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A Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) is a type of equipment carried by aircraft to warn pilots if they are at a dangerously low altitude and in danger of crashing. Purpose of GPWS The main purpose of these systems is to prevent what is called a Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) CFIT is an accident in which an aircraft crashes into the ground, the water, or an obstacle such as a mountain or building . CFIT and GPWS CFIT can be the result of factors such as navigation errors, pilot fatigue, or reduced visibility owing to weather conditions. CFIT incidents have been reduced since GPWS entered widespread use in the 1970s. The use of a GPWS in large aircraft is required by law in many countries. In the late 1990s improvements were made and the system was renamed "Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System“ (EGPWS) How GPWS Works? RA measures how far aircraft from the ground. GPWS computer analyzed the information from radar. Computer can identify hazardous situations (very close to ground/terrain, rapid ROD & loss of altitude)
GPWS display gives visual and audio warning signals to the pilot. How GPWS Works? A GPWS monitors the aircraft's altitude with a Radar Altimeter, which transmits radio waves downward from the plane to determine how far away the ground is. Most radar altimeters carried by commercial aircraft are short-range devices with ranges of less than a mile (about 1.6 km). The information from the radar is monitored and analyzed by a computer that can identify hazardous situations and trends in the data, such as a dangerously rapid rate of descent, dangerously close ground during, or unexpected loss of altitude.
Audio & Visual Warning Audio & Visual Warnings are provided under any of the following conditions: Excessive rate of descend (“sink rate”) when closure rate with terrain is too high (“terrainterrain”) loss of altitude after take-off (don’t sink) if the aircraft is too low and slow, with landing gear retracted (“too low, gear”)
If hazardous conditions are detected, the GPWS gives visual and audio warning signals to the pilot.
Radar Altimeter Vs Barometric Altimeter
What is the different between radar altimeter and barometric altimeter? A Radar Altimeter (RA) measures the distance between the plane and the ground directly below it. Barometric altimeter provides the distance above sea level.
Mode 3 does not arm until below 200 ft radio altitude. Warning alerts (Act Immediately) . Windshear is a sudden change in wind direction and/or windspeed over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere and can have a detrimental effect on the performance of an aircraft.Loud Aural Alert and Red Visual alert MODE 1 • • Warns of excessive descent rate. • When the aircraft receives a valid glide slope and sinks two dots below “glide slope” will be heard. If the situation is not corrected “whoop. I. and is losing altitude too quickly. pull up” will be heard. whoop. .Both Aural Alert and Yellow Visual Alert III. If the plane enters the envelops. • • Mode 4A activates whenever the terrain clearance hits 500 ft radio altitude regardless of rate of descend unless the landing gear is fully extended. If the airspeed is too high .Only Aural Alert is sounded MODE 3 aural alert of “WHOOP WHOOP PULL-UP”. a repetitive aural alert of “DON”T SINK” sounds until the flight condition is corrected. This mode activates if an excessive height loss occurs during initial takeoff climb and during a go-around procedure. The warning will continue with increasing intensity if the problem is not corrected. MODE 2 This mode consists of two sub modes: • • • Mode 2A: The flaps are NOT in the landing configuration Mode 2B: The flaps are in the landing configuration. • II. MODE 5 • Warns the crew of glide slope deviations. MODE 4A Mode 7 Provides warning of windshear conditions during take-off. This warning may be canceled by the pilot. The aural alert is “Minimums . If the aircraft is flying at below 245 ft and at airspeeds less than 159 knots . Minimums” MODE 7 The alert is generated when the accumulated loss in height as detected in the pressure altimeter equals approximately 10% of the existing radio altitude. Cautionary alert (Understand the Need for Action) • MODE 6 . If the aircraft is less than 2500 ft. the “TOO LOW TERRAIN” alarm will sound. sink rate” will be heard. GPWS Modes Types of Alerts: Advisory or situational awareness information (Take Note) . If the plane is flying too low at low speeds with landing gear retracted . the “TOO LOW GEAR” alarm will sound.TERRAIN” and followed by a repetitive Mode 6 provides alerts and callouts for descent below predefined altitudes on the radio altimeter . an aural alert of “TOO LOW FLAPS” sounds. The visual alert would be “PULL UP”. This mode is only active during take-off or when either the flaps or undercarriage retracts during a missed approach. pull up. This mode possesses two boundaries like mode 1 (initial penetration area and inner warning area) • Penetrating the 1st boundary results in an aural alert of “TERRAIN. A GPWS warning light will illuminate and “sink rate. MODE 4B Mode 4B activates when the aircraft encounters unsafe terrain clearance. as determined by the radar altimeter.
