last input was 1, 100 has occurred at least once
Last input was10, 100 has occurred at least once
99
14.6
This should be solved in the same way as Example 3 on FLD p. 406. Assign a state to each possible input (00, 01, 11,
10) with an output of 0, and another state to each input with an output of 1. This gives eight states.
See FLD p. 657 for the state table.
State
S0
S1
S2
S3
State
S4
S5
S6
Z=0
Last input was 00
Last input was 01
Last input was 11
S7
Z=1
Last input was 00
Last input was 01
Last input was 11
Last input was 10
Each input takes you to the state defined by that input (e.g. an input of 01 takes you to either S1 or S5). The only thing
in question is whether the output is 0 or 1. Determine the output by checking whether the last two inputs correspond
to the three input sequences.
Alternate Solution: Notice that when Z = 0, causes the output to become 0 is the same as remaining constant, and
causes the output to become 1 is the same as toggling the output. The situation is similar when Z = 1. So we can
use only four states, as follows:
State
Meaning
S0 Z= 0 and last input was either 00 or 01
S1 Z = 0 and last input was either 10 or 11
S2 Z = 1 and last input was either 00 or 10
S3
State
S0
S1
S2
S3
Next State
X1X2 = 00 01 11
S0 S0 S1
S2 S0 S1
S2 S3 S3
S0 S3 S3
10
S1
S1
S2
S2
Note: The state table with 8 states reduces to this 4state table using methods in Unit 15.
00,01
10,11
S0
0
00,10
00
01,11
10
10,11
01
00
S2
S1
S3
01,11
100
Z
0
0
1
1
00
00
00
01
01
00
00
S1
01
01
11
01
11
10
11
10
11
01
00
S4
01
10
01
10
State
Meaning
S0 Reset state / current output is = 00
S1 Previous input was 00 / current output is = 00
S2 Previous input was 00 / current output is = 01
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S10
101
00
S3
01
00
00
00
10
00
14.8 (b) Similar to part (a), but we need a separate state for each
possible output and previous input.
10
10
01
S2
10
11
10
10
01
State
Meaning
S0 Reset
S1 Previous input was 00
S2 Previous input was 01
S4
00
00
10
S3
S0
14.9 (a)
14.9 (b)
State
Meaning
S0 Previous output bit was 0
S1 Previous output bit was 1
S0
S1
State
Meaning
Output bit is 0
S0
Output bit is 1
S1
S0
1
1
S1
1
14.9 (c) A false output occurs in NRZI just before the input
NRZ goes from 1 to 0.
14.9 (d) Notice that the Moore output is delayed to the next
clock cycle.
14.10
14.11
14.12
S2
0
S3
0
S1
0
S4
0
S1
S7
1
0
1
1
00
S6
0
00
S0
0
10
1
00
S7
1
00
0
00
0
00
S1
S2
S4
S3
S5
0, 1
1
00
S2
S3
0
00
S4
1*
01
0
00
0
00
0
00
1
00
S5
1
01
State
Meaning
S0 Reset
S1 Previous input was 0 / 011 has not occurred
S2 Previous input was 01 / 011 has not occurred
S3
S5
S4
S6
S7
Meaning
14.13
00
State
S0 Reset
S5
0
S6
0
102
Next State
State X = 0 X = 1
S0
S1
S6
S1
S1
S2
S2
S7
S3
S3
S4
S3
S4
S4
S5
S5
S4
S3
S6
S7
S6
S7
S1
S2
Z1Z2
X=0 X=1
00
00
00
00
00
01
00
00
00
00
00
01
00
00
10
00
14.14
10,11
S0
0
11
10,11
00,01
00,01
S1
0
01
10
1
01,11
00
01,11
11
S0
S0
S3
S3
Z
0
0
1
1
State
Meaning
S0 Z = 0, last input was 10 or 11
S1 Z = 0, last input was 00 or 01
S2 Z = 1, last input was 00 or 10
10
S2
00,10
Next State
X1X2 = 00 01 10
S1 S1 S0
S1 S1 S2
S2 S3 S2
S2 S3 S0
State
S0
S1
S2
S3
S3
S3
S5
S7
S4
S6
Next State
X1X2 = 00 01 10
S1 S2 S0
S1 S2 S4
S1 S2 S4
S1 S2 S0
S5 S6 S4
S5 S6 S4
S5 S6 S0
S5 S6 S0
State
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
0
1
1
S0
S1
Z
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
Remainder:
11
S3
S3
S3
S3
S7
S7
S7
S7
0
1
0
1
S2
2
S3
3
14.15 (b) Now, expand the state graph into two dimensions: one for 1s and the other for 0s. We need two states to describe
the zeros, odd and even.
