PROBLEMS OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN LHUENTSE AND MONGAR DISTRICTS IN BHUTAN
Masters of Education Student ID: Y13MED2038
Under the Supervision of
Dr. D. Saroja
M.A (Psy.), M.ED, PhD, Cert- (coun.) Professor
Department of Education
Acharya Nagarjuna University Nagarjuna Nagar – 522510 Guntur, Andra Pradesh, India
SUBMITTED UNDER PART – II OF M.1 Statement of the problem 1. 1. LITERATURE REVIEW 3.ED DEGREE EXAMINATION ACHARYA NAGARJUNA UNIVERSITY 2012 .4 Hypotheses/Research question(s).3 The objectives of the study. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
.2013 CONTENTS PAGE 1. 1. INTRODUCTION 1.2 Significance of the study. 2.
1 Research design. a major concern is that this growth has not been matched by an increase in teachers.6.7 Data analysis and interpretation.5.1 Statement of the problem
While it is wonderful that Bhutan is experiencing rapid growth in the number of students attending school.1208
The Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines problem as. p.5 Sample 3. Probable Outcomes or Educational Implications 4.6. not by choice but by circumstances.1 Method of Sampling to be used 3.4 Variables: 3. 4.6 Definitions of key terms.6.4 Population 3. 3. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Usually the teachers who end up staying in remote schools are. ‘a thing that is difficult to deal with or to understand’ (2010. concepts and variables.4. who are always in the hunt to get out of this difficult situation at the earliest possible time.1 School Level wise estimated Population 3.1 Stress 3.6.3. This problem is further aggravated in rural schools with no graduate teachers opting to serve in these schools.3 Social Science Teachers: 3. 3. One major problem with rural schools thus is acute shortage of teachers. Many teachers in rural schools have to take multi-grade classes to make
.2 Secondary School 3.
student’s study is thus confined in the school where as their counterparts in the urban centres get support from their literate parents and are even sent for tuitions.2 Significance of the study. lack of access to professional opportunities.
1. especially in the service delivery 1. In addition. most of the time students come without doing their home work because they are given no or very little time to do self study.
1. Teachers have to create zero periods to give time for the students to do self study. Because of rural community being illiterate the teachers get very little support from the parents in the academic uplifting of the students. instead they are always bogged down with household chores. and distance from the urban centre. Hence teachers are more stressed with variety of problems. Many teachers do not want to stay in rural areas because of isolation.3 The objectives of the study. To find out the influence of following variables on the problems of rural primary school teachers:
.e. and the responsibility to take on multiple duties.up the teacher shortage and in extreme cases there is teacher and section ratio of 1:5. The study will be significant particularly in finding out the problems faced by the rural school teachers. whether it is social or professional. 2. teacher in a multi-grade school has to simultaneously handle more than one section of class at a single time)
Two essential variables with teachers and rural schools are lack of basic facilities. To find out the problems of rural primary school teachers with respect to the following aspects: a) Classroom management b) Preparation of the lesson c) Social problems d) Emotional problems e) Academic problems 3. (i. teachers in rural areas face many challenges such as low or absence of allowances. To find out the problems of rural primary school teachers.. Therefore there is every need to study the problems of primary school teachers in Bhutan.
1. Know the recommendations of previous researchers for further research. 3.4 Hypotheses/Research question(s). tools and instruments which proved to be useful and promising in the previous studies. school with two teachers.
. Related studies 2.a) Experience b) Gender c) Strength of the teachers 4. To find out the difference between the problems of single teacher school. 2.1. The researcher can avoid unintentional duplication of well established findings. 4. Significant difference would occur between the problems of woman teachers and man teachers.
1. 2. A study of the operational problems of secondary school teachers in Bihar. It enables the researcher to define the limits of his field.
2. Literature Review Review of the related literature. and school with more than two teachers. 2. serves the following purposes: 1. 3. It gives the understanding of the research methodology. There would be a significant difference between the problems of less experienced and more experienced teachers. besides allowing the researcher to acquaint himself with the current knowledge in the field or area which he is going to conduct his research. The researcher can avoid unfruitful and useless problem areas. There would be a significant difference between the problems of teachers in: a) A single teacher school b) school with two teachers c) School with more than two teachers.1. 5.
administrative and personal problems stood in forefront. A. Viz.1. persons in authority. There were problems like lack of means of travel. peers and staff.S.68 to 6. (1985) The objective of the study were: To construct a problem check list covering major areas of operational problems. (1976) The objective of the study was: Finding out the teacher-pupil ratio in the backward areas of Rajasthan. Methods and curriculum. and professional role. Making the education department. V.87. The shortage of first grade teachers was negligible.Researcher: Kumar.3. students and discipline. Researcher: Sharma. the community. Rajasthan aware of the number of teachers needed in the backward areas of Rajasthan. working conditions of the teachers. In 44 to 51 percent of the institutions. The percentage of vacant post of second grade teachers ranged from 4. and illness of teachers and their availing of maternity leave.2.1. The findings are: Financial. Topic: A study of the outstanding problems of teachers of standards V to VII of the Marathi Language Side of Municipal Primary schools of Bombay. housing facilities.
