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@WVp @Vp

RrS AW
RtTl - 2005
RXYo

UpX CWiPm Bi

iPU J TYfNVp
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]Yo N. lWUVu,
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(AWVp AVp) Gm. Gm. H.
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]Yo Gu. L. UWNu WN


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1.4

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1.5

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5.1

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5.2 hPh AWNeLm


5.3 TWUu\ \ AWNeLm
5.4 RXYo\ AWNeLm
5.5 \ AWNeLm
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6.3 UBnd LsL
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7.1

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7.2

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7.2.1

VWjRXYo

7.2.2

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7.2.3

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7.2.4

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7.2.5

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7.2.6

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7.2.7

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8.1 BSo
8.2 RXUfNo
8.3 AUfNoLs
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8.6 UXfNVXLm
8.7 UYhP oYLm
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9.1 Es[h AWNeL LhPUl
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9.2.1
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9.2.2 SLWh
9.2.3 SLVeLs
9.2.4 CWY SLVeLs
9.2.5 T SLW AUlLs
9.2.6 lhP SLW dLs
9.3 FWLm
9.3.1

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9.3.1.1 UYhP Aj LZLm
9.3.1.2 TgNVj JuVm
9.3.1.3 WU TgNVj
9.3.2 AYtu TLs
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10.2 GoLXj hPeLs
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103

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117

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1. SLW AW
2. XlWjY AW
3. RV AW
1

1.1.

4. NUEPU AW, Utm

WdL SLW AWu AmNeLs

5. UdLs SX AW.

JqY SLW AWm RkW AUlTL NVpThP.


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Y NjRm, RoRp
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AdLXjp CkR. WdL SLWm AW, fNT, Ts
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3

WdL SLW AWLp SW UdL[h SPTt\.


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GjdLhPL LrkR. AWNeL AUlLs GuT
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ClTo, CpXRo, GVo, YVo Utm HRu
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AU\, SLL UmTht GW]. UdL[h \d
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X, AWNeLm Utm ARu TLs, AWNeLjtm CRW


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RPoT]
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Um YRY, GpXYt\m Es[PdV WdL SLW
AW, SLWjtm UdLdPVs[ YTLu
RuU Utm NhPm Utm YZdLdLdPVs[
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AYRt LWQeL[ hP].

1.2

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UtLjV IWlTp EWUV AWu rf,


AW
Gu\ AUlu rfVLY LRlThP.
Aqrfd u]o Gem TeZlTU, UhP.
EWUV AWu YPdk TPVjR jRV
BYLs (Teutonic Barbarians), TZeV]o XXV
YrkR]o. YUdL, UV ALWd LhlT, YpXU
TkV UmThP UV ALW AUl Tu\Y
AYoLd RkdLpX. WRN RkWm Utm
RUR RkWm GuTYL[ AYoLd dVU]RL
CkR.
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AWNoLs,
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TPjRXYoLs GuTRj RW, Y Gu\ APV[eLm
AYoLd CpX. AWNeL LrfLp NUVoLs
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CjRLV QSXuL[d LiP jRV


TZe]Pu EWUV AWNUlu Je,
JUlT Utm UVlTjRlThP ALW\V
RPo HtThPT URp HtThP.

CkR CWi WiThP AUlLu NeLUjp J


V AW\ RuV. \ NRV AUlTd
LiP TZe]o Utm HLTjV AW \
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EWUVl TWWu rfdl \m S]LX RV


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Tt
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tLXjp RuV URfojR CVdLm (Reformation)
fNTu RXUV YZdLf NnRPu, RN
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CPdLXju kRV Tp, RkWju UhUV


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_uR AUl
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(Mahalwari) \VL ALm NnVlThP. CkR \p
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1.3

C] AWu Rt\m

XlWjY Bh\, IWlV UdLd,


RtLLU] TLl AUlTL CkRRVpXUp,
UdLPV RV C] EQofVm, YrdL \Vm
AUj LsYRt GqYLm ER NnVpX.
XlWdL[h \ NRWQ UdL[ APd
AYoLs , BdLm NjYRLY CkR. G]Y
CRtLWL, UdLs NVpThPR YUdL BdLm
NjRd V AWLs Ru\ BWmjR T AYt\
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ALWjR \UVL LVm \Vp UdL[ RV
EQo EPVYoL[L Ut\Xm GuTRm AYoL[
JtUlTj AWd NRLUL NVpTP NnVm
GuTRm GjdLh]oLs.
UdLPV RPok JtU EQoY Tt\m,
C] EQoLs AlTPp AYoL[j Wh, Y[of
HtTP ERY m GuTRm AYoLs CRW IWlV
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HtTP HYt. CR TX T]\m t\ip PuUod,
Utm Pu UdLPV CqQoY Rtj
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10

CqY\L, V AW Ju RuV. AW TtV


TZV LjLs U\k RVm Gu\ EQof UXe
UdLPV HtThP JtU, CjRLV AWL[ TLjR.
AkR AlTPp Ru T]k Utm T]\m
t\ip AWLs Ru\m, CkR AWLdPV
NUX Utm C\U ALWm HtLlTh, XShPlTP
Yim Gu\ ElT AWLdPm UdLPjm
UXe CkR. CmUt\m, Tu]h NhPm, RuYRt
Q u\.
C] AWu Y[of
C]
AWLs
YWmTt\
ALWm
Njm
VhL[L CkR]. fNT ALWm JdLlTh
WdL[h U\Vj RPeV LXjp UdLs AYoLPV
EoLd TLl RWjRdL AWLs Up SmdL Li,
AYt\ BRjR]o. Wh vY URm P Su
GpXLdhThP Td Ru ALWm NjR
AWNoLd EU Ei Gu YkR Tm, NUVjR
LhlTjYRt ALWm AWNoLd Ei G]
HtdLiP. G]Y Ru RnL Rt\d LsL
AlTPp, AWNoLs YWmTt\ ALWm TPjR
VhL[ BRjR]o. Clm, CjRLV AWNoLu
BdLm UdLPV RPok SPT\VpX. AjR
LhPUL, C] AWLp AWNdm UdLdPV, NpLs
HtTh UdLs, ReLPV EULdLL AYoLPV
GiQeLs, YrdL \L[ \kR \p AUjd
Ls[ TW]oLs. UdLd WjYm Rm
AWNeLm \kRR] L Vh \ YiU]
Ytj]oLs.
Vh \ u dV LhTL[
Ytj\. AY NUjYm, UdLs C\U Utm RVm
GuT]Ym. Rp NpXlThP NUjY LhT, Wg
WhV[oLs 1789m Bi YhP UR EULs
11

WLP]jp YtjRlThs[. AlT Rp HZ GV


UdLs Rp A]Ym AUR]jk Th NL
NUV Utm T[RW \Lp GqR TTm CpXUp
RkWUL
YZYim
Gu\
Lj
RPok
YjRlThP. UdLPjp RVm, RkWm Utm NUjY
EQoLs UXe AYt\ APYRt AYoLs
EjYLjPu SPYdLLs TXYt\ UtLiPoLs.
CjRLV EQo AYoLPV HtTYRt Wg
Whm dVU] LWQUm Gu NpXlT\.
YWmTt\ Vh \ U\kR T ARPV
SP\Lm U\k T]R GoLXjp AjRLV
Bh \Ls Ru\ VRT, Tojd Ls[ YiV
Lm AYVUt. CqY\L, IWlV LiPjp
Vh \V uYm S] LX RV C] AWLs
HtThP]. CqYWLs Rp, YojRLm Utm VTWm
BVYtp RPLs CpXUp UdLs T[RW
SPYdLL[ UtLs[m, AYt\ TjRm
V]Yt\ LidLm, RkWUL CY GpXYtm
NVpTPm YYL NnR]. CRu LWQUL Xm Utm
Rhp RY] AR NUVjp EV] tTd
SPYdLLs UtLs[lThP].
CqYLV] RV C] AWLs EXLem,
Wp HtThP]. CRu [YL Ru]jR] Bh
NndLs[ RkWm Yim Gu\ Ru]h ElT
UdLPV UXe u\. UdLs GkRkR AWLp
YrkRoL[, AkR AWLu GpXdhThP TLp
AYoLPV RpLs Utm VTWm Tu\YL[
AUj u]YRt RYV] SPYdLL[
UtLiPRu LWQUL, hPjRhP Ik t\iLd
Cm\ uTt\lThP. UtNpXlThP LsLLs
AlTPp HtThP C] AWp UdLPjp JtUV

12

HtTjVR AYtu TLl]m E Nn


LiP]o.
NURoU AW
NURoU LsLV uTtTYoLs AW SuU Rm
Y]m GuTRL L\oLs. G]Y UdLd NL
PlTRt AL A[p Ts EtTj AR]
TokRjRp Tu\Ytp AW LhlT AYVm G]
L\oLs. NURoU AWp Ts EPU, Ts EtTj
NR]eLs Utm TYojR] Tu\YLm RWlTm
YXdL] FVm AYWYo RYd RkRt TX
CdLYim Gu NURoUYLs L\oLs. CkR
AlTPp Ru NURoU AW HtThP.
NURoU AWu dV \lLs YU
1.
J.W. Lo]o GuTYo NRVjp Es[ \Ls
Utm LRpL[ \j W Ut\eL[ NURoU AW
HtTjm Gu s[o. ARt AYo uYm
LWQeL[ GjdLhPL Np\o. TQm, ALWm
XPjp kdu\]. EZlTo AYoLPV
EZltLt\ FVjR TYpX. RXL[
AYoLd TWYRtL] NdV TWm Tu\
\UV CdLpX. ClTs[ Cm\ XPm
ALUL NpYm NWdV YnlL[ Rk UdLPV
Ht\jRrL[ HtTj\. Cp LX RURm,
RYpXR
AYpLm
ALdu\].
RV
T[RWm hPPlTPUp, LhlTPt\ EtTj Td
ClTRp TsLs UYL Pdu\]. FVm \YL
Cdu\. AR NUVjp YX PdLR Xm
HtTu\. CY GpXm VVUt\ RuU, SoUVt\
Td, Ts NojRp ATR lTm Tu\YLs
UXe RUR SPjRu RWm \\ Gum Lo]o
Gjd Lhs[o.
13

Z NURoU AWtL EV X dVU] RuULs


RWlThdu\].
1. RXjY \V d\.
NRVjp T[RW VL TQdLWo Utm
HZ, Ts EPVYo Utm T[t\Yo,
WiYo Utm WiPlTYo Gu Ht\jRrL[
Fdj UdL[ CYLVL du\ RXjY
\V Jj Ht\jRrpXR NRVjR HtTj\.
2. ThL[ God\
GpX YLV] ThL[m Jj YX
LlTo Utm YX NnYo CPV JtUVm,
JjZlTm HtTjR V\.
3. A]Ydm T[RW NUjYm
NRVju TpY LdPV Es[
T[RW V] AL A[X] CPYV \j
T[RW NUjYm HtTP ER\. NpYm lhP
XPm dLlTYR Goj HZ Utm TQdLWo Gu\
XUV ALt GpXm NUYnlLs T\m, AR]p
Pdm SuULu TX] ATdLm ER\.
XY Gu\ TVp Qo, NURoU AW Ht\jRrL[
ALt GpXWm NUUd\ Gu l\o.
4. RVo EPUV God\

5. EtTju NRVd LhlT


RSTo Ts EtTj VtLp DTYR Rj
AWN AR] RVUVUd SP\lTjRYim
GuT NURoU AWu LhTLp dVU]. EtTj
NnVlTm ThLs TUdLdL TVuTPYim.
G]Y AW AYt\ RV UVUd UdLs ATdm
YLp HtT NnV Yim.
6. NRVjt dVjYm R\
RSTo SXd U\L, NLSXu GtLlTh
NRVjt NURoU AW dVjYm R\. V
Utm VSX TdLd GWL TSX] NL AW
LlTtYRt m\. NRVjt GY GY
RYV,
AY
AY
AWNXV
EtTj
NnVlTPYim GuT dVU] dL[m.
7. RYdLtT EZlTLd SuU R\
EZldLt\
FVm
Utm
TXuLs
EZlTLd
PdL
Yim.
JY]
EZltLt\Y FVUjRp GuT NURoU AWu
WR] LsLVm. ARu jRkRm JYu
\UdLt\t Tu\ T, AYu RYdLt\o Tp
FVm.
8. \Ls

R SToLs Nj lTR NURoU AW God\.


AR dYRt Vtd\. RVo EPU GuT
hd NUU] Gum, NRVjp eL[
Rtd\ Gum L\. Xm XR]m
GpXdm TY] Gum, lhP Xd EVRpX
Gum Yd\.

_]SVL Utm TQU Y[of]V NN^


AW m\. RtLXjp Xu\ AWVp Utm
T[RW AUlLp, TlTVLm, _]SVL U
Ut\jR LiYW Vtd\. NN^ jRkRm, AWVp
X] AUV] YL[V Sm\.

14

15

Ul (Evaluation)
jRkR m, T[RW CVdLm Gu\ \m
NURoU AWu \Ls Utm \Ls uYU.
A. NURoU AWu \Ls
S] LX AWLp NURoU AW Lm WTXULm,
YU YnkRRLm Lr\. EXLem TpY
YYeLp NURoU AWLs Es[]. T SuU jR
A]j SPYdLLm AW AeL RXYR
LQXm. RV dVjYm YnkR T[RW Utm
Rp SPYdLL[ AWN Ru YNm Gjd Li,
AYt\ LhlTj\. A]j AWLu TdLm,
NN^ jRkRju TRp NpYRLY R\.
1. AW RUR]d Lhm, UhU LiPRL
LRlT\. EtTju dV AmNUL UdLs
SXu LRlT\.
2. NL Ht\jRrL[ AVp oYUL
[dYPu, AjRLV NU]t\ XL[
TdYR NN^ jRkRju RXVV
LPUL[L
\lT\.
T[RW
Ht\jRrLs, Y[eLu TV]t\ ETVLm, Utm
\Vt\ hPPp Tu\Yt\ A\Y d\.
3. NRVjp Xu\ T[RW Ht\jRrL[
A\Y Tdm YLp, R EPU]
AV TdL GjRd\. CR]p GVo
YVWp WiPlTY A\Y RodLlTh,
UmThP NRVm EYL YLXlT\.
4. EtTju LhT, NL TVuTP RW,
RUR XTm Au. RtNXL[ XT
SdLjtLL Au, NL SXdLLY
\lTj oYLm Nn\.
16

5. EZdm YodLj]u YrdL RWjR EVoj


NRVjp dV AkRvjR HtTjj
RYPu, AYoLu TfZ] UmTjRm
NN^ AW Vtd\.
6. mm Ut\eLs A]jRm TlTVLm,
AWVp VLm UhU HtTPYim GuTR
Yj\.
CqYLp
_]SVLm
YtlTRp NpXm ER\.
7. CY A]jtm UXL RUR]
RYLkm, Tl ThLkm
j AYu AWVp Utm T[RW
SPYdLLp TeLtL TXYLLp ER\.
NURoU AWu \Ls
Ut\lThP NRLj RuUL[ Ttlm,
NN^ AWN] rdLm LWQeL]p LUVL
UoN]m NnVlT\.
1. RURd UX] AUlTL AW
NVpTYRp, RUR RkWm TdLlT\.
AW G_U]]Lm, UdLs AWu
NYLoL[Lm BPdm. C HtPVRu.
2. REPU
Utm
RSTo
VtLs
\kRs[lTYRp, AL ThN EZl] LhP
URoLs tTPUhPoLs.
3. jRkR p TX SuULs ClTRL
Ru]m, SP\d JqYR AUlTLY
C LRlT\. AWN AjR] AYpL[m
LYdL CVX. C LXlTdp, RURjRm
FZXm, VRfNLWjRm Rtj m.
Cm\ AWp RtNX XTjp CVeL
YnlpX.
17

4. LoYo BoYm Utm l GuTR NN^


LsL
AeLdLpX.
CR]p
LoYoLd GqRU] RokRdm
EULm AdLlTYpX. AW Adm
ThL[ UhU TVuTjm Xd
LoYo Rs[lT\o.
5. NN^ jRkRlT NVpTm SL[ P,
R CpXR YL \Ls LiP SLs
TpYLp u]s[]. ERWQjt
NN^ WxV Utm ]Y P AUdL
TuUPe u]t\m Lis[.
NN^ AW GuT ZlTeLu Pe Gum
LRlT\. ARu EiUV] CXhVeLs GY GuTR
GYm AkXo. Gm, C EXLm Ym YWYtT
Tts[. LmNjR UolTYoLs NNNjR J
RYR TRVL TWhu\]o. Cu\V EXp A]j
Y[of Tt\ SLm, NN^ TRXV Npu\].
UdLs ReLd ERY uYm AWNV YWYtu\]o.

1.4

TSX ApX UdLs SX AW

T SX AW GuT Cu\V CkV Sht


Tkm. CkV AWVp NhPjp AW YLhm.
LhTLp T SX AWu kR]Ls YL
RWlThdu\].

AWVp NhP 39 (A) YZ RYV] BRWeLs


(B) TSXu Ldm CVtL Y[eLs To(C) Nj
lt Gol (D) BiLs Utm TiLd AYWYo
EZltLt\ TWThNUt\ FVm (E) EZlTYo EPpSXu
Utm SpYr, TTl lTL TiLs Utm
ZkRLs Um (F) ZkRL[ YXdLUojRp
BVYt\l Ttm Gjd\.
AWVp NhP 41 YRY
YXd EU, Lpd EU, Utm YX
CpXRo Vo S]p RdLlThPYoLs Utm EPp
F]t\dL] EUL[ AW TtjRm.
41 YX YnlLs HtTjRp, Lp AjRp
Vo, SnYnlThPo, F]t\od ERRp. EQo
oY Xp, UR SVm LhdLdLlTP Yim Gu
\\. AYts ULd T LX NL, EZdm
YodLj]d
VVU]
,
RrjRlThPYoLs,
TZeV]o Utm St\ Lu Lp Utm
T[RW AX`Ls, UdLd NjQ, T LRW
UmT BV] APem. CY A]jm, UdLu SXu
L, BhV[oL[p \Yt\lTPYiV C]eLs.
CYt\ UX AWLs \Yt\Up T]m, Uu\m
AY jR C]eLp RXP V. (AWVXUl
NhPm: Tj 37)
UdL[ SX AWu Rt\m Utm Y[of

AWVp NhP 98, , NL, T[RW AWVp


X] NRV AUlTu\ HtTj GkR[t
U, AkR A[t AR] TLj RWdV
Y]eL[ HtTj, UdLu RV YrdLd BRWUL
Cdm TSXjR UmTjR AW ]m Gu
\.

Cu\V Xp, EXp Es[ JqY AWm,


Ru] UdLs SX AWNL ujd LsYp, AR
BoYm Lhu\. B]p TjRuTRm t\iu
Cp, XU YRUL CkR. TmTuUV]
AWLs, LYp AWL[LY CkR]. NhP Je
TRXV AWLu RXVV TVL LRlThP.
UdLs SXu GuT RURoLPjm, RUR

18

19

dLPjm PlThP. UtT LYp AWLs, UdLs


SX AWL[L U\Yim Gu EXLju LY]jR DojR
AWVp RjYOVp, Xv ] \jRdLYo.
RuRp CeXk Shp, UdLs SX AWu kR]
Brk YuV. Bm, GgV TLp LrkR
Tp ApXUp, CeXk Shp, UdLs SX AW Y
YLLp Y[okR. CeXk Shp, Rt NeLeLs,
TVuLs RX] NN^ kR]V[oLs CkR jRkRm
RZj Y[W LWQU]o.
CeXk WRUo Bhu RXUp EY]
AW, RV LRWl TLd C YYm LjR.
CWpY \, XdL WeLeLs, G@ RtNXLs,
CeXk
Ye,
TdYWj
\
RV]
ShPUVdLlThP]. TZUYR Lh]o Bhd
YkRPu, ShPUVdLp, Rn Tt\.
CeXkp, LlTV A[X] NL Llh
hPm Cu\[m SP\lTjRlThs[. hl
TiULs eLXL Tm A]Ym ARtL]
TeLl] RWYim. CRu Xm, YV okRo
KnVm, LmTiLs TVuTm YiQm ERjhPeLs,
YXVt\d Zlj hPeLs, C ZkRLd
Us[ mTjt TLs, Tsd ZkRLd Tp,
Lol RnUoLd Tp Utm N` EQ, CXYN
UjY NY, CXYN UpXd Lp Utm RW[U]
Lp FdLjRL BV] NVpTjRlTh Yu\].

IdV AUdL VW, YU Tt\ RURjY


jRkReL[ Ru AWVp AUlp Yj\. G]Y,
UdLs SXu GuT TmTuUVd, HtPV
LjRL ClTpX. AYoLs URu UVL Ru]V
NokdL Yim GuTR Yju\]o. Gm,
UdLs SX AWu hPeLs TU[ AkShp
LQlTu\]. Y] NL TLl hPeLs,
TlTLs, \kR NXLs, Y[i EtTjLd
UVm, CXYN Lp Lp, EVo Lpd SYi AWu
ER BV] AYts APem. CRt ERWQUL
Pu] Ts[jRd BQVju TL[ NpXXm.
vPu, SoY, PuUod Tu\ SLp, AL
Ylu YXL Y] A[p UdLs SXjhPeLs
SP\lTjRlThP]. IWlV Shu J X SLp
EVokR Utm \kR YYnLu jVNm TjUPet
\YLY Es[.
NN^ AWLm UdLs SX AWLs Ru. B]p
AeL
SXjhPeLs
UpXp
YdLlTh
NVpTjRlTu\]. RoL Utm BuL SXuL[d
Lhm, Ts Rp YRU, XShPlT\. WxV,
S] SLp, Ru Rp, hPhP T[RWjR
LikR. YtLWU] IkRi hPeL]p, CWiPm
EXLlTu T, SpX YY] WxV DhV.

CmUTm hPm, TX] YlL[m,


UdLu VLhlTh JdLj]m, CeXk Shp
NjVU]. Cp Vl Rm Nn VRp, CjR]
LUV] YlLd u]m, Shu EtTj Y[of
Tt\ Ru! AkShp AL A[ T[RW Ru\
LQlT\.

CkVp UdLs SX AW GuT U Tt\RL


CpX. ASL hPeLp, YX Ynl GuT GhPd
L]YLY Cum Es[. CXYN Utm LhPVd Lp
lPjRkR A[p u]t\m APkRm, Cum
dLlThP CXd] Ap Sm APVpX. CRt
\kR GjdLh, T]u YV YWp CXYNd LhPV
Lp AdLlTm GuTRm UdLs A]Ydm
YXYnl RWlTm GuT]Ym.

20

21

UdLs RLV LhlTjRm fp


SPYdLLs RPWlTPpX. u]t\lTRp CkV
NpYp hdLhPVL, AR Tt\d\, Ls,
AVU, JeuU Utm NmTp BV] Lru\]
Gu\p A LpX.
CkVp
YdLlThP
IkRi
hPeLs
A[p TV] RkR G]d LRXm. BLu dL
AQLs LhV, TN] YNL[ HtTjV. Cm
Utm G@ RtNXLs oUQm NnR CWp
GguLs Utm ThLs RVl, Rk Utm RX
RPo ETLWQeLu EtTj Tu\Y Ap APem.
RVo \ Y]eL[ P, Tj\ Y]eLs,
Su FddLlThP]. Tj\ Y]eLs Y[of
Tt BdLm NjR Yim GuT TiR Su
A[lTV BNVm.
UdLs SX AW: YWV\m, CVpm
BWLm GuTYo A]j UdLm NV] NkR
UldhTPR Rjp, UdLm, NV] FVm
T\jRdL YLp T[RW NdL[ Ut ApX j
AUdm \PV AWNPV NLm G] T[RW
p YWVd\o.
T.W. Luh, UdLd TXRWlThP NL NY
Nn\ AW G] UdLs SX AWN Yod\o. Um
J ULu, RuPV NRWQ YY] CZdm
ThNjp AYd EV TLl RY, UdLs SX AWu
AlTP SdLm G]m AYo \o.

A]j RWl UdLdm UdLs SX AW ERL[


Nn\.
UdLs SX AW Gu\ kR], AWVp
LhTht ApX. C jR kR], AW Gu\
AUlu SdLm Utm NVpTLd, V TUQjR
Ajs[ G]Xm. UdLPV SX] TYR AWu
RXVV LPU G] [hP Utm AvPhp Tu\
UtLjV AWVp RjYOVoLs Ls[]o. CRV
TiPV CkV AWVp kR]V[oLm s[]o.
AWu LPU UdLs SX] LlTR Gu\ CYoL[ kR]
TU[ SP\d Htd Ls[lTPpX.
TjRuTRm t\iu uTu Ru UdLs
SX AWu dVjYm Su EQWlThP. RtWhu
[YL, ASL Wf]Ls GkR]. TV[oLd
UNU] Tf rXLs, AR NpYm KPjp kR
X, SLWeLs Utm Nl TLu ALl,
RtSnLu TWYpLs, YXYnluU ALl,
RX] XY RV] AjRLV Wf]Lp J
XYm.
AVp Utm RphT Y[ofu LWQULm
X GoU\ [Ls UR NRVjt HtThP]. CR]p
TjRuTRm t\iu CWiPm Tp TU[ UdLs
SXu LdL JeTjm NhPeLs TU[ CVt\lThP].
RtNX NhPm \ldLlThPR UdLs SX AW \kR
LXUL LRlT\.
T SX AWu [dLm

alUu GuTYo, UdLs SX AWN, LmNjtm,


RUR RjYjtPV HtTjRlThP UjVvR
AUlTL L\o. RVoj\d UVm YZem
AR NUVm, UR NLjt \kR ThN ERL[ NnY
UdLs SX AW Ru\ EjWYRm G]m l\o.

TpY kR]V[oL[p rdLiPY UdL[ SX


AW YWVdLlThP.

