This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange
Nursing Publications and Other Works Nursing
Teaching healthy anger management
University of Tennessee-Knoxville, firstname.lastname@example.org
Follow this and additional works at: http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_nurspubs Part of the Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing Commons Recommended Citation
Thomas, S.P. (2001). Teaching healthy anger management. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 37, 41-48.
This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Nursing at Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange. It has been accepted for inclusion in Nursing Publications and Other Works by an authorized administrator of Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange. For more information, please contact email@example.com.
sociopaths. CONCLUSIONS.Teaching Healthy Anger Management Sandra P. i s Professor and Director. “Anger control assistance” is one of the 40 interventions commonly performed by specialists in psychiatric/mental health nursing. about the essential principles and elements of AM. PhD. It is not surprising that a few AM classes failed to moddy the out-of-control behavior of musicians Tommy Lee or Puffy Combs. were cited as anecdotal evidence that the “trendy remedy” of anger management is ineffective.” such as athletes Mike Tyson and Latrell Sprewell and Columbine High School killers Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold. Search terms: Anger. A model is described for a 4-week group for women. Advanced practice psychiatric nurses are wellqualified to provide this psychoeducational intervention. more than 10 years of quantitative and qualitative studies by our research team. 37. College of Nursing. Drawing from the literature. PURPOSE. Thomas. To describe anger management and offer guidelines for assessing potential participants and teaching healthy behaviors. Advanced practice psychiatric nurses are well-qualified to provide this psychoeducational intervention. RN. and homes. and 5 years of experience in conducting anger management groups. April-June.There is a dearth of information in the contemporary nursing literature. or animal abusers. F A A N . Such anger is often displaced. A study at Yale University (cited in Malmgren. RN. 2000. vandals. the innocent motorist in the next lane.Thomas. PhD Program. The purposes of this paper are to (a) describe what anger management is (and is not). High-profile AM “failures. 41 community. however.Bulechek. p. PhD.. anger management (AM) was derisively described as ”a trendy remedy for criminals as well as mere cranks” (Cloud. a psychoeducationalintervention that was never intended to remedy the rage of deeply disturbed batterers. according to the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) project at the University of Iowa (McCloskey. anger management. 2. University of Tennessee. I n a recent article in a popular news magazine. 2000) showed that nearly one quarter of American workers feel chronic underground anger on the job because of heavy workrloads and because they feel betrayed or let down by their employers. perhaps. 1998).2001 . Yet perusal of any daily newspaper shows that high-quality AM training is much needed to improve the increasingly uncivil interactions in our nation’s schools. No. workplaces. Anger management has wide applicability to a variety of constituencies for both primary and secondary prevention. because it contained numerous myths and misunderstandings of anger management. damaging family relationships or. Teaching anger management in the Sandra P. SOURCES. FAAN TOPIC. 53). & Donahue. This article was disturbing. and (b)offer guidelines for assessing potential participants and teaching them healthy anger behaviors. psychoeducational interventions Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol. the author presents basic principles of teaching anger management.
