International Journal of Applied Mathematics & Engineering Sciences

Vol. 5, No. 1, January-June 2011
GENERALIZED DISPERSION OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS ON
UNSTEADY CONVECTIVE DIFFUSION IN COUPLE STRESS
FLUID BOUNDED BY ELECTRODES
P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar
ABSTRACT: A generalized dispersion model is used to obtain exact solution for unsteady convective diffusion
in couple stress fluid bounded by electrodes. The effect of the couple stress parameter ‘a’ on the most dominant
dispersion coefficient is clearly depicted. The mean concentration distribution is obtained as a function of axial
distance, time and couple stress ‘a’. It is shown that the effect of couple stress is predominate only for small
values.
Keywords: Couple stress fluid, Electrodes, Generalized dispersion.
1. INTRODUCTION
Knowledge based on air pollution and its impact on human health is growing at a tremendous pace worldwide
because of their threat to future of mankind, overtaking infectious diseases and nutritional disorders. Air pollution
is defined as the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more contaminants (pollutants) in quantities and
duration that can injure human, plant or animal life or property (materials) or which unreasonably interferes
with the enjoyment of life.
The growth of population, indiscriminate establishment of industries, automobiles and so on, are the cause
for the atmospheric pollution besides power shortage. There is a growing concern that this pollution together
with accelerated growth and development of nations may alter the climate due to the release of large amount of
soot, carbon emission and other pollutants into the atmosphere in the form of ultrafine dust particles which are
suspended in the atmosphere called aerosols [1]. The dispersion of aerosols have two important principle ways
that (i) extremely small aerosol particles can be removed from an aerosol (ii) The particles can collide with
other particles and grow into larger particles enough to be removed by gravity or electrical or aerodynamic
forces or they can migrate to surfaces, stick to those surfaces and thus be removed [3]. The process by which
these particles migrate, either to a surface or to one another is called diffusion and their motion is described as
dispersion.
The dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere is governed by the processes of molecular diffusion and
convection and is mainly affected by various meterological conditions such as wind, temperature inversion,
foggy atmosphere, topography of the terrain etc and types of number of sources [2]. In the nature, transition
between ionosphere and atmosphere of the earth is a region having poorly conducting fluid in which the electrical
forces dominate in driving the fluid (Malkus and Veronis [9]). Further the electrical forces in thunderstorm also
appear to be as important as the fluid forces at some stages of critical forces [4]. In this region the aerosols are
of nano size. The electrical conductivity of atmospheric fluid is a function of temperature [8]. In the study of
pollutant dispersion, freely suspended atmospheric pollutants which execute microrotation is called micropolar
fluid. When micro rotation balances natural vorticity of the micropolar fluid is called couple stress fluid [11]. In
the dispersion of atmospheric aerosols, we are generally interested to find the concentration of the pollutant,
after being emitted from its source at a specified location and time. The concentration depends upon number of
sources, their locations, emission rates and other meterological and atmospheric conditions [10]. The main
objective of this paper is to study the dispersion of aerosols valid for all time by using generalized dispersion
model of Gill and Sankarasubramanian [5].
Com-1-D: \ Vijay Jha - (SSM) - 2011 \ 009-IJAMES, 5(1), 2011\ S. S. Mukherjee
60 P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar
In this paper, we make the assumption that the electrical conductivity (σ) is negligibly small and hence the
magnetic field is negligible. This assumption makes the electric field E

, to be conservative.
ie. E

= –

∇φ (1)
The basic equations are,
Conservation of mass for an incompressible flow
∇ ⋅ q

= 0 (2)
Conservation of momentum
2 4
( )
e
q
q q p q q E
t
∂ j \
+ ⋅ ∇ ρ −∇ + µ∇ − λ∇ + ρ
, (

( ,
H
H
H H H H
(3)
where λ is a couple stress parameter.
Conservation of species
2
( )
C
q C D C
t

+ ⋅ ∇ ∇

H
(4)
Conservation of charges
( ) 0
e
e
q J
t
∂ρ
+ ⋅ ∇ ρ + ∇⋅

H
H
(5)
Maxwell’s equation
∇ ⋅ E =
0
e
ρ
ò
(Gauss law) (6)
∇ × E = 0 (Faraday’s law) (7)
2. MATHEMATICAL FORMULATION
The physical configuration shown in the Fig. 1 consists of an infinite horizontal couple stress fluid layer bounded
on both sides by electro-conducting impermeable rigid plates embeded with electrodes located at y = 0 and
y = h and electric potentials