22

23

1. AL A[p NL NYLm TLlTm


AlTR UdLs SX AWNm. T.W. Luh

2. Tt\d\, Ls, AVU, JeuU,


NmTp BV UdLu Ik GLPu
Th, AlT UdLs SX AWu SdLm.
TiR S.
3. \kR ThN YrdLjRWm, Ynlm JqY
ULdm EjRWYRm AlT UdLsSX
AWNm. ..Gf.Lp.
4. YXYnl, YYn, Lp, UjY ER, NL
TLl Utm A]j UdLdm YdL
GuTR YZeLdV AWNeLjR LiP
AUl UdLs SX AWNm. AUojV Uo
Nu.
UdLs SX AWu RuULs
1. NRVjp RURPV Ul]m,
R]m Yj, AYu UdLjRdL
YrdL SPjR ER\. A]YWm NUUL
Td\.
2. u]t\ TL[ UtLs\. XfojRm,
Y[iUu Y[of, XLu LhlT,
VV X AjVYV EQl Ts AeL,
LRWm, Lp, TSX Yr, Utm T[RW
XL[ EVojY Tu\ u]t\ TL[
UdLs SX AW UtLs\.
3. TWkR A[p NL NYL[ UtLs\.
UdLs SpX\p YZ, YiV NL
NYL[ UdLs SX AW UtLs\.
iPU Jl, YWRhNQ, ZkR UQm,
EPu LhP HRp Tu\ NL AYXeL[
Jj P EV SPYdLL[ UtLs\.
UdLs TVu T\ TsLs, UjYU]Ls,
24

Tu\Yt\ AUd\. AjPu YX CpX


iPhPjtL] YWQm, T LX NLLs,
Vo TWUl Tu\ NL NYLm UdLs
SX AWNp NnVlTu\].
UdLs SX AWu NVpTLs
UdLs SX AWu TpY NVpTL[ u
C]eL[L dLXm.
1.

Ke\Tjm TLs

2.

TLl TLs

3.

SXl TLs.

1. Ke\lTjm TLs
NhP Ke TWUl, NUR]jR XShPp, NL
WLs Utm NL WR SPYdLL[ JdRp,
Yl YR LXYWeL[ APdRp, RX[oLs
WiPlTPUp RjRp Tu\Y Je\lTjm
TLp APem.
2. TLl TLs
EsSh NhPm Ke TWUl, WkV JtUV
LjRp,
AlTP
Y]eLu
UXiU,
lTjRlThP RX RPo Utm RWY
TdYWj, Ke\lTjRlThP YL SPYdLLs,
h Utm CRW t\eLu Rl, AVpSh Sp\,
TTX]m
Utm
Shu
UhUVm
C\ViUVm TRp Tu\Y TLl TL[L
LRlT\.
3. SXlTLs
UXV, LXW Tu\ Ls[ SnL[ JjRp,
Lp Y]eLs Xm LpXUV TdRp, RV
25

YU]jR NUfWn TePp, R Es[YoLd YX


YnlTjRp, \j\ ojRm, XojRm,
RpLs Y[of, NL Y[of hPeLs, NL AYXeL[
AV AjRp Tu\Y SXlTLs G] LRlT\.
eLdu, UdLs SX AW, UdLPV AjVYV
Utm A NokR RYL[l oj Nn\.

4. \]t\ oYLj] Rtdm

UdLs SX AW TtV UoN]eLs

AW NW Ru]oY Ri Y]eL[m AW
Je\TjYRp, AjRLV Y]eLs QdL
Xd Rs[lTu\ ATVm G\.

UdLs SX AWu \TLs G] rdLiP C]eLs


hdLhPlTu\].
1. AL NX dm AUl

L ALU] TL[ AWN Ht NnYRp, \]t\


oYLm RtdL Ynls[. UR Y[eLs Utm
CVtL Y[eLu RY\] UXiUdm A YYdm.
5. Ru]oY Ri Y]eL[ UkRUdm

UdLs SX AWu dVjYm

2. RUR Vt Utm RkWjR Jd \

UdLs SX AWu \lTu\ UoN]eLs


NV]Y Gu LR CVX. AjRLV AWu
\TLs Clu, Ad\TL[d L[k AR]
NmUTjR VtdL YiU RW, AR] AqY\
hP V.

URu RUR RkWjRm, Ru]jR]


NokjRXm UdLs SX AW AUTlpX. URu
StNokR Y[ofV, Bt\Xm CqYL AWp
TQ CVX. A]jtm URoLs AWN Nok YZ
YiV TZdLjt B[YRp, UdLs ReL[l TtV
J Rr U]lTuUV Y[ojdLsm Ynls[.

V SdLeLs Utm dLsL[ FdjRp,


ANRWQ oYL RUReL[ L[Rp, SXjhPeL[ TY
CPYp Wn NnRp, BdLm Njm SToL[
LiPk, AYoL[ dRp, Ru]oY AUlL[
FdjRp Tu\ SPYdLL[p UdLs SX AWN
NmUTjR CVm.

3. ALWYodLj]d RYVt\ dVjYm

UdLs SX AWN Yp Es[ dLpLs

AWu LsLL[ EYdYm, AYt\


SP\TjYm ALW YodLj]d AL
TelTRp, AYoLd AR dVjYm YZeLlT\.
CRu
LWQUL,
TpYLp
Shu
u]t\m
TlTPYRL Uodv RX] AOoLs Lj
Rjs[]o.

NmUTjRlThP UdLs SX AW GuT HhP[p


A]YWm LYokRm, Xu\ NL, AWVp Utm
T[RW Wf]L[p, HhP[p Es[ jRkReL[
SP\d Li YY L L]U]RL LRlT\.
rdLiP LWLs ARt LWQm Gum \Xm.

TpYLX] NL NYjhPeLd AL
NXYm. CR]p HZ SLd CjRLV AWNUl
GhPd LVLY Lr\.

1. UdLsRLl TdLm
AR UdLsRL]p, A]j YLm Y[eLs
Tt\d\V \. oYLm dLt\R \.

26

27

Tt

2. ALLu BQYl Td
SXjhPeLs SpX\p Yt T\, AYt\ AUp
Tjm AWNeL ALLs ReL[ UVL Ap
DTjd Ls[ Yim. AjRLV AolTl AR
\. CR]p hPlThP hPeLs, TV]t\R \.
3. T[RWf U

T A
LhP CPm WlL.
1.

S] AW ______ AWNm.

CkV Tu\ Y[m SLp, Y[of Utm


hPlTdLdLL, NXPlTm RL, Shu YYV
P ALU P Ynls[. CR]p AkV
Y]eLPk LP]L TRp Tu\ WfN]Ls
GZdm. CRu LWQUL AR SdL HtTPm
CPi.

2.

UdLs SX AW jR kR] ______ Shp


RuRp YuV.

3.

vPu, PuUod, SoY ______ SL[m.

3.

SLW AW] YWV.

4. UdLPV V U]lTuU

4.

NN^ AW] YWV.

5.

UdLs SX AWu NRLj RuUL[ dLUL L.

TWkR kR]m, RkR Sdm, UdLPV


U]lTep, Ut\m L AYVm. V _, UR
LiQhPjp UdLs ReLds[LY YtU
TWhPdP. RN SX] Ttl TLdL Yim.
5. NL AYXeLs
LXm LXUL, SU NLju WVl Tn Es[
iPUd LU, LjRU \, XfYuRoLu
VRfNLWm RV] AWNeLju SXjhPeL[ YYL
Tjs[.
6. A\SLd dVuU

T B

T C
6.

C] AWu Y[ofV [dL.

7.

XlWjY AWu GfV Bn NnL.

T D
8.

UdLs SX AW j Y] LhW YWL.

9. AW Gu\ AUlu TQU Y[ofV AXL.

Ts NokR YrdLV WR]m Gu BhP


Xp, UdLs A\SLd dVjYm RYp RVdLm
Lh\oLs. LPU EQom, Gjd LiP Tp
AolTlm ARd Li Y\. Shu
SXjhPeL[ YtLWUL NVpTjR, UdLu
JjZl Lm AYVUm. SpX UdL[p UhU
\kR UdLs SX AWN EYdd Ls[ CVm.

28

29

AjVVm 2

AWu - Rt\m - LsLLs


AWu Rt\m Tt AWVp AOoLs TXYLVL
Yjs[oLs. AW Ge GlT, GqY RuV
GuTRtL] [dLm YWXtp PdLpX. G]Y
AWVp AOoLs LeLs AlTPp AW ClTjRu
RudL Yim Gu TXYLlThP YRj\dV
LjdL[ Npd\oLs. AqY NpXlThs[
LjdLs TX Ei Gm J X Uhm uYm
TdLeLp YdLlThdu\].

2.1

1.

RnL Rt\ LsL

2.

NL JlTkRd LsL

3.

RnY Utm RkRYd LsL

4.

YUd LsL

5.

TQUd LsL

RnL Rt\ LsL

GpX LsLm CY Lm TZUV].


CRuT LPs AWN Rtj Bh NnYRtd
AWNW Vdu\o LPd TXL AWNo AYu
WVL Bh Nn\o GuT CdLsLu
LjRm. ULTWRjp CdLsL lPThd\.
BWmTjp UdLs ZlT] rXp YrkRRLm,
AfrXV ALt AUV] rXp YrYRtd
ER Lh UdLs C\Y] Yid LiPRLm

30

ARuT C\Yu AYoLd AWNW Bh NnV


TjRRL Ut\lThP CLNjp NpXlThd\.

4.
AWNd GWL NnVlTm Wh NhP
V] ALWjR GlTRt NUUm.

T]Zm t\ip CeXk ShP RXm


_mv Uu]o Bh NnRo. AYo p C\Y]
TX C\ ALWjR AWNoLs NnR LWQj]p
AYoLs C\Yd LW]YoL[L LRlThPoLs.
C\Yd UhU AYoLs LhlThPYoLs Gum
AYoLs e NnVdPRu NRWQ UdLs RdL
V GuTRLm YWXtp NpXlThd\.
ARTX jYNUVjm AW Utm fNTd
CPV Lj YtULs LWQUL WfN]Ls GkR
T C\ Y Rt\ LsL TtV YReLs
SPlTt\]. ALWju \lPm C\YuRu GuTp
GpXdm EPuT CkRRm AqYLWjR
SP\.p NjY AWNW ApX fNTV (Tl
BiPYo) Gu\ YT CkR.

CdLsL SeLXjt UdLPV XYkR


Gu\m CRW TX LWQeL[p tLXjp LPlThP.

AWNoLs C\Yu WL[L LRlThPoLs.


AYoLs RLRYoL[L UdLd e NnRm AYoL[
GodL UdLd EU CpX. AqY Goj Wh
SPdU]p A C\Yd GW] Wh GuTRL
LRlThP. AWNo C\Y]p VdLlThP AYPV
W GuTRp AWNW GolT NVL Gu
YdLlThP. RnL Yd LhThu dVU] X
LjdLs dLUL Z RWlThs[].
1.
AWNo C\Y]p VdLlTh Bh
NnYRt ALWm RWlThd\o.
2.
AWNo TWmTW TWmTWVL Bh NnYRt
C\ ALWm Ttd\o. Bh Nnm EU
RkRPk ULd Np\.

\]n
CdLsL TX LQeLp LiPk \Ls
Utm \Ls NpXlThdu\]. \Ls Gu Todm
T ZlTU] rXp UdLPV AUV
HtTjYRt RnL LhT ERd\. UdLs
JuTh Bh NnTYod APe SPdm Td HtTP
ER Nnd\. AWNo UdLd SuU UhUpXUp
ULs NnR Tm AWNd GWL Wh NnY
NhPm Utm JeL TWUlTRt BhV[oLd
AlTPVL AUkR GuT lPjRdL. Cm\
Vh AWt TdL TXUL LrkR. Gm tLXjp
CRWYL AWLs HtThPT T UdLPV
CdLsLd BRW \k LXlTdp LPlThP.
\Ls Gu Todm T LPs UdLdLL
AWN Rtj AWNd ALWm Lj X
NUVeLp NoYLWm NnVm AUjRo GuT
HtdLs[jRdLRL CpX. TjRY[oLdPV
CdLsLd Gol HtThP. CdLsL CRW YLp
AW RuYRt TRLUL SeLXm YWm Ck
YkR. AWVp Ck fNT dLlThkR]p
IWlV TLs GpXYtm CdLsL U\k NRV
JlTkRd LhT RuV Gu YWXt BVoLs
l\oLs.

3.
AYo Nnm LVeLd AWNo C\Yd
UhU Tp NpX LPUlThd\o.
31

32

2.2

NRV JlTkRd LhT

AW Rt\d LsLLp RnL Rt\ LsL


TX CdLsL TZUV]m WjTt\Um.
CdLsL UdLPV HtThP JlTkR AlTPp
AWNeLm RuVRL \.
BWmTjp UdLs LhlTL[t\ Je \Ls
uTt\lTPR NRV AUlp RkWUL Yrk YkRoLs.
ClTlThP X CVtL X Gu NpXlThP.
CqYUlp JqYYm AYWYo lTlT YrkR]o.
Ce TXdLYoLs, TXUt\YoL[ APd]oLs. AYoLs
lTmTX YiVR Tt LiPoLs. Ut\YoLd
AYLs PjR]Y Gu\ AdL\ AYoLd PV.
eLm Lhp GlT Lh W_ Gu LRlThPR
ARlTX YU EPVYoLs AYoLd YiVR
T\kR. YU EPVo EU EPVWL
[e]o. B]p C UdLPV u]t\jt
GqYm ER NnVpX. AUhu SkRYoLs
Utm \U CpXRYoLs YrdL SPjY L]UL
CkR. CjRLV XUV Ut GpXm u]\
AYoL[ LhlTjRdV AUl Ju RY Gu\
Lj UdLPV HtThP. CRu [YL AYoLs
GpXm Nok T JlTkRm Ju Nn Li
Rp NLjR Rtj ARu \ AWN
RtjRoLs Gu [dYRu NRV JlTkRd
LhT Gu NpXlT\.
T]u Utm T]Zm t\iLp T
UdLPV BRW T H\jRZ GpXm
HtdLs[jRL CkR. adLo GuTYo Ru RXL
CRt AVp oYU] [dLm RkRo. CeXk ShP
NokR RUv alv Utm _uXd GuTYm Wuv
ShP NokR ^ GuTYm CdLsLu V
BRWY[oLs. CYoLs Ym NRV JlTkRd
33

LhThP[oLs Gu AZdLlThPoLs. CYoLs


YPV NRV JlTkRm TtV LsLLs Jl Sd
AlTPp Z RWlThdu\].
alv

1588 - 1679

Xd

1632 - 1704

1712 - 1778

1. CYoLPV
d V ]
pLs
XVRu (1651)

p AWNeLm
(1690)

NRV JlTkRm
(1762).

2. CVtL X
CVtL Xp
URu TVm,
ALWm AWVp
NUjYm NV]
Gu AVUp
CkRu. VV,
AVVeLs Gu
TWUp
LeLd
NUU]
YrdLV
SPj]u.

CVtL Xp
URu LU]
rXp
YrkRu
Gu\m AW
Gu\ AUl
AYPV
SPYdLL[
JeTj SPj
NpX RY Gu
EQokRu.

34

CVtL Xp
URu RuPV
RYL[
TtdLi
AUV]
rXp SpX
\p
YrkRu
Clm R]d
Gu EPU
YiUu
NodL
BWmjRlT
NUX
UThP.

3. CVtLfNhPm
CVtL Xp
URoLPV
SPYdLL[
JeTj
LhlTjYRt
p NhPm
CpX.
URPV
U]NhRu
AYPV
YrdLd
BRWUL CkR.
JqYYm

5. NRV
JlTkRm
CVtLf NhPm
UR EQoL[
WTdLUp
AYPV
SPYdLV
LhlTju\
SV
WTdm
NhPUL
Cdu\.

TjR
AlTPp
ApXUp UR
GiQm Utm
NL EQo
AlTPp
CVtL NhPm
HtT\.

EU URPm
CVpTLY
ClTRm; Eo,
RkWm Utm
EPUVVYtd
URd
CVtLXV
EU Cd\.

CVtL Xp
URu
RkWU]Y]L
Cd\u.
URu Gu\
AlTPp
AYdV
EUL[ AYu
Tt
ATd\u.

4 . C V t L
EU
AYWYo
YUV
Tj CVtL
EU AU\.

35

V TLl
Utm RtLl
BVYLd
Es[ RuPV
EULs eLXL
CRW
GpXYtdm
TY]
C\Ud URu
ReLPV
EUL[ hd
Lj JlTkR
AlTPp
C\Ud
LhTh
SPd\u.

CVtL NhPjR
SP\
TjYRtLL
RYlTm NVp
Ju\ HtTjR
URu JlTkRm
Ju\ Nn
Ls\u. X
EULs RW
CRW EULs
AkR NVd
RWUp AYW
YjLsu\u.

36

AW Gu\
AUl
URoLs
ReLPV
RlThP
\m
AYoLPV
Jh UjR h
AlTPm
HtTjdLsm
AUlTm.
ERWQUL A,
B, C, D
GuTYoLs
AYPV
RlThP
\p
EUL[
hLd\oL[
ApXUp CkR
A+B+C+D.
CYoLs
GpXm Nok
hPL
EUL[
hd
LdLpX.

6. C\U
alv C\U
A[Yt\,
dLVR
Y Vdm RW
VR,
UV]
NhPjtm
UmThP NhPm,
, EPULu
\lPUY
AW, fNT
BVYtd
UX]. ARt
GWL Wh NnV
VR.

7. RkWm
Xd
C\UPV
AW Ju\ Tt
NpXpX
AYPV
AWNeLm
YWV\
NnVlThP
UdLd
LPUL[
\Yt\
YiV
URPV
Edm,
RkWjtm
EPULdm
TLl Rk
AYL[
AYd E
NnV YiV.
Xd T UdLs
C\UVRu
l\W
ApXUp NhP
C\UV Tt
lPpX.

37

Ju WiP
UdLu
AUlPU
C\U Cd\
G]Y ^
UdLs C\UV
Yjs[o
G]Y UdLs NhP
oYU] C\U
PVYoL[L
Cd\oLs. T
Lj Ju\
C\UVm. CkR
C\Uu dV
AmNeLs
ARPV JtU
RjRuU,
WkRWRuU
\d LdL
VR
UV]
Utm YVm
EU LiPP
VR.
AWNeLm UdLs
C\Uu
AlTPp
CVeV Bm.
^
C\UPV
AWNm ARu r
CVem
AWNeLjRm
YTj
Lhs[o.

CVtL Xp
RkWm AWN
Nok AW]p
YZeLlTh
EVdLlT\.
AR]XV A
dLlT\.
AWd GWL
AR] TVuTjR
V.

Ed EU
RkWm Utm
EPUd EU
GuTRpXm
URd
CVtLVLY
Es[YVm.
CYL[
AWNeLm UdL
V.

8. RURm
AWm
alv
LjlT
RUR
EULs
A]jm
AWNp
YZeLlTTY
L[m AR]p
AY
EVVYL[L
Cdu\].
RURu
JqYYm
C\U
ALWjt
LhlTh
YL[ NjR
Yim.

38

p AWp
RUR RkWm
GuT
C\UPV
AWNp RWlTY.
C Bh
ALWPV
AWd GWL
CR] TVuTjR
V. AWPu
CQk AR]
TRp Yim.

RURu
AYdL] p
AWp X
EUL[
Ttdu\u
AYLs
(A) C\UVp
TdLlTu\
T Ru]
Unj Lsm
EU.
(B) AW AY]
iu\T
AYu EW
TLj
Lsm EU.
(C) AYPV
Ed
EjWYRm RW
VR ApX
TRk
C\dLlThP
AWNd GW]
EU

YWVdLThP NhP
V]
AWNeLLjR Tt
GjWdu\.

alv, Xd Utm ^
CkR YPV LjdL[ JlYU AlTPp
LQXm. alk X LjdL[m Xdu X
LjdL[m
^
GjdLi
NRV
JlTkRdLsLV Yd\o. ^ Utm Xd BV
CYm CVtL Xp URu UrfPm
RkWULm CkRu Gu\ Ljp JulThs[]o.
JlTkR AlTPp HtTm p AWNeLm AYVU]
G] CYoLs L]oLs. CYm AW Y AWNeLm
Y Gu L]m JlTkRjR AlTPVL Li
AWNeLm RuV Gu\ LjR ^ Htd
Ls[pX. CYm UdLPm Es[ C\U
ALWjR JlTkRm dLpX Gu L]oLs.
^PV Wm Xd]PV Wm Ju\ Gu\m
AYoLPV LLs al^d NkRU]Y.
NRV JlTkRd LhT- J Ul

9. AW Utm
AWNeLm
AW Utm
AWNeLm Gu
ApX
NhPlTV]
Utm
Lr\X]
C\U Gu
alv
YTjRpX.

AW Utm
AWNeLm Um
AW Utm
NRVm
BVYL[ Xd
YTj\o
AYPV
LsL

39

C\UPV
AWNm ARt
rlTk
NVXtm
AWNeLjRm
^
YlTj
Lh\o.

alv, Xd Utm ^ BVYoLu NRV


JlTkRd LhT AWu Rt\m Tt YdLpX.
CYoLPV LsLLd BRWm CpX. ARt NV]
GjdLhLs PV. alv GRfNLW LsLV
u YjRo. Xd YWV\ NnVlThP AWNeLm Gu\
LjR GjWjRo ^ UdLs C\UV GjWj
AR] Ytjs[o.

40

NRV JlTkR LhT - \]n


T]Zm, T]hPm t\iLp JlTkR
AlTPp AW RuV Gu\ Lj L WTXUL
CkR. B]p C Ym LhdLRV. YWXtp
ClTjRu AW RuV GuTRt GkR BRWm
CpX. BWmTLXjp YrkR URoLs JlTkR
AlTPp AW RuV GuTRt GkR BRWm
CpX. Nn LiP JlTkR AlTPp AW
HtThPRu NpXdV A[t AYt\p
EPVYoL[L AYoLs CkdL V. G]Y C
YWXtd \mT] LhdLR GuT RoN]U]
EiUVm.
NhP AlTPm CRp \Ls Ei.
NpXjRdL NhP AlTPX] JlTkRm Ju YY]
Bh ALWPV AW CpXUp HtThdL V.
JlTkRm HtThPT CjRLV ALWPV AW
SP\p CdLpX GuT EiUVm. G]Y
CdLsL YWX, NhPm Utm RjYm G]lTm
CVpLd AlTtTh Htd Ls[ VRRL
NVtLV]RL LRlT\.

2.3

RnYd LsL

UdX]u, UoLu, _udv BV AOoLs


CdLhThPl Tt AYoLPV LjdL[ [dLUL
Rjs[]o. AdLXjp UQm Gu\ TkRjRp
JuThP UdLs CkdLpX. AR]p J Tit
TX LQYuUoLs CkRoLs Gum AR]p AYoLd
\kR ZkRLd RLlTu Vo Gu AVVR
XkR LWQjRp RnY\ AW RudLm
Gu\ Lj XkR. mTm GuTRt TXL
AdLXjp UdLs dL[LY L[LY Yrk
YkR]o. AYoLs tLXjp Z NpXlThs[
41

AlTPp AW RuYRt LWQUL CkdL


U]d LRlT\.
1. RPdLjp TZe AUlTu CkR. A
TZUV] Utm, RuUV] NL AUlTL
Ckdu\.
2. LXm NpXf NpX TZe AUlLs TXYL
T XeL[L kR].
3. CkR XeLs JqYum TX t\d LQdL]
mTeL[Ll T]. CdmTeLs RjR
L[L UVRp AYVpXm Nok AWNL
U].
4. CkR AlTPp RtLXjp mTm Gu
NpXTu\ AUl HtThP.
\]n
CdLsL mTm GqY RuV Gu
Ydu\ GuTRpXUp AW Rt\jR Tt
NpXpX. C J NRV LsLV RW AWVp
LsL ApX. CqY Ru NLm AWm RudL
m Gu\ BRWeLs PV.

2.4

RkRYd LsL

CdLsL RkRY \p ARY mTj


RXYu ApX mTjt RXYo RkR Gu\
AlTPp AW RuVRL Ydu\. mTju
YdLU AW. BWmTjp mTjp J URu J
U] Utm ZkRLs CkR]o. mTju RXYWL
RkR Ut\ El]oL[ LhlThp Li Yk AYoLs
Up ALWm Nj]o. LXl Tdp mTjkR
ZkRLs TVYoLs B]m UQm Nn Li
AYoLm ZkRL[ Tt\oLs. RPok CqY J
42

mTm TX mTeL[L U ARu AlTPp AW


RuV Gu LjRlT\. CdLjR No au
Uu Gum BeX AOo YL Gjd s[o.
CdLsLu dVU] LjdLs YU
1. RkRY mT AUlp RkR dVU]Yo
2. Y \ BiL[ AlTPVL Li
AkR BiLu u]oLs AlTPm
YdLlThP. TiLs Y YLs CkR
LQdp mTjp Gjd Ls[lTPpX
G]Y E\\ GoU\V]RL CkR.
3. WkRW UQm GuT J U] ApX TX
U]VoL[ LiP AUlTL CkR.
4. Ut\lThP mTju RXYWL BiULu
JYo CkRo. AYo mTjp Es[ A]Yo
Um Utm AYoLs NkR]o Um ALWm
Nj]o.
5. AYo mT YLWeL[ Lhl TjVR
UhUpXUp AkR mTju URm NmTkRlThP
GpXYt\m
LhlTjm
ALWm
TtkRo.
AUdL _]TVL CkR EhW pNu GuTYo
AWVp NRVju RVLm Ak HtThP
AWNeLeLu BYWLm mT AUl CkR
Gu lhs[o. J mTm TX mTeL[Lm,
TX AUlL[Lm YPkR Tm AYttdPV
Es[ RPoLm ARu El]oLdPV Es[
CWjR TkRm JtUd BRWUL CkR]. SPL[L
YrkR UdLs YNVm Tu\ RpLs NnV BWmjR
T lhP HRm J CPjp Re]oLs. AqY
ReV mTeLm AdmTeLu YdLm
tLXjp AW Gu\ AUlT RtjR]. CR
43

Yjm YLp No au Uu GuTYo CkVp


LQlTm hdmT AUlp WUp LQlTm
RkRY AUl ARu BdLm Utm WdL Shp
Es[ HRuv SLW UdLPV LQlTm mT
AUlL[. AdmT AUlLPV Xm
NLRWjYm Tu\Yt\ ERWQUL Gjd Lhs[o.
\]n
RkRY Rt\d LsL TWYXL TX
RdRpLd Es[dLlThPR] AOoLs u\]o.
RkRY Utm RnY LsLLs AWVp LsLLs
ApX. Clm vTuLd GuTYo CdLsLLs
AWdm mTjtm Es[ RPoT GjdLh\]
Gu \o. Um CY BWmT LXjp CkR NRV
AUlL[ GjdLhTYL[Lm AYLPV
SP\L[ YlTYL[Lm Cdu\] GuT
HtdLs[dV LjRm.

