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**1. Consider the iterated integral
**

1 0 0 1 − x2 0 1− x

f (x, y, z )dy dz dx. (a) Rewrite this integral as an equivalent iterated integral in the order dy dx dz . (b) Rewrite the integral in the order dz dx dy . Solution. The triple integral is an integral over the solid W in R3 that consists of all points (x, y, z ) with 0≤x≤1 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 − x2 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 − x. To obtain the dy dx dz integral we only need to change the order of the two outer integrals, which involves studying the “shadow” of W as a region D in the xz -plane. This region D is consists of points (x, z ) with 0≤x≤1 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 − x2 . If you draw a diagram of this region, you see that it can also be described as 0≤z≤1 √ 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 − z. This is suﬃcient to re-write the triple integral as

1 0 0 √ 1− z 0 1− x

f (x, y, z )dy dx dz. In order to get the dz dx dy integral we need to analyze the three dimensional solid W , by sketching a diagram. Because the two outer integrals are dx dy , we then need to project W to ﬁnd its shadow onto the xy -plane. It turns out that this shadow in the xy plane is the region bounded by the triangle with vertices (0, 0), (1, 0) and (0, 1). 1

but we don’t need the full 3D picture. z )dz dy dx. This is the region bounded by the triangle with vertices (0. Calculate the total mass of W . If we slice this triangle up diﬀerently we see that it can also be described by 0≤y≤1 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 − y. We see that the bounds for these two integrals are independent of y and z . Now all we need to do is reverse the order of the two outer integrals. The mass density of the solid W is given by the function f (x. z )dz dy. 1 − x2 0 0 1−x f (x. z )dy dz. y. The solid W in R3 is bounded by the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 and the xy -plane. 2. 1). y. z ) = 1 + x2 + y 2 + z 2 (in units of mass per units of volume). namely the dy dx integrals.But for the present example there happens to be a way to see this without drawing the 3D diagram. This means that. The shadow of W on the xy plane consists of points with 0≤x≤1 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 − x. all the bounds are constants (because x is a constant here). 2 . We now have dz on the inside. We need to sketch the diagram of the shadow of W on the xy -plane. (1. y. We can see what this shadow is by looking at the outer bounds of the dz dy dx integral. which is what we need. as far as the dy dz integral is concerned. It is therefore allowed to simply reverse these two integrals to get 1− x 0 0 1 − x2 f (x. y. and we are therefore integrating over a rectangle in the yz plane. So with these new bounds for the two outer integrals we get the dz dx dy integral as 1 0 0 1− y 0 1 − x2 f (x. 0) and (0. y. z )dz dx dy. 0). If we do this the triple integral becomes 1 0 0 1−x 0 1−x2 f (x. Let’s concentrate on the two inner integrals in the original triple integral.

each of which is a one-variable functions for ρ and φ respectively.Solution. φ or θ appear as lower or upper bounds in any of the three integral signs and (2) the integrand (1 + ρ2 )ρ2 sin φ separates as a product of (1 + ρ2 )ρ2 and sin φ. Finally. The solid W is then described as the collection of points (ρ. The problem is best handled by using spherical coordinates. 0 0 2π 1 dθ = 2π. y. 15 15 3 . 0 ≤ φ ≤ π/2. The mass density function is expressed in the (ρ. 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π. φ. 0 The ﬁnal result is f dV = W 8 16 · 1 · 2π = π. Putting it all together we obtain the iterated integral 1 0 0 π/2 0 2π (1 + ρ2 )ρ2 sin φ dθ dφ dρ. 1 π/2 2π (1 + ρ )ρ dρ 0 0 2 2 sin φ dφ 0 1 dθ. θ) such that 0 ≤ ρ ≤ 1. φ. This integral can be evaluated easily because (1) no functions of ρ. z ) = 1 + x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1 + ρ2 . the volume element in spherical coordinates is given by the standard formula dV = dx dy dz = ρ2 sin φ dρ dφ dθ. θ) variables as f (x. In such a case the triple integral is equal to a product of three ordinary (single) integrals. 15 2 sin φ dφ = [− cos φ]π/ = 1. The calculation of these integrals is as follows. 1 1 (1 + ρ2 )ρ2 dρ = 0 π/2 0 ρ2 + ρ4 dρ = 1 3 1 5 ρ + ρ 3 5 1 = 0 8 .