0
S1
1
S3
1
0
0
0
S5
1
S7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
S0
1
S2
1
S4
1
S6
103
As part (a)
14.16 (a) We need four states, one for each of the possible past inputs. The next state is just the one that describes that input.
The output Z1 is formed by adding the value of the present state to the present input. Z2 is found in a similar way:
Next State
State 00 01 10 11
S0
S0 S1 S2 S3
S1
S0 S1 S2 S3
S2
S0 S1 S2 S3
S3
S0 S1 S2 S3
00
00
00
00
10
Z1Z2
01 10
00 00
00 10
10 11
11 11
11
10
11
11
11
State
Meaning
S0 Previous input was 00 (0)
S1 Previous input was 01 (1)
S2 Previous input was 10 (2)
S3
Previous
X1X2
Input
State 00 01 10
00
S0
S0 S2 S5
00
S1
S0 S2 S5
01
S2
S0 S2 S6
01
S3
S0 S2 S6
01
S4
S0 S2 S6
10
S5
S0 S3 S7
10
S6
S0 S3 S7
10
S7
S0 S3 S7
11
S8
S1 S4 S7
11
S9
S1 S4 S7
14.17
11 Z1Z2
S8 00
S8 10
S9 00
S9 10
S9 11
S9 00
S9 10
S9 11
S9 10
S9 11
1
0
S0
0
Meaning
Previous input was 0
Previous inputs were 01
Previous input was 1 / Reset (S0)
S5
S1
S2
S4
S3
14.18
There are two identical parts: one with an output of 0 and one
with an output of 1.
State
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
Meaning
Reset
Previous input was 1
Previous inputs were 10
S1
0
1
S0
0
0
1
104
S5
1
S2
0
S3
1
S4
1
14.19
one zero
S0
no pairs
11
0
S1
one pair
11
0
S4
two pairs
11
0
01
0 10
0
00
0
01
0 10
0
01 10
0, 0
two zeros
14.20
0s
0
0
1
2
0
1
2
3
4
Present
State
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
four zeros
00
0
S2
00
0
11 01
0
0 10
0
S5
11
0
01 10
0, 0
S3
00
0
11 01
0
0 10
0
S6
00
0
Next State
00 01 10 11
S3 S2 S2 S1
S6 S5 S5 S4
S7 S6 S6 S5
S8 S7 S7 S6
S6 S5 S5 S4
S7 S6 S6 S5
S0 S7 S7 S6
S0 S0 S0 S7
S0 S0 S0 S0
00
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
S8
S7
01 10
0, 0
11
0
11
0
00
0
Pairs
0
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
three zeros
00 01 10
1, 1, 1
to S0
00
1
to S0
Z1Z2
01 10
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 1
1 1
11
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
00 01 10 11
1, 1, 1, 1
to S0
Z
0
1
0
1
0
1
S0
S2
1
1
0
no 0's
S3
odd 0's
105
even 1's
S1
S4
0
1
S5
0
even 0's
odd 1's
14.21
Next State
State X = 0 X = 1
S0
S1
S0
S1
S1
S2
S2
S1
S3
S3
S1
S0
Z1Z2
X=0 X=1
00
00
00
00
00
10
00
01
State
Meaning
S0 Reset, 0111
S1 0
S2 01
S3
0
0
1
00
S0
1
14.22
State 00
S0
S0
S1
S0
S2
S0
S3
S0
0
00
S1
1
00
00
S2
00
00
10
S3
01
X1X2
01 10
S1 S2
S1 S2
S3 S2
S3 S3
00
11
S3
S3
S3
S3
Z
0
0
0
1
14.23
10
10, 11
00
S3
S2
0
10
01, 11
01, 10, 11
Next State
Z
State X = 0 X = 1 X = 0 X = 1
0
1
S0
S1
S0
0
1
S1
S2
S0
0
1
S2
S2
S3
0
1
S3
S1
S4
1
1
S4
S1
S0
State
Meaning
S0 No sequence
S1 0
S2 00
S4
S1
01
11
00
Example: X = 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1
Z=001110111101
Note: Overlapping sequences are allowed.