2.5

YU LsL

CdLsLlT GVo Up YVo NjV


BdLm LWQUL AW RuV G]lT\.
TodLXeLp YVo AYoLPV Toj \UV
YlTj GL[ rj Yt Tu\ T
AYoLs Ym TLd XTUL RXYoL[
\oLs. CYoL[ S[Pp AWNoL[L Bhm
NnYoL[\oLs. CkR AlTPp TX CPeLp
TX AWLs Rudu\].
AWNoL[YRt ToLs ERu\] Gu am,
JlTum, _uLv, Wuao Utm Vhv Tu\
AOoLs Lj Rjd\oLs. Cm\p YU
EUV\ Gu\ Lj YtjRl ThPm R STo
RkWjt GW] GuT RYm. YUd LsL
44

AW Rt\ju J AmNjR Uhm [d\. B]p


Y X LWLm AWu Rt\jt BRWUL CkR]
GuT Ru EiUVm.
\]n
AW Rt\jp YU LsLPV Te
CuVUVR. TWWLs GkRm rkRm YUu
LWQUL GuTR YUL HtL V. CdLsL
RPYoLs UhU YrYRt ALR TPjRYoLs
Gum LsLV A[dm ALUL Ytj\.
GVo rYm YVo YrYm SP\TjRThPm
Cm\
YLU]m
\kRUL.
C
HtLs[lThPp TY RPok SPlTtd
LiPdm. CqY ZlTm Je AU \k
TLl CpXR rX HtThm T TYRtLL
BReLs Um Um EtTj NnVlTYR UdLm
ARtLLY RVo NnVlTP Sm.
G]Y S Utm UdLs GkR SWm AY Sd
NpYRp EiU U\k JdLd \ HtTh
NmTkRlThP A]Ym Uk TYR UR SVm
CpXUp Tnm. G]Y YUd LhT
HtdLs[RdLRpX G]Xm.
YWX ApX TQU LsL
CRt u Ik dV LsLLs Tt ClTPjp
NpXlThd\. AYtp Gm AW Rt\jR
Tt TU] [dLm RWpX B]p YWXt ApX
TQUd LsL HtdLs[jRdL YLp Cd\.
CdLsL AW CVpT] B]p W] \p TX
LX LhPeLp Ru ClTRV XV Gh Cd\
Gu Yd\.

45

AW LP[p EYdLlThPRu\ ApX mTm


TR AR]p HtThPRu\ ApX YU LWQUL
HtThPRu\ lP V. TWVo Lo]o GuTYo
NVtL
ApX
CVkWjR]U]
\p
HtThdLdm Gu\ LjR Uj YWX Y
TX CVtLVL HtThP AUl Ru AW GuTRL
lhs[o. AWu Rt\jp TX X Ls
Cdu\u. AYtp C]lTt, URm, To, CPm TVoRp,
T[RW SPYdLLs Utm AWVp lQo
BVY dVU]YL[m.
1. C]lTt
TYL UdLs mT AUl X AUl
Tu\YLp Yru\ T AYoLPV E\
\ RPo Cd\. AYoLs GpXm JYW
JYo TkRm TNm GuTYL[p QdLlThd\oLs.
CjRLV rXp UtlThP AUlLs GqY[
TVYL[L AL El]oL[ LiPRL U]m
AYoLs GpXm HRm J jR mTjR NokR
BiUL] RXY]L HtdLi AYd LhlTh
AYu LhP[lT SPdu\oLs.
CdLjR TWVo UdIYo (Mac Iver) Lm
RYL GjWjd\o. ARY TX RX\L[
NokR UdLs GpXm C] AlTPp JuTh
AYoLd CPV NLRWjY TNjR Y[oj
Ls\oLs, JYo Ut\YW hd LdLUm
Nokm Yr\o. CjRLV AUl C] AlTPp
tLXjp AWNL HtThdLXm Gu AYo Lj
Rjs[o.
2.

URm

C]jRl TX URm UdL[ JuTjm NdVL


Cd\. TYL UdLs GlTLp YrkRm
46

AYoLPV RRVoLs GkR URjRl uTt]oL[


AkR URjRV uTt Yrkd\oLs. URm AYoL[
AQj JuTjd\. URjRXYo AqYlT
UdLd RXU Ht AYoLPVR RYL[
\Yt Rkd\oLs TYL URm TtV TVm
UdLPV LQlThPm C] AlTPp AYoLs
A]Ym JulTh AWN RtjdLm Gu\
Ljm YtjRlT\.
3. YU
YU ApX YpXU GuTm EXu TX
TLp AWLs Utm TWWLs HtTPd LWQUL
Ckd\. CeXk, Wuv, CjR Utm CRW
IWlV SLp AWLs TX U\k V AWLs
Rudu\]. CRt dVU] LWQm YU GuT
Ru Bm.

TLl NhPm NmTkRlThP WfN]Ls HtlThP].


CYL[ oj YdLm AYLs im im
HtTPUp RdLm RuV AUlT AW GuTRL
LRlThP.
W
UX NpXlThPYLp Ck GkR J
LsLm AWu Rt\jt UV] LWVL
AUVpX. JqY LWm HRm J YLp
Ru AW RuYRtm UdLs k \kR UdL[L
YrYRtm QVL Ckdu\ GuT RYu\.
CdLsLLs GpXYtm YWX NokR TQUd
LsL AW CVtLVL LXlTdp UpX UpX
RPLs TXYt\d LPk RuVR]d l\.
C AVXlTPp Htd Ls[jRdLRL ClTRp
\kRRLd LRlT\.

4. EPU Utm TLl


CY CWim AW RuYRt TZeLXjp
LWL[L Ckdu\] Gu TWVo Xv
Tu\oLs l\oLs. UdLs RUdLu
TsL[m CRW EPUL[m NodLm AYt\
TLdLm Utm ReL[ NokRYoLd AYLs
PdL YiUu TX SPYdLL[ UtLiPoLs.
CRt TdL TXUL TLlTL AUkR HtT \ AWNL
HtThP Gum u\oLs.
5. AWVp lQo
AWu Rt\jt AWVp lQom dVU]
LWVL LRlT\. lhP XlTWlp WkRWUL
YrdLV SPjR tThP T Eo Utm EPULd
TLl WfN]Ls HtThP]. AR AYoLd PV
RlThP \p NRV AUl \p AU Utm
47

48

Tt
T A
I. NV] PV RokR
1.

NRV JlTkR LsLd BRW RjRYoLs


A
B
C
D

2.

_udv
UoLu
^
No au Uu

TjL.
11.

RnL LhThp
LPu W
12. NL JlTkRd LhT
13. RLlTuVWu
RVR X
14. TXmTeLu Rl
15. TWWL[ Gf Utm
rfdd LWQm

RnL LsL
YU LsL
RnYdLsL
NRV JlTkRdLsL

II. LhP CPjR WlL


3. _____ WVL LRlT\o
4. _____ mTju J _____ AW
5.

AWNu _____ BdLlT\u

6.

YrdLd CuVUVR _____ Gm LsL


ClT VVmTjR VR.

7.

C]lTt Ru Rp _____ JtUd LWQm

III. NV ApX RY\


8.

RnL Rt\d LsL J S] LsLVm.

9.

RkR Y mT AUlp RkR dVU]Yo.

10.

TQUd LhT AVp NokR LhT.

49

- RUv alv
- RnY\
- AW
- YU

T B

CVtL XV TPm j LhV LsL


A.
B.
C.
D.

- AWNo

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.

RnL Rt\d LhT [dL


YU LsL Gu\p Gu].
AWu Rt\RjR [dm LsLLs VY?
RnYd LsL [dL.
RkRYd LsL [dL.

T C
20. RnL Rt\d LhThu LhTLs VY?
21. NRV JlTkRd LhThP Ul NnL.
22. No au Uu LsL [dL.

T D
23.

alv, Xd, ^u NRV JlTkRd LsLu


LjdLs [dL.
24. NRV JlTkRd LhThP Fd jR LWLs
VY?
25. AWu TQU Y[ofd BRWUL CkR LWLs
Gu]?

50

AjVVm 3

V AWVp AVp
3.1

Ts Utm u Lj TYju
RuU

AW CVeu\ RuU Tt Am CVp AWVp


AVp GuTRm. AWNeLju LhU]m Utm ARu
CVdLjR TlTm Cp Es[PeVRm. AR]lTPp
AWVp AOoLs rdLiP NL Y]eL[ Tt TdL
tTu\]o.
1.
2.
3.
4.

LZLeLs
hPUlLs
RYXVm
oYL AUlLs

_u TRu (15301596) Gu\ Wg RjY O


AWVp AVp Gu\ TRjR TVuTj]o.
GlTp ALW Jd Utm ALW CPlTVoY TtV
NnL[ AWVp AV[oLs Ltu\]o.
AWVp AVp GuT SoU\ GiQm LjL[
u jYm, AWVX TlTn NnYm Um
LsL EYdLjt RYlTm LjL[ T
NnYp tTm. TWmTV AWVp AVp GuT
U]R[p EYm GiQdLjL[ AlTPVL
Li AY Y[olTRm. Um AYLs JdLX
AlTPX]. TWmTV AWVp LhTLs EjRNm
Utm BVoLu RlThP u ATYm Utm BWnf
Ls O]jRp EYYRm. B]p, V AWVp
AVp GuT s YWeL[ NokR AVp
51

AlTPX] Ls O]Um. AWVp AVu


AVp Rt\m GuT 1950Lp SPTt\ SPjR
CVdLjRp HtThPRm.

SPjR CVu LWQUn AWVp AVX


Ru] IdVlTjV. CjRLV IdVlTRp GuT
Au Rp Cu YW GkRY Ut\pXUp RPou\.

AVp V] AWVp GuT 1950Lp LiP


SPjR CVp Whu Xm Sm LiPRm. CqVdLju
\L CqVu TX El]oLs AWVp TPjt J
AVp RuU ClTRL EQok LiP]o. AWVp
SPjRL[ EQoYm, GiQ[ AlTPp AWVp
EQoL[ pVUL GoTolTm, A]Ym Htd
LiP Ul AlTPp ApXR BWnf Y\Lp,
AWVp AVp SPjR CVu Xm XjV.
SPjR CVdLju \ CYtp U CkRm
SoU\ AVp UV Cu\[m AWVp AVp
uTtY\. CRu LWQUn GiQ AlTPp
EYm AWVp LhTLs JW[ UeLj RPeV.
EiUp Ym GiQ AlTPX] AWVp
LhTLs GiQ[ AlTPX] BRdLpX
GuTRp SPjR CVp GiQm AlTPX] AWVp
LhTLd tls YjR.

AWVXl TtV EiUV] AY T\Yim


Gu\p AWVp AVp J AVp AlTPX],
RjRuUTt\ CVp Gum, RpV] IdVlTjRp
Gu\ Xp CqVp Ru]d Lhd Ls[Yim.
AVp AlTPX] Y\Lu Xm AWVp
BoYXoLs dLs AlTPX], GiQeLu
AlTPp ThP, UhT VL AWVX
UlTjYp
ReL[
DTjd
LsYo.
Ulhk ThP (Value-free) AVp GiQm
AlTPX] dLsLs PV.

T No UeLu BRW]p AWVp Tl


GuT RpV] CVp Gu\ AkRvRl Tt\.

V AWVp AVp AOoLs UdL[ J


LYL Um EtSd AYp ReLs LY]jR
Nj]o. RkW UdL[h AWN FdLlTjYp V
AWVp AOoLs ShPm LiP]o. AVp
AlTPX] AWVp NjVUum AR]lTPp
EYm AWVp A NL Utm AWVp WfN]L[
WkRWUL odLYpX Gu\ AlTPp CVe]oLs.

ERWQeLs
1.

ShP AWVp AVp Um

2.

CkV AWVp AVp Um

3.

CkV T oYL Y]m

4.

AUdL AWVp AVp Um

V AVp XV T\Yim Gu\ CXdL


Sd SPjR CVp Npm T, AWVp AVd
J Rp V] AkRv PdLlTt\.

52

J RpV] ToYu Xm AWVp


BoYXoLs V AWVp AVX ALlTj]o.
AW AUlLp AWVp AL[ j]oLs.
TjR V] AWVp LhP[Ls, Xm V AWVp
NRVjR EYdYp NL TV[oL[] NoXv
UVm Utm aWp Xv Tu\o tThPo.

hT Vn EYdLlTt\ AWVp AVp


A] AWVp AOoLs AWNeLl TLp RdL
YLp Nj TVuT\f NnR]o.
UVm RuPV BWnf LhWLp AWVp
AVp BrkR AVp Y\L[ uTt\ Yim
53

G] L]o. GoTol Utm VN] AlTPX]


GiQeL[ j AWVp AVp, AVp
hTeL[m, Y\L[m Y[ojd Ls[ Yim
GuTR LQj jRo. UR SLLjR U TjYp
GeM]m AVp Q kRR, AR YLp AWVp
AVp UR SLLjR LlTm, NU TjYm
Ru] DTjd Lsm. Au TQU Y[of]m
Utm UR EQoL[m LhlTjm UdLs Lpu
Xm UdL[h UiL[ Y[odL tThPo. CRu Xm
UTt\ NRVjR Utm UR C]jR LQtThPo.
SPjR CVp AOoL[V ]v X (Heinz Eulau)
Utm Ph DvPu (David Easton) SPjR CVp BWnf
\L[ LiPk, TVuTj V AWVp AVX
Y[odL
tThP]o.
V
AWVp
AVu
QNVeL[n rYY]Yt\d lPXm.
1. u ARp Utm [dLeL[ AlTp
AWVp AVp RdL S\L[d Li
AWVp SPjRL[ TVuTjYRm.
2. RUR SPjR Utm AWVp dLu
SPjRL[ GidL AlTPp BWnf
Nn AWVp oL[ [dLf NnYRm.
3. uh ARX QNnm YLp
sVp YWeLs A[PlTPYim.
4. J LhThu Xm BWnfLs AUV
Yim, Um AqYWnfLs NR]d
Es[dLlTu\ Lj uTYj]
TtdL Yim.
5. EiUV] AVp BWnf \L[
AWVp AOoLs uTt\Yim.

54

6. A[PVR LjL[V UdL[h, NUjYm


Utm RkWm BVYo\ GidLV[p
BWVVpXVu\p
AYL[
JdLYim.
7. AWVp AVp J TX CVp AYL
EYLYim.
8. TpSd TlTn, NoY BWnf, LQd
ULs QLi AWVp AVp
BWnf Y\Lp AL dVjYm
LdLYim.
Xu LjlT T A[ TlTn (Macro
level analysis) GuT Y]eL[m A[ TlTn
(Micro level analysis) GuT RUR] AlTPVL
Li AUm. AVp V] AWVp GuT AWVp
SPjRL[ TU A[ Utm A[ TlTnu
Xm Su R TjYRm. JURuU Utm W]
SL[ Y[olTp GidL AlTPX] AVp
Ru Sd] Njm. Y]eLu RdLm RSTo
SPjRm, RSTo RdLm Y]eLu Um Es[Yt\
Sm AVp Vn AVXm.
AWVp AOoLs sVp YWeL[m, ARu
L[m Je TjR Yim G] X Lu\o.
A[Y, Cu\V BWnf Y\Ls, NR]dV
Lj uTYeLs BVYLs NVpThtV Um
SmdLdV AWVp A] Tdm. GidL
AlTPX] AWVp AVp GuT TX AWVp
LjLd
BRWUULm,
SmdL
RuUV
LlTm u tm. SPjR CVp Xm AVlTm
AWVp AVp GuT TjRYL Cdm.

55

3.2

AWVp ALWju TVuTLs


AWVp ALWm Gu\p Gu]?

Udv Tu tlT AWVp ALWm GuT


YWXt NLeLp GRfNWL YodLm RuYNm Es[ J
TNm, RtLX NRVjp A NpYju TPL[m,
RtLX NRVjp AWVp ALWj] APYp
NfNWLs CkRm, AWVp ALWj] Cu dLu
NL AkRv, AWVp Zm, Utm AWVp LhLs
BVYLs AWVp ALWj] Tt [eu\].
NRVjp AWVp Utm AWVp Y]eLs L
dVjYm YnkR Bm. Lj uTYUL, AWVp
GuT Sm Au\P Yrp Lm ALW E\L[ R
TjYRm. ERWQUL, Tt\oLPV ALW E\Ls
ClTR LQXm. BLY NRVjp AWVp (Micro
Politics) Utm T AWVp (Macro Politics) Es[. Sm
Au\P YrdLp LiT AWVXm. Y]
A[p Es[ ALW E\Ls T AWVp G]Xm.
AWVp NLVp Gu\ TPm AW Utm
NRVjtPV Xm E\L[ TtV TlL[m.
ALWjRl Tt Rk Ls[Yim Gu\p Sm A
Utm B dLdPV Es[ E\L[ Ak
Ls[Yim. B Gu\ STo J LVjR NnVYiPm
Gu ]jkRm A AkR LVjR B u Xm
Nn jRp, AjRLV NVpT A Gu\ STo B GuTYo
NjV ALWm G] Sm LRXm. CR]lTPp
ALWm GuT J dVU] u LjlTYUm.
Ut\ YLp VU] ALWm GuT BUVm
(Authority). ERWQUL, JqY AWVp RXYoLm
ReLs UdLs ALWm NjR tTYo. CRu LWQUn
VU] ALWjR UdLs CjRXYoLs Nju\]o
Gu UdL[ SmTf NnYoLs.
56

ALWm, VVjRuU, Utm BU Ju\


Ju RPoPV, Um CQkR NpYRm. Ut\Yo
NnV Ulm, AR AYoLs LiP NnY Gu\
ALWm TX YLL[ LiPRm. BU GuT
ALWjR TXRu, B]p BUd Y]eLu
Qi.
BUpXUp
ALWm
UhU
CdPjp ALWjt VRuU RYlT\.
ALWjt SmdL Utm VVjRuUdUV]p
A BUVm.
ALWm (Power) Utm BU (Authority) AWVp
NLVp AOoL[ kdLf Nnm C AlTPV]
u LjlTYUm.
RUR Lj, dLu SPjR QNVeLs
UdLu GiQm Utm NVpTL[ CVdLYpX
ALWUm. (ERWQm: Tt\o Utm ZkRLs AWNeLm
Utm YLs)
BU
GuT
AR]
RPoPV
Y]eL[m
lYRm.
Y]eLu
NVpTLdPV Ru BU YlT APm.
Sm YrdLu Y SPjR NL AUlLs NhPm
Utm YLhL[ EYdu\. AjRLV NhPm Utm
\Ls BUVm. (ERWQm: TpLXdLZLm Utm
TWVoLs).
Tm A[X] Y]eLs ru\ T (USSR)
ALWm AYt] LlTtm. XjR RuUPV
BUV EYdLYiUu\p, ARt VVjRuU
RYlT\.
eLu, AWu u dV QVNeLs
Gu]Yu\p,
A
ALWm,
BU
Utm
VVjRuUVm. ALWm GuT TpY YYeL[
57

GjRm (ujRp, RdLm Utm LhlT)


BUV NVpTjRlTm ALWm, AlTPp
JYu
GiQjR
Ut\Yu
Up
j
NVpTjYRm.

EVo Yl LhT Gu\p Gu]?

3.3

EVo ]o GuTR ThP rdLiP YLp


[d\o.

BUu RuU Utm dVjYm

UdvTu LjlT BU GuT u


YLlTm
TWmTV BU
BU

RXUTi BU
NhPTjR BU

AWNhLs Utm TWWLp Es[ TWmTV


NRVjp Sm TWmTV BUV LQXm. TWmTV
VL ALWjR CfNLeLp LQXm.
RUR UiLu Xm RXU
BU ALWm EYm RXU
BU TiTPV J RXYu L
Gp Ru UdL[ RPo LsYo.
J X \l QVNeLu \Uu
LWQUn RXU BU SToLs
Ruu\oLs.
Cu\V
EXp,
NhPlTjR
AlTPX]
UdvTo
BUV Sm AWVp NN]ju Xm
Tu\m.
18641920

58

J NRVjp NpYm, ALWm, uULs Utm


EVo RL[l Tt\YoL[ EVo Yl]o Gu
\m.

1. JqY
NRVjm
GlTm Cdm.

NUjYuU

2. TuU]W] EVo]o TmTuUV]


UdL[ BsYoLs. EVo ]W CWi
L[L dLXm. Bh Nnm EVo
]o Utm Bh NnV EVo ]o
BYoLs. Cq EVo ]o NL
NUuXV Nnu\oLs.
EVo ]o Gu\ Lj uTYm, EVokR RLs,
\U Utm \l NLL[ Tt\YoL[ lTRm.
ThPu [dLlT EVoV CWi RUL
TodLXm.
1. JqY NRVjm NLL[PV UdLs
Es[]o. BLY NL Yrp NUjYuU
RodL CVXR. (NL YLTLs)
2. JqY
NRVjm
EVo
]o
TuU]WLY Ck TmTuUV]
UdL[ Bh NnYo.
EVo ]o LhThP[oLs Y Gu]Yu\p
UdL[h AUlLp Bh Nnu\ J X EVo
]W LsL ] Gdu\oLs. TX
dLdPV SPTm TWeL Thu [Yn
HtTm LsL Ls ApX GuTR Sm AVXm.
59

WToh UdLp tlT rdLiPYLs


Yl]W [dm LsLLs Bm.

EVo

JqY NRVjm J lhP ALWm


EPVYoLs NRVjR LhlTjYoLs.
GkRRU] AWNeLU ApX T[RWU,
AYtp Gum EVo BhRu LXfm.
TmTuUV] UdLs ReL[ Bh
NVnUhPoLs
Pdu\
Y[eL[
RdL
AUl
VLm,h Vtm TU[p ReLs
LhlThp YjlTo. EVo El]oLs
ALWjR UVlTj Bh NnYoLs.
Pdu\ A]j Y\L[m TVuTj
EVo Yl]o ReLs ALWjR TLjm,
Tjm LsYo. ReLd TVuTm
Gu\XV ALWjR Ut\YoL[ Tok
Ls[ UhPoLs. RufNVL ReLs
ALWjR
Ut\YoLd
hdLdL
UhPoLs.
ReLs NRVjR Bh NnV TX hT
\L[
EVo
]o
uTtYo.
T[RWjR LhlTjRp, LYp Utm
CWYjR ReLs SXu LdL TVuTjRp,
Lp \ Utm UdLs RPo NR]eL[
ReLd NRLUL rfVL SPjRp, ReL[
GolTYoL[
RUTjY
ApX
ojLhY, ReLs ALWjRm, BhVm
VVlTjm
AWVp
LsLL[
EYdY Tu\ YL[ uTt ReLs
BhV XTjYo.

60

ReLs ALWjR TVuTj ReLu VSXjR


TQm, ReLu ALW CPjR RdL
YjdLsYp AdL\ LhYo.

CWi LWQeLdLL UoV LhTh] EVo


LhThP[oLs Udu\]o.
NL YodL LhT GuT:
1.

UoVm lu\ BdL YodLm GuT


RY, H]p RtLX RtP NRVeLp
EVo Yl]u RPofV] Zt \Ru
YZdp Es[.

2.

JqY NRVjm NL TXLs


ClTRp YodLm Gu\ dVjYm
Tu\.

UdL[h Utm EVo]o LhThp Es[


AlTP WiTLs.
1.

EVo]o
LhT
GuT
JqY
NRVjm
NjYuU
ClTR
lu\. B]p UdL[h LhT
NRVjp NUjYm ClTRL \.

2.

EVo ]o LhT GuT J X EVo


]W TmTuUV] UdLs BdLm
NnYRL TLou\. B]p UdL[h LhT
GuT TmTuUV[oL[ Bh Nnu\]o
G]d Lu\.

WToh ULp ALW YodL GRfNLW BhVl


Tt \o.
RtLX UdLs SXm Sm AWLp ALW YodLju
Bh ALWeLs Y[ok YYRL u\o.

61

1.

CWYju QLi, RXYoLs


AWVp VL Bh NnY

2.

hT TV[oL[ Nok Bh Nnm AWVp


RXYoLs
CjRLV
hT
TV[oLs
NRVju Au\P SPYdLV LhlTj
Bh NnYo.

3.

T[RW UkRX HtTu\ LXeLp


NRVjp T[RW Y[of]l TdRp.

4.

TX YodLeLu APd\V TVuTjRp,


lTL UjV YYn YodLj]o .

LWp Uodu EVo Yl]o ApX LhT


J NRVjp AWVp ALWm GqY
jRdLlThd\ GuTR BWmT LXm RtdLiP
[dV UoV LhTPm. Uodu tlT JqY
SLLUPkR NRVjm AWVp ALWm GuT NUU]
A[p TokRdLlTPpX GuTR hdLhu\.
Ts EtTj Nnm \V ReLs YNUd Li
Bhp Es[YoLs AWVp ALWjR JLlTjYo.
BLVp AWVp RXYoLs BdL YodLjR
WjYm NnTYoLs BYoLs. AWVp ALWjR
TokRdL NL T[RW LWLs oUdu\.
B[lTYdm, BsYdm CPV RPofVL
SPTm NfNWLs NL \UL[ X j\.
CjRLV NfNWLs EtTj NdL[ oU]m Nnu\.
YodL VL RhP[oLs Utm RX[oLs G]
CY \L Um YodL YThPu YodL TReLs
EYdu\]. NfNWLu RuULu AlTPp
ALW TokRl SPT\. BLY T[RW
RuUV odLYpX UodV LhT. A YodL
TWhPjR iPYpX. Yu\ AlTPp WhV

62

BRlT. BLY Ut\ kR]V[oLs


LhTh] Godu\oLs.

