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# S B SINGH

ROLL NO 17
SAKEC,
MUMBAI

INTRODUCTION
Actuators are the muscles of robots.
 Electric motors
Servomotors
Stepper motors
Direct-drive electric motors
 Hydraulic actuators
 Pneumatic actuators
 Shape memory metal actuators
 Magnetostrictive actuators
INTRODUCTION
COMPARISON AMONG VARIOUS ACTUATORS
COMPARISON AMONG VARIOUS ACTUATORS
CHARACTERISTICS OF ACUATING SYSTEM
 Characteristics of actuating system is criteria of selecting the
kind of actuator.
 Weight, Power-to-Weight Ratio, Operating Pressure
• The weight of the actuating system and Power-to-Weight Ratio is
important.
• Pneumatic and hydraulic system are composed of two system,
 actuating system and power system.
 Stiffness vs. Compliance
 Use of Reduction Gears
• To increase the torque and make it to slow it down to manageable
speeds.
• It increase the cost, number of parts, backlash, inertia of the rotating
body and resolution of the system.
CHARACTERISTICS OF ACUATING SYSTEM
 Inertia and torque relationship between a motor and a load.
HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR
 It offers a high power-to-weight ratio , large forces at low speeds
compatibility with microprocessor and tolerance of extreme
hazardous environments.
Linear Cylinder F = p X A
Rotary Cylinder dA = t . dr
( )
2 2
1 1
2
1
2 2
2 1
. . . . .
1
.
2
r r
r r
r
r
T p r dA p r t dr
pt r dr pt r r
= =
= = ÷
} }
}
where, A is the effective area of the piston,
p is the working pressure.
A rotary hydraulic actuator.
HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR
 where, q is the flow rate, C is a constant, x is the spool’s displacement,
y is piston’s displacement and A is the area of the piston (d/dt denoted
as D).
( ) ( ) ( )
q Cx
q dt d vol A dy
=
¦
´
= =
¹
( ) ( )
Cx dt A dy
C
y x
¦ =
¦
´
=
¦
¹
Schematic of a hydraulic system and its components.
Schematic of a spool
valve in neutral position.
PNEUMATIC DEVICES
 It is very similar to hydraulic
system, but power-to-weight ratio
is much lower than hydraulic
system.
 Because the air is compressible, it
compressed and deforms under
 Differential valve makes the
pneumatic cylinder position-
controlled
ELECTRIC MOTORS
Sorts of electric motors used in robotics
 DC motors
 Reversible AC motors
 Brushless DC motors
 Stepper motors
Important design factor is like below.
 Dissipation of heat -> Size, Power of motors
 Heat dissipation is generated from below.
 Resistance of the wiring to electric current
 Heat due to iron losses
 Eddy current losses, hysteresis losses
 friction losses, brush losses, short-out circuit losses
 Basic Principle of all electric motors;
 Basic Principle of all electric motors;
F I B = ×
Basic Concept of
Electric Motors
D C MOTOR V/S GENERATOR

 DC motors is reliable, sturdy and relatively powerful.
Schematic of a disk motor.
M t rotor
M t f rotor stator
T k I
T k k I I
| =
=
Mathematical expression of DC motors
AC Motors
 The changing flux is provided by the AC current(60Hz) and
commutators and brushes are eliminated.
 AC motors can dissipate heat more favorable than DC motors, yielding
more power.
Brushless DC Motors
 This types of motors are a hybrid between AC motors and DC motors.
 It is not necessary that line frequency as 60Hz.
 For smooth operation and almost constant torque, the rotor usually
has three phases in it.
Direct-Drive Electric Motors
 These motors are designed to deliver a very large torque at very low
speeds and with very high resolution, but to be used directly with a joint
without any gear reduction.
ELECTRIC MOTORS
Servomotors
 servo is an automatic device which uses error-sensing feedback to
correct the performance of a mechanism
 The back electromotive force or back-emf is most important factor for all
electric motors.
 Back-emf voltage

 The motor’s velocity is
governed by

 The motor’s torque

emf
V nkE =
in emf E
V IR V IR nk = + = +
T L f D
T IK T T nk = = + +
Stepper motors
 Stepper motors are long-lasting, versatile and used without feedback.
 It has permanent magnet rotors and multiple winding stator housing.
 Most industrial steppers run between 1.8 to 7.5 degrees at full stepping.
 The number of poles means more precise resolution, but it has physical
limitation.
MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL OF
ELECTRIC MOTORS
 A robot is supposed to be a manipulator that is controlled by
computers or microprocessor and actuated by the electric motors with
controller, which
Pulse Width Modulation
 PWM is used for DC motor speed control with microprocessors.
 It requires only high voltage(5V) and one output bit.
 Average output voltage of PWM is like below. is computer or
microprocessor.
PWM timing Sine wave generation with PWM
1
out CC
t
V V
t
=
Direction Control of DC Motors with an H-Bridge
 It is desirable to change the direction of current flow in a motor for
changing its direction of rotation with only two bits of information.
 It means one should change the direction of the flow by changing bit
information from the microprocessor.
Application of H-bridge for
motor direction control
ACTUATORS

MAGNETROSTRICTIVE ACTUATORS
 A terfenol-D is placed near a magnet, this special rare-earth-iron
material will change its shape slightly, which is called magnetostriction
effect and is used to make linear motors with micro inches
displacement.
SHAPE-MEMORY-TYPE METALS
 One particular metal alloy, called Biometal shortens about 4% when it
reaches a certain temperature.
 The major disadvantage of the wire is that the total strain happens
within a very small temperature range and it is very difficult to
accurately control the strain.
THANK YOU!!!