S3
01
00
S0
State
Meaning
S0 Reset
S1 Previous input was 01, Z = 0
S2 Previous input was 10, Z = 0
S3
011
001
0011
0
1
S0
S1
S2
S3
106
S4
14.24
Next State
State X = 0 X = 1
S0
S0
S1
S1
S6
S2
S2
S3
S6
S3
S3
S4
S4
S6
S5
S5
S5
S6
S6
S6
S6
S1
0
S4
S5
S6
14.25
S4
S5
Disqualified state (Z = 0)
Next State
State X = 0 X = 1
S0
S0
S1
S1
S2
S3
S2
S0
S1
S3
S2
S3
S6
S3
0
1
S0
Z
X=0 X=1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
S1
S2
S3
1
1
State
Meaning
S0 Previous two inputs were 00
S1 Previous two inputs were 01
S2 Previous two inputs were 10
S3
S2
0
State
Meaning
S0 No 1s
S1 One 1 in first group
S2 Two 1s in first group
S3
S0
Z
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
107
0,1
14.26
S0
S4
S3
S1
Z
X=0 X=1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
S2
S5
S7
S6
Next State
State X = 0 X = 1
S0
S1
S1
S1
S2
S4
S2
S3
S3
S3
S0
S0
S4
S3
S5
S5
S0
S0
SV
X=0 X=1
00
10
10
00
00
10
00
10
10
00
10
01
0 1
00, 10
0
S0
S3
S5
10
0 1
10, 01
108
00
0 1
00, 10
S3
0
10
S1
1
State
Meaning
S0 No bits received
S1 One bit received
S2 Two bits received; Carryin = 0
S4
0 1
00, 10
S2
S4
1
00
S5
14.28
Next State
State X = 0 X = 1
S0
S1
S1
S1
S2
S3
S2
S4
S5
S3
S5
S5
S4
S0
S0
S5
S0
S0
DB
X=0 X=1
00
10
10
00
10
00
00
10
11
00
00
10
0 1
11, 00
0
0 1
00, 10
S0
S3
S5
14.29
S43
10
1
00
S1
1
00
0 1
00, 10
S3
0 1
00, 10
State
Meaning
S0 No bits received
S1 One bit received
S2 Two bits received; Borrowin = 1
S4
0
10
S2
0
S0
00
00
YZ
00
01
10
00
01
10
00
01
10
00
0
109
S4
01
S7
01
0
0
1
0
1
S2
10
S6
01
S3
S1
S5
10
0
1
S8
10
0
S5
14.30
14.31
S0
00
YZ
00
00
01
01
10
10
11
11
State
S0
S1
S5
Meaning
Reset
A=0
A=1
S3, S6
B=1
S2, S4
11
S1
S5
00
S4
1
0
11
S7
S6
10
S2
01
0
10
Interruption to
the flow of 1's
S0
S1
1 0
0, 0
X=0 X=1
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
1
1
1 0
0, 0
S4
110
S5
1
S2
B=0
S3
1 0
1, 1
S6
1 0
1, 1
S3
01
14.32
This problem is simply addition. We need a state to describe every possible sum of money entered, i.e., 0 to 45 in
5 intervals.
Just go to the state with the correct sum. The 25 state dispenses the product (R = 1) and resets. States above this in
value cascade down to S5 by giving out a nickel. When they get to S5, the product is dispensed.
$
.00
.05
.10
.15
.20
.25
.30
.35
.40
.45
Present
NDQ
State 000 100 010
S0
S0 S1 S2
S1
S1 S2 S3
S2
S2 S3 S4
S3
S3 S4 S5
S4
S4 S5 S6
S5
S0 S6
S5 S7
S6 S8
S7 S9
S8 
001 RC
S5 00
S6 00
S7 00
S8 00
S9 00
10
01
01
01
01

1
1
1
0
S1
S2
S0
0
1
0
0
S0
0
0
S1
0
Z
0
0
1
1
111
S2
1
S3
1
CLOCK2
Manchester
NRZ (Mealy)
NRZ (Moore)
false outputs
Note: Moore output is delayed one clock cycle of CLOCK2.
R'
14.34
State
Meaning
Reset
S0
One ring, waiting for two (or answer)
S1
S3, S4, S5 One, two, or three rings, respectively;
waiting for four (or answer)
Activate answering machine; wait for
S2
it to answer
S0
0
RS
A'R' S
3
0
A
R
A'R'
RS'
A
S1
A'R'
S4
0
S2
S5
0
A'R'
112
A'
FH
CE
BE
FH
CD
AF
BD
AH
AB
EF
BD
DE
FH
BH
FG
Next State
State X = 0 X = 1
A
A
C
B
C
F
C
B
A
F
B
F
ch
ea
hf
ie
hg
eh
eb
ch
eb
h
i
BD
AH
AF
CD
FH
BD
DE
FH
cf
be
b
AH
BH
FG
EG
ie
fg
ab
AB
EF
Input: X:
1 0 0
Starting Z:
0 1 0
in B: State: (B) F B
Starting Z:
0 1 1
in G: State: (G) H
H
ci
dh
ef
eb
a
CD
AF
ab
ce
hf
dgi
Output
X=0 X=1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
ce
eh
ea
BE
FH
c
d
CE
15.2
AH
EG
FH
F
CD
FH
G
H
AF
AH
CEG
BD
ci
fd
hf
ab
d
ce
gd
hf
113
15.3
S0 S5 a
S1 b
S1 S5 a
S6 b
S2 S2 a
S6 b
S3
S5 a
S1 c
S5 a
S6 c
S2 a
S6 c
S4 S4 a
S3 b
S5 S0 a
S1 b
S6
S4 a
S3 c
S0 a
S1 c
a
15.4 (a)
X3 Q
S0 a
S1 b
S5 a
S1 b
c
X1 X2
00 01
S0 a
S1 b
S3 c
S5 a
S6 c
S2 and S4 have no
equivalent states.