1998a).Teaching Healthy Anger Management Distinctions Between Anger and Related Concepts There is confusion in both popular and professional literature regarding the definition of anger. 1998). 1993). Almost never do our female study participants report that they feel good about the way they manage anger. gender role socialization inculcates poor AM skills. McCoy. whether they suppress it or vent it outwardly (Thomas. Basic Principles of Teaching Anger Management Psychoeducational interventions such as AM are not therapy. Thomas. anger was considered a sin. & Martin. anger management.In my view. the actual or intended harming of another. or rights (Thomas. (c) decrease environmental stimuli. anxiety. Perspectives i n Psychiatric Care Vol. For men and women. or a madness. beliefs. as proposed by Ellis (1976). and (d) mod* maladaptive behaviors that do not lead to problem solving. Unfortunately. 2. and the residues of each of these pejorative conceptualizations remain evident in popular parlance (Thomas. The ability to handle anger effectively fits within the rubric of ”emotional intelligence. or aggression. 1999). April-June. sadness. Thomas. aggression.and gender-appropriate emotional expression complicate the resolution of angry interchanges..2001 . which focuses mainly on control of violent acting-out McCloskey et al..And anger expression does not necessarily lead to aggression. Intelligent anger management means that one can (a) modulate excessive physiological arousal. Thomas. (b) alter irrational antagonistic cognitions. 1982) as individuals enact their social roles in families. Thomas et al. AM interventions cannot be expected to mod+ egregious aggressive and violent behavior. Complete elimination of angry emotionality is neither possible nor desirable. For centuries.Anger incidents are a common feature of everyday life (Averill. often commingled with anxiety and &t. In fact. I define anger as a strong. anger expression may even prevent aggression-and elicit an apology from the other person (Izard. schools.). integrate it in thought. and understand and manage it (Mayer. Aggression and violence (egregious forceful or destructive ads) can and do occur in cold-blooded fashion without anger (Thomas.. Historical and cultural injunctions regarding age. Smucker. fear. uncomfortable emotional response to a provocation that is unwanted and incongruent with one’s values. 1993. 37. 1993) indicate that anger is an unpleasant. 2000. Bearing these distinctions in mind.. a chronic mistrustful negative attitude toward people and the world. a weakness. other strong feelings) (Tice & Baumeister). and co-workers. the leader functionsas teacher and coach. Studies by our research team (Thomas. No. Smucker. This confusion is evident in the description of “anger control assistance” in the NIC. & Droppleman. But anger is not synonymous with hostility. Anger is evoked by events of greater sgnhcance than the minor daily hassles of traffic and slow grocery lines that produce annoyance or irritation. friends. not as therapist. because anger has self-protective functions such as maintaining boundaries and mobilizing courage to correct injustices. hostility. Unresolved angry confrontations with significant others can produce prolonged hurt and resentment. and violence. distressing emotion for most people. Therefore. et al. Discomfort with anger and unresolved conflicts may become the impetus for some clients to seek professional assistance. 1998). et al. One study showed that people have fewer successful strategies for controlling anger than for any other 42 emotional state (e. few individuals have had the opportunity while growing up to observe role models displaying constructive anger behavior. 1990). we must begin with conceptual clarification of anger. as discussed in this article aims to promote more effective resolution of common. which must be differentiated from irritation. everyday anger inadents with families. intelligent anger management does not mean eradication o f anger. Psychoeducational interventions create the potential for behavior change by increasing knowledge. and workplaces.” which has been defined as the capacity to perceive emotion.Men and women both decry the failure of their anger outbursts in bringing about the desired responses from other people (Thomas. 1993.g. 1998)as well as others @ice & Baumeister. 1995). McCoy.
g. Sometimes women could not even get sigruficant others to listen to them. Their anger arose in circumstances of powerlessness. given the situations of recurrent injustice they described. As they move toward the adolescent years. Women who characteristically suppress their anger. Further. thus fueling an impotent anger. but they could not make that happen. Concurrent introspection. provide feedback. as shown in Brown and Gilligan's (1992) longitudinal study. No.. Our research showed that women's anger is fueled primarily by substantive violations of their core values. usually is recommended as well. Clients best learn to express their angry feelings when others are available to support. 37. empathize. Therefore. a program aiming for anger reduction or eradicationis inappropriate for them. or express it through somatic symptoms such as headaches.g. Our research findings suggest that anger management for women should be tailored to address their most salient anger issues. Reeder. 1994. 1998). Beck. April-June. AM training is delivered customarily to groups. 1998). 1993. 1992). Dryden. because anger is such an interpersonal emotion (Anderson-Malico. rather than vented outwardly. empathize.Thomas et al. 1991) remain valuable. 