3.4

RuU Utm
SuULs

Ut\YW

UoV

LYRu

AWVp NLVp GuT GeM]m Ut\YW LYRp,


AWVp ALWm Utm ARu To BVYt\ Tt
AYRm. RtLX NRVjp Ut\YW GkR[d Sm
LY\m. Gu\ AlTPp Sm Y[U Tu\m.
BLY ALWm GuT Ut\YW LYm Rjp
oUdLlT\. Ut\YW LYRp GuT J STu
SPjRV CVpTL LhlTjYRm. C AYoLs mm
YiQUL CpXUp, GWLm CdLXm. aWp XvYp
Utm BWLm LlTXu Ut\YW LYRp Gu\ LjR
[dL tTm TZ LYu\ RuUu AlTPp
AWVp RuULs oUdLlT\ G]d u\oLs.
Ut\Yu SPjRV Tl APVf Nnm QVNjR
Sm LYRp G]d \m. X NUVm Ut\YW LYm
RuU EfNXp Cdm. CjRLV RQjp
ALWjR YjlTo AL LYu\ RuUV
TtdLYim.
odLR]m
LYRp GuTRtL] D Ldm RuUp
\m T odLjR]jR V ALWjR Sm
TVuTju\m. CR Sm odLjR]U] LYRp G]d
\m. AfjRp ApX LhlTL[ jRp
Gu\
RjX]
LYu\
RuUL[
Sm
TVuTju\m. CjRLV AfjRpLs TWhLs
ApX LU TjRp GuTYt\ QYm.
RiP]Ls GuT GoU\V] LhlTLs G]m,
TWhLs SoU\V] LhlTLs G] Sm Gjd
Ls[Xm.
63

Tt

Ut\YW LYm RuUu A[


Ut\Yu SPjRV RdLm Nnu\ YLp
TVuTjm
GoU\V]
ApX
SoU\V]
LhlTL[ Sm ALWm Gu\ Ts [dLjR
Adu\m.
RPoPV
ALWm GuT RSTu Nj Au. AlTPp
A Ut\YL[ RPoPVRm. Ut\YoL[ RPo
TjV ALWm TVuTjRlTm. H]VYu SPjRV
TdLf NnY ALWm G]d \m. J NRVjp
ALWm Nju\Yo, ALWm NjRlTu\YoLs
Gu E\Ls ALWjt RPoPVY]YL Es[.
SLWm Utm WU NRVeLu CjRLV ALW E\L[
Sm LQXm. AW Utm ARu Y]eLu AWVp
ALWm NVXdLlT\. AWu ALWju Xm
AWVp oLUdLlT\. NRVju TX AdLp
LQlTm ALWjRd Lhm GkR Rjm AWu
ALWm YThP ApX. BLY NRV Ut
LWLuToYp ALWm oUdLlT\. NL
NVpThu AlTPp, AWVp ALWm oU]m
NnVlT\. NRVm NVpTm Rm Utm AWVp
ALWeLs Um RuUTPjR.

T A
I. NV] PV RokRdL
1. YU] YV LhlTjRp GuT GR]d
du\?
(A) TWmTV BUV
(B) TjR NhP BUV
(C) \lVpL[ EPV RXU BUV
(D) UtV A]jm
2. AWVp AVp Gu Vo Rp Rp
TVuTj]o?
(A) AvPhp
(B) [hP
(C) _u TRu
(D) BPm vj
II. LhP CPjR WlL
3.

RSTo SPjRu AWVp TlTn GuT ______

4.

BUu YLlTh] VYo ______

III. NV ApX RY\


5. GiQ AlTPX] AWVp AVp GuT
GiQ Ulhk ThP.
6.

64

V AWVp AVp GuT SPjR TlTnYm.

65

T B
7.

SPjR CVX [dL.

8.

V AWVp AVp Gu\p Gu]?

T C
9.

ALWju Ts [dLj] RL.

10.

BU Gu\p Gu]?

T D
11. EVo Yl]o NWR LWp Uodu LhTh]
\]n NnL.
12. ALWm Utm BUdL] YTh]
XlTjL. BUu YLlTLs Gu]?

66

AjVVm 4

AW C\Ud HtTm
NYpLs
J AWd C\U RXVV Ti \L
LRlTu\. CqXp RkWU] JqY Sm
C\U Tt Lru\. TYL C\UV C Tm
L[L dLXm.
1.

Es C\U Utm

2.

Y C\U

Es C\U GuT J S Rup Es[PdV


LZLeLs Utm dL[d Lhm RXVV ALWjR
EPV. Y C\U GuT, J S Tu]h
AUldL[] I.S. NT Utm Tu]h Uu\m
BVYt\ RW Ut\ GkR Shtm AUldm NhP
VL LhlTP YiPm. Es C\UV TjR YWp
J AWd, C\U UVL EjR]. AjRLV
C\U EPV AW ARu lTlT NhPeL[ CVt\
m.
A.V. Pu LjlT C\Ud CWi RU]
GpX RPLs Es[]. UdLs NhPjR Uj SPjRm,
GodLUm
CdmT
Es
C\U
GuT
XShPlT\ Y ApX \ C\U GuT
C\UlTiPV AWNu CRW AVpSLP]]
RPop ARu lTlTV] LsLV uTtm
Ym Bt\Xm TtlTRuTRm. Cu\d
AlTPXV SLu Es C\Um, Y
C\Um NYd Es[dLlThs[]. SLu
67

C\Ud ClT RPofVL AfjRp HtThd


Lidu\. CjRLV AfjRpLs V LX
BdLm ApX T[RW EXLUVUdRp Tu\Yt\p
HtTu\. TX AWVp AOoLs RV C\U Lid
XlTu\ Utm XlTPR LWL[p Tld ApX
dLjt Es[dLlThlTRL Lu\]o.

4.1

RV C\Ud HtTm Tl

RURoL[m, AUlL[m, AWNeLjRm


RLYp RPo YXl u]p CQdu\ CqXLjRd
EXL WUm Gu Y NX TjRUm. CjRLV
EXL WUm Y[of Tu\ Nnj RPo lT AVp
VL J EXL LXfNWjR HtTjm Sdp Nu
Lid\. Rp hT Y[of Utm T[RW
NdLu EkRu LWQUn EXLUVUdRp GuT 1990
Lk Y[W RPeV. EiUp G8 SLu
T[RW CfNL[l oj NnYm, TX RV
LZLeLu VTWf NkRV lTjYm Ru
EXLUVUdRp L ]lTL NVpTh Yks[. LPkR
1990Bm Bi Rp TX RV LZLeLu GidL
ATR Y[of] APks[]. LPkR 1990 Bm
BiLp 3000 Tp RV LZLeLs Gu\ GidLp
CkR. Cu 63,000 GidLV Rhs[. NVj
Vu
Rdl
um
IWlV
Vu
HtThPk TX TpRVLZLeLs VjR Y[ofV
Tt
EXL
SLdPV
YTjR
Tjdu\].
T[RW
AlTPp
SLs
TXm
CQdLlThP TX AW NW AUlLm L AL
A[p Ru].
ERWQm:

\YSo l EXL AUl


68

NgYf NeL EXL AUl


GpXpX UjYoLs
TU Y AU (Green peace)
dL]U] RXRPo YNLu Xm UtV
AUlLs Gp ReLds RPoL[ HtTj J
Shu Td LsLu TlT HtTjV. YU
uV SLp CjRLV AW NW Y]eLu Tl
GuT AkR Shu Es C\UV TlTRL Es[.
Tu]h Y]m Utm TXSL[fNokR
Y]eLs TXm TkR]d[ Utm CRW TpY
LhlTLs AlTPp YZeYRm AWu
EsSh C\U Tlds[\.
NTjp RtdLlThP IWlV Vu AUl
TWmTV C\Uu NVpTh Ld tm
TjRUt\.
IWlV Vu El]oLs RV AWdm
UX] (Supra national) Y] AUlL[ EYd]o.
ERWQm:

IWlV Uu\m
IWlV BQVm
IWlV AUfNoLs AY

RVjt AlTtThP CjRLV Y]eLs El


SLs CVtu\ L[ GodLXm. El SLu
TQ ZdLjR LhlTjR UjV Ye Utm IWlV
d LZLm HtTjRlTh]. JeQdLlThP IWlV
NhPm Utm Uvhh EPuTdL BVY (Maastricht
Treaty) IWlV SLu Uu\ RkWjR TdLf
NnYRp, El SLu C\U TlTPYRL Es[.
RV C\UV EXLUVUdRX RPo
TjRl Todm T Tp Ljl TYUL RuTu\.
69

T[RWm Utm LXfNW Yrp JqY Sm Ut\


SLPu Nok Es[ GuT RYm. T[RW
RgNjR (VTWm, , Utm SW R) Lp,
RphTm, AWVp LsL, LXfNWm, tfrX,
NhPm CWYm Utm AWVp BVYtm Ut\ SLPm
RgNm APu\ X EXLUVUdRp Xm SPTu\.
Ts Utm NYLs SLu GpXk L Gp
LPk NpX u\. \l RL[l Tt\ RX[oLs
Y SLd NpYRt NhPeLs R[ojRlThs[].
TX UuTs TV[oLs AUdL Nu WkRW
RX[o ApX UdLs RV Tt\]o. TXo
CkVp YdLR CkVoLs (NRI) CWhP U
TYp BoYUL Es[]o. CeM]m UThP EXp,
AWLs NVpTY GuT Lm dLp kR. EXL
T[RWjR CQdm Vtm, J Shu GpXV
LPk UdLs CPlTVo NnYm RV C\UV
TlTRL Es[. RV C\U GuT Cu RV, WV
Utm EXLA[p [ Ths[. SLd AlTtThP
Y] AUlLs Utm ShP YLf NhPm RV
C\UV
YU
u\f
NnV
YYjR.
EXLUVUdRu TX Ls UjRjp RlThP C\U
Tt\ AWLs LsL EYdLjp RLY]m,
LhlThPm NnV RYhP].
RNjt AlTtThP AUlL[] EXL VTW
AUl (WTO) IWlV Vu (EU) YP AhXid
VTW EPuTdL hPUl (NAFTA), EXL Ye (WB)
Utm Tu]h d LZLm (IMF) BVYLs J Shu
LsLp Cu AL A[p RXh C\Ud
J NYXL Lru\. EXLUVUdRp GuT AWu
C\Ud TX]jR Adu\. Tu]h NhPeLs
Utm Y] AUlLs, Tu]h AW NW AUlLu
NVpTh \m BVYt\p RV C\U Lm
Tlds[V. GiQd Lj uTYU] RV
70

C\U EXLUVUdRu Xm SYPk TX NYpL[


NkdL Su\.
RV C\U ALWPV AW VVU]
Yu\V TVuTjm ALWjRdP SYPVf
Nnm YLp Tu]h AW NW AUlLs J NYXL
Lru\].
RVo UVUdRp Utm RW[UVUdRp BV
CWim EXL UVUdRu CWi BYoL[m. C
YW AWNeLm UdLd NnR NYLs CUp RVo
YNm JlTPdm Td Cu TX SLp LQlT\.
RuLVp NYLs RVo YNm B]Rp LiP
Yt]p TX BV SLs Cu YWmdhThP
AWNeLjRm, RW[ T[RWjRm HtL ]u\].
RW[UVUdRp CkVp 1991m Bi Li
YWlThPRp TX T Y]eLs RVo UVUdLlThs[].
CkV AWNeLm TsLs EtTj Utm NYLs
Up jkR LhlTLs XYt\ R[ojRVRp.
RkWU] TWeL Thu LWQUn CkVp Cu
TX TpSh LZLeLs (MNCs) VTWm NnV uYks[].
CjRLV TpSh LZLeLs ReLs VTWf
NVpTLs ReRPu SPT\ RV Utm UX
A[p LsL Ls UtLsYp RXu\].
EXL[p AWNeLm NnVYiV TLs
RVoYNm BdLlTYRp RV C\U Uem X
Es[. EXLUVUdRp Gu\ AlTPp Tm VTW
UXiUV[oLs Utm UdLs ApXRo V
LsLV EYdTYoLs Tp Es[]o. em
RuUV] AWu TldLm YdLm NnVlTu\
RVo NYL]p AWNeLjp ALW YodLju
dVjYm \dLlTu\. JeTjm TL[

71

AWd JdLlThs[]. ERWQUL CkVp 1991 Rp


XNu Ww GuT LhlTjRlThs[.
EXLUVUdRu RuUd LsLu dV
SdLm EXL T[RWjR JeQlTR Bm.
BLY C AWVp Utm LXfNW CQlp RpV
LiP. CRu LWQUn TX LXfNW dLPm RjRm
LXfNW EQoLs UXe EXL T LXfNWjR
(AUdLUt LXfNWm) GodL tThP. NYp.
. aiePu LY TX, EXLUVUdRp GuT
SLLeLu URpL[ iPf NnRRm.
SLLeLu ZV] LLs SLL URpLd
Q tm. SLL URpL[ LhlTjR EYdLlTm
oU]eL]p RV C\Ud dVjYm CpXm
Tu\. CjRLV rXLp RV GpX LLs
jRlTPXm Utm RV C\UdL] Ts [dLm
Ut\UPVXm.
TX NLVp AOoLs EXLUVUdRu Xm
RV C\U rdLiP NdLu Xm TlT APm:

4.2

(A)

AlTPYR NdLs (URYLs)

(B)

V LX BdLm

(C)

SLL URpLs Utm

(D)

V AWVp.

EXLUVUdRp Utm AW C\U


GoLsm NYpLs

EXLUVUdRdm AW C\Udm J
RPoi. \kRY, GpXpX EXL T[RWjR
RtdL SLPV LQlTm VTWd LhlTL[
Roj RPpX YTm SPdLf NnY GuTRu
72

EXLUVUdRp GuTRm. BLY


EXLUVUdRp GuTRt NdYnkR
AWVp, T[RW Utm NL
TYeLs
Ei
G]Xm.
J
EXLUVUdLlThP T[RWjp
RV
C\U
Utm
RV
GpXLd J A[ Ei.
UXiU
CVu
Yu
AZdLlTm hPo WdLo Y
Tp EXUVUdLlThP T[RWjp
RV GpXLs TjRpXUp
Tnu\].
J EXLUVUdLlThP T[RWjp J Shu
C\U rdLiP SPYdLL[ UtLsYRu YXL
TLdLXm.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

RtP NRVm RuUVdLlTPYim.


NNUNRVm
UdL[h AWVp Y]eLs
EXL[p T[RW VL TWm Tm Nd
AW NW AUlLs AUdLlTRp.
AY AlTPVL LiP NRVm
Y[okR Nn RPo NR]eLs
EXLUVUdLlThP T[RWju [Yp
T\lThP SuUL[ RdL \p TokRdm
\ULs.
9. RX[oLd RdL NL TLlLs
10. ALW YodLjt YWV\ NnVlThP
TeT Utm AWu SXu LLm TLu
YdLm.

73

UtV
TiLs
CpXR
SLp
EXLUVUdLlTRX ALlTjRp GuT RV
C\UV Tp RV LZLeLd NWi NnYRt JlTm
G]TX AOoLs Lu\]o. CkVp EXLUVUdLlThP
T[RWm J NNN R[jp Ru LhPlThs[.
YU, Lp, AVU, NUjYuU, Gu\ LhPjp
RW[ T[RWm GuT UdLu GolTm, RX[o
AUuUVmRu Y[odm. CRu [Yn
RVjt AlTtThP AUlL[ Tu]h d LZLm
(IMF) Utm EXL Ye (WB) BV NdLd RV
C\U Yhf Npu\. Um, CjRLV URpLs
SLdPV Nn Ls[lTm EPuTdLLs Utm
RV LsLu Xm VVlTjRlTu\].
AWNeLm Cu EXL A[X] UREU
NhPeLd KW[t Ut\lThs[.
RNjt
AlTtThP EXL RV AUlLs TX SLu UR
EUL[ TLdL tTYRp RV C\Um UdLs
EUm YYL YZks[].
Y Sht TVm NhPeLs Cu Lm
R[ojRlThs[]. CRu [Yp WiTPV NhPeLs
Rus[]. Y[ofVPkR SLp Es[ Tm VTWd
dLs ReLd NRLU] YLp GpXV LPk
Npm \ LhlTL[ R[oj ReLu Utm
TV[o RYL[ oj Nn LiP]. Clm
YSh]o ReLs SLds ZYR LhlTj
Je Nnm ReLu C\ViU ALWjR TXSLs
Cum RPok uTtu\].
EsSh Uu\eLs EXL UR EU EPuTL[
Lp Li RUR EUL[ TLdL tTm
NVpTLs
AW
C\UV
YYL
Tlds[s[. CRu LWQUn AW C\Uu
AjR[m, RVm U[dLm LdLlThs[].
74

LXlTdp U GuT U\V RPe UdLs


Utm YSh]o GuTRt YT CpXUp Tnm.
J BWnfV[o Y TX RV C\Uu
Y[ofV RV RYLs uULs GuTRd Lhm
NkR XYWU oU]m Nnu\, BLY SLu
C\U NpXjRdL ApX Gu\ XUp Es[. RV
NL EPuTdLLs VdLlTh Cu Tu]h
EPuTdLLs NnVlTh NVXdLlTu\].
UtV
TlTnu
Xm
Sm
AY
Gu]Yu\p RV C\Up EXLUVUdRu RdLm
GuT Y[of uV Utm Y[of Tm SL[d
Lhm Y[of Tt\ SL[ AL SuUL[
Tts[]. Y[of uV Utm Y[of Tu\ SLs
RW[ T[RWjR ALlTj]p A RV
C\UV Lm TdLf Nnu\. Y[of Tm
SLu C\Uu EXLUVUdLlTRu TY]
RdLeLs rYY]Ym.
1. Tu]hRV AUlLs TpY CPeLp
Es[ NLeLp ReLs RdLjR YTjm.
Rp RPo NokR NVXdLjp (EtTj,
NYLs Utm tT]) DTYo. Um
AlTp Es[ \kR FVjt EZdm
RX[oLs Utm Y[eL[f WiYo.
2. Tu]h RV AUlLs YYRt ukR
RtNXLs PlTh Ap YXTojR
TXTo TV CZlToLs. CjRLV Td
YXpX XUV EYdm.
3. V Utm CLm \kR A[p WiPlThP
NkRV RYoLs.
4. Tu]h RV LmTLs CWwV dLs
Utm J Shu LsL EYdLjp AL
A[p RXYo. RVo YNUdLlTRm,
75

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

\kR NY LsLu Xm AqUlLd


XTm Pdm.
EXLUVUdRu Ut\ RdLm Gu]Yp
Tu]hRV AUlLp Tm jR
UXiUV[oLs, LQdLoLs, NhP YpSoLs
Utm TRPo TV[oLs EsSh
ThV[Wd Lhm L ALU] FVjR
TYo.
CRu [Yn HtTm CZl GuT J Shu
RV
AWNeLm
SPVL
ReLs
T[RWju RdLjR HtTjR CVX.
(lTL TWkR T[RW UXiUV
TjRUhp)
EVp Utm Pp RphT Y[ofu
XUL Cu V EtTjm Utm URXm
Sm Lis[m. V LilL[]
CiPoSh Xm EXLA[p TX NnL[
Ak JeQl NVpTLp ULjR]
Y[ofVPks[m.
Xm, ETLWQm Utm EZlTd Lhm
Cu\d A YZdLRWjR YlTp J
dVU] LWVL Es[. RphT VL
Y[ofTt\ SLs Cu\d AY
AlTPVL Lis[].
TV Tu]h RV LZLeLs Cum
T[RW Utm LXfNW ALWeL[ Tt
[eu\].
ERWQm:LdLLX, S, UdP]ph,
Utm v,
CkV RXToLs BWnf Utm Y[ofp
R
NnYp
Rpt,
EXLUVUdLlTRp ReL[ CQjd Li,
76

TV TpRN LZLeL[ TeRWL Nok


rk Tu\ ReLu VTWjR YdLm
NnV tTu\]o.
EXLUVUdLlTRX BRdu\ SToLs CR]p
CkV RtPeLs SYPYpX Gum U\L A
V RtPeL[ RtdLm, CkV T[RWjR
L WYL u]\ Q Nnu\ Gum TLou\]o.
B]p J Y] TlTnp Todm T LPkR TX
BiLp YShu SW Rhu Xm V EtTj
VtLs UtLs[lThP] G]d \ CVX.
EXLUVUdLlTPp Utm CkV LXfNWm
Ut LXfNWm EulTL LYdL RdL
Gu]Yp CkVoLs TYL CkV LXfNWjR uTt\
GiYo. NYp P. ahePu Y Tp CkV
LXfNWm Lm TXm YnkRRm. Um Yt
LXfNWjk TX SPYdL Utm LjdL[
Tt\m, CkV LXfNWju AlTP RuUV A
hd LlTpX. YSh ThLs Utm NYLs
CkVp TX GolLs Gks[]. ARu Xm
CkVo Rm LXfNWjRm, RjRuUVm TLdL
RY\pX. Ut Sh UXiU NVpTLs SmShu
VTWjp, lTL L UuTs RtPeLp
L Wp HtdLs[ThPm CkVoLs Cum,
EsSh EQ YLLs, EsSh RXdLh Utm
EsSh WlTPm BVYt\ LiLdu\]o. TWmTV
EPL[V Tm Au\]o. CRu LWQUn Ut
Shu LmTLs CkV NkRp FYp TX
NeLPeL[ Go Lsu\].

77

AUojV Nuu LjdLs


AUojV Nu \o, NkR
T[RWm Ru]jR] CVdLYpX
ApX. V RW[ T[RW LsL
SpX Y[of] Lis[. CR
BRjRYoLs
AUdLp
AWVpYV] Lu Utm CeXku
RhNo BYoLs. URU] Y[ofV
Cu\V Y[m SL[] CkVt
RYVm. EXLUVUdLlTRp AWVp
Utm T[RW RkWjR Sm CZk
PdP. NkRl T[RWm Utm
TSXlT[RWm
BV
CWiLdPV J NUuXV]
A\ RYlT\.

l
C\dUd LsLV GUVdRp.
EXL YojRL AUl (WTO)
l
l
l
l
AUojV
Nu
(\l 1933)

Tu]h RV LZLeLs WhPu hv (Bretton


Woods) AUlL[ (EXL Ye, Tu]h dLZL UV
Utm EXL VTW AUl) JuQk Lh (GATT)
JlTkRju Xm TX hPeL[ js[]. CjhPju
LWQUn Cu TX Tu]h RV LZLeLs TX VTW
RPL[ LPk ReLs YTjR YdLm Nns[].
Tu]h dLZLm Utm EXL Yeu hPeLs
l

YWNX hPju AW UVjRd


\lT

YNV EtTj NokR ThLdV AW


UVjR \jRp

EQtL] AW UVjR dRp

RW[ T[RW LsLVl uTtRp

YSh RhP FdjRp


78

YeL[ RVo YNlTjRp.

l
l
l

AW UVjR \jRp
EsSh YNVjtV BRWY \jRp
T VL \V dRp
Y[of Tu\ SLs RPpX
VTWjR uTtRp
TVuT RtPeL[ AUlTp Tu]h
RV LZLeLd GkRY RPm
CpXjRp.
C\dU R] RPL[ dRp
YSh RhP[oLs R] RPL[
dRp.

Y[of Tm SLu T[RW Y[ofV


Tdm YiQm WhPu hv AUlLs T[RW
LsLL[ Y[of Tm SLu du\].
CkV T[RWjR _X 1991 dl \ RdL
NnVlThP T lm YLp GkRY
Y[ofVm GhPpX. EtTj \p RP ApX
RphTU \kR T[RWju Xm CkVp
TU[ YkR G]d \ CVX.
Nn EXLm
Nn RPoLp Sm LiP Wh Cu AWL[
Ym V SLW AWL[L Uts[. RtWh J
UVlTjm NdVL [eV B]p Nn RPo
Wh TWYXdm NdVL Es[.

79

Tt

\]n
TZV EXL YWTPju GpXLs BhPm
Lis[]. TV AWLs Rks[], X TV VTW
hL[ HtTj Lis[], TX Ut SLs
EXLUVUdLlTRp
ReLs
C\UV
NkR
T[RWjt hd Ljs[]. TX NL Utm
T[RW TlLs RVo Utm AW NW
AUlLPm JlTPdLlThs[]. B]p BldL,
u]s NVj Vu Utm LNXV SLp
19 Bm t\ip LQlThP RV EQo, V RVm
Utm NlRuUVt\ U]lTd Y[ok C]l
TLXd is[. DWdp Ls (Kurds) Rp
CvXm URjp ApXRYoLs, Tjp ]oLs CjRLV
C]lTLXd B[m X Rus[.

T A
I. NV] PV RokRdL.
1.

LdL LX GuT
(A) T Y]m
(B) RVo Y]m
(C) Tu]h RN LZLm
(D) YWV\dhThP LmT

2.

GYt\p
RV
EhTjRlThs[?

C\U

NYd

(A) G-8 SLs


(B) IWlV Vu
(C) ShP Y]eLs
(D) G-77 SLs
3. EXLUVUdLlTPp GR] AjV?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

T[RW JeQl
AWVp JeQl
NL JeQl
UtV A]jm

II. LhP CPjR WlL.


4.

CkV J __________ SPm.

5. NYp aiePu __________ NfNWY Tt


YRm Nnu\o.

80

81

III. NV RY\.
6.

G-8 SLp CkV NodLlThs[

7.

IWlV Vp CkV J El SPm

T B
8.

A NokRNRVm Gu\p Gu]?

9.

Nn RPo Rp hTjR [dL.

T C
10.

EXL WUm Gu\p Gu]?

11.

\kR T[RWm [dL.

T D
12.

EXL UVUdLlTRXp CkVt HtThP


RdLeL[ Y LQoL.

13.

EXLUVUdRp Y[m SLs GoLsm


NYpLs VY?

82

AjVVm 5

AWNeLm ARu YYeLm


AWNeLm AWu dV Lp Ju\m. AWu
NVVL AWNeLm LRlT\. AWNeLju RY
Utm
ARu
TL[
Tt
RtLXjp
UdLs
AklTR
AYtu
dVjYjYjRm
EQokd\oLs.
AW
Lidj
RVR
U]LjRuUPV. B]p AWNeLm AqYpXUp
UdLs Rk Lsm YLp AUkdu\.
CjRLV AWNeLm TXYLlThPRm. RuRh
Cu YWm SP\p Ck Ykdu\ AWNeLm
TX URpL[ Nkjd\. AqY Ap HtThP
Ut\eLs Z Es[T YLlTTjRlTu\].

83

Z RWlThs[Y .Gl. vPWe GuTYWp RWlThP


AWNeL YYeL[m
Y
N
G
i

YLlTjRp
BRWeLs

AWNeLju
ALW
GpXLs

UdL[h

NoYLWh

II.