15.4 (b)
11
10
X3 Q
X1 X2
00 01
11
10
00
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
Z=Q
X1 X2
00 01
11
10
00
01
11
10
R = X2 X3 Q + X2'X3'Q
Z=Q
X3 Q
15.5 (a) The first row may be all 0s, because if a column has a 1 in the first row, we can invert it so that it has a 0 in the first
row without changing the number of gates. No column should be all 0s, because that is the same as the two flipflop case. There are only 3 columns which fit these criteria: 001, 010, and 011. No column may be used twice,
because again that is the same as the two flipflop case. So we need only check one assignment (which consists of the
three columns in any order) to see whether a three flipflop solution is better than a two flipflop solution. One such
assignment is:
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
114
15.5 (b) Excluding 0000, there are 7 possible columns. All possible nonrepeating combinations are given here. Those with
repeating rows are crossed out; 29 assignments remain to try.
00 0
00 0
01 1
10 1
(1 2 3)
00 0
01 1
00 0
10 1
(1 4 5)
00 0
00 1
11 1
01 1
(2 3 7)
00 0
01 1
10 1
10 1
(3 4 7)
00 0
00 1
01 1
11 1
(1 3 7)
00 0
00 1
11 1
01 0
(2 3 6)
00 0
01 1
10 1
10 0
(3 4 6)
00 0
00 1
01 0
10 0
(1 2 4)
00 0
01 1
00 1
10 0
(1 4 6)
00 0
01 1
10 0
00 1
(2 4 5)
00 0
01 1
10 1
11 0
(3 4 6)
00 0
00 1
01 0
10 1
(1 2 5)
00 0
01 1
00 1
10 1
(1 4 7)
00 0
01 1
10 1
00 0
(2 4 6)
00 0
01 1
10 1
11 1
(3 5 7)
15.6 (a) Group (S1, S4, S6, S7) and (S2, S3, S5, S8).
00 0
00 1
01 1
10 0
(1 2 6)
00 0
01 1
00 1
11 0
(1 5 6)
00 0
01 1
10 1
00 1
(2 4 7)
00 0
01 1
11 1
10 1
(3 6 7)
B C
00 0
00 1
01 1
10 1
(1 2 7)
00 0
01 1
00 1
11 1
(1 5 7)
00 0
01 1
10 1
01 0
(2 5 6)
00 0
11 1
00 1
01 0
(4 5 6)
00
S1
S2
01
S4
11
10
00 0
00 1
01 0
11 0
(1 3 4)
00 0
01 1
01 1
10 1
(1 6 7)
00 0
01 1
10 1
01 1
(2 5 7)
00 0
11 1
00 1
01 1
(4 5 7)
A
B C
00 0
00 1
01 0
11 1
(1 3 5)
00 0
00 1
11 0
01 0
(2 3 4)
00 0
01 1
11 1
00 1
(2 6 7)
00 0
11 1
01 1
00 1
(4 6 7)
00 0
00 1
01 1
11 0
(1 3 6)
00 0
00 1
11 0
01 1
(2 3 5)
00 0
01 1
10 0
10 1
(3 4 5)
00 0
11 1
01 1
10 1
(5 6 7)
00
S3
01
S6
S5
11
S7
S8
10
1
Z = A
15.6 (b) I: (S3, S4) (S1, S8) (S3, S7) (S5, S8)
II: (S4, S5) (S1, S6) (S7, S8) (S1, S7) (S2, S3)
(S2, S4) (S6, S8) (S3, S5)
Adjacencies that are satisfied are checked ()
B C
B C
X A
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
00
S1
S8
01
S7
11
10
B C
X A
00
01
11
10
00
S5
01
S3
S4
11
S2
S6
10
B C
X A
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
115
State
S1
S7
S2
S3
S8
S5
S6
S4
ABC
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
A+B+C+
X=0 X=1
101 111
110 100
000 110
001 100
101 011
010 011
111 010
001 000
Q2
Q1 Q2
00 01
11
10
Q2
Satisfies all
adjacencies
Q1 Q2
00 01
11
10
Q1
Q2
(B, D) not
satisfied
X1 X2
Q1
(C, D) not
satisfied
Q1 Q2
00 01
11
10
00
00
00
01
01
01
11
11
11
10
10
10
X1 X2
Q1 Q2
00 01
Q1+
Q2+
11
10
X1 X2
Q1 Q2
00 01
Z1 = Q2 X1
11
10
X1 X2
Q1 Q2
00 01
11
10
00
00
00
01
01
01
11
11
11
10
10
10
T1
T1 = X1X2' + Q1Q2X1'
+
Q1'Q2X1 + Q2'X1'X2
15.9
X1 X2
Q1
T2 = Q1'Q2'X1 + Q1 Q2 X1
See FLD p. 661 for solution using Q1, Q2, and Q3.