2000). fifth-. Behavioral practice in the safety of a group gives clients greater confidence that they can enact new anger behaviors in real-world situations. and express it directly in words (without $0. While the classic tenets of RE (e. "My husband should know what I want and need.. Review of the literature indicates that cognitivebehavioral (CB) and rational-emotive (RE) interventions have received the most research support (Thomas. have failed to take gender differences into account. using an anger journal or log.. Wilson.providing a new perspective. Techniques such as the "empty chair" do not permit individuals to maintain eye contact with another human while learning to control their breathing and the quaver in their voice when they say they are angry. & Reneau. girls in western cultural context learn to mask anger. Anger is inconsistent with the perpetually pleasant feminine ideal. and role-play problematic conflicts in encounters. the irrational cognitions that are so strongly emphasized in RE and CB classes are not the predominant triggers of women's anger. and lack of reciprocity in their most important intimate relationships (Thomas et al. volatile force that must be contained. Ellis. these women need a different set of skills than people whose anger is an explosive. however. as shown in a study of third-. Coie. 2. we concluded that women's anger generally appeared rational and justifiable.g. provide feedback. must learn to recognize it. The strongest theme throughout our decade-long program of quantitative and qualitative research with more than 600 women was powerlessness: Women wanted someone or something to change. From an early age. embrace its power. and seventh-grade children (Underwood. disrespectful treatment.. This deficit became apparent when I began developing a model 5 years ago for psychoeducational groups with women. 199813). and role-play problematic conflicts in encounters. rather than proceeding from a premise that standard CB class content should be delivered to everyone.2001 While women did have some irrational expectations from time to time (e. 1990) and CB approaches (e. Nor should "women" be considered a 43 . which is surely the epitome of powerlessness (Bultemeier & Denham. Clients best learn to express their angry feelings when others are available to support. Clearly.. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol. much of women's anger is suppressed or somatized. It is not irrational to expect to be listened to and treated with respect by sigruficant others. Most books and manuals. & Herbsman. and giving clients opportunities to learn and practice specific tools and strategies. 1976. the societal pressure to stifle their anger is further intensified. 1976. I shouldn't have to tell him"). Davidson.
.slamming a door) has a very different meaning when a person is alone than when the door is being slammed in the presence of another person to cut off further communication. forthright declarationof the anger to the person who provoked it? 9. or cigarettes. 1995). What strategies are used to control temper and cool down? Humor? Meditation?Physical exercise? 12. If the anger is directed outward.There are a number of validated assessment instruments. What is the duration of a typical anger episode?minutes. or food binges? 18. gender. the same behavior (e. rekindling anger again and again? 6. Research is scant on the anger experience of other ethnic/racial groups. Assessment guidelines are shown in Table 1. Does the person ruminate about the grievance. 16. What defense mechanisms come into play? intellectualization. that AM must be tailored sensitively to the age. 1998). Are there irrational beliefs fueling the anger (beliefs about the way other people should behave or about the way a fair world ought to operate)? 7. To date.. role responsibilities. most questionnaires are scored by computing the frequency of certain behaviors.. or managed ineffectively (Thomas. Gender role socialization is another strong influence. AM for African-American women must include strategies for coping with racist treatment (Wilson et al.Reheiser.threats or profanity when angry? 10. Likewise. 2. hours. The concerns of midlife women often are quite different from those of women in their 20s. Who will support the client's efforts to try new anger behaviors? Who may attempt sabotage?How will the client Perspectives i n Psychiatric Care Vol. When clients participate in exploration of the issues 44 . too intense. screaming. days? 4. gastric distress. With whom does anger most frequently occur? Are there any commonalities among the provocateurs?Are transference phenomena evident? 19. what barriers prevent its expression? 8. For example. I f the anger is kept to oneself. How intense is the angry emotionality? 3. drugs. or other physical symptoms? 17. In a situation of recurrent conflict.2001 . Moreover. Is the discomfort of anger medicated through alcohol. developmental level. How does the current angry behavior compare to the person's usual pattern? 15. race. Anger behavior patterns should be carefully assessed prior to AM group participation. 2000). such as the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Expression Scale (Spielberger. does the person make a clear. but clinicians may find them too expensive and timeconsuming for use in practice settings. April-June. Indications and Contraindications for Anger Management When is anger management indicated? Most experts agree anger is a problem when it is too frequent. What triggers the anger?What is it about? What are the recurrent themes. To what degree is anger aeating problems for t h i s client in the workplace or intimate relationships?Has the client ever harmed self or others when angry? 13. nonetheless.g. Does the person engage in yelling. Women who work in the home have a different set of daily frustrations from those who work in a corporate environment. 