A. AWu
CVp

JuV AW

hPf AW

B.AWVXUl
u CVp

Sm
RuUPV

CV
RuUPV

C. RoRp
Ru
CVp

(i)

A]Ydm YWVdLlThP
YdPV AW YdUPV
AW
\

(ii) Jt\ El]o TX El]o


RLPV RLPV
AWLs
AWLs
III. NhPUu\ju
CVp
NhPUu\ju
AUl

IV. NVXhd
u CVp
V.

j\u
CVp

DWY EPV AW JWY EPV


AW
UXYp
RokRdLlThP
El]oLs
LiP AW

UXYp
RokRdLlTPR
El]oLs
LiP AW

TWUu\m Utm RXYo \


TlPV
AWNeLm
AWNeLm
NhP Bh
uTt\lTm
AWLs

84

oYL NhPjR
uTtm AWLs

Ut\lThP .Gl. vPWeu AWNeL YYeLs


NhPlT AUkR AWNeL YYeL[ Tt Y]Ym.

5.1

Jt\ AWNeL\

Jt\ AWNeL\p UV AWp ALWeLs


dLlTh Cdu\]. UV AWNeLm UX Utm T
AWNeLeL[ HtTj AYLd ALWeL[ Ut
R\. C oYLm WL SPlTRtL] HtTPm. CkR
AUlLs WRN AWNeLm G] AZdLlTu\]. Jt\
AWNeL \d CeXk, Wuv, _lTu, cXeL SLs
ERWQeLs Bm.
[dLm
Jt\ AWNeL\ TtV X AOoLPV
[dLeLs Z RWlThs[].
Lo]o: Ujp AUks[ AWNeL AUld
AWVp NhPm NLX ALWeL[m AjRp.
G.. P: UjV AWNeLm YZdL AlTPp
EVV NhPm CVtm ALWjR NjY
.Gl. vPWe: CWi dVU] RLs Tt
l\o. AY
1. UjV AWNeLju EVV RuU
2. C\U ALWm EPV CRW AUlLs
GpXUp ClT.
C\U ALWm CpXR CRW AUlLPu UV
AWNeLm Es[ \ Jt\ AWNeL YLV NokR.
UjV AWNeLm Utm UX AWNeLm NhPm CVtm
ALWm Tt\ AUl hPh \ G]lT\.

85

\Ls
1. JtU, JW UV] NhP\, LsL Utm
oYLm.
2. Bh ALWm Utm Tl YlTYoLPV
NfNWLs CpXR RuU
3. Ls, WYL GdLlTh AY WYL
SP\lTjRlT\.
4. NX \Y] AUl
5. AWVp NhPjR Gp Ut\dV X

hPh AWNeLju Ls:

\Ls
1. ALW
l
UjV
AWNeLju
NoYLWjt HYm.
2. UjV AWNeLm TX dLX] Wf]L[
NkdL Sm. Um WRN AXpL[
LYlTRt SWm CpXUp Tm.
3. UjV AWNeLjt WRN Wf]Ls
AYtu YdLm, Utm AYtp DT CpXUp
Tm.
4. A[p TV SLd Jj YW.

5.2

ALWm
TokRdLlTh
AWVXUl
VL
NVpTPdV AUlTu \lT\. CqYUl
Jt\VW \d GW]. C\U ALWm CYL
AWNeLeLdU lhP X \Lp Cd\.
CjRLV AUlp UjV AWNeLm RN TLl CRW
SLP]] LsL RNm YRtU] TLl Tu\
SPYdLL[ ARt Gu LdLlThs[ ALW
GpXds NVpT\. CR TX UX AWNeLeLm
AYtt Gu RWlThs[ ALW GpXds
NVpTu\].

hPh AWNeLm

JlTkRm Gu TsTm CXjV TPv (Foedus)


Gu\ Npk hPh Gu\ Np HtThP. CRt
hPh AWNeLjtm UX AWNeLeLdPVm
JlTkRm Cd\ Gu Ts. RV JtUV UX
EUL[ TLj RW AUdLlTm AWNeL \d
hPh Gu TWVo P GuTYo [dLm Rkd\o.

1.

AWVXUlu Eu]R XU.

2.

UjV UX AWNeLeLdPV ALW


Te

3.

AWVXUlu CV RuU

4.

j\ RkWm

CYtu [dLm YU
1.
AWVXUlu
Eu]R
XU:
AWVXUl GRlThdL Yim. UjV UX
AWNeLeLdPV CdL YiV ALWeLs
Gu]u]
Gu
RYL
NpXlTPYim.
CWitPV AWVp NhPU EVV ApX UX].
2.

hPh LsL ApX hPh AWVp \


GuT UjV AW Utm UX AWNeLeLdPV

ALW Te: hPh \ AWNeLjp


UjV
AWNeLjtL]
X
C]eLm
UX
AWNeLjtL] X C]eLm j JdLlTu\].
CqY JdLlThP C]eLs ApX \Lp JqY
YL AWNeLm NhPm CVt\m AYt\ \Yt\m
ALWm TPjRYL[L, RkWm EPVYL[L
Cdu\].

86

87

3.

AWVXUlu CV RuU: TWVo


P
GuTYo
LjlT
AWVXUlp
NpXlThdu\ Ls AYtu AlTPp
CVt\lTm NRWQ NhPeLs ApXR CRW NhPeL[ Gp
Ut\V. AYLs BRW NhPeLs G]lTu\].
AWVp NhPm NRWQ NhPeL[ P UX]. AR
Gp Ut\V.
4.
j\ RkWm: hPh AWNeL
\p
UjV
AWNeLjtm
UX
AWNeLeLdPV ApX UX AWNeLeLs
UhPjp AYLd CPV NfNWLs HtTm. CkR
NfNWL[ ojYlTRtLLm AWVXUl L[
RYlTm
T
[dYRtLLm
j\
RYlT\. Cj\PV BQLs Utm
[dLeLs NmUkRlThP AWNeLeL[p HtdLs[l
TPYim. \Yt\lTPm Yim.

5.3

TWUu\ \ AWNeLm

TWUu\ AWNeL \p NVXhd


NhPUu\jt TlPVRL [e\. AqYW
L]h AWNeLm ApX TlPV AWNeLm
Gu\ZdLlT\.
Nh PU u \m
A WN e L m

N V X h d
j \

ERWQm: CkV, CeXk

88

dV AmNeLs
1.
NVXhd CWi YLV] TiL[
EPV. Ju TVW[X]. Ut\u EiUV].
TVW[X] RXYo AWu RXYW\o. EiUV]
RXYo AWNeLju RXYo. CeXkp AWu RXYo
W ApX W_. AWNeLju RXYo WRUo.
TVW[X] NVtd CeXkp AWNo
ApX
AWVm
CkVp
VWjRXYm
ERWQUYoLs. CYoLs NhPlT GpX ALWeLm
EPVYoLs. EiUV] ApX Lr\ d
CeXk Utm CkVp WRU AUfNo ERWQUYoLs.
CYoLs GpX ALWeL[m TVW[X] NVt
TVp NjWoLs.
2.
ShP Bh Nnm Lh RY] Utm
PU] TmTuU NhPUu\jp TtdL Yim.
Rem TWUu\m hP Bh HtTP Ynl
Cd\. ERWQUL CkV UV AWNeLjp
.RYLP WRUWL CkR T (1996) I.L. _Wp
(1998) (Rem TWUu\m) hP HtThPT.
3.
Cm\p
UdLs
WjYPV
Uu\ju TmTuU Lh RXYo AUfNWYu
RXYWL Cd\o. AYW WRU AUfNWLm Cd\o.
4.
WRU AUfNm CRW L]h AUfNoLm
TWUu\jp Ck RokRdLlT\oLs.
5.
JqY AUfNm AYo UtToYs[
\u SPYdLLd Tl Ht\o. AR TX
AWNeLjPV SPYdLLd GpX AUfNoLm
hlTl LsL AlTPp TWUu\jt
TlPVYoL[L Cd\oLs.

89

CjRLV rXp uTtm LsLp


RPof CpXUp Tm.

\Ls
1. Cm\ AWNeLjp oYL \dm
NhP\dm CPV JtUm, JjZlm
TU[p LQlT\.
2. AYVlTm T hdLj SPdm \
X\. SdL LXeLp AUV]
\p AWNeL Ut\m HtT\.
3. GodLhLs
SP\d
NjVU]
BXN]Ls YZeYR VVU] \L[
Gjdu\].
4. Cm\
UdLPV
lTjtLtT
NVpT\.
\Ls
1. C ALWl ] LhTht GW].
oYLj\ Utm NhPj\Ld CPV
JtU AlTPp TLs \Yt\lTYRp
WRU AUfNo ALWm UXeVYWL
NoYLVL UPdV rX Cd\.
2. NhPUu\jp GkR J Lhdm TmTuU
PdLR T TX LhLs Ju Nok h
AWNeLm Ju\ AUdu\]. CjRLV
AWNeLm
LhLdPV
LQlTm
Wf]L[ LWQUL AWVp XVt\ RuU
HtTYR AWNeLm YU u LQlTm.
3. Bhdm Lh TRk Xu\
TR ApX NhPUu\jp RtLdLlTm
TR GodLh Bh Nnm EUV
T\. CkR AWNeLm u]p CkR
AWNeLjPV L[ HtLUp TLdm.

90

5.4

RXYo\ AWNeLm

Cm\ AWNeLjp RXYo NhPUu\jt


TlPVYWL CdLUhPo. CRt \kR ERWQm
AUdL IdV VW Bm.
Cm\u \l AmNeLs
1. VW RXYo SP\m AWVXUl
AlTPm EiUV] ALWm EPVYWL
Cd\o.
2. AWNeLju L[] NhPj\, NVp\
Utm j\ BVYtu ALWeLs
dLllP JqYum ARtL] X
ALWeL[ Tu\]. CkR A[p
JqYum RjRuUPVRL Cd\.
3. CqY ALWl] CkRTm J \
R
\V
LiLj
RkR
SPYdLV UtLsm YLp NUX
Utm RP LhT uTt\lT\. GkR J
\m GkR J rXm GRfNLWm
NjR V.
4. VW RXYW TRdLXm YWV\
NnVlThP. GkR LWQjR Lim TRd
LXjR ALdLY ApX \dLY ApX
AYW TRk RNj WL t\fNh
AlTPpXUp XdLV.
\Ls
1. XV] AW NjVU\.

91

2. VW RXYo lTlT LhV NokRYoLs


UhUpXUp Yp Es[YoLm AWNeLju
\Ld RXU ReL Tl HtL
VdLlTPXm. AYVU]p GodLhV
NokRYoLs P ClTlL[ HtL
VdLlTPXm.
3. LsL RPok uTt\lTYRp NVXdLm
CQdLUL Cd\.
4. RV SdLLs HtTmT CjRLV
AWNeLm \kRRL Cd\.
5. ALW lt Ynl CpX.
\Ls
1. oYLj\ NhPj\d Tl HtLUp
ClTRp ARu lTlT NVpTP\.
2. oYLj\dm NhPj\dm CPV
WfN]Ls odLlTPVR rXLs ALm.
3. Cm\ AWNeLm CdLU]RL Cd\.
4. NhPj\dm oYL \dm CPV NLU]
rX CpXUp Tm T RkWU]
YShdLsLV uTtYRt VUp
T\. oYLj\ uTtm LsL
NhPj\Vp HtLlTPUm TLXm.

5.5

\ AWNeLm

\ ApX TuU oYL AUl \p


CWi ApX CWit UtThPYoLs NURm
ALWm EPVYoL[L Cd\oLs. Cm\p
TWUu\\ AWNeLm Utm RXYo \ AWNeLjp
SpX AmNeL[m AR NUVjp \L[m

92

Ttd\. CRt \kR GjdLh h^oXk


AWNeLUm.
h^oXk Shp hPh \p Yh
\ uTt\lTu\]. Ces[ NVt El]oLs
HTo Su Bi TR LXjt hdhPjp
RokRdLlT\oLs. JqY AUfNm J\d
Tl Ht\o. CqYlTPp AWNeL \Ls HZL
Cd\. LuXo Gu AZdLlTm AUfNo Tlt
RokRdLlTTYoLs hPh NhPUu\ El]o
TRk XLYim. CYoLs GjR] \
YiU]m mT mT RokRdLlTPXm. hPh
Lup Gu AZdLlTm AWNeLjp RXYo Tl,
ER RXYo Tl, Zt \p JqY
LuXdPV U U JWi LXjt RWlT\.
\Ls
1. CkR Shp Es[ h NVt XV]RLm
TlPVRLm Cd\.
2. R AUfNo JYPm ALWeLs lTRtL]
NkRolTU PV.
3. LeLuU Utm NoYLW Td CkR
NVp\p HtTPYnlpX.
4. Shp Es[ TLs A]jtm GpX
UdLPV LjdL[ WTlTRLm
CfNVt TVt\.
5. CjRV NVt LsL Utm AR]
SP\lTjRp RPof CdLm UWLs
uTt\lTPm ER\.

93

\Ls
1. hPh Uu\jp TpY LhL[ NokRYoLs
El]WL ClTRp Ls GlTp RURm
HtT\.
2. CRu
El]oLs
YqY
LhV
NokRYoL[L ClTRp AUfNWY Ls
TLdLlTPUp YVoLd AqYlT
Rk u\].
3. SdL LXeLp Uhm Ru CjRLV
AWNeLm Wk NVpT\.
4. TuU LsL AlTPp hd
El]oLs TX LhLk VdLlTYRp
AYoLPV JtU Utm RkWm
ClTpX.

5.6

CdLX NoYLW AWLs

NoYL Gum Np TZeLX EWU AW


\k
T\lThPRm.
Cm\
AWNeLm
UdL[hfd
GW].
UdL[hp
RkWm
XShPlT\. B]p NoYLW Bhp A
JdLlT\. Uu Gum AOo RURo ApX
hPL NokR Xo AW ALWjR ReL[ GjdLi
LhlTpXUp Bh NnVdV AUl NoYLW
AW Gu \o. RtLX NoYLW AWLs UdL[hd
GWL uYm LWQeL[p HtThP] Gu NpXXm.
1. 19141918 RXm EXLlTp Yt Tt\
CeXk Utm Wuv SLs Tp Rt\
_oU Tu\ SL[ UdLUp GRfNLWm
Nj].

94

2. CWiPm EXLlTd tThP 191939 LX


LhPjp UdL[h \ Yt T\Up
Rpt\
rXp
NoYLWm
RXVjR.
3. GjVlVY ^ RXUX]
CjR CQjdLiP Tm Zd IWlV
SL[ NVj WxV RdVTm,
UuVY ]Pk _lTu LlTtV
Tm CYtdLpXm LWm YjRo TX
_oUV NokR hXo CRW SLs Up
TPVj AYL[ RdVTm UdL[h
\V LlTt\ NoYRN NeLm SPYdL
GdLUp Tt.
CdLX NoYLW AWu \lTmNeLs
1. CjRLV AW RUR GRfNLWPV.
2. J Lh Bh\ CRt ERWQm ]u
Lmvh Lhu Bh.
3. RUR RkWm PV.
4. TVm Utm LWQUL NoYLdm
UdLdPV Es[ CPY.
\Ls
1. NoYLLs U]EPu GkR LVjRm
d\oLs. ATt Wp Yd\oLs.
2. oYLf NX \YL Cd\.
3. JW Lh, J RXYo, JW UV] hPRp
SP\Ru NoYLWjt EV.
4. RV JtU Utm UdLPjp LQlTm
Sm
GpXm
Ju
Gu\
EQof
NoYLWj]p HtThP SuULp Ju\m.
95

\Ls
1. YU Utm TVm NoYLWju BRWUm.
2. UdLd EULs Hm RWlTYpX.
3. NoYLLs ReLPV VSXm NokR
dLsL[ APYRt AYoLPV NdV
NX\oLs.
4. NoYLLs Wh AlTPp URpL[
Rtd\oLs.

CTRm t\iu NoYLLs


U^ e
(1893--1976)

LvhW

^
(1883-1945)

hXo, (1889-1945)

Tp LvhWm, CjRp ^m,


_oUp hXm, ]p UNem CdLX
NoYLWjt
ERWQm
BYoLs.
CjRLV
NoYLWjp RUR lTm Utm YrdL

96

97

JWY Utm DWY \ NhPUu\


[dLm

TmTX] SLp NhPUu\m C AYL[


LiPRL Cdu\. X SLp Uhm JW J AY
Cd\. AOoLs Wv, Lo]o Utm BdPu W
Tu\YoLs DWY \u AYVjR Yjd\oLs.
AR NUVm Xv, Tu_Uu Wuu, TuRm
Tu\oLs JWY TUu Lj Rjd\oLs.

NhPj\ AWNeLju RXY Ym Cj\


NhPeL[ CVt\. NhPeLs CVt\lTh SP\d
YmTRu AYlTt Gm NkRLeLs Utm
Wf]Ls odLlTPYiV XU HtTu\.
CVt\lTm NhPeLs GpXm TmTm UdLPV
lTeL[ WTlTYL[L Cdu\].

PdPo. Ld GuTYo KWY\ SP\s[


CPeLp mTjRdL NVpTLs ClTRL RVpX
Gu lhs[o.

UdLlTYpX. U\L AYoLs Up LhlTLs


dLlTh
RkW
LjLs
Ru\Up
RP
NnVlTu\].

5.7

NhPUu\eLs CYLlTm.
1. KWY\
NhPUu\m

No._.G.Bo.UVh Tu\YoLs LPkR LX YWX


DWY \V YtjYRL Cd\. G]Y AR]p
HtTm SuUL[ ER]lTjRV Gu d\o.

KWY
YTLs:

CkV: RrShs[ NhPUu\m


DWY\: CXjV Up LW Gu\ Np
ApX Uu\m Gu TsTm. Ge CWi
NhPUu\eLs
Cdu\]Y
A
DWY
\
Gu\ZdLlT\.
CkV TWUu\m UdL[Y Utm UXeLs
AYV LiP. AUdL SPUu\jp WLs
Uu\m N]hm Cdu\]. CeXk TWUu\jp
TUdLs NT Utm WdLs NTm, Cdu\].
98

DWY

\LdPV

Es[

Distinction between

2. DWY\

KWY\: JW J NhPUu\dm \d
KWY \ Gu TVo. GjdLh ]p Es[ RV
UdLs US.

Utm

KWY \

DW Y \

1.

TlPU X
jRlT\.

Tl TePlT\

2.

A YNWUL
NhPVt\lT\.

A YNWUL CVt\lTm
NhPeL d RP
dLlT\.

3.

NoYLWjt Y
L\,

NoYLWm HtTYR
Rd\.

4.

NhPeLs CVt\lTYp
RURm HtTYpX.

NhPVtYp RURm
HtT\.

5.

NhPVtYp PdLeLs
HtTYpX

NhPVtYp PdL
HtTu\].

6.

YX CWhlTpX

YX CWhlT\

99

6. YX CWhlTpX

YX CWhlT\

7. YX T HtT\

YX TY \d\.

8. RV NX]jp

NX ALU\

9. TuU]d

TuU]d
jYm Y TX
SuULdL] Sd
Es[.

dL]m HtT\

WjYm, Utm Y
TX SuULdL]
SdLjR RP Nn\

Tt
T A
I. NV] PV RokRj GRm:
1. hPh
T\lT\?

Gu\

(A) CXju
(C) k
2.

GmUk

(B) Wg
(D) NUvRm

LW Gu\ CXju U Npu Ts


(A)
(C) AUl

3.

YojR

(B) LhPm
(D) TPm

GkR Shp \ AWNeLm uTt\lT\


(A) AUdL

(B) CkV

(C) ]

(D) vhNoXk

4. rYm SLp G RXYo \ AWNeLjR


uTt\
(A) AUdL

(B CeXk

(C) CkV

(D) Wuv

5. CkVp YdVU TYRt


RWlThs[YLp GjR uTt\lT\?
(A) Lp

(B) Y NjRp

(C) Rp

(D) YV

II. LhP CPjR WlL


6. ALW Te ________ W AWNeLjp
dVU] AmNm
7.
100

AWVp NhPm ________ hPeL[ P UX].


101

8. CkV
Xd
AZdLllT\.
9. CkV CWwV
AZdLllT\.

NT

______

Uu\U]

______

Uu\U]

NT

T C
23.

CdLX NoYLW Bhu TiLs VY?

24.

Bh \V [dL.

25.
GL.

III. NV ApX RY\


10.

CWi RU] NhPUu\eLs Cdu\].

11.

AUdL Shu UXY N]h Gu\ZdLlT\.

12. AWNeLm, AWu dVd Lp Ju\m.

26. AW Utm AWNeLm NVt El]oLs Tt


lTL.
27. \ AWNeLju NVt El]oLs Tt
lTL.

13. hPh AWNeL \p UV AWp ALWeLs


dLlThdu\].
IV. TjL
14.

TWUu\m

Nh^oXk

15.

RXYo\

CeXk

16.

AUdL

17.

TXLh \

18.

J Lh \ CkV

KWY Utm DWY \s[ YTL[

T D
28.

TWUu\ AW \u \lTmNeL[ YdL.

29.
BnL.

RXYo \ AWNeLju \ Utm \L[

30. NoYLW Utm UdL[h AWNeLeLu


YTL[ YdL.
31. CTRm t\iu NYLL[l Tt EUd
RkRYt\ YdL.

T B
19.

Jt\ Bh Ts RL.

20.

hPh YdL.

21.

TVW[X] NVt GuTR [dLL.

22.

BRWf NhPju \lTu]?

102

103

AjVVm 6

j\
uW
TTX]m CdLXm GupXUp GpX LXeLm
dVU]RL Cd\. AWNeLju Y[ofm ARu
NVp\Lm Ge GlT GqY lTLs
HtTjRlTh SPTt Yu\] GuT RYL
Ah \VX. AWNeLm u AUlL[
LiPRL Cd\, AY YU
A. NhPj\
B. NVp\ (oYLj\)
C. j\
BWmT LXjp Cj\Lu TLs RYL
CdLpX. Vh Rp EVoVh Bh
Utm LeLp Bh G] TXYLlThP AWNeL
AUlLs TpY LXeLp TX SLp CVe
Ykdu\]. CY GU AkR u \Lu TLs
YWVdLlTh JqY \m ARtL] RWlThP
TL[ Nn YWpX. TmTX] NUVeLp
NVp\ CRW \Lu TL[m AR TX
NhPj\ Utm j\ AYtu TL[ CRW
\Lu AYpL[m, Nn Ykdu\]. CTRm
t\iu tT YWm AkR XV GpX
SLm SP\p Ckd\. LX UTL[m
UdLs kR]Lp HtlThP u]t\eL[m, AWNeL
AUlLm TX URpLs HtThP]. CTRm t\ip
Vh \ TmTX] SLp TWYXL Htd
104

Ls[lTh SP\p uTt\lTh Y\. Vh


\p dV AlTPLp j\ RVL dLlTh
RkWUL NVpTPYiUuTm j\V NokRYoLs
l Yl CpXUp ReL[PV LPUL[ NnV
Yim GuTm YZdp Wk NhP AlTPX]
olLs RWlTP YiUuTm dVU] AmNUm.
j\V TXY oYLj\ (NVp\) Utm
NhPj\ Rj JqYum ARu TL[ Ut\R
NokWUp NnV YiUuTm Cu] AmNUm.
CqY oYLj\ NhPj\ Utm j\ RjRVL
NVpTP Yim GuT ALW ] LsL
Gu NpXlT\. CdLsLV Wuv ShP NokR
UiPv GuTYo AYPV NhPeLu Eo
(The spirit of laws) 1748Bm Bi YhP AYPV
p
Yjdu\o.
CdLsL
AUdL
AWVXUlT GVYoL[p HtLs[lThP. ARu
\ CRW IWlV Utm BV SLs AYtPV
AWVXUlp CdLsL AlTPp AWNeLm
NVpTYRtL] L[ GpXm Noj ARuT
AYLu AWNeLeLs SPTu\].

6.1

j\u RYm, AYVm

UX NpXlThP TX TTX]m AWNeLju


TLs dVU]. T JYo YZdLu\
Ndu\T SXu NhPju AlTPp
YZeL Yim. CkR AlTPp Ru GRlThP AWVp
NhPju TLYX]L j\ LRlT\.
GqY[ WYL YZdLs d Yk olLs
RWlTu\]Y
AqY[
WYL
YZdp
NmTkRThPYoLd PdL Ynld\. UdLPV
EULm, EPULm TLdLlTm. CjRLV X
AYoLPV RkWjt TLlTLm A LdLlTPUp
RkWm X ShPlTPm t\m CZjRYoLs
105

RiP]k RlTUp CdLm RY NnVRYoLd


PdLm YL Nn\.
SLL \L[ Ht AYt\ RPok uTtm
UdL[ LiP SLp j\ Rj RkWUL
CVeY HRfNLWjR Jj UdLPV RkWm
TLdLTYRt QVL Cdu\ Gu CeXk
ShP NokR TuRm Gu\ NL ojR AOo
AYPV pLp Yjd\o.

6.2 TLd CdL YiV RLs


RURPV RkWm Utm NRVju
TXYLlThP Lu AUl Utm AYtu CVdLm
j\ NVXtm TeL TjR AU\ Gu\
Lj RtLXjp GpX SLm HtdLs[lThP
Ju\m. G]Y TLs EVokR SdLm EPVYoL[L
O]m EPVYoL[L NhPdLpp RokRYoL[L
CVt\lThP NhPeLu SdLeL[ Su AkRYoL[L
CdL YiV AYVm. CY ApXUp lhP Y
X RLm ClT AYVm G] JqY Sm
ARPV AUldm dLsLdm Ht\Y L
ARu AlTPp RL[ oUd\.
AUdL j\ NokR X LjdLs
AUdL AWVXUl TLd CdL YiV
RL[
Tt
Gm
lPpX.
Ap
LQlTYRpXm TLs SuSPjR EPVYoL[L
CdL Yim GuTRu. CRu LWQUL UW AlTPp
AUdL VW RXYWp TLs RokRdLlTh
EVoUhP Uu\eLd TLs VdLlT\oLs.
CkR VU]eLd uYm RLs TYL
GjdLs[lTu\].