Alternate solution using Q0, Q1 and Q2:
D0 = X'Q0 + XY'Q2
D1 = XQ0 + XQ2 + X'Q1
D2 = YQ1 + X'Y'Q2
P = XQ0 + X'Q2 + XQ1
= XQ0 + Q2
S = X'Q0 + XY'Q2
116
Z2 = Q1 Q2' + Q1 X1'
15.10 (a) b
agh
df
eb
c
d
hf
bh
Next State
State X = 0 X = 1
a
a
c
b
c
d
c
d
df
fh
bg
hg
ha
a
a
d
15.11 (a) b
be
cd
0
0
ad
ce
c
ab
ec
bd
bd
gh
cf
bd
ef
dg
ef
bg
abd
ce
ec
ab
c
be
bc
bf
cg
0
0
ga
b
a
hg
Output
X=0 X=1
1
0
0
1
ad
ab
ef
ab
fa
bd
c
cf
ad
fa
bd
e
gh
db
g
h
ah
ai
g
ga
ia
h
Next State
Z
State X = 0 X = 1 X = 0 X = 1
1
0
a
b
c
1
0
b
e
b
1
1
c
g
b
1
0
e
c
g
0
1
g
g
i
0
1
i
a
a
117
Present
State
a
c
f
Next State
00 01 11 10
a c c a
c a f a
f a a a
Z
0
1
1
15.12 (a) b
ic
cf
c
d
dc, de
fg
ic
if
bf, ic
gk
bj, cg
ik, gh
be
if
bi, ci
gd
if
bf, ic
fi, gk
bj, ck
fg, gh
be
cf
bi, ci
fi, gd
cf
g
h
i
j
ahj
be
dk
fi
k
a
bf, ci
gk
bj, ck
ig, gh
be, cf
ic
bi, ci
gd
cf
ci
ah, de ha
dc, fg
c
d
fj, ik
ig, kh
fe, if
ic, kg
kd
Present
State
a
b
c
d
f
g
Next State
00 01 11 10
b f c g
b c f g
a d d f
a c b g
f f f d
a d g a
fb, if
ic, kg
je, kf
hg, gc
ji, ki ei, fi
gi, hd ci, gd
jb, kf eb
gc, hg
ib, ic
dg, if
Z
0
0
1
1
0
0
15.12 (b) b
c
d
ag, ac
ki
ki
e
f
adj
beik
cfh
ga
cd
Present
State
a
b
c
g
cf, fh
da
ag, ac
gd
ad
ik
ag, dc
gd, ik
ag, ah
gd
ad
ik
ag, dh
gd, ik
g
h
i
j
ch
fh
aj
ik
fc
a
ch
fh
ad
gj, cj
ag, ik
Next State
00 01 11 10
a a g b
c c g a
g c a b
c a g b
gj, cj
dg
fc, hc
ad
e
f
118
gj, hj
dg
hc
g
00
1
0
1
0
Z
01 11
0 0
0 0
0 0
1 0
10
0
0
0
0
15.13 (a) S0 e f, S1 c d, S2 S3 a b
Since every state in N has an equivalent state in M, and
vice versa, N and M are equivalent.