37. isolation? 14. too prolonged. there are few published articles on the modification of AM for diverse populations. How does the client usually express anger? Is it suppressed or directed outward in physical actions or verbal behavior?How does the client feel about his/her style of anger expression?What are some of its consequences? 5. patterns? 11. but it is clear. As Jack (1999) points out.Teaching Healthy Anger Management monolithic category. What did the client learn about anger while growing up? Rules for anger display vary greatly among cultures. research by our team revealed that the anger of African-American women is different in several respects from that of Euro-American women: In fact. which omits consideration of the relational context of anger episodes. projection. Therefore. what would the client like to be different?Is it possible for the client to understand the other person's position on the issue? 20. Guidelines for Assessment of Anger Table 1 Management Participants 2. 1998a). & Sydeman. the cultural context must be taken into account. Is anger somatized in headaches. their anger cannot be fully understood without considering the racism to which they are subjected daily (Fields et al. No. and culture of the group members.
such as physical or sexual abuse. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol. My model for AM with women (see Table 2) was developed using both clinical literature and research findings. precise identification of target behaviors is important. Ah4 sessions typically range from three (Smith et al. offered through my university's noncredit catalogue.It is logical to presume that AM has a greater likelihood of success when participation is voluntary rather than court ordered. Hunnisett. Sessions involve lectures on didactic content. Gender-specific interventions are necessary because our data from women 45 . Generally speaking. self-awareness is heightened and spedic goals for the AM class can be formulated.. Precedent for offering brief group interventions may be found in the writings of Yalom (1985) and others. & Rabinowitz.Huff. Approximatelyhalf the women in a typical AM class are already involved in psychotherapy (often referred to the class by their therapists). Hough. Groups range in size from 8 to 15 participants.Some women benefit from additional training in assertiveness. for psychoeducational groups for men. and women often express regret that the sessions are ending. Smith. inpatients) and resources (especially funding) for delivery of the program. some therapists believe even courtordered AM can have value. 2000). No. It was designed to be used in conjunction with a training manual I developed (Thomas. acute psychosis. 2000). Elsworth. In more than one instance. you may have the lmury of 10 to 12weeks. 1995). 1995. This invites the question: When is anger management contraindicated? The following exclusion criteria are suggested: paranoia.and it is not uncommon for others to decide to undertake some type of counseling to gain a deeper understanding of the issues they have begun to grapple with during the class. relaxation. role-playing. most admit their busy lifestyles would not permit continuing to travel to the university for additional weeks of classes. 2000). Clients who are employed can be encouraged to avail themselves of worksite continuing education or employeassistance programs. 20001. 1994) to eight sessions (Deffenbacher. Oetting. organic disorders such as neurological conditions. People who are in the process of working through rage engendered by severe trauma.college students (Hazaleus & Deffenbacher. 1994). Moore. short-term psychoeducational approaches are not recommended for individuals whose anger is deepseated and chronic. 20001. high-anger drivers (Deffenbacher. & Lewis. Meeting once per week is ideal. Researchers have reported positive outcomes of AM with delinquent adolescents (Feindler. combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (Gerlock. 2. Length and Format of Anger Management Programs In the literature.raised by these questions. When AM is offered to intact groups in work sites or education settings. 1997). & Pulsford. My group sessions for women. 19941. & Beckner. and incarcerated women (Smith. 2000). Adams. individuals with learning disabilities (Rossiter. Lynch.2001 most people cannot set aside the time to be involved for more than four class meetings. 19861. cardiac patients (Davidson. should not participate in AM classes unless they are receiving concomitant individual psychotherapy. allowing for completion of homework assignments between classes. African-American women (Wilson et al. Determining the number of sessions depends on the type of participants (students. In the community. are 2-hour sessions held in the early evening hours in a classroom on the university campus for 4 weeks (Table 2). Class meetings often begin with participants sharing successful outcomes of their homework assignments. workers. 19981. class members have spontaneously exchanged telephone numbers at the last session s o they could continue meeting. and small and large group discussions. As in other behavioral interventions. Now that our study of men's anger is completed (Thomas et al. while others may find effective parenting classes or conflict-resolution workshops useful. and severe personality disorders characterized by violent acts toward self or others. or problemsolving skills.. However. 37. While a 4-week intervention is relatively brief. April-June. A fee of $50 to $65 for four sessions (or a l d a y workshop covering the same content) seems reasonable and affordable for most women. New York City traffic agents (Brondolo. & Salvatore.. I anticipate developing a similar manual.