106

(A) UjV Utm UX AWNeLeLp j\p


Es[ ATYm NhPm NmUkRlThP ThPVeLs ApX
EVoLpp Tts[ RLs.
(B) AWVp LhT lTL JqY AWVp
Lhm uTtm LsLp DTm AR uTt
SPjRm ARY, AqYlT TRdm Vh
RXYoLs GkR LhV Nok GjRLV LsLL[
dLsL[L Lid\oL[ AYt\ uTtY.
ERWQUL TZUYR ApX RYR LsLV uTtm
VW RXXoLs AdLsLV HtdLsTYoL[
TL[L VlTo G] GoTodLXm. CkR AlTPp
VU]eLs NnVlThdu\].
(C)
TL[L
VdL
TYoLp
TmTX]YoLs Lh No EPVYoL[Lm VW
RXYo Utm AYW LhV NokR RXYoL[ uTt
SPlTYoL[Lm Cdu\]o.
(D) AiUdLXm YWm C]m Utm Bi, Ti
Gu\ T] AlTPm hPh TLs BiL[LY
CkR]o. TiLs GYm VdLlThPpX. B]p
W]ph Lu VhjRXYWL CkRT CkR
LsLum UTh TiL[m TL[L
VjRo. ClT Ys[VoLs UhUpXUp LlToLm
BldL, Utm CXju C]jR NokR AUdLoLm
Tm A[p TL[L VdLlT\oLs.
TmTX] RtLX AWNeLeLs Z RWlThs[
X TY] LsLLs TVL VdLTTYoLd
CdL YiU] Ytju\].
(A) U Utm RVm
(B) YV YWm
(C) HRY J TPjp ThP Tl R
107

(D) NhP Lpp ThPm


(E) j\p ApX YZdLOoL[L lhP
X LXjt Es[ ATYm
(F) NhPm Utm Vp \kR XUPVYWL
CjRp

6.3

U Bn LsL

AWVd U Bn AUdLu \kR


TeLlTm. CVt\lThP NhPUu\ AWVp NhPjt
EhThPRpX Gu\ ApX ARt AlTtThP Gu\
Adm j\d Es[ ALWm U Bn
(X]n) Gu AZdLlT[. Cm\ AUdL, L]P,
BvWV
Utm
CkV
Tu\
SLp
SP\k Y\. CeLpXm UpUhPjp Es[
Uu\eLs NhPeLs NpX RLRY Gu Adm
ALWm EPVY. B]p CeXk Shp Uhm
CdLsL uTt\TPpX.
CkVp UXeLp (States) Es[ EVo
Uu\eLm CkV YRtU] j\ Tl
Ydm EfN Uu\jtm U Bn ALWm Z
RWlThs[ C]eLp YZeLlThd\.
A. UjV Utm UX AWLdPV HtTm
NfNWdLs Utm RYdLs.
B. AWVp AUlp Es[ (NWj) HRm
Tt NkRLeL[ ApX YlThP
LjdL[ XU]p AR [dY ApX
UolT
C BRW EULs TLl
D. UX NhPUu\eL[p CVt\lTm AWVp
AUlt GW] NhPeLs.
108

Ls NnVlTu\]. C TLd
CPV
Es[
Lj
YtUV
GjLhYR YZdLu RWeL[m
Tdu\.
6. TLs
X
NUVeLp
LXjt
RkRtTXm UThP rXd HtTm
SPk Ls[Up TZUYL[L Cdu\]o.
7. TLs X NUVeLp NhPeLu Es SdLm
Gu] GuTR TWUp AYts[ NtLu
Td HtT ol YZe\oLs. CR]p
AYoLs L] SdLm EPVYoL[Lm
U\oLs.

\Ls
1. O]m Utm ATY AlTPp TLs
U Bn NnV RPVYoLs.
2. AWVp AUlu TLYX]L, hPh
Uu\m NVpTP YLNn\.
3. NhPUu\eLs TXpXUp Uu\eLs RkWUL
NVpTPm JRXThNUL SPk Ls[Um
CdL ER\.
4. UdLPV lTL TuU]PV
EULs TLdLlTu\].
5. YWmdhThP
RkWU]
AWNeLm
NVpTYRt YL Nn\.
6. NhPUu\eLs AYNW AYNWUL NhPeLs
CVtYum TLl R\.
\Ls
1. ALWl]d LsLd GW]RL
CdLdm.
2. Uu\eLd CkR ALWm RWlTYRp
oYLj \m NhPj\m \kR \p
TVt\ VUp TLXm.
3. \kR NRVjR EYdYRt RYV]
LsLL[m, hPeL[m CdLsL
TdL m.
4. TmTX] YZdLs Utm Wf]Ls
AWVp NL Utm T[RW Wf[Ls
NmUkRlThPYL[LY ClTRp j\
NhPj\V gV ALWm T\ YLNnm.
5. AUdLm, CkVm YZdLs Su
ApX Ik TLs LiP YL
NdLlTmT TmTuU AlTPp
109

CqY U Bn TX \L[m \L[m


EPVRL Cdu\. CR]p X NUVeLp X RPLs
GtTu\]. u]t\eLs HtTPUp Tu\]. RYLm
SPTu\] Clm CRPV \Ls \L[P
k
LQlTYRp
CdLsL
j\p
uTt\lTY AYVU] GpXm Aks[]o.

6.4

j\ NVp YLm ( l)
(Judicial Activism)

j\ UdL[h\ AWNeLjp CuVUVR


Ju\m.
ARPV
LPULm
TlLm
AWNeLjPV CRW \Ls TXY L dVU]Y.
SPUu\ Vh \p ARu TpY AUlLm
NV] \p TVtYRt NokR AUlLs TX
YLLp Qtu\].
T UdLs lTm Utm AYoLs iRp
LWQUL Uu\eLs ClT YZeYm TUdLs
NmTkRU] YZd[ olTm l dLs Utm
SP\L[ T UdLs SXu L uTt Yu\].
110

AYts dVU]RL j\ NVp YLm Gu\ d


LsL SP\d Ykd\.
CdLsL
AWNeLju SXY AeLm Gu AZdLlTm Nn
Utm [mTWj\ SPYdLL[ Jhm UdLu
lTjt CQeLm HtThP G]Xm. j\p
Es[YoLs CRW \Lp Es[YoLs TXY Lp Utm
CRW SPYdLLs EPVYoL[L Cd\oLs. CYoLm
RYLs NnV VYoLs GuTR UdL CVX, G]Y
lQo LiP UdLs AYoLPV RkWjRm
TLj Lsu\ \p UtLsm SPYdLLs
j\
ld
UdL[h
\
SLp
AlTPL[u\].
UdL[h \ uTt\Tu\ SLp
YZeYp RURm HtT\. ARu LWQUL
UdLlTm T AkR Uk\. G]Y
WYL YZeLlTPm Ak VVU]RL CdLm
j\d RkWm AdLlThd\. G]Y j\
T UdLPV GoTolt HtT B]p AR NUVjp
AWNeLju CRW Ld e CZdLRY SX
u C]dm TLl AlT L AYVU\.
B]p C j\ HRfNLWjp kPdP.
\m
j\m
AYNokR
AUlLm
ERWQUL
TLs
RWLoLs
SXVt\YoLs
NoPV
AW
YZdLOoLs
Tu\YoLPV XgNm Tu\ NLjt L
[dm TX YZdLeLs Cdu\]. CYLm
Ut\lTYR
LXlTdp
JdLlTY
L
CuVUVR Bm. CY GpXYt\m Nn dL
V
YnlLm
rXLm
j\V
NokRYoLd ALUL Cdu\]. CYoLs GSR A[t
EiUVLm, VVULm, lPm CYoLPV
LPUL[f Nnu\oL[ AlT j\ l
111

UdL[p
YWYtLlTm.
NhP
AlTPX]
SPYdLLd UdLPjp SmdL HtTm.

6.5

j\ RkWm

RnLjRuU EPVR] UdLs L\oLs.


TLs YZdp NmTkRlTPPYoLs GYo TdLm NWUp
NUXp Ck YZeL Yim. RtLX TSX AWp
CjRLV RkWm Lm RYlT\. TSX AWp
T UdLd SuULs J TdLm CdL ULs HtTPm
NkRolTeLs Ei. G]Y YZdLm AL A[p
Uu\eLd LiYWlTm. CjRLV rXLp
TLs ReLPV RkWjR X ju\ \p
TfNRTm CpXUp ol NpY AYVUm. uYm
LWLs j\ RkWjR XShu\].
TLs VU] \
u]t\UPkR SLp u \Lp TLs
VdLT\oLs. AY
(A)

UdL[p RokRdm \

(B) h^oXk
RokRdLlTm \

Shp

NhPUu\jRp

(C)
oYLj \Vp VdLlTm \, CYtu
[dLm Z RWlT\.
(A) UdL[p RokRdLlTm \: Cm\
Wuv Shp uTt\lThP. ARu \ AUdL
h^oXk BV SLp X ULQeLs CkR \V
uTtu\]. Xv UdL[p RokRdm \
UNU].
G]Y
AYoLs
YZem
olLm
VVU]YL[L EiUV]YL[L CdL V
Gu \o. Lo]o GuTYo UdL[p RokRdm
\ j\u TUV RWm Rrj LhYR
112

TL[ AWVp NoPVYoL[L LhYR TLs


AWVp NoPVYoL[L NhPjR AlTPVL Ls[Up
YZeL LWQU\ Gu [d\o.
(B) NhPUu\jRp RokRdLlTm \:
Cm\ h^oXkp Es[ LuPuLs (Cantons) Gu
AZdLlTm ULQeLp uTt\lT\. C J \kR
\VL. ALWl LhTht U\], Cm\
j\ NhPUu\ju HYX[L LRlTm. ApXUm
AlT Bhdm AWVp LhLu WL[L
TLs NVXtYoLs. AR]p AYoLs RkWjR
CZlToLs.
(C) oYLjRp VdLlTm \: Cm\
CeXk, AUdL, L]P, BvWV, _lTu, Ru
BldL Utm CkV Tu\ SLp uTt\lT\.
EXu CRW TX SLm Cm\VV TmTm
uTtu\]. CkR \p VdLlTm TLs
RoLs GYRu XULm SoLQp XULm CRW
RkR Ro \ AlTPm VdLlT\oLs. G]Y
CYoLPV RkWjt L HtTYpX. TLd
CdL YiV RLs, ATYeLs GpXm Toj AkR
AlTPp AYoLs j\ RPoPV AUfNLjRp
TkW NnVlTh oYLjt RXUVL ClTYWp
VdLlTYRp AYoLs VULm SoUVLm,
\lTLm TVt\ m. Cm\V Xv Tu\
AOoLs \kR Gu du\oLs.
iP TRdLXm
j\ RkWUL CVeYRt CuVUVR
AjR LW iP LXjt TRdLXm CdL Yim
GuTRm.
CR]p
V
LXjt
VdL
TYoLPV LQlTu\ VSXm XgNm Tu\
113

\Ls CdL Gu LRlT\. TmTX] SLp


EVoUhP j\V NokR TLu TRdLXm 60,
65, 70 YV GuTRL Cd\. apPu Tu\ AOoLs
iP
TR
LXjt
VdLlTm
TLs
VdVU]YoL[Lm \kR APVYoL[Lm
ClToLs GuTR AWNeLjtm TU HtTP
VtlToLs Gu \o.
3. TdLX E
j\ RkWm TLu iP TRdLXm
TRp T WkRWm Tu\Yt\m AlTPVL
LiP. ARY AYoLs TRk Gp
XdLlTPUp CdL Yim. CeXk, AUdL Utm
TmTX] RtLX AWNeLeLs CjRLV T L[
Htd Lidu\]. CYLs Gp Ut\ VRY
AWVXUl NhPjXV Noj j\ RkWjR
XjYRt SpX HtTLs Nndu\]. G]Y
TL[ Gp TRk dLV.
4. TUu\ A[t FV EjWYRm
TLd AYoLPV Lp Utm CRW RLs
AlTPm ATYm NRVjp AYoLd CdL
V AkRv Tu\YL[ Ljp Lim RLR
YLp ThP tTPUp CdLm TV FVm
RWYim. AlT Ru T TRd RkRYoLm
\kRYoLm YYoLs. Um TLs TRp Cdm
T GdLWQm Lim AYoLPV FVm Utm
CRWTLs Um EjWYRm RWlThs[ T Nnm LXm
\dLlTPY UdLlTPY P. AYoLs TRXk
Jn TmT AUVL Jn LXjR TYRt
Ht\
YLp
Jn
FVm
YZeLlTPYim.
CYL[VpXm E Nnm YLp j\dL]

114

Ls RV AWNeLjt AUdLlThP
BRWeLk YZeLlT\.

Tt

5. EVo R
RkWm, ARu dVjYm, TLu \l,
AYoLs NV] L[ YZeRp RkWUL LjdLs
NpRp BVY TLd CdL YiV
RL[m.
6. oYLjum j\V jRp
ClTPjp UuPv GuTYW ALW ]
LsL Tt Y\ CPjp NpXlThd\. ARu
AlTPp j\ oYLj\um dLlTh
RVLm RkWULm NVpTU NnVlThd\.
G]Y j\V LhlTjY ARu RkWjt L
[lT Tu\ NVpLp oYLj\ RXP
V. G]Y TLs TVm CpXUp RkWUL olLs
YZeLXm.
Jn LXjp TVtYRt RP

T A
I. LhP CPjR WlL
1. UuPv GuTYo AYPV ______ 1748Bm
Bi YhP AYPV p Yjdu\o.
2. ______ Shp U Bn SP\p Ck
Y\.
3. TLs NhPUu\jRp RokRdLlTm YZdLm
______ Shp uTt\lT\.
II. NV ApX RY\
5. U Bn GuTp AUdL S dV
TeYd\.
6. AWNeLm u TL[L dLlT\.
7. j\ UdL[hu i Gu LRlT\.

T B

TLs AYoLs TRd LXm kR \


Uu\eLp YZdLOoLs Tu\ NmTkRlThP TLp
DTPdP. H]p AYoLs TRkRT
AYoLPu TVtVYoLs u]V YP YiV
rX HtTm. C RodLlTP Yim.

8. j\ [d.
9. TL[YRtL] RLs VY?
10. U Bn [d.

11. j\ ClTRtL] RY V?
12. U Bnu \, \L[ YdL.

Ut\lThP LjdLs AlTPp j\


RkWUL NVpTP TLs VU] \ \kRRL
CdLYim. AYoLdj RWlTm FVm AYoLs
Nnm Td Ht\RL CdL Yim. (TRdLXm
lhP LXjtL] E NnVlThjRp AYVm,
AWVp RX CdLd P.

115

T C

T D
13. j\ NVp YLm Tt l GL.
14. j\u RkWjR Tt [dLUL GL.

116

AjVVm 9

RrShp Es[h AWNeLm


(Local Self Government)
\l AmNeLs
WUl\ Utm FWL Es[h AWNeLeLs uYm
\lT] AmNeL[d Lis[].
1. Es[h AWNeLm Su\L YWV\
NnVlThs[ Jo ALW GpXVl Tts[.
A WUm ApX UYhPm Tu\
EV]Ro XY\Vl Tts[.
ARPV dLs, AkR XlTds ApX
GpXds Xm RlThP RuU YnkR
Wf]L[j olTRm.
2. Es[h AWNeLm, AqYhPWjts
RokRdLlTm
WL[p
Bh
NnVlTu\,
AYoLs
YhPWj
YdL[oLdl TlT]YoLs UV UX
AWNeLeLu RYVt\ RXu YhPWj
AYpL[ RokRdLlThP WLs oYLm
Nnu\]o.
3. YhPW UdLu RYL[ UmTPf NnY
Es[h AWNeLju RXVV LPUVm.
4. Es[h AWNeLm R] X AdL]
RVlTm BRWeL[j WhYm
RkWm Tts[.

215

CkV AWVXUl 1950Bm Bi _]Y eLs


26m S[u SP\d YkR. RuU Vh \V
llTRtL], SU AWVUl 40m AeLm AW WU
TgNVjL[ AUlTRtm, Ru]h AUl L[L
AY CVeYRtLL RYlTm ALWeL[m ALW
APYm AYtd YZeYRtm SPYdLL[
UtLsRp Yim. G] js[. CRtQeL 1956p
TpYkRWn UjR AUdLlThP. Cd R]
AdLV 1957p NUojR.
TpYkRWn UjRu AdL TgNVj CWfV
\u UL NN]m Gu LZWm hPlThs[ ALWl
TWYXdLlThs[. UdL[hV E Nnm Th
u Ad \V] WU\ Es[h AWNeLjR
TpYkRWn UjRW TkW NnR. Cmu Ad
\p WU UhPjp TgNVjm YhPW A[p
TgNVj Nm ApX TgNVj JuVm UYhP
Xp pX T`jm (UYhP TgNVj) CPmTt\].
TgNVj CWfVm 1959m Bi AdPTo eLs
2m S[u TiRo _YaoXp S]p Ye
YdLlThs[. TgNVj CWfV Y]eL[ ALm
NnR Rp UXeLs BkW WRNm, W_vRm Bm.
ULXV _Wm Utm SLXk UXeLm JuV
XlTWlLm TgNVj CWfV Y]eLs YlThP]
CqY TgNVj CWfVm BWYWUt\ YdLjR
UtLiP.
1977p ANd UjR RXUp TgNVj CWfV
Y]ju R] Jo AWNeLjRp VU]m
NnVlThP. TgNVj CWfV Y]eLu NVpThP
NlTRtm
AYL[
YUVdYRtm
SPYdLL[ UtLs[ BXN] YZeLm A
YlThP. Cd R] AdLV 1978p NUojR.

216

CddLu AdLLs, TgNVj CWfV


Y]eLu XUL FWL Y[ofd dVjYjR
YZe]. AY Y[of hPeLs NVpTYR Yj],
Ru]h Y]eL[L TgNVjdL[ EYdL AY
VXpX. Um, SLol\ FWh AWNeLeLu GoLX
AdL\L[l Tt TpYkRWn Utm ANd UjR dLs
LYX LidLpX. CfNnL[d Ljp Lim,
WUl\ Utm SLol\ UhPeLp EiUV] UdLs
NdV m Thm, AWVXUl 64 Utm 65Y
NhPjR uYWLs 1989p UdLs AYp ALm
NnVlTh
\Yt\lThP].
CmUNRdLs
Y]YVm. RYV] ALWeLPu, JW UV]
AUlLPu AUhP Y]eL[ WUdL AY
YYjR]. UdL[YVp \Yt\lThP Tm, TV
TmTuU
CpXRRp
UXeLu
AYp
CmUNRdLs RtLdLlThP]. CjRLV rXp,
UX AWNeLeLu SdLU] LhlThu r CkR
WUl\ Utm SLol\ Es[h AWNeLeLs, YtLWULf
NVpTP VpX. AY YLX] Cu]pL[l
TtkR]. TX BiL[Lj RPok AYLdj
RoRpLs P SPjRlTPpX. Cd\L[f NNnm
Th, AWVXUl (73Y Utm 74 Y jReLs)
NhPeLs SPUu\jRp 1992p \Yt\lThP].
AWVXUlf (73Y Utm 74Y jReLs)
NhPeLs, 1992
AWVXUlu 73Y Utm 74Y jReLs 1992m
Bi NmTo eLp CVt\lThP]. 1993 Bm Bi,
HlWp eLs 24m Ss Rp CjjReLs SP\d
YkR], AY TgNVjdL[m, SLWh AUlL[m
AWVXUl \UL[d Es[].
Vh
AWNeL
Y]eL[L
NVpTm
BQUL[m Es[h AUlLd YZem
217

Thm, 73Y Utm 74- Y jReLs UX


NhPUu\eLd ALWjR YZes[]. T[RW
Y[of Utm NL BVYtdL] hPeL[ RVjRp,
AWVXUlu 11 Utm 12Y CQl ThVpLp
Lis[ AmNeLu AlTPp T[RW Y[of
Utm NRV TtV hPeL[ \YtRp BV
LmTLs AYLPm JlTP NnVlTPXm G]
RdLlThs[. CqQll ThVpLs J \m
UXf NhPUu\eLdm U\m TgNVjdLs Utm
SLWh AUlLdm CPV ALW To]
Nns[]. 73Y jRju r 11Y CQl ThVp
29 YL ALWeL[d Lis[. AYtu
UV] ALWjRl TgNVjdLs Tts[]. 12Y
CQl ThVp 18 YL ALWeL[ SLol\ Es[h
AUlLdL] Lis[. CY AYtu NmTkRlThP
TL[m h Lhu\].
JqY WUjm J WU NTdm Utm WUm
TgNVj FWh JuVm Utm UYhP XLp
TgNVjLs AUVl T\m 73-Y jRm YL
Nnu\. SLoTd NhPm Gum AVlTm 74 Y jRm
uYLV] SLWh AUlLs AUVlTYRt
YLNnu\. AY, SLW TgNVjdLs, SLWh Uu\m
Utm USLWh Uu\eLs GuTYVm. J WUl\
GpXk SLol\ GpXd CPmTVoY] Td
J SLW TgNVj AUdLlT\. SLWh Uu\eLs
V SLol\l TLdm TV SLol\l TLdm
USLWh Uu\eLm YlTu\].

1. W] IkRilTRdLXjPu A]j WU\


Utm SLol\ AUlLd SoLj RoRp
SPjRp.
2. RrjRlThP NV[o, UXYr ]o uReV
Yl]o BVdL] CPJd NnRp.
RrjRlThP Yl]o Utm UXYr TZeu
Utm TiLs BVdL] CPeLs Jd
NnRp.
3. TioLd up CWi Ted
\pXR CPJd NnRp,
4. UtNpXlThPT, RXYoLdV TRLd
CQV] Jd NnRp.
5. Es[h
AUlLdj
RoRpL[
SPjYRtL] J RoRp BQVm HtTjRp.
6. CkY]eLu YUV E Nnm
Th J BQVm AUdLlTPp, CkR
BQVm Ik Bid J\ Es[h
AUlLu XYWjR Bn NnRp
Yim
7. Es[h AUlLu LQdL[j RdL
NnYRtL] HtT NnRp.
8. HRm Es[h AUl LXdLlTUV]p
BUR LXjts LhPVULj RoRX
SPjYRtL] HtT NnRp.
9. Lh YhT[oL[LY ApX VfN
SToL[LY Es[h RoRpLp ThPXm.

73-Y Utm 74-Y jReL[p EYdLlThs[


V \u dVU] Utm TY] AmNeLs
uYU.

218

219

AUl, ALWeLs Utm \Yt\ CkV


AWVXUl E Nns[. AYLPV TLs 12Y
C]QllThp \lThs[]. AWVXUlT]
USLWhLs, SLWhLs Utm SLWl TgNVjdLs AWVp
AUlTp AeLdLlThs[]. CY RW SLVeLs,
CWYdP YVeLs dLlThP TLu dLs
Tu\ Y X SLol\ Es[h AUlLm Es[].
9.2.1

USLWh

SLWh AUlp USLWh L EVokR YLVf


NokRRm USLWh ALlTV] ALWeL[l
Tts[. H]V YhPW AUlLPu JlmT.
A Y] TL[m AL jRu]hVm
ATdu\. UXf NhPUu\jRp CVt\lTm \l
SLWhf NhPeLu r USLWhLs TV SLWeLp
YlTu\]. SPUu\ju NhPj]p Vu
WRNeLu USLWhLs AUdLlTu\].

9.2

SLol\ Es[h AWNeLeLs

SLol\ ApX FWL UdLhRL L YLUL Sm


Shp T Yu\, ARu Wf]Lm dLp
kRYVn Es[], AYL[j \Ytm Th,
SLol\ ApX FWL Es[h AUlLs YlThs[].
CqYUlLs SLWh AUlLs Gum AVlTu\].

220

NRWQUL 10 XhNm ApX ARt UtThP UdLh


RLVd Lis[ TV SLWeLs USLWhL[L
AUdLlTu\], AYLPV Bi YU]m
TYL J LVm. ERWQUL Nu], mT,
LpLjR, p aRWTj, TeLo USLWhLs,
CkVu Ll TV USLWh[n Es[]. AY AL
UdLhRLVm V YYVm Tts[]. Gm
CWi XhNjtm \Y] UdLs RLVd Lis[
SLWeLm USLWhLs AUdLlThs[]. AYLu
Bi YU]m .50,000 UtTYpX, NkRolTf ZXl
Tj, USLWhV Y AWN Ydm. LXm
UmT, ARu dVjYm U\Xm. Nu]Vm
Noj, UW, LVmTjo, f, SpY Utm
NXm BVY Rr Shu USLWhLs Bm.

221

USLWhLs A]jm
\lTmNeL[l Tts[]

TlTPV]

1. UXf NhP Uu\j]p \Yt\lTm NhPm


Ju]pRu USLWhVu YlTu\.
2. USLWh oYLlTVp RlThP AYVU]
TL[ BRWUL Lis[.
3. UX AWNeLm SLWhUu\jR UtToY
NnVm, LhlTjRm, LXdLm ALWe
L[l Tts[.
4. TYL, J USLWh AL UdLh RLVd
Lis[ SLol\l TLp AUdLl
Tu\.
5. J USLWh lhP ALW YWmts
TVtu\.
USLWh TLs
WUl\ Es[h AUlL[l Tu SLWh
AUlLs Vh AWNeL Y]eL[Lf NVpTP Yi
Es[]. T[RW UmT Utm NRV
BVYtdL] hPeL[j RVdm Tl] AY
Tts[]. TuWiPY CQl ThVp lhs[
18 AmNeLs j TL[ UtLsYR, NVp
hPeL[m AY \Yt\ Yis[. CRuT,
UXf NhPUu\ju NhPeL[p uYm TLs SLWh
AUlLPm JlTPdLlTP Yim.
1. SLW hPPPu FWLj hPjRm hRp.
2. LhPeLs LhRp Utm XjRl TVuTjRp
AYt\ Je\l TjRp.
3. T[RW Utm NL UmThtj hPRp.