S0
S1
S2
S3
E S0
A S2
E S0
A S3
A
F S0
B S2
F S0
B S3
B
E S3
D S1
E S0
D S1
E S3
C S1
E S0
C S1
B S3
D S1
B S0
D S1
B S3
C S1
B S0
C S1
S3 S0 S11 S0 S10
S3 S10 S3 S12
S10
S11
S3 S13
S3 S12
S12
X =0
S2
S0
S0
S0
S1
S2
S2 S3
Note:
S1 S10
S0 S13
S0 S10
S2 S13
15.14 (c) X = 0 1 1
Z = (0) 0 1 1
Z1 = (0) 0 1 0
S0 S10
S3 S13
S13
119
N
1
S1
S1
S2
S2 A
S1 C
S0 E
15.14 (b) S S S1
0
1
1
S0 S10
S1 S0 S11
S2 S10
S2
15.13 (b)
0
0
1
X =0 1
A
E A 1
C
E C 0
E
A C 0
E F, C D, A B
15.15 (b) S S S1
0
1
1
S2 S15
S1
S3 S11
S2 S12
S2
S2 S12 S2 S15
S2 S11 S2 S12
S3
S2 S11
S2 S12
1
S0
S11
S12
S15
15.15 (c) X = 1 0
Z= 01
Z1 = 0 0
No equivalent states.
15.16 (a) Invert all three columns of assignment (iv), and
then swap the first and last columns. Then (iii)
and (iv) are the same, therefore, Assignment (iii)
Assignment (iv).
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
or
011
101
000
100
010
110
Straight
Binary
Assignment
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
(ii)  (c'2)
000
101
011
100
010
110
iii  c'1
000
001
100
101
011
010
c1 c3
c1 c2
c1 c3 c2 c1 c1 c2 c3 c1
000
001
000
100
000
010
000
010
000
100
100
101
010
011
110
111
010
110
001
101
011
111
001
011
100
110
101
111
100
110
001
011
101
111
001
101
010
110
011
111
111
101
111
001
110
100
011
010
001
000
010
011
100
101
000
110
120
etc.
iv  c'1c'2 v  c'3
000
000
100
110
001
100
101
010
110
001
010
011
Q1
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
Q1
00
01
11
10
D1
Q2 Q3
X1 Q1
00 01
Q2 Q3
00
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
X Q1
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
D2 = X'Q2 + X Q2'
Q1Q2
00
11
10
01
15.19 (b)
Q1 Q2
00
00
11
00
01
10
Z = Q1
Q2
11
D3 = Q1'Q2' + Q1 Q3'
X1 X2
00 01
11
10
00
01
11
10
11
10
Q1+
Q1+Q2+
01 11
00 10
01 11
00 11
11 00
10
10
01
01
10
00
01
11
11
01
Z1Z2
01 11
01 01
11 11
11 00
01 01
Q1 Q2
X1 X2
00 01
00
10
01
11
00
01
01
11
10
Q2+
15.19 (b)
(contd)
X1 X2
Q1 Q2
00 01
11
10
00
01
11
10
Q1 Q2
X1 X2
00 01
11
10
00
01
11
10
121
Q1 Q2
X1 X2
00 01
11
10 Q1 Q2
X1 X2
00 01
11
10
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
J2 = X1 Q1
K2 = X1 Q1'
15.20 (a) B
C AF
BG
D
E AI
BG
F AH
BI
G
AFH
BI
DG
EA
FI
FH
GI
EF
GB
IF
GB
Next State
State X = 0 X = 1
A
A
B
B
C
E
C
A
D
D
C
A
E
B
D
X Q1
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
10
00
01
11
10
01
11
Q2 Q3
01
11
10
X Q1
00
X Q1
00
Q1+Q2+Q3+
X=0 1
000 100
001 011
000 101
001 000
100 101
01
11
10
Z
1
0
1
0
1
Q2 Q3
Q1
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
Q2+ = X Q1 Q3'
Q2 Q3
00
00
01
11
10
Z = Q1'
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
01
11
10
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
01
11
10
K1 = 1
J2 = X Q1 Q3'
122
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
00
00
J1 = Q2 + X
Q1Q2Q3
000
100
001
101
011
11
15.20 (c)
01
00
Q1
00
X Q1
00
Q2 Q3
10
X
1
0
1
0
1
Q1+ = Q2 + X Q1'
Q2 Q3
Q1
FE
15.20 (c)
(contd)
Q2 Q3
HF
IB
AE
IH
GI
AF
H AF
I
Q2 Q3
K2 = 1
15.20 (d)
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
K3 = X'Q1' + X Q1
J3 = Q1
AI
BH
DF
ID
CE
IE
CF
H IH
CA
I
BH
IA
BA
IC
B
CH
GA
CA
GC
C
D
DI
EC
DE
EF
IE
CF
HA
AC
H
Q2 Q3
Q1
00
01
11
10
123
15.21 (c)
Q1Q2Q3
000
010
001
100
110
101
Q2 Q3
Q1+Q2+Q3+
X=0 1
000 001
010 000
001 101
000 001
100 110
110 100
X Q1
00
Z
1
1
1
0
0
0
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