and bargaining strategies B. 1999) is its emphasis on prevention and health promotion. Experiential components rn Sharingincidents from anger logs with the group rn Behavioral practice of new approaches to handling these incidents (e. Didactic components rn Factors involved in women’s anger at work rn Passive-aggressive behavior in the workplace rn How to defuse angry situations with customers. colleagues.. Homework:U s e principles presented in class in a workplace situation.37. Clinicians are encouraged to report outcomes of delivering these manualized interventions. thereby contributing to the growing empirical literature in nursing on anger management. students. A group containing a large percentage of mothers may want to spend time on parenting issues. 2.g. Introduction to anger and the relational nature o f women’s anger A. using paper-and-penciltests rn Sharing personal anger situations in dyads rn Goal-setting C Homauork: Begin keeping the anger log.e. No. etc. meaning of recurring anger in relationships. and men indicate very different cognitions. Didactic components rn Factors involved in women’s anger at sigruficant others (e. perceptions. a group with a preponderanceof divorced women may want to spend an entire class on divorcerelated anger. Didactic components rn Definition of anger.Teaching Healthy Anger Management Table 2. and violence Brief overview of the research findingson anger‘s causes and unhealthy manifestations (e. Surgeon General (U.. UNts on these. and healing rituals 8 . B. record experience and outcomes in journal. are included in the treatment manual. Women’s anger at work (omitted if most women in the class are homemakers) Week I I . Week 1 1 1 . anger.g. children) rn Strategiesfor achieving conflict resolution and relationship reciprocity rn Releasing old anger (from childhood. Experiential components rn Reports on homework (successes as well as failures) rn Role-playing a work-related situation in triads rn Selected exemplars discussed in larger group). April-June. relatives. friends. Week IV. enhanced ability to take action and resolve problems) rn Anger management techniquesfor women who suppress and for those who too readily express anger rn Tactics for lowering physiological anger arousal (e. C. spouses. A Model for a 4Week Psychoeducational Group on Anger Management for Women Week I.. Experiential components rn Get-acquainted exercises rn self-assessment of anger.g. Anger expressionstyles and empowermentprinciples k Didactic components A. relaxation or vigorous activity) and decreasing rumination (e. Public Health Service.2001 . headaches) B. aggression. a clarion call for psychoeducational Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol.S. distinctionsamong irritation. Experiential components rn Review of homework assignment outcomes rn Termination activities (each women shares one thing she learned in the class and a goal for continued skill practice) Reframing anger as a catalyst for personal and professional empowerment (i.. divorce. ex-spouses.g. overeating. hostility. and suggest needed refinements and modifications.substance use. C. reflect on core values being violated. How to take productive action on grievances or harassment through assertivenessand coalition forming. and many other topics. peace talks..g. Women‘s anger in intimate relationships (can be tailored to needs of the group) A. discussion in triads. and meanings of anger experiences. negotiation.) through forgiveness. Homework: Select one thing to address assertively in the coming week.. 46 Conclusion A hallmark of the recent mental health report from the office of the US. etc. selected exemplars discussed in larger group as well) rn Note: Members of the class commonly suggest modifications to t h i s general outline.thought-stopping) rn Assertiveness.