These operators were required to install TSOapproved GPWS equipment or alternative ground proximity advisory systems that provide routine altitude callouts whether or not there is any imminent danger. those operating large turbojet airplanes) to install TSOapproved GPWS equipment. However. those operating large turbine-powered airplanes) and some Part 135 certificate holders (that is. The United States Federal Aviation Administration defines GPWS as a type of terrain awareness warning system (TAWS).[ This requirement was considered necessary because of the complexity. the FAA extended the GPWS requirement to Part 135 certificate holders operating smaller airplanes: turbojet-powered airplanes with ten or more passenger seats. Installation of GPWS or alternative FAA-approved advisory systems was not required on turbo-propeller powered (turboprop) airplanes operated under Part 135 because. The actual systems in current use are known as ground proximity warning system and enhanced GPWS.S. Findings from these studies indicated that many such accidents could have been avoided if a warning device called a ground proximity was that the performance characteristics of turboprop airplanes made them less susceptible to CFIT accidents. it was thought that turboprop airplanes had a greater ability to respond quickly in situations where altitude control was inadvertently neglected. The U. at that time.S.GPWS) How does it work? • A TAWS works by using digital elevation data and airplane instrumental values to predict if a likely future position of the aircraft intersects with the ground. What are the causes of CFIT? • • • Bad weather navigation equipment problems pilot error Solutions • • First generation GPWS EGPWS (Enhanced. a number of studies looked at the occurrence of CFIT accidents. as compared to turbojet airplanes.• Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) In terrains and Geometric Altitudes (GPWS) A ground proximity warning system (GPWS) is a system designed to alert pilots if their aircraft is in immediate danger of flying into the ground or an obstacle. The flight crew is thus provided with "earlier aural and visual warning of impending terrain. and continued operation in the landing configuration. later studies. forward looking capability. • warning system (GPWS) had been used. For example. where a properly functioning airplane under the control of a fully qualified and certificated crew is flown into terrain (or water or obstacles) with no apparent awareness on the part of the crew. the general consensus • Terrain Awareness and Warning System A terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS) aims to prevent "Controlled Flight Into Terrain" (CFIT) accidents. • • • . including investigations by the NTSB. Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) developed the TAWS term to encompass all current and future systems which meet the relevant FAA standards. • In 1978. in 1974 the FAA required all Part 121 certificate holders (that is. and flight performance characteristics of these airplanes. speed. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The GPWS equipment was considered essential in helping the pilots of these airplanes to regain altitude quickly and avoid what could have been a CFIT accident. • History of Terrain Awareness and Warning System (TAWS) Beginning in the early 1970s. analyzed CFIT accidents involving turboprop airplanes and found that many of these accidents could have been avoided if GPWS equipment had been used. As a result of these studies and recommendations from the U. size.