0
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
D1 = Q1 Q3 + Q1 Q2 + X Q3
01
11
10
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
Q1
10
11
00
01
X Q1
00
00
00
Q2 Q3
D2 = X'Q1'Q2 + X'Q1 Q3 + X Q1 Q2
Z = Q1'
D3 = Q1'Q3 + X Q2'Q3'
X Q1
00
01
11
10
X Q1
00
Q2 Q3
01
11
10
00
00
01
01
01
11
11
11
10
10
10
10
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
J3 = X Q2'
01
11
10
00
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
K1 = Q2'Q3'
Q2 Q3
J2 = X'Q1 Q3
J1 = X Q3
X Q1
00
11
X Q1
00
00
Q2 Q3
01
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
K2 = X'Q1 + X Q1'
124
K3 = Q1
15.22
S3 S4
S1 S2
0
0
0
1
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
Q1
00
S0
01
S4
S3
11
S2
10
S1
Q 2 Q3
S5
15.22 (a)
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
00
01
11
01
11
10
10
11
01
01
11
11
10
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
00
10
X Q1
00
11
10
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
00
X Q1
00
00
01
11
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
S1 = X'Q3
11
10
00
01
11
10
10
Q3+ = Q1'Q3 + X
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
00
01
11
R3 = X'Q1
10
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
00
01
01
11
11
S2 = X'Q3' + Q1
01
11
10
10
S3 = X
125
10
11
10
01
00
11
11
01
11
10
1
Z = X'Q2 Q3 + X Q1 Q3'
01
01
X Q1
00
10
10
01
R2 = Q2 Q3
Q2 Q3
Q1 00
10
10
R1 = X + Q3'
Q2 Q3
11
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
00
01
01
11
Q2 Q3
Q1+ = X'Q3
15.22 (b)
X Q1
00
01
00
10
Q1+Q2+Q3+
Z
X=0 1 X=0 X=1
010 001
0
0
010 011
0
0
101 001
1
0
110 011
0
0
101 001
0
0
010 011
0
1
15.23
Present
State
S0
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
Next State
X=0 1
S2 S1
S5 S0
S3 S1
S3 S4
S4 S3
S4 S0
Q1 Q2
Q3 00
01
11
10
Z
0
0
0
0
1
0
Q1Q2Q3
000
001
010
110
111
011
Q1+Q2+Q3+
X=0 1
010 001
011 000
110 001
110 111
111 110
111 000
Z
0
0
0
0
1
0
15.23 (a)
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
15.23 (b)
X Q1
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
X Q1
00
Q2 Q3
01
11
10
00
00
00
00
01
01
01
01
11
11
11
11
10
10
10
10
Q1+
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
J1 = X'Q2
01
11
10
01
11
10
00
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
Q2+
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
11
00
01
11
10
Q3+
X Q1
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
T2 = X'Q2' + X Q1'Q2
K2 = X Q1'
10
01
Q2 Q3
J2 = X'
X Q1
Q2 Q3
00
X Q1
Q2 Q3
00
T1 = X'Q1'Q2
K1 = 0
X Q1
Q2 Q3
00
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
J3 = X
K3 = X
126
T3 = X
15.24
Q1
00
S0
S6
01
S1
S5
11
S3
S4
10
S7
S2
Q2 Q3
Q1Q2Q3
000
001
110
011
111
101
100
010
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
Q1+Q2+Q3+
Z
X=0 1 X=0 X=1
001 100
00
00
001 110
00
00
010 011
00
01
111 011
00
00
111 101
00
00
111 011
00
01
010 100
00
00
001 110
10
00
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
++ Q 'Q Q +
+ '=
+
X'Q
Q21+Q=3 +
X'Q
+ 3X'Q1 Q3 + X QQ
+X
QQ
'+X
Q 'Q33' 1+'QQ2 Q
Q
Q1 += X'Q
X'Q
' 1'++= Q
Q +QQ +
X'Q
2 2
1 122+ Q
2Q31Q
1'Q
11'Q
1Q
2 3= X'Q
3 2+ X3 Q2'QQ
3+3 X=QX'Q
2Q3Q
2 13' + Q 21Q33+ Q 1 Q3 + X Q 1 Q2
3
XQ2'Q3 + XQ2Q3'
+ XQ1'Q2' + XQ1'Q3' +
XQ1Q2
XQ2'Q3' + Q1Q2Q3
Q2 Q3
X Q1
00
01
11
10
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
Z1 = X'Q1'Q2 Q3' .