. and treatment (pp.. Anger: Targets and triggers.L. D.305-315. Deffenbacher.. (2000. C. Techniques of handling anger in marriage. Cambridge. April). mary77@concentric. Ioumal of Counseling Psychology.R. Beck. 1997a.Sarasota. S. J. R.393408. Davidson. New York: Guilford Press. C. (2000). Veterans' responses to anger management intervention. Feindler. G. Stuhr.. Anger disorders: Definition. Relaxation and cognitive treatments of anger.. 54. Characteristics and treatment of high-anger drivers. (1995). Brown. 37..L. Cambridge. D.e. improved health may be an important incentive for participation. & Deffenbacher. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol. MA: Harvard University Press.. Dryden.353-373. In S.. (2000. Lynch.J..). J. Anger management is one such intervention. Kassinove (Ed. W. Averill. (1992). (1976). & Salvatore. Davidson. A. Fields. K. Author contact: Sthomas@utk. For example. (2000). In H. Brondolo.Meeting at the crossroads: Women's psychology and girls' development.. N. Oetting.).F. J. E. Cloud. J.TN. New York Springer. Behind the mask. 2000). MacGregor. Women and anger (pp. TN. April). K.Anger and aggression: An essay on emotion.Nashville. (1986). Jack. 47. (1990). Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.with a copy to the Editor: Bultemeier.P. 1993. diagnosis. Stuhr.. 53-54.. Short. M a l l . No.edu. Hough.). Dixon. Deffenbacher. & Denham. Reesman.. people who regularly discuss their anger have better general health. E. Cost offset of an anger management intervention for cardiovascular disease patients. 15.. Issues in Mental Health Nursing.R.. (1993). (1999). Further. 199%. diagnosis.. Time.A. E. Haviland (Eds.Ideal treatment package for adults with anger disorders. libraries. S. Community sites such as schools. Davidson. April 10).. and it is logical to predict their interpersonal relationships will improve when anger episodes are constructively resolved.Constructive anger verbal behavior predicts blood pressure in a population-based sample.L. Huff. In M. 29. (1993). K. 68-90).Anger management using cognitive group therapy.Classroom for hotheads. New York International UniversitiesPress. D. notable for its wide applicability to a variety of constituencies for both primary and secondary prevention. & Gilligan.S. & Maclean. A. and lower body mass index (i. Ellis. 2001 47 .. Health Psychology. Lewis & J. Anger of African American women in the South. A. Handbook of emotions (pp. For some individuals. (1994). L. 173-195). Advanced practice psychiatric nurses should be in the vanguard of health professionals offering this worthwhile training program to their communities. MacGregor. & Thomas..19911. April-June. 63141). K. (1998). Issues in Mental Health Nursing. Paper presented at the society of Behavioral Medicine. B. In H. and treatment (pp. P.). B. B. K. Dixon.. less depression. For example. (2000.net References Anderson-Malico. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the society of Behavioral Medicine. 17-20. & MacLean. Anger disorders: Definition. ProfessionalResource Exchange. less obesity) (Thomas. Thomas & W i l l i a m s . & Rabinowitz. Iournal of Marriage and Family Counseling. churches. Washington.E.interventions in the community.P.2. R.. M. AM techniques are needed desperately by teachers and parents. Thomas (Ed. 151-172). Thomas.2.M. 30(3). Izard. 29. Training in anger management promotes better physical health as well as mental health. 222-226. and social clubs provide convenient venues for workshops and classes. K. Sims. Kassinove (Ed.517. Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders.E.5564. D C Taylor & Francis. DC: Taylor & Francis. J. (1994). New York: Springer. M. anger discussed in a constructive way has a beneficial effect on blood pressure (Thomas. C. Organizational and motivational functions of discrete emotions. Gerlock. (1995). Dealing with anger problems: Rational-emotive therapeutic interventions. MA: Harvard University PreSS. Edwards. A. Washington. Hazaleus. Nashville. (1976). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. higher sense of self-efficacy. Conflict reduction treatment for traffic agents. (1982). Ideal treatment package for children and adolescents with anger disorders. Robinson.