222

4. NXLs Utm TXeLs BVYt\l TodLX


AlTPp TWUjRp.
5. o VLm NnRp.
6. TfLRWm Utm lW TL[
UtLsRp.
7. VQll TP (TLs)
8. FWLdL Utm t\l\f ZXl TLjRp.
9. F]t\o Utm kR UkRt\o BVW
Es[PdV, NRVju St\ Yl]u
SXuLs TLjRp.
10. N u]t\m NnRp
11. FWL YU dLm NnRp.
12. Lp Utm LXfNW AmNeLu Y[ofd
TTRp.
13. eLdLs, RhPeLs, [Vh UR]eLs
Tu\ SLol\ YNLd HtT NnRp.
14. CL Utm L UR]eLs TWUjRp.
15. LpSPd hPL[ AUjRp Utm L
YRVj RP NnRp.
16. \l, C\l BVYtu TPu V L
dVU] s YWeL[j WhPp.
17. Tk jPeLs, LY\, NX [d
Tu\ T YNL[f Nn LjRp,
18. C\fd LhpLs, Rp TRPp BVYt\
Je\ TjRp.
UtLiP AmNeLs NmTkRUL, USLWhVm
EhLiP SLWh AUlLs A]jm TX TL[
Btu\]. CYt\, Rl TiQ Utm NXVW
UWeLs BVYt\ LYjRp. EPUV[o CpXR SnLs,
223

tj m TuLs Utm RkRWYdm XeL[j


Rld LYp YjRp ApX Lu AjRp,
tXdL[m, LiLhL[m AUj UXiU
NnRp Tu\ Ru lTl TLs XYt\m AY
NVXtu\].
USLWhu YYn BRWeLs
USLWhu YYn BRWeLs (A) Y l
Xm T\lTm YYn (B) YlpXR YLk
Ym YU]m G] C RuUL[ EPVY]YL Es[].
Y lTd NWR YYn LhPQeLs, RiP]l TQeLs
UX AWNeLjk T\lTm ER UVeLs Utm
LPuLs BVYtu Xm Pdu\]. YLu Xm
PdLlTY RXVV YYn BRWUm. TYL
Z ThVp NnVlThs[Y Y j Yjd
Ls[ Jo USLWh ALWm Tts[.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

LhPeLs Utm XeLu R] Y.


YL]eLs Utm LpSPLs R] Y.
LhPL (SPLm, U) Y.
SLWjts UdLdd LhVdm Th
NVpTm [mTWeLs R] Y.
Rp, YojRLm Utm YrdLl T R]
Y.
LdL Y.
uNW Lo Utm tT] R] Y.
X UlLs EVoYu RdLlTm UmTh
Y.
NkR Y ApX TR Y.

224

USLWhu YYnl TRpLs Vm USLWh


(T) p NjRlTu\]. Ckk ARu
NX]jtj RYV] TQm dLlTu\.
USLWh Uu\m
USLWhu dV AeLUL USLWh Uu\m
Es[. XlTWl UdLhRL BVYtu AlTPp,
J USLWh TX YhPeL[L dLlTu\. JqY
YhPjkm, YV YkRo YdUu AlTPp
J W RokRdLlTYo. ClWLs ApX
El]oLs, LuXoLs Gu AZdLlTu\]o.
AqY RokRdLlTm LuXoL[ EhLiP Ru
USLWhu Uu\m. TgNVj CWfV AUlLs
Es[RlTu, USLWhLm RrjRlThP N]o
TZe]o,
TiLs
BVoLd
CPeLs
JdLlThs[]o. Ut\ uReV Yl]oLdm CP
Jd NnV NhPUu\m ALWm Lis[. TgNVj
CWfV AUlLu El]oLd EiP] YV,
RLs Utm RPoT]YLs USLWhd LuXoLdm
TkY]Yn Es[]. SWVLj RokRdLlTm
El]oL[j Roj, USLWhl TVf NokR
SPUu\ El]oLm UXf NhPUu\ El]oLm
USLWh Uu\ hPeLp LXk Ls[Xm B]p
YdLdm EU PV. SLWh oYLjp ATYm
Lis[ SToL[ USLWh Uu\jt UX AWNeLm
VU]m NnVXm. B]p Uu\jp YdLdm EU
AYoLdd PV.
USLWh Uu\ju El]oLu GidL
UXjt UXm, YThd LQlTu\. Nu]
USLWh 100 El]oL[l Ttd\. RkR
LWQeLdLL
USLWh
Uu\m
uhd
LXdLlTUu, B UReLds RoRpLs SPjRTP
Yim. USLWh Uu\m Jo YR AUlTLj Lru\.
225

Eso NhPlTWYVl Tu A NVpTu\.


UdLu lTjR SLWju NhPeL[L A Utdu\.
UVo Utm Q UVo
UVo USLWhu AWVp X] RXYo BYo.
AYo
SLWju
RtULu
Utm
RkR
G]
AZdLlTu\o.
UVW
UdL[
SWVLj
RokRdu\]o. LuXoLs RUdsk JYW
Q UVWL RWkRdu\]o AYoLPV TRdLXm
Ik BiL[m. USLWh El]oLu up J
Te]u TmTuUVp \Yt\lTm oU]j]p
UVm Q UVm TR dLm NnVlTPXm.
UVo Jo Zj (AXeLW) RXYWLj Lru\o
ZdLp AYo USLu Nop TeLt\o. Uu\d
hPeLdj RXU Re, JeLm AUVm
TWUdu\o, V SPjRu Th AYo El]oL[
NT dLm NnVXm ApX YVt\Xm Uu\ju
SPYdLLk
RP
NnVlTYRtV
GlT]m AYo JdLXm ApX dLXm Uu\ju
\l hPeL[d hdL UVo ALWm TPjs[o.
USLWju oYLm TtV GlTs m AYo
BQVPk RLYXd LW m. Uu\ju Ls
NYW \Yt\lTh YYR AYo LYjd Ls\o.
Gj XUL UVo, Q UVdj R] ALWeLs
XYt\ JlTP NnVXm. UX AWNeLjtm
USLWhdm CPX] RLYp RPo A]jm UVu
YXL NpX Yim Gm, UVo AR j YdL
V.

226

dLs
USLWhu
dLs
Uu\ju
TpY
SPYdLL[d LYjd LsYp dVU]Ro
TelTV Btu\]. USLWhu TLu
\UV]
NVpTht
AY
Qu\].
CddL[]: Xd, TsLs , UjYU]Ls
, u VLm Utm TdYWjd , USLW
UmThd , LRW , Yl Utm d,
o UWUjd Utm Cum\. dLs A]jm,
RXVV XdYm. Cd NVXdL UtToY,
Utm TV[o Zm BVYtu RYV]
ALWeL[l Tts[.
USLWh BQVo
BQVo USLWhu RXU Y BYo
USLWh
Uu\jRp
CVt\lTm
LsLL[f
NVpTjY AYPV RXVV TlTm BQVo
TmTm CkV Bhj\ TV[o. J lhP
LXjt
AYo
UX
AWNeLj]p
VU]m
NnVlTu\o.
BQV[u ALWeLs
USLWh NhPjuTm USLWh Lup Utm
XddLu BXN]u Tm AYo NVpT\o.
USLWhl
TVhLs

UtToY]m
LhlThPm AYo Nju\o. X AdLVj
RVlT BQVu TlTm 74-Y, AWVp AUlf
NhPjtu
RoRp
SPjm
TL[l
AYo
TtdLpX.
USLWhu oYLjp AfNVL BQVo
Lru\o. USLWhu Uu\jm TpY dLu
hPeLm LXk Li EWVtm EUV AYo
227

Tts[o. LuXoLd RYV] RLYpL[m


[dLeL[m AYo YZeu\o. AYoLs YReLs
YRt YjQVL Ck USLWhu CuVUV
Tel T] BQVo Btu\o.
9.2.2

SLWhLs

SLW Es[h AUlLp Aj YY


SLWhL[m. SLWh Gm Np, Vhs[ SLWjR
lL\. UXjt UXm SLWhLu GidL
YTu\. SU Shp 1500dm ALU] SLWhLs
Es[]. UX AWLs CVtm SLWhf NhPeL[p
SLWhLs oYdLlTu\]. GkR J V FWL ApX
SLol\ T]m SLWhV] Adm EUV
UX AW Tts[. J SLWhV AUlTRtd \kR
ThNUL UdLhRL 5000 jk 50,000 d CPlThPRL
CjRp Yim. SLWeLp UdL[p UtLs[lTm
TpYThP RpLs TmTm YNVf NoTt\YVL
Es[]. UdLhRL Utm Bi YU]ju AlTPp
SLWhLs 3 ApX 4 YLV] TT NnVlThs[].
TLs
SLWhLu TLs H\jRZ USLWhl TLd
CQVL Es[]. AY AWVXUlu TuWiPY
CQllThVu AUld hu r Yu\]. Gm,
SLWhl TL[d LhPVl TLs, Ru lTl TLs
G]m YLlTjRXm.
LhPVU] TLs.
1. nUV] o VLm NnRp.
2. Tf NXLs AUjl TWUjRp.
3. RdLp [d Utm o YNL[f
NnRp.

228

4. RdL[ jRm Nn Ll ThL[


ALtRp.
5. ATVdL YojRLeL[m NVpL[m Je
\lTjRp.
6. UjYU]L[m
TsdPeL[m
TWUjRp.
7. \l, C\lL[l T NnRp
8. Tf NXLs, TXeLs Utm H]V T
CPeLp Rum RPL[m, hd
LidLL[m ALtRp.
9. NXLdl TVh, CpXeLd Gi
YZeRp.
10. Tf LRWm, lW, BTjR] VL[d
RP NnRp Utm TpY YLX]
C\l]eL[ APdLm NnYRtV CPeL[
Je\l TjRp Tu\Y NmTkRU]
A]jd LVeL[m NnRp
11. VQll TPLdL] HtT NnRp.
lTl TLs.
1. SLWl TL[ YjR AUjRp.
2. Tio Ll CpXeLs, A]R CpXeLs,
RSVLu CpXeLs, KnPeLs,
XLeLs, T eLdLs, RhPeLs
RX]Yt\ TWUjRp.
3. NXVWeLp UWeL[ SRp.
4. X A[YL[ UtLsRp.
5. St\ ]d Ls Lhd LjRp.
6. SLWhl TVu T SXjRl TdLjRp.

229

7. SLWhl Tds TdYWj YNL[


HtTj UdLd LXfNWm Utm\
LrfL[ HtT NnRp.
YYn BRWeLs
SLWhu dV YYn BRWeL[Y].
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Nj Y.
Rp Y.
TsLs R] YLs eL YLs.
LpSP Utm YL] Y.
LdL Y.
o Utm [d Y.
AWNeLm YZem UVeLm LPuLm.

T oYLm, UjYm Utm Tf LRWm, Lp,


T UWUjl TLs, o VLm, [dLs AUjRp
Utm \ YNL[ Nn LjRp Vm SLWhu
NX C]eLs Bm. SLWhLs RU YYVf Nj
NXtL] TQjRl Ttd Ls[ SLWh L[d
Lis[].
SLWh Uu\m
JqY SLWhm J oYL AUlTl
Tts[. SLWh Uu\m, SLWhd , SLWh YVm
G] TpYLVL TpY UXeLp TVPlThs[.
A SLWhu NhP BdLm Nnm AUlTm. TpY
YhPeLk RokRdLlTm LuXoL[ SLWh
Uu\m Lis[. H]V Es[h AUlLd
Es[Rl Tp, RrjRlThP N]o, TZe]o, TiLs
BVdL] CP JdLs Es[]. SLWhLu RXYo
TRLm UtLiPYoLdL] Jd NnVlThs[].
SPUu\ El]oLs, UXf NhPUu\ El]oLs,
230

YhPd dLu RXYoLs BVm SLWh Uu\eLp


LXk Ls[ HtT Es[. SLWh oYLjp ATYm
ApX \lT] A LiP SToL[ SLWh oYLjp
UX AWNeLm VU]m NnVXm. B]p, Cql]oLs
Uu\jp YdLdm EUVl TtdLpX. SLW
UdLh RLu AlTPp SLWh Uu\ju A[
AUks[. JqY LuXm, VU] El]m,
R] CdLp AUoYRt u, CkV AWVXUlt
SoU ApX TtPu CdLm, CkVu C\U Utm
JUlThP E NnVm, R] LPUV SoUPu
Bt\m Jo EUV Gjd Ls[ Yim. SLWh
Uu\ju TRdLXm 5 BiL[m A uhV
dLlTUu B UReLds RoRp SPjRlTP Yim.
ARTu, CW]U, TR dLm ApX R CZl
Tu\ LWQjRp J El]o CPm LVu A B
UReLds WlTlThP Yim. R] TL[
UtLi NVXtYp Xd Utm \ dLs
SLWh Uu\jm Q Nnu\].
SLWhu RXYo
JqY SLWh Uu\m J RXYWm, J
QjRXYWm Tts[. SLWh Uu\jRXYo
UdL[p SPVL RokRdLlTu\o. QjRXYW
LuXoLs RokRdu\]o SLWhj RXYm,
QjRXYm 5 BiLd TR Ydu\]o. RXYo
ApX QjRXYo, USLWhu UVo Utm Q
UVWl Tu TRk ALt\lTPXm. RXYo
SLWh Uu\ hPeL[d hj hPeLdj
RXU
Ydu\o
TpY
SPYdLL[
JeTju\o. SLWhu Utm NVXdL
oYLjR AYo UtToY Nnu\o. SLWhu TLs
ApX BYQeLs A]jRm AYo ToYm
231

EUV Tts[o. SLWh oYLm NmTkRU] GkR


RLYXm AYo LW m. dLULdu, SLWhf
NhPj]p AYo UjRlThs[ A]jl TL[m
ALWeL[m AYo NVpTjR Yim. RXYo CpXR
SWjp,
QjRXYo
RXYdV
A]jl
TL[m NnRp Yim.
oYL AYXo BQVo
JqY SLWhdm J oYL AYXo Es[o.
AYo BQVo Gu AZdLlTu\o. AYo UXl
Tj\Vf NokRYo. AYo UX AWNeLj]p VU]m
NnVlTu\o. BQVo GjRQjm CPlTVo
NnVlTPXm. TpY SLWhLm TU[t
BQVoLu ALWeLm TLm JjlTYVL
Es[]. dLUd u Uu\ju oU]eL[m
L[m SLWh BQVo NVXdLm Nnu\o.
NmTkRlThP ALLd oU]eLu SLpL[ AYo
Al Ydu\o. AYo JlTkReL[f Nnu\o. X
AdLLs, EUeLs, AULs Tu\Yt\l \lj
Lrf WXj RVlp RXYd Q\o. AYo
SLWhu X AdLV RVoNn NVXdLm
Nn\o, EVoRdLd oYL AdLV Al
Yd\o SLWhp UtLs[lThs[ CZlLs
Utm LVPp TtV A]jf NnL[m AYo
RXYu LY]jt Gjf p\o ApX Li
Yu\o. AYo Uu\ hPjm LXk Ls[Xm. Uu\j
RXYo Utm BQVo BVPV Shm LULm
CNY]U] E\L[l Tm NokRu SLWhu
YtLWU] TfNVpT AUm.
SLWl TgNVj
1992Bm Biu AWVXUlf (74Y jRm)
NhPm VRo FWL Es[h AUl \V Sm Shp
232

ALm Nns[. C SLWl TgNVj G]


AVlTu\. CkR Es[h AUlT] J WUl\
GpXk FWL GpXd CPlTVos[ J
TdL] AUVlTu\. CddLdL] Ju
ApX CWi YYn WUeL[ Es[Pds[ J
Esol T TgNVj SLWUL AUdLlTu\. J
TgNVj SLWm \kR 5000 ToL[ UdLh RLVLd
LijRp Yim. ARu TYV] UdLs
Y[iUf NWR NVpLp DThs[YoL[n CjRp
Yim. J TgNVj SLWju Bi YU]m J
CXhN Tnd \YL CjRp P.
JqY TgNVj SLWjm J SLWl TgNVj
YlTu\. CRtL], TgNVj SLWm TX YVeL[d
LiPRn dLlTu\. JqY YVm JqY
El]m, VU] SToLm CkV AWVXUlTm CkV
C\U Utm JUlThPm E Nn LlTt\m
E U Ls[ Yim. J El]o Jud UtThP
SLWl TgNVjp El]Wn CjRp V. Ut\T,
SLWlTgNVju El]oLs SLWhd LuXoLs
Lis[Rt CQV] RLs, TLs, NLLs
BVYt\l Tts[]o.
SLWl TgNVju El]oLs RUdsk, J
Q RXYW RokRdu\]o. AYo 5 BiLdl
TR Ydu\o. SLWhj RXYo Lis[ ALWeLs,
NLLs Tu\Yt\ ATdu\o. H]V EsWh
AUlLd Es[Rl Tu SLWl TgNVju YYn
BRWeLs, NX]eLs, Utm \ NnLs, SLWl
TgNVjtm AUks[], T[RW UmT Utm
NRV dV TL[ BtYRt R]d RYV]
dL[ A AUjd Ls[Xm.

233

9.2.3. SLVm
TYV] Tj\ YojRL X] Y]eLs
RU TV[oLdL] SLVeLs (Township) s[].
Tj\ Y]eLu UjR Rhp T]
dL SLVeLdL] JdLlThsX]. WUl\
TLp ApX ALUs[ SLWlTLp
CkSLVeLs YlThs[]. SLVeLu dV
AmNeL[Y].
1. SLVeLs UVLj hPPlThPY.
2. SLWh AUlL[p TYL YZeLlTYR
P EVoRWjX] Vp TL[m CY
YZe TWUdu\].
3. UdLd TXYLX] YX Utm \
YnlL[ YZeL J SLVm YNL[l
Tts[. G]Y Tm A[X] UdLs AR
Sf Npu\]o.
SLV Es[h AWNeLm RpY]ju CVpT]
oYLl TlTL ANdLlTu\. SnY Tu\
X SLWeLp, Rp Y]eL[p VU]m NnVlTm
oYL AYXoLs Es[]o. CkoYL AYXoLd
AYjRXYoLs, TV[oLs, Utm TXo ER
Nnu\]o. SLWhVl TXu, SLVeLs ALW
EVoRuUVd Lis[]. Vp oYLjp AWVp
RXhu AfNju LWQUL, SLVm UdL[h AUl
GR]m LidLpX. Um, SLVeLu
lT[oLs RtTs[ HtTLs Utm YNLs j
U]\Yl Tt\YoL[L Es[]o.
9.2.4

CWYd P YVeLs (Contonment Boards)

YdLlThs[]. 1924Bm Biu CWYd PeLs TtV


NhPju r CWYd PYVeLs AUdLlTu\].
CWYl TPLs jRlTYRtL] ApX ReYRtL]
J SLWjp Es[ CPU CWYd PUm. CWYd
PlTu Es Wf]L[f NUlTRtLu CWYd
P YVm AUdLlTu\.
CWYd P YVju RXYo XVd LhlTh
ApX LhP[ AL BYo. AYd YVjp lT
Ydf h YZeLlThs[. Ut\T, RokRdLlTm
El]o JYo u BiLd TR Ydu\o.
TRu jRU] El]o R] ALW oYU] TR
Ydm LXm YW TRp du\]o. RokRdLlTm
El]oLs
RUdLu
J
QjRXYWj
RokRdu\]o. AYo u BiLdl TR
Ydu\o.
SLWhl TLs CWYd P YVjPm
JlTPdLlTu\]. SLWh Uu\jp LQlTYRl
Tu ClTLs LhPVU]Y, Ru lTU]Y G]
TT NnVlThsX]. YVju YYn BRWeLs
YNokR YYn, YNWR YYn Gu dLlThs[].
UV AWNeLju u AUPu GjRLV YVm
YVm dLXm. XVd LhlTh AL YVj]p
RVdLlTm X AdLV AUdu\o.
CWYdP YVeLu XlT, RlThP AUlLs
BVY TjRUt\Rn Es[]. G]Y LXlTdp
AY AiP SLWh AUlLu ElL[L
CPmT\Xm.
9.2.4 SLW GpXl T dLs

UV AWu oYLjt EhThP TL[m. AY


TLl AUfNLju SW oYLd LhlThu r

ANm, LW[, UjV WRNm, EjWWRNm, Ut


YeL[m, _m Lxo, CUNXlWRNm BVYtp
EYdLlThs[]. SLW GpXl T dLs UX

234

235

AWNeLj]p CVt\lTm RlThP NhPeL[p


oYdLlTu\]. SLW GpXl Tdu UYhP
BhV[o ALlTV] LhTh]m ALWjRm
Lis[o. SLW GpXl Td u El]oLs
RokRdLlTu\]o ApX AWNeLj]p VU]m
NnVlTu\]o.
ApX
J
Te]o
RokRdLlThPWLm Ut\ Te]o VU]m
NnVlThPWLm Es[]o. Cdtj R[d,
YLp
Utm
lW
Tu\
LhlTjRlThP
GidLX] TLs YZeLlThs[] Gum
CddLs SLWl TgNVjts EhTjd Ls[lTPXm.

CqYUl RtTRV NhP AlTPp CpX


Gu UX RoRp BQV AL JYo RdWo.

9.2.6 lhP GpXlT dLs (Notified Area


Committee)

9.3.1.1. UYhP TgNVjLs

CddLs Lo, _Wj, AV], UjVlWRNm,


LoSPLm, _m Lxo, EjWWRNm, Utm CUNXlWRNm
BV UXeLp Es[]. J SLWh AUVl
TYRtV RYV] TkR]L[ \Yt\ VR
J GpXlTdL] dLlThP GpXl Td
AUdLlTu\. UmTh]l TtYm VRo
SLWjtm A AUdLlTu\. Cdu AUl
ALWloYU] AWRp AWNeLj]p Al
NnVlTu\. G]Y Ru A Al NnVlThs[
GpXl Td G] AZdLlTu\. Cd UX
SLWh NhPju AlTPp NVpTu\. B]p
ALWloYU] AWRp lPlThs[ ApX
AdLlThs[ SLWhf NhP HtTLs UhU ARt
TjRU]YL[n Cdm.
AdLlThP GpXlTd SLWh Uu\ju
ALWeLs A]jRm Ttdu\. B]p SLWh
Uu\jRl TXu, A J VU] AUlTm. Cdu
RXYm El]oLm UX AWNeLj]p VU]m
NnVlTu\]o.
236

9.3.1. u Ad TgNVj \
A W Vp

oY Lm

UYhPTgNVj

UYhP FWL Y[of


\

FWh JuVm

FWh JuV AYXLm

WU TgNVj

WU oYL AYXLm

UYhP TgNVj GuT TgNVj CWfV


LhU]ju UpUhP AdLm. C UYhPm Ym
ALW GpXVd Lis[. Gm, SLWhp
NodLlThs[ UYhPlTLs, ApX SLWl TgNVj
ApX Rp SLVm ApX USLWl TlLs r Es[
TLs ApX CWYd P YVm Tu\Y ARs
APeL. UYhPl TgNVj uYYW El]oL[nd
Lis[.
A. UYhP TgNVj YhPeLk SPVLj
RokRdLlTm El]oLs, UYhPl TgNVj
GpXp Es[ H\jRZ 50,000 UdLdL]
JqY YhPm AUdLlTu\. JqY
YhPjkm JW J El]o SPVLj
RokRdLlTu\o. B]p Jud UtThP
UYhP TgNVju El]WL JYo
RokRdLlTP V.
B. UYhP TgNVj Tu UdL[Y El]oLs
Utm UXf NhPUu\ El]oLs.

237

C. UYhPjts
Jo
YdL[WL
T
NnVlThs[ UXeLuAY El]o.
D. TgNVj JuVj RXYoLk Ikp J
Te]o
UYhPl
TgNVjt
RokRdLlTu\]o.
A, C, D BVYtu rYm El]oLs
UYhPlTgNVju SPYdLLp TeLtLXm, B]p
YdLdL V.
RrjRlThP N]o Utm TZe]o BVd
UYhP TgNVjl Tp Es[ UjR UdLhRLp
AYoLu GidL Tts[ RNWjtLtT CPeLs
JdLlTu\]. RrjRlThP N]o Utm TZe]o
BVWf NokR TioL[m EhLiP YLp,
ULoLdL] up J Te CPeLs JdLlTu\].
J YdL[dV YV R 18 Bm. UYhP
TgNVjt SPVLj RokRdLlTPs[ J
El]d
YVj
R
21
Bm.
B]p,
AqNWPV
TVoLm
NmTkRlThP
YdL[oThVpLp CPm TtdL Yim. UV, UX
AWNeLeLs Utm Es[h AUlLu r TYo,
UYhPl TgNVjp El]oL[Lj RokRdLlTPm
ApX GlTRVm YdLm RVt\YoLs BYo.
UYhPl TgNVju TRdLXm Ik BiL[m. A
uhd LXdLl TUu, B UReLds RoRp
SPjRlTPYim. H]V A]jl WjY
AUlLd Es[Rl Tu, NhPju r Rd LP]
GkR STm UYhPl TgNVjp YdL[WL ApX
El]WL CjRp V.
RXYo Utm Qj RXYo
JqY UYhPl TgNVjm J RXYWm
QjRXYWm
Tts[.
AYoLs
238

RokRdLlThs[
El]oL[p,
RUdsk
RokRdLlTu\]o. R CZdLlThPXu ApX
TRk dLlThPXu, AYoLs Ik BiLdm
TRp ClTo. YZeLlThs[ A]j NLL[m
AYoLs ATdu\]o.
RXYu TLs
UYhPTgNVju AWVp V] RXU oY
ARu RXYo BYo. ARuT, UYhP TgNVju
hPeL[d hjj RXU Re, ARu NVp
SPYdLL[ SPju\o. AYo TgNVj NLs Utm
TgNVjLs NVpTYR Bn Nn, R] AdLV
UYhPl TgNVjtf NUoldu\o. UYhPl TgNVju
NVX[u YXlThu R] Lj] G\o.
C UYhP BhV[Wp GRlTm UkR] AdLV
CQdLlT\.
RU
TLs
GR]m
QjRXYd AYo JlTP NnVXm. SdLV]
NUVju T, UYhPl TgNVjj RPoT]
GlT]m \Yt\ AYo EjRWPm. B]p
UYhPl TgNVju AjR hPjp AjRLV NVX,
AYo AdL Alf NnVYim. UYhPl
TgNVju TLs ApX BYQeLs A]jRm
ToYP AYo ALWm Tts[o. CqY, J RXYo
Utm J UtToYV[o BVu TelT]
RuPu CQjd LiPYWL UYhPl TgNVjj
RXYo Es[o. AWNeLjtm UYhPl TgNVjtm
CPV AYo RLYp RPo TXUL AUks[o.
UYhPl TgNVj ApX pX T`ju
ALWeLm TLm
UXf NhPUu\jRp CVt\lThs[ NhPjp
\lThs[]. UYhPl TgNVj Jo JeQl Utm