. 2. one or two post was vacant. personal. Finding out the numbers of teachers teaching science and mathematics in the schools of backward areas of Rajasthan. Topic: Teachers in the school of backward areas of Rajasthan: Shortage and Supply. The findings are: The teacher-pupil ratio was less than the one prescribed by the Education Department of Rajasthan.
the use of class library and educational guidance ranked from fifth to tenth. The findings were: Personal. To identify the problem areas in the class teaching. To obtain information on the parent’s understanding of the needs of their children attending municipal primary schools. To suggest guidelines for formulating a minimum programme of redressing the grievances of teachers and thereby achieving maximum utilization of municipal resources for the educational growth of children of greater Bombay. The problems of teachers had significant relation with sex. The problem of accommodation and money were ranked second and third respectively by the male teachers. The problem of transport was ranked second. The problems regarding classroom situation. The teachers had positive attitudes towards the children attending the school. There was no difference in the attitude of the male and female teachers. To assess the attitude of teachers to the home background of children who attended municipal primary school. family and social problems of the teachers were relatively fewer. domestic. teaching aids. educational background. and of the city and suburban teachers towards the children.The objectives of the study were: To find out the personal problems of teachers and whether these affected their class teaching.
. The problem of looking after one’s own children at home was ranked fifth by the female teachers. the tenure of service and family size. Nearly sixty percent of the teachers admitted that they did not like the practicing school.
48.26 percent by auto rickshaws regularly.50/month.82 percent up to 30 minutes.
The findings were: 43.71 percent teachers went to school on foot.
Topic: A study of the problems of primary teachers in Pune Municipal area regarding time.58 percent required up to Rs.43 percent required up to Rs. energy and money they have to spend for going to school and returning home.99 percent by train. In statistics.31 percent required up to Rs. 11.4. such as objects. 10. educational institutions.2. 5. 5.73 percent on bicycle.50/month and 5.20/month. The estimated population of the rural teachers of the two districts are stated below: Name of District Number of teachers Male Lhuentse Mongar Total 62 28 Female 50 90 140 TOTAL
. 10. population refers to any collection of specified group of human beings or of non-human entities.30/month. and required the same time to return. 1. effort and cost.
3. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY
3. 7.4 Population 4. 0.40/month. 30.88 percent teachers required up to 15 minutes to go to school. and geographical areas.99 percent by bus.1. 19.15/month. and 0.19 percent required more than Rs. Given the limited time frame at hand the researcher has decided to use this method as it will permit wider coverage at minimum expenses.29 percent by private vehicles.95 percent required up to Rs.1 Research design. It is economical both for the researcher and the respondent in time. 3.36 percent teachers did not require to spend on travel.10/month.56 percent required up to Rs.32 percent up to an hour. 24. 47. 10. Questionnaire Survey Method will be used as research tool for collection of data.62 percent required up to Rs.85 percent occasionally by auto rickshaws. 7.
3.3. more than two or more grades are put together in a classroom and taught by the single teacher.1 Method of Sampling to be used Stratified random sampling will be used as the geographic distribution of the schools are scattered and wide. from the population of 140 teachers. Most of the rural schools in Bhutan have multi-grade classes mainly due to
.6. Multi-grade class
It refers to the class in which.5 Sample A sample is a small proportion of a population selected for observation and analysis.6 Definitions of key terms. 3. which is shown below:
When n = size of sample group N = size of population e = the miss adjusting rate in random sampling at level 0. it will not be possible for the researcher to study the whole population.1.05 Therefore n
= = =
3.5. The researcher has decided to take 103 samples of teachers working in rural schools in Lhuentse and Mongar districts of Bhutan. It is a collection consisting of a part or subset of the objects or individuals of population which is selected for representing the population. concepts and variables. which has been worked out following the formula of Taro Yamane (1967).
Data collection techniques The required data for this research will be collected through questionnaire which will be sent through mail due to researcher’s lack of time to administer personally.Schools in Bhutan are categorized into urban. There are as low as just one or two students in a class.4 Variables: Independent Variable Experience Gender <5 years male <10 years <15 years female >15 years Categories Dependent Variables Emotional problems. hospitals and the distance from the urban centre.6. It is also because this method is found convenient for the respondent to complete the questionnaire at a time convenient for him. For this research work. very
remote. using criteria of population density. Strength of the 1 teachers teacher per section Less than 1 More than 1 teacher per academic teacher section per section problems.
. social problems. Procedures for treating data The data gathered will be interpreted by using the mean. socio-cultural characteristics and location or remoteness from larger cities.teacher shortage and also due to very less number of students in a class. semi remote. economic factors.
3. Rural schools There are many different and potentially conflicting definitions of ‘rural’. depending upon the facilities the schools has in terms of road connection. more so as the respondents are geographically scattered. SD. and difficult school.3.6. schools in remote and very remote areas have been taken as rural schools. The questionnaire used will be in closed form or restricted type. power supply.