which provides GPWS protection even in the landing configuration. What are the limitations of using GPWS? Traditional GPWS does have a blind spot. altitude. EGPWS introduces the Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF) function. The EGPWS improves terrain awareness and warning times by introducing the Terrain Display and the Terrain Data Base Look Ahead protection The EGPWS incorporates several “enhanced” features: • Terrain Alerting and Display (TAD) provides a graphic display of the surrounding terrain on the Weather Radar Indicator. This feature is an option. EGPWS software improvements were focused on solving two common problems. This feature is an option. enabled by program pins during installation. and a unique representation of 0 MSL elevation (sea level and its corresponding shoreline). additional elevation (color) bands. Thus an enhanced system is required. The EGPWS uses aircraft inputs including geographic position. such as a steep slope. Additionally. and Flight Control System (FCS). Almost certainly. Global Positioning System (GPS). Warning time can also be short if the aircraft is flying into steep terrain since the downward looking radio altimeter is the primary sensor used for the warning calculation. due to the blind spot of those early GPWS systems. the aircraft is not where the pilot thinks it should be. Late warning or improper response The occurrence of a GPWS alert typically happens at a time of high workload and nearly always surprises the flight crew. no warning at all. airspeed and glidescope deviation. This includes digital elevations for the highest and lowest displayed terrain. • “Peaks” is a TAD supplemental feature providing additional terrain display features for enhanced situational awareness. and late or improper response. or a dedicated display. A terrain or obstacle conflicts in the EGPWS providing a visual and audio caution or warning alert What is the difference between EGPWS and GPWS? The difference between an early GPWS system and a EGPWS system is that we add the forward looking terrain awareness (FLTA) function. When the landing gear is down and landing flaps are deployed. and the response to a GPWS warning can be late in these circumstances. when TAD is enabled. the GPWS expects the airplane to land and therefore. •A process feature called Envelope Modulation utilizes the internal database to tailor EGPWS alerts at certain geographic locations to reduce nuisance alerts and provide added protection. The FLTA function looks ahead of the aircraft along and below its lateral and vertical flight path and provides suitable alerts if a potential CFIT threat exists. These are used with internal terrain.4 to 8. obstacles. Obstacles are graphically displayed similar to terrain. independent of the aircraft’s altitude. This feature is an option. EGPWS caution and warning visual and audio alerts are provided when a conflict is detected. it must predict future terrain features. No warning The primary cause of CFIT occurrences with no GPWS warning is landing short. In the late 1990s improvements were made and the system was renamed "Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System"(EGPWS). More advanced systems were developed. If there is a dramatic change in terrain. which uses a database to alert the pilot to hazardous terrain or obstructions that are ahead of the aircraft. and using these to accurately predict the flight path of the aircraft up to 4 to 5 miles (6. • “Obstacles” is a feature utilizing an obstacle database for obstacle conflict alerting and display. taking inputs not only from the radar altimeter but also from inertial navigation system (INS). There were still some CFIT accidents which GPWS was unable to help prevent.0 km) ahead. This is intended for non-precision approaches and is based on the current aircraft position relative to the nearest runway. Based on the aircraft’s position and the internal database. EFIS.EGPWS EGPWS (Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System) is a Terrain Awareness and Alerting system providing terrain alerting and display functions with additional features. The system was now combined with a worldwide digital terrain database and relies on Global Positioning System. enabled by program pins during installation. and airport databases to predict a potential conflict between the aircraft flight path and terrain or an obstacle. Since it can only gather data from directly below the aircraft. GPWS will not detect the aircraft closure rate until it is too late for evasive action. . issues no warning. the terrain topography (within the display range selected) that is above or within 2000 feet below the aircraft altitude is presented on the system display. This feature is enabled with the TAD feature. enabled by program pins during installation. •A Terrain Clearance Floor feature adds an additional element of protection by alerting the pilot of possible premature descent.
non-standard pressure altitude conditions. • Geometric Altitude. and altimeter miss-sets.RAAS (only available in 218-218 or later versions). • An Aural Declutter feature reduces the repetition of warning messages.• In -210-210 and later versions. a Runway Field Clearance Floor (RFCF) feature is included. Members: Valerie Zenn Magbanua Kryzia Faith Calaguas John Paolo Ocampo Valentin Maňucat . This new feature is known as "Runway Awareness and Advisory System" . is a computed pseudobarometric altitude designed to reduce or eliminate altitude errors resulting from temperature extremes. This ensures an optimal EGPWS alerting and display capability. This feature is optional. This provides improved protection at locations where the destination runway is significantly higher than the surrounding terrain. and may be disabled by system program pins during installation. • Runway Alerting & Advisory System (RAAS) The EGPWS also provides position awareness advisories relative to runways during ground operations and approach to land. This is similar to the TCF feature except that RFCF is based on the current aircraft position and height above the destination runway based on Geometric Altitude. based on GPS altitude.
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