239

UtToY m Tel T]Bt\ Yis[ AY


YU.
1. TgNVj NLu X AdLL[
BWnk JlRp Ad\.
2. RU TL[j \UPu UtLsU
TgNVj NLd A EjRWL[l
\ldu\.
3. TgNVj NL[p RVdLlThP Y[ofj
hPeL[ A JeQdu\.
4. UYhPju Y[ofl TLs NmTkRUL A UX
AWNeLjt AW YZeu\.
5. UYhPju Eso BQU TPjR
Y]eLu TLs j A s
YWeL[f NLdu\.
6. UYhPjp Es[ TgNVj NLdL] UX
AWNeLjRp JdLlTm L[ A
TokRdu\.
7. UYhPju TgNVjdLs, TgNVj NLs
BVYtdf NnVlTPYiV T JdLm
A UX AWNeLjt BXN]
YZeu\.
8. R]dd r AUks[ TgNVj CWfV
Ad \ AUlLdPX] Sp
E\L[ Je \Tju\.
9. UX AWNeLj]p AdLlTm GpX
ALWeL[m A NVpTju\.
XddLs
pX T`j ApX UYhPl TgNVj R]
XddLu YXLlTVtu\. CkXd dLs
uYm NVpTLdL] AUdLlThs[].
240

1. NL UmT ApX u]t\m


2. YNVm, h\, TN]m Utm LpSPl
TWUl
3. N, WU Utm V A[X] RpLs
4. Lp Utm NRVl TSXu
5. Utm Yl
6. TfLRWm
CddLu RXYoLm El]oLm RmUp
RUdsk
RokRdLlTu\]o.
UYhPl
TgNVjuRXYo J u El]Wn ClTWu,
AYW ARu RXYWL CjRp Yim.
YYn BRWeLs
TYLd \ YiUu, R]NVXdLl
TL[f Nkdm Th, J UYhPl TgNVj
uYm YYn BRWeL[l Tts[.
1. Rp, YojRLm Utm YrdLlT
dLlTm Y.
2. TdLdLLs Utm o dLlTm
Y.
3. TVLs R] Y
4. UX AWNeLm YZem UVeLs Utm
LPuLs
5. TV[o Zm Utm WUl Tt UVeLm
X YYm
6. hPm Utm YhPWm jR UVeLs
7. C\f tT]V[oLs Njm EUd LhPQm.
8. NkRp tT]Vm LpSPLs Utm
TsLs dLlTm Y.
241

9. R] Njk Ym YU]m.
JqY UYhP TgNVjtL], UYhPl TgNVj
Ju AUdLlThs[. uYm C]eLs UYhPl
TgNVj s NjRlTu\].
1. UXju WiP dlk UYhPl
TgNVju dLu JdLm NnVlThP
RL.
2. AWNeLj]p YL NnVlTm A]j
UVeLs, DhjRLLs, LPuLs Utm
TeLlLs.
3. UYhPl TgNVju XeLs ApX Ut\ Nj
Xm T\lTm YPL, ApX jRLj RL.
4. RSToLPk ApX Y]eLPk
Ut\m NnVlTm ApX UVeL[nl
T\lTm. A]j YhLs, CXTeLs Utm
SuLPVp Wis[ \ YU]eLs.
5. UYhPl TgNVj]p tT] NnVlThP Xm
Utm NjdLu Xm Ym A]j
YU]eLs.
6. UYhPl TgNVj]p dLlTm ApX
ARtf NjRlTm A]jd LhPQeLs Utm
RiPjRLLs.
JqY UYhPl TgNVj dm, Ru]p
oUdLlThP A[p, UVm Ju] AWNeLm
YZeRp Yim.
RXU oYL AYXo
JqY UYhP TgNVjtm J RXU oYL
AYXo AWNeLj]p VU]m NnVlTu\o. TpY
UXeLp AYPV TRl TVo UTYRn Es[.
242

RrShp CkR AYXo WU Y[of CQ


CVd]diP] X] Ydu\o. RXU oYL
AYXu BhNol \, FVm Utm TLs, Je
Utm SPjR Utm TYWV\Ls Vm AWNeLj]p
Je\l TjRlTu\].
UYhPl TgNVju RXU oYL AYXu
TLs, ALWeLs Utm LPULs,
1. RXU oYL AYXo UXf NhPUu\jRp
Ru Ujs[ ALWeLs A]jRm
NVp Tju\o.
2. UYhPl TgNVjl TLs A]ju
NVXdLjR AYo UtToYm LhlTm
Nnu\o.
3. UYhPl TgNVj Utm ARu dLu
hPeLp LXk Ls[m, AYLp GkR
J oU]jR u YdLm AYo EU
Tts[o.
4. UYhPl TgNVju oU]eL[ AYo
NVpTjR Yim.
5. UYhPl TgNVju oU]eLu NVXdLm
Ttm Y Yl Ttm LX AdLL[
AYo YZeRp Yim.
6. UYhPl
TgNVju
AYXoL[m
TVhL[m AYo LhlT Nnu\o.
7. UYhPl
TgNVju
EjRWL[m
LhP[L[m AYo NVpTju\o.
8. UYhPl TgNVju GkR Jo AYXdm
ApX TV[oLdm, Gj XU]
EjRW]p, R] TLs GR]m AYo
JlTP NnVXm.

243

9.3.1.2 TgNVj Vu/FWh JuVm

RXYo Utm QjRXYo

TgNVj CWfV \VUlp S AdLLl


TgNVj N AUks[. A J CPXV]
AdLLm LRlTu\. TgNVj Vu ApX
FWh JuVm G] A TXYLVLl TVPlThs[.

TgNVj Nu RXYo WLo. WRu Gu


TX UXeLu TVPlThs[]o. RrShp AYo NoUu
(RXYo) Gu AZdLlT\o. CYWj Roj J
QjRXYm Cd\o. AYo TgNVj JuVju
El]oL[p RUds[V RokRdLlTu\o. R
CZdLlThPXu (A) TRk dLlThPXu AYoLs
Ik BiLd TR Ydu\]o. TgNVj JuV
Uu\j]p RP NnVlThPXu Gj XUL EjRWu
Xm,
RXYo
AYdiP]
GlTL[m
QjRXYd JlTP NnVXm, Gm RXYo
TR LVL Cdm T RXYdiP] TL[
QjRXYo Bt\ Yim. RXYo Utm QjRXYo
BV C TRLm LVL CdUu YhPW YYn
AL (Revenue Divisional Officer) TgNVj JuV
Uu\ju AYp NoT] El]WLm RXYWLm
ClTo.

AUlm A[m
RV oYLd dL[L AUVl Tm TgNVj
Y[ofd YhPWjPu TYL YPRp TgNVj
Nu Gu AUks[. J TgNVj JuVm 112
WUeL[ Lis[. JqY TgNVj JuVju
oYLm, TgNVj JuVm Uu\jPm YZeLlTPYim.
TgNVj N ApX TgNVj Vu FWh
JuVm.
1. TgNVj JuVm Es[ YhPWeLk
SPVL RokRdLlTm El]o JqY
YhPWjtm
J
El]o
UhU
RokRdLlTu\o.
2. TgNVj JuVl TVf NokR (UdL[Y)
El]oLs Utm UXf NhPUu\ El]oLs.
3. TgNVj JuVju YdL[oL[Ll T
NnVlThs[ UXeLs AY El]oLs.
4. TgNVj JuV Uu\ju RokRdLlThP
El]oLs UjR GidLp Ikp J
Te Gu\ YLp WUl TgNVj AYp
CPmTu\o. TgNVj JuVl Tp Es[
WUl TgNVj RXYoLs RUds Cql]o
RokRdLlTu\o.

244

RXYu ALWeLs Utm TLs


TgNVj Vu RXYo AWVp V]
NVXdLj RXYWYo. AYPV ALWeLm TLm
uYY]Ym.
1. TgNVj Nu hPeL[d hj RXU
ReYR ARu NVp\L[ AYo
SPju\o.
2. TgNVj N Utm ARu Xd
BVYtu Ls Utm oU]eL[
NVpTjm T YhPW Y[of AYXo Utm
AYPV TV[oLs LhlTh] AYo
Nju\o.

245

3. hPeL[ hYm EtTjf NVphPeL[


NVpTjYm TgNVjL[ Fdj
AYLd YjQVL AYo Lr\o.
4. TgNVj JuV Uu\ju BYQeLs Utm
ALWloYUL RLYp TUt\m A]jm
RXYu XUL UtLs[lTPYim.
5. JuVm Utm AWNeLm BVYt\
ALWloYUL ToYP ALWm Tts[o.
6. GkR J dVU] YXm EP]VL
NVpTjYRt
AYo
EjRWL[l
\ldLXm.
7. Ru J El]WLj Lm ThNjp AYp
No \p Xdu RXYWL AYo
Lru\o.
TgNVj JuVju \Uu dVU]
AUlTL TgNVj N Lr\. A NL UmTj
hPeL[ NVpTjR RXVn NVXdL AUlTL
Es[. R]dL] lhP YLp JdLlTm TlL[
NVpTjYp UX AWNeLju J LYWL A
NVpTu\. R] ALW GpXLds AUks[ WU
TgNVjdLu TgNVj N LhlT Utm
UtToY BVYt\ Nju\. A]Ydm
RYV] RphTm Utm ERV YZeu\.
Cp R] GpXds Es[ TgNVju X
AdLL[ BWnk AUdm TlTPV]
ALWjRm Tts[.
TgNVj Nu TLs
TgNVj Nu TLs CYLlTm. AY
Vp YNLs UmTPf NnY Utm Y[of hPeL[
\YtRm Bm.
246

Vp TjRUhp TgNVj N uYm


TlL[l Tts[.
1. WUl TgNVjf NXL[j Roj Nu
ALW GpXds NXLs AUj TWUjRp.
2. o YZeLp.
3. YLp ZnL[ TWUjRp.
4. Rn Nn SX CpXeL[m BWmT LRW
UVeL[ Rp.
5. UjYm Utm LRWl TL[ HtTjRp.
6. BWmT Utm BRWl TsLdL] HtT Nn
Vo Lp UVeL[ Rp.
7. FhlTRL[L Es[ WUf NXLdj
QRp.
8. XLeL[ Rp.
9. C[Oo AUlLs, ULo, EZYo UdLs
Tu\YL[ Rp.
10. LXfNW SPYdLLd FdLUjRp.
R] GpXds NL Y[of hPeL[l TgNVj
N \Ytu\. ARu TLs,
1. NL UmThu r A]j hPeL[m
NVXdRp.
2. V jdL[l Td, VjRp
3. RofV] EWeL[ NLjRp, VjRp,
WTXUdRp.
4. UiY[m, XjR UmTjRp.
5. Y[iUdL] LPu YZeRp.
6. QL[ Yhm, [eL[l TTojm
TN] YNL[f Nn LjRp.
247

7. UWeL[ SRp, UWeL[ Y[ojRp.


8. Rof YnkR C]j BLs, ULs,
T\YLs Y[ol ALm NnRp.
9. Rof YnkR LpSP Y]jR ALm NnRp.
10. LpSPLd V YWUp RjRp Utm EV
YWQm AjRp.
11. TpTiQ AUjRp, Tp VLm NnRp.
12. h\f NeLeL[ Yd UmTjRp.
13. u LlTLeL[l TWUjRp.
14. N, WU Utm V A[X] RpL[
UmTjRp.
15. EtTj Utm Tt UVeL[ l TWUjRp.
XddLs
TgNVj N XddL[ AUjd Li
R] TL[ Btu\. CddLs NhP\X]
AUlL[m. rdLm TL[Vtm Th Ik
dLs Es[].
(A) Utm Y l.
(B) Y[iU EtTj LpSPl TWUl Utm
TN]m.
(C) Lp Utm URo SXu EshP NRV TSXu.
(D) Tf LRWm Utm lW.

RXYWYo. TgNVj N]p RUd JlTP


NnVlTm ALWeL[ CddLs NVpTju\].
YhPW Y[of AYXo XddLu NVX[WL T
u\o.
YYn BRWeLs
TYL J TgNVj N uYm YYn
BRWeL[d Lis[.
1. TgNVj N dm YLs, LhPQeLs,
BVYtp Pdm YU]eLs.
2. pX T`j (A) UYhPl TgNVjk
T\lTm X YYn Utm Eso oYl
TejRL.
3. UX AWNeLjPk T\lTm UVeLs.
4. UX AWNeLjPk T\lTm LPu
RLLs.
5. TgNVj N]p AUdLlTm Tl
Tj\p NkRLs, Cu] TXYtu
jRLLk Pdm YU]m.
6. UYhP TgNVju YXL (A) UYhPl
TgNVjk T\lTm RtLL UVeLs
7. TeLlLs Utm SuLPj RLLs.
8. NVXdL NV Gu\ YLp TgNVj Nd
AWNeLj]p
Ut\m
NnVlTm
hPeLk Ym Ls

Xdu El]oLs TgNVj Nu


El]oL[L RUdsk RokRdLlTu\]o.
TgNVj Nu RXYo Utm Yld u

CYLPu TpY YYn BRWeLs TgNVj


N Tts[. 1994 Bm Biu RrShu TgNVjLs
NhPlT JqY TgNVj JuVjdm TgNVj JuV
T Gum TgNVj (Lp) Jum
AUdLlTPYim. NhPjp lhPY T 27

248

249

(E) RLYp, RPo Utm h\.

C]eLp PdLlTm RLL[d Lis[]. Ut\


UXeLp Es[ TgNVj NLm TgNVj N
YlL[d Lis[].
oYL CVkWm
R] TL[ Btm Th TgNVj N
oYL CVkWm Ju]l Tts[. A YhPW Y[of
AYXWp RXU ReLlT\. YhPW Y[of
AYXd ER V YdL AYXoLs Es[]o.
CqY[of AYXoLs UX AWNeLj]p FVm
YZeLlTm TV[oLs BYo. AYoLs YNVm, LpSP
TWUl, Tf LRWm Tu\ NmTkRlThP \Lp
Yp]oL[n Es[]o. AYoLd r Ut\ TV[oLs
Es[]o. YhPW Y[of AYXo Jo GpX ApX
YhPju oYVL Es[o AYo BQVo Gu
RrShp TRl TVo Tts[o.
YhPW Y[of AYXo TYL UX YYnj
\V NokRYWL Es[o. AYo (A) AYXLj
RXYWLm (A) YdL AYXoL[d LiP J
Au
RXYWLm
(C)
TgNVj
Vu
NVX[WLm T Btu\o. YdL AYXo Au
Jo RXYo Gu\ YLp YhPWjp TpY RphTm
YnkR TL[ AYo JeQj TXYLV] Y[of
hPeL[ NVpTju\o.
YhPW Y[of AYXo FWh JuVju
NVX[m RXUf NVXdL ALm BYo. AYo
uYm TL[ Btu\o.
1. TgNVj Vu TXYLV] oU]eL[
\Yt\m Nnu\o.
2. YhPWjs[ TgNVjL[ UtToY
Nnu\o. TgNVj Vu Utm ARu
XddLs BVYtu hPeLd AYo
250

3.
4.
5.

6.

7.
8.

9.

AdLL[ \ldu\o. AdhPeLu


SPYdLL[ T Nn TWUdu\o.
YdLdm EUV T\R YLp Vu
hP YReLp AYo TeLtu\o.
Vu Lk TQjR Rjl
ThYP Nn\o.
TQjh, LVPp UN Tu\Yt\ AYo
Vu RXYdm UYhP BhV[dm
Lo Nnu\o.
TjRU] ALL[p HtdLs[lThP
A]j hPeL[m, hP NVpL[m
NVXdLm Nnu\o.
R] YhPWjts Es[ TgNVjdLu
XYWjR AYo Bn Nn\o.
TgNVj Vu TVhLs Utm H]V
AYXoLs AYo UtToYm LhlTm
Nnu\o.
Vu u AUPu VdLL AYo
JlTkReL[ NVXdLm Nnu\o.

9.3.1.3 WU NT
TgNVj CWfV UV] LhU]ju
AjR[UL WU NT Es[. A J TY]
AUlTm. A J NhP\X] AUlTL
HtLlThs[. WUl TgNVju R Tts[ A]j
YdL[oL[d Li A AUVl Tts[. NWN
500 UdLh RLPu V Ju ApX CWid UtThP
WUeL[ J WU TgNVj ALW GpXVL
LidLXm. rUhP Xp Jo AUhP AUlTL
ClTRp, A SW UdL[hu AlTP AXLL
TVt\. G]Y UdL[h LhlThd EV
]lT]Ro NR]UL A LRlTu\. WU
251

NTV], \kR u hPeL[Vm J Vip


SPjRYim. WUl TgNVju RXYo, WU NTu
WU NT

4. A LPkR Biu oYL AdL]m,


GoLsm BidV NVphPjRm
TX] Nnu\.
5. A WUl TgNVju Y[ofj hPeLs Utm
Bi X AdL BVYtd JlRp
YZe\.
WUNT C\U LiP Jo AUlTm. G]Y
A X NVpTL[f Nnm Th WUl
TgNVjt ALWeLs Utm EUV YZeLXm.
WUl TgNVj

hPeL[ hYRtl Tl]l Tts[o.


TLs
1. WUNT TgNVj Btm TL[ Wn
Nnu\.
2. A NT GpXdV Y[ofj hPjR
YWu\.
3. A TgNVju LQdLs Utm RdL TtV
i AdLVl TX] Nn\.

252

TgNVj CWfV C\Uu RXYRLm,


RXVV AXLLm, WUl TgNVj Es[. \kRThN
500 UdLs RLVd Lis[ JqY TgNVj
WUjtm A AUdLlTu\. WUl TgNVju
El]u \kRThN GidL IkRLm, ALlThNUL
T]kRLm ARu UdLs RLVf Nok Cdm.
WUl TgNVj WU NTu NVXdL YL Es[.
ARu El]oLs CWLV YdLl Xm WU NT]p
SPVL RokRdLl Tu\]o. WUm Ym
YhPeL[Ll dLlTm. JqY YhPm Ju Rp
u El]oL[j RokRd\. RrjRlThP N]o
UXYr UdLs Utm TiLs BVd up J
Te CP JdhtL] HtT Es[.
WUl
TgNVj
J
RXYWp
RXUVtLlT\. WUl TgNVju RXYo WU
NTu El]oL[p SPVLj RokRdLlT\o.
WU NTu up J Te]u TmTuUPu
AYd GW] J SmdL CpXR oU]m
\Yt\lTUu AYo TRk dLm NnVlTPXm.
JqY TgNVjtm J QjRXYm Cd\o.
18 YVRPkR UdLs A]Ym YdLdL TgNVju
253

EU TPjs[]o. 21 YVR \ NnRYoLs UhU


TgNVju
RXYWLm
QjRXYWLm
RokRdLlTPm. WUl TgNVju TRdLXm
ARu El]oLu TRdLXm Ik BiL[m.
u
hV
TgNVj
LXdLlTUu
B
UReLds RoRpLs SPjRlTPYim.
RXYu ALWeLs Utm TLs
WUl TgNVju AWVp No NVXdL ALVLj
RXYo Lru\o. AYo uYm ALWeL[m
TL[m Tts[o.
1. WUNT Utm WUl TgNVju hPeL[
hdu\o.
2. TgNVju hPeLdj RXUVt\o
3. TgNVju BYQeL[l TWUd\o
4. TgNVjl TV[oLs oYLd LhlThP
Nju\o.
5. TgNVju
CVt\lThP
oU]eLu
NVXdLjR ToY Nnu\o.
6. WUl TgNVjp GdLlTm Ls
NVpTjRlTYRtL] Tl] AYo
Tts[o.
7. TgNVju L[ UXiU NnYRt
EV] ALWm AdLlThs[o.
8. R] TgNVju VL TgNVj N
(A) TgNVj JuVju hPeLp LXkd
Ls\o.
9. UX AWNeLf NhPj]p (A) AfNhPju
r
NnVlThs[
L[p
R]d
YZeLlThs[ ALWeLs A]jRm AYo
NVpTju\o.
254

RXYo CpXdm
ClTL[ Btu\o.

SWjp

QjRXYo

WUl TgNVju TLs


WUl TgNVjPm TXYLV] TSXlTLm,
Y[of SPYdLLm, JlTP NnVlThs[]. AkR
AlTPp, WU UhPjp hPeL[j RVj NRV
Utm T[RW Y[ofdL] NVp hPeL[
NVpTjYRm.
UX
AWNeLju
NhPjp
YZeLlThs[ A]j TL[m WUl TgNVj
Bt\Yim.
AY
LhPVU]
TLs
Utm
RufNV] TLs G] TT NnVlThs[].
LhPVU] TLs
WUl TgNVj uYm LhPVU] TL[l
Tts[.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Y[iU u]t\m
N RpLu Y[of
Td QLs Utm ojRhLs TWUjRp
o VLm NnRp
lW, Utm YLd HtT NnRp
WUjf NXLm Ut\ T CPeLm
[dLs AUjRp
CL Utm LL[ TWUjRp
\lLs, C\lLs, UQeLs BVYt\ T
NnRp
LpSP odhPL[l TWUj, Eo
SPL[ Tt TY] AdL\ LsRp
WUl TgNVju NjdL[l TLjRp
A[X] TN] YXL[d Lhjl
TWUjRp
255

12. Tf NkRL[m, AeLL[m Je\


NnRp
13. LlThL[d lTRt CPeL[
JdRp
14. NRVd Lpu UmT Utm TsLu
UtToY
15. sYWf NnL[f NLjl TWUjRp
16. V
jdL[m
EWeL[m
VlTRtL] HtTL[f NnRp
17. Rn Nn SX (WNY) L[m C\fd
RhpL[m TWUjRp
18. XfojRm, hPeLu NVtThp ER]
YZeRp.
19. AmU, F, LXW F Utm Ls[
SnLdLW] SPYdLL[ UtLsRp.
Ru lTl TLs
WUl TgNVju Ru lTU]
dVU] X TLs uYTYL[m.

TLs

1. NX JWeLp NL[ Shl T Y[ojRp


2. RoUNXLs, KnPeLs, [Vh UR]eLs,
XLeLs, TlT\Ls, eLdLs Tu\ \Yt\
l TWUjRp
3. LRWUt\ YhPWeL[ h NnRp
4. NLd PeL[ UXiU NnRp
5. HZLd YWQm Aj Tf LRWjRd
LYjd LsRp
6. StL[gVeL[m, RVlTo PeL[m
Rp

256

7. h\l TiQ, mT SXjhPm, LpSP


Y[iU BVYt\j RofU NnRp
8. Tu Y[olT Je \ NnRp
9. iPUV dRp
10. WUl TgNVju l\l TV[oLd
CpXeL[d Lhl TWUjRp.
YYn BRWeLs
Utlhs[ TL[ Bt WUl TgNVj
NVpTYRtL] SToLs, Nj Utm YojRLju
YL[ lTRt A ALWm RWlThs[. J WU
TgNVj rYm BRWeLu XUL YYV
Tu\.
1. LpSP R] Y
2. LhP Y
3. TgNVjf NhPeL[ V LWQjRp
dLlTm ATWReLs
4. TgNVj u NUodLlTm NhP\X]
YZdtf NjRlTm LhPQeLs
5. R] GpXds LpSPLs, tT] NnYRt
dLlTm LhPQeLs
6. WUf NjPUk T\lTm YPL
7. YhPW YojRL Y
8. Uh YiLs Tu\ FoLs R] Y
9. UX AWNeLj]p YZeLlTm ER
UVeLs
10. UX AWNeLj]p YZeLlTm Q
UVeLs

257

WUl TgNVju YYn, WUl TgNVj p


NjRlTu\. ARu TXYLV] TL[ Nn dL
RYlTm, NX] CkR k Ru T\Yim.
JqY WUl TgNVju J NVp ALVL
WU oYL AYXo Cd\o. AYo UX AWNeLj]p
VU]m NnVlT\o. AYo WU TgNVju oU]eL[
NVpTju\o. AYo WUl TgNVju AYXoLs
Utm TVhL[ LhlT Nn\o. R] LPUL[
BtYRu YXL AYo R] ALW GpXdhTh
WU TgNVju Au\P oYLjRm LYjd
Ls\o.
Ul
1992 Bm Biu AWVXUlu (73 Y Utm
74 Y jReLs) NhPeLs TmTX] TWmTWd
\TL[ ALts[]. SU Shp UX AWNeLeLs
WU \ Utm SLol\ Es[h AUlL[ Y Yim
GuTR AWVXUl LhPVUds[. AYLu
AUl, RoRpLs, TRdLXm, TLs RX]Yt\
AWVXUl E Nns[. Um RkWU]
BQVeLs, RoRp BQVeLs hP AUlLs
Tu\Y UXeLu TX XLp EYdLlTYRtm
AWVXUlp \VL E NnVlThs[. CkV
RXUd LQd Utm RdLV[Wp Es[h
AUlLu LQdL[j RdL NnYRt J HtTm
Es[. CqYtTLs A]jm CkVp WUl\
Utm SLol\ Es[h AUlLu GoLXju
SpXRo RdLjR HtTj LdLVRLm Es[.
CYtu [YL UX AWNeLeLs RU TgNnj Utm
SLWh NhPeL[l TjRU] YLp jRm
Nns[]. \VLm WLm Es[h RoRpLs
SPTtYu\].
258

UYhP TgNVjLs, FWh JuVeLs Utm


FWhLu UjR GidL AV TWeLs ]Ym
AhPY]p RWlThs[].

UYhP TgNVjLs, FWh JuVeLs Utm


FWhLu UjR GidL
YN
Gi.

UYhP
TgNVjLs

FWh
JuVeLs

FWhLs

LgWm

13

648

Yso

14

539

LPo

13

681

lWm

22

1104

Yo

20

753

YiQUX

18

860

NXm

20

385

SUdLp

15

331

RoU

251

10

xQ

10

337

11

DW

20

343

12

LVmjo

19

389

13

35

14

RgNo

14

589

259

15

SLlTh]m

11

434

Tt

16

Yo

10

430

T A

17

fWlTs

14

408

18

Lo

158

1.

72Y jRNhPm \Yt\lThP Bi ______

19

TWmTo

10

22

2.

Es[h AWNeLju RkR ______

20

dLhP

13

498

21

UW

13

431

22

130

idLp

4.

SLVm GuTR [dL.

23

14

306

5.

SLW GpXlT dLs Tt YdL

24

CWUSRWm

11

429

6.

GpXlT dLs Tt YdL

25

SLo

11

450

26

YLeL

12

445

7.

SLWh Tt l YWL.

27

SpY

19

425

8.

CWYdP YVeLs Tt YdL.

28

jd

12

408

9.

Es[h AWNeLju TLs Gu]?

29

LuVU

99

10.

Es[h AWNeLju dVjYjR YdL.

385

12618

UjRm

LhP CPeL[ WlL

3. CkV AWVXUlu ______ FWh AUl


TtV NhPjR [d\.

T B

T C

T D
11. WUl TgNVju LhPVU] TLs Utm
RulTl TLs Tt LhW YWL.

260

261