Using x2 + y 2 = r2 we ﬁnd 1 1 f (x. while for a ﬁxed value of θ the radius r ranges over the interval 0 ≤ r ≤ 2 cos θ. Secondly. By carefully studying the diagram of the region D. Solution. The positive x axis corresponds to θ = 0. we need to convert the function (the integrand) to polar coordinates. y ) = = . r x2 + y 2 Thirdly. We therefore have the following bounds for the integral π/2 0 0 2 cos θ · · · dr dθ. It is given as 0≤x≤2 √ 0 ≤ y ≤ 2x − x2 . we see that θ ranges over the values 0 ≤ θ ≤ π/2 (because the entire region is contained in the ﬁrst quadrant). or y 2 = 2x − x2 . The equation y 2 = 2x − x2 is equivalent to x2 + y 2 = 2x.3. Assembling all the pieces we ﬁnd π/2 0 0 2 cos θ 1 r dr dθ = r = π/2 0 π/2 0 2 cos θ 1 dr dθ 2 cos θ dθ 0 2 = [2 sin θ]π/ 0 = 2. We need to convert these two curves to polar coordinates. Using x2 + y 2 = r2 and x = r cos θ this turns into r2 = 2r cos θ or r = 2 cos θ. This is √ the region bounded below by the x axis (y = 0) and above by the graph of y = 2x − x2 . 2 0 0 √ 2 x− x2 1 x2 + y2 dy dx. 4 . we have to choose the correct Jacobian for the area form dA = dy dx. First we analyze the region D in the xy plane over which we integrate. Evaluate the following integral by changing to polar coordinates. For polar coordinates there is the standard formula dA = dx dy = r dr dθ.

4. So the vertices map to vertices. −2) and (0. y ) = ∂ (u. −1) | (−1.0) r D (0. 1) (0.-1) r v d d (2. 2) r (1. v ) 5 1 2 1 2 1 2 −1 2 =− 1 2 . (2. v ) (1.-2) r In this problem we choose the substitution u = x+y v = x−y This is a linear transformation. 0) | (1. Evaluate the integral e x−y dA D x+y Where D is the region bounded by the trapezoid with vertices (1. 2) The inverse transformation is obtained by solving for x and y and we will use this to ﬁnd the Jacobian u+v x = 2 u−v y = 2 Using this we compute the Jacobian ∂ (x. 2) r (1. 1) u (0. 0). 1) D∗ r(2. (0. which means that it maps parallelograms to parallelograms and vertices of parallelograms to vertices of parallelograms. 2) (0. −1). This means that we have the following correspondence: (x. Solution: y (−2. If we solve for x and y .0) r x T ←− dr (−1. y ) | (u. 0) | (2. 1) (2. 0). −2) | (−2.

Solution: The best way to do this problem is to switch to cylindrical coordinates. inside the cylinder x2 + y 2 = 4 and above the xy -plane. Evaluate the integral (x2 + y 2 + 2z ) dV W where W is the region that lies below the paraboloid z = 25 − x2 − y 2 .Now the bounds for D∗ can be computed from the four vertices in the uv -plane (see the trapezoid in the right-handside): −v ≤ u ≤ v 1 ≤ v ≤2 x+y 2 1 2 v −v e x−y dA = D ev − u 1 dudv 2 v u u= v e v |u=−v dv 2 1 2 v = (e − e−1 )dv 2 1 v 2 =2 = (e − e−1 ) |v 2 v=1 3 = (e − e−1 ) 4 = 5. The bounds of integration are: 0 ≤ z ≤ 25 − r2 0 ≤ r ≤ 2 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π 6 .

Solution: This is a type 3 region and we have a choice on the order of integration.Hence. Evaluate the integral 30xy dA D where D is the region bounded by y = x and y = x2 . You should do both ways to check that indeed we do get the same answer. In this solution I will choose the bounds x2 ≤ y ≤ x 0 ≤ x ≤1 7 . 2π 2 0 2π 2 0 2π 2 0 2π 2 0 =25−r (r3 z + z 2 r)|z drdθ z =0 0 2 25−r 2 (x + y + 2z ) dV W 2 2 = 0 0 25−r 2 (r2 + 2z )r dzdrdθ (r3 + 2rz ) dzdrdθ 0 = = = 0 2π 0 2 (r3 (25 − r2 ) + (25 − r2 )2 r) drdθ r(25 − r2 )(r2 + 25 − r2 ) drdθ 0 2π 0 2 = = 0 2π 0 625r − 25r3 drdθ 625 2 25 4 r=2 = r − r |r=0 dθ 2 4 0 = 2π (1150) = 2300π 6.

Hence. we have 1 0 x 1 30xy dydx = x2 0 1 =x 15xy 2 |y y =x2 dx = 0 15x3 − 15x5 dx 15 4 15 6 x=1 = x − x |x=0 4 6 15 5 − = 4 2 5 = 4 8 .

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