Journal of Advanced Nursing.366-380. Issues in Mental Health Nursing. Thomas. S. August).P. Nursing Research. P.324-330. Public Health Service. Angry? Let’s talk about it. Thomas. (2000. 393409).46(2). Washington. (1994).Measuring the experience. expression. D. & Pulsford.K. Davidson. (1997b). Rossiter. U. Women’s anger: Relationship of suppression to blood pressure. New York Springer. (1995). Washington. & Sydeman. Perceived stress.P.Healthy anger management.Cognitive therapy of anger management: Theoretical and practical considerations. E. Men’s anger: A phenomenological exploration of its meaning. Wegner & J. 25(2). (1998). LD. J. and treatment (pp.) (1993).M. Theoretical and empirical perspectives on anger. E. Wilson. 2. 67-76. Controlling anger: Self-induced emotion change. 53-74). March 20).. DC: Taylor & Francis. Implementing a cognitive-behavioral anger intetwention with African Americans. Moore. Nashville. R. Nursing Research.. TN... G. K.C. Families in Society.S. Thomas. (1998).. April-June.It hurts most around the heart: A phenomenological exploration of women’s anger. Spielberger& I. Washington.P. trait anger. S. (1998a). diagnosis. (1998). M. San Diego. J... J. Assessing and intervening with anger disorders.Women’s anger: Causes. (1991). 63. Elsworth. and control of anger. Thomas.53-57. Applied Nursing Research. Spielkger.Teaching Healthy Anger Management Malmgren. S. S.121-133. Child Develop ment. manifestations and correlates. McCoy. (1999).20. & Droppleman. R. (1990). Anger management modalities: An integrative research review. S.P. J. Thomas.Archives of Psychiatric Nursing. No. & Baumeister. British Journal of Leurning Disabilities. (1999).M. 2001 .. In D. C.).Anger management training and people with moderate to severe learning disabilities. Mayer. Adams. DC: Author. (1991).. Anger disorders:Definition. TN: Author. Hunnisett.303-307.. Nursing Outlook.S. Display d e s for anger zand aggression in school aged children.. R. C. 75. Poster presented at the American Nurses Association. S. (1997). Smith. (Ed. In C. S.R.P.P. & Donahue.An anger management workshop for women inmates. Stress and emotion (Vol.Emotionalintelligence: Popular or scientific psychology? American Psychological Association Monitor. Yalom. Knoxville Nezus-Sentinel. (2000. Sarason (Eds. L. J.. Thomas.P. (2000. Tice. 30(8). S. Thomas.. (1985).203-216. & Lewis. & k k n e r . Women and anger. 67-74. R. J. DC. Pennebaker (Eds. 80-85. 37. 11.. M. Thomas. Mental health: A report of the Surgeon Generul.D.M.D. S.. D. & Herbsman. Coie. Nursing Clinics of Norfh America. 26(2). Poster presented at the American Psychological Association. Englewood Cliffs. & Reneau... J.M.C.. pp. 15. Washington. S. Thomas. (1993). 28. Smucker. Smith.). & Martin. S. CA.L. 48 Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol. C. (1998b. (1997a).. 5. Dc: Taylor & Francis. D. An anger management group for people with a learning disability.P.F. Knoxville. (1992). 40. S. Reeder. (2000). 33.W.L. W. Paper presented at the Society of Behavioral Medicine. 49-67). Handbook of mental control (pp. McCloskey. 147-150. B. & Williams. April). Underwood. The theory and practice of group psychotherapy. British Journal of Learning Disabilities. E. New York Basic Books. Reheiser. R. Controlled burn. Bulechek. Thomas. June). (1995). modes of anger expression and health status of college men and women.Nutsing interventions core to speaalty practice.311422. NJ: Prentice Hall. Thomas. 46. D.P.172-175. B1.P... In H. Kassinove (Ed.D.).P. 20(2).
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.