15.25
Q2 Q3
Q1Q2Q3
000
001
010
011
111
110
100
101
127
Q1+Q2+Q3+
Z
X=0 1 X=0 X=1
001 011
00
00
001 010
00
00
111 011
10
00
111 011
00
00
110 010
01
00
110 100
00
00
101 100
00
00
110 100
01
00
15.25
(contd)
Q2 Q 3
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q 3
Q1+
Q2 Q 3
01
11
10
01
11
10
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q 3
Q2 Q 3
X Q1
00
X Q1
00
Q2 Q 3
00 1
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
01
11
10
01
11
10
Q+
11
10
01
11
10
Z 1 = X'Q1'Q2 Q 3'
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
X Q1
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q3
K2 = X Q1Q3'
X Q1
00
Z 2 = X'Q 1 Q 3
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
Q2 Q 3
J 3 = Q1' + X'Q2'
01
00
X Q1
00
J 2 = X'Q1Q3 + XQ1'Q2'
Q+
X Q1
00
Q2 Q3
K1 = X Q2 Q 3
J1 = X'Q 2
X Q1
00
Q2 Q 3
00 0
15.26
X Q1
00
X Q1
00
X Q1
00
K3 = Q1 + X Q 2'
Row reduction of the solution to 14.6 given on FLD p. 657 easily gives 4 states. Renaming them gives:
Present
State
S0
S1
S2
S3
Q2
Q1
Next State
00 01 11 10
S0 S1 S1 S0
S0 S1 S1 S3
S2 S3 S2 S0
S2 S3 S2 S3
1
S0
S2
S1
S3
Q1 Q 2
Z
0
0
1
1
X1 X2
00
Q1Q2
00
01
10
11
01
11
10
Q1 Q 2
X1 X2
00
01
11
10
Q1+Q2+
01 11
01 01
01 01
11 10
10
00
11
00
Z
0
0
1
10 11 10 11
00
00
00
10
Q2
Q1
00
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
D1 = X1 X2 Q2 + X1'Q1 + X2'Q1
128
Z = Q1
15.27
Q1Q2
00
01
11
10
X1 X2
00
Q1 Q 2
00 0
01
11
10
01
11
10
W A
00
B C
01
11
10
10
00
00
10
Z
0
0
1
11 10 00 10
X1 X2
00
01
11
10
00
01
11
10
Q1 Q 2
Q2
Q2
Q1
Q1
S0
S3
S1
S2
Z = Q1
D1 = X1'Q1 + X1 X2'Q 2+ X2 Q 1
15.28
Q1+Q2+
01 11
01 00
01 11
10 11
00
01
01
11
B C
W A
00
01
11
10
B C
W A
00
01
11
10
00
00
00
01
01
01
11
11
11
10
10
10
01
11
10
TA
W A
00
B C
TB
01
11
10
B C
W A
00
TC
01
11
10
00
00
01
01
11
11
10
10
A+
ABC
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
A+B+C+
W =0 1
001 011
011 101
100
101
111
000
010
110
111
000
110
001
100
010
B C
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
Present
State
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
3
4
5
6
7
Next State
W =0 1
1 3
3 5
4
5
7
0
2
6
129
00
01
11
10
C+
B+
W A
00
7
0
6
1
4
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0135
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
I. None
15.28
(contd) II. (4, 7) (6, 7) (2, 4) (2, 6)
Assignment:
S0 = 000, S2 = 100, S4 = 111, S6 = 110, S7 = 101
B C
00
Present
State
S0
S2
S4
S6
S7
S2
S0
01
S7
11
S4
10
S6
Next State
W =0 1
S0 S0
S4 S7
S7 S6
S2 S4
S6 S2
Present
State
000
100
111
110
101
Output
0 1
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
Next State
W =0 1
000 000
111 101
101 110
100 111
110 100
Output
0 1
0 0
1 0
0 0
0 0
0 0
T input equations derived from the transition table using Karnaugh maps:
TA = 0; TB = W'A;
TC = WB + AB';
Z = W'AB'C'
15.29
X'Y'
0
Y'
S0
0
XY
S1
XY'
0
Y
X'Y
S2
X'Y
0
S3
X'
X'Y'
P
15.30
16.16
16.17 (a) The state meanings are given in the following table:
Name
S0
S1
S2
S3
S0
0
Meaning
No 1s have occurred
One 1 has occurred (an odd number < 2)
Two 1s or an even number of 1s > 2
have occurred
An odd number of 1s > 2 has occurred.
130
S1
0
0
S2
0
0
S3
1
1