V
h
x φ at y = 0 and
0
( )
V
h
x x φ − at y = h are maintained on these boundaries
where V is potential.
Figure 1: Physical Configuration
Generalized Dispersion of Atmospheric Aerosols on Unsteady Convective Diffusion... 61
The equation (7) is zero because in a poorly conducting fluid, induced magnetic field is negligible and there
is no applied magnetic field.
J = σE (Ohm’s law) (8)
The above equations are solved using the following boundary conditions on velocity and potential are,
No slip condition,
0 at 0
0 at
u y
u y h
¦
¦

¦
(9)
couple stress condition,
2
2
0
d u
dy
at y = 0 and y = h (10)
0
at 0
( ) at
V
x y
h
V
x x y h
h
¦
φ
¦
¦
¦
¦
φ −
¦
¦
(11)
In Cartesian form, using the above approximation equation (3) becomes
2
2 2 2
2
0 ,
e x
p
u u E
x
y
∂ ∂
− + µ∇ − λ∇ + ρ ∇
∂ ∂
In a poorly conducting fluid, the electrical conductivity is assumed to vary linearly with temperature and
increases with temperature in the form
σ = σ
0
[1 + α
h
(T
b
– T
0
)] (12)
where α
h
is the volumetric coefficient of expansion.
We assume the flow is fully developed and unidirectional in the x-direction. This means the velocity is
independent of time and all physical quantities except pressure and concentrtion are independent of x, so that
the velocity and temperature will be functions of y only. Using the following dimensionless quantities,
y
h
η ;
*
u
h
u
ν

;
*
E
x
x
V
h
E ;
0
2
* e
e
V
h
ρ
ρ
ò
;
( )
2
* P
h
P
ν
ρ
;
*
x
h
x ; where V is electric potential, we get electric potential through
electrodes.
Equations (3) to (11) becomes,
2 2 4 2 2
2 0
4 2
e x
E V h d u d u h P
h
x
d d
ρ µ ρν ∂
− ⋅ ⋅ − − ⋅
λ λν λ ∂
η η
ò
.
We assume that the fluid with pollutants is isotropic and homogenous so that molecular diffusivity D,
viscosity µ are all constants [7].
4 2
2 2 2
4 2
e e x
d u d u
a a W E a P
d d
− − ρ
η η
(13)
where
2
0
, , ,
V p h
e
x l
W P l a
−∂
λ
µ ∂ µ

ò
is the couple stress parameter.
Equation (5) becomes, ∇ · J = 0
Using equation (1) we get,
σ

(∇
2
φ) + ∇φ



∇σ = 0 (14)
62 P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar
The boundary conditions on velocity, couple stress and electric potential after dimensionless are
0 at 0
0 at 1
u
u
η ¦
¦
η
¦
(15)
2
2
0 at 0, 1
d u
d
η
η
(16)
0
at 0
at 1
x
x x
φ η ¦
¦
φ − η
¦
(17)
The solution for φ, according to (14) depends on σ which in turn depends on the temperature T
b
as in (12).
In a poorly conducting fluid, σ << 1 and hence any perturbation on it is negligible and hence it depends on the
conduction temperature T
b
namely,
2
2
0
b
d T
d

η
(18)
with the boundary conditions
0
1
at 0
at 1
b
b
T T
T T
η ¦
¦
η
¦
(19)
is T
b
– T
0
= ∆Tη (20)
Therefore equation (12) becomes
σ = σ
0
[1 + α
h
∆Tη] = σ
0
(1 + αη) = σ
0
e
αη
σ ≈ e
αη
(since α << 1) (21)
Where α = α
h
∆T.
Then (14) using (21) we get
2
2
0
d d
d d
φ φ
+ α
η η
(22)
Its solution satisfying the boundary condition (11) is
0
[1 ]
1
x
x e
e
−αη
−α
φ − −

(23)
Using the dimensionless quantities and equation (23), equations (6), (7) and (8) reduce to
2
2 0
; 1
1
e x
x e
E E
e
−αη
−α
α
ρ ∇⋅ −∇ φ − −

H
Therefore
2
0
1
e x
x e
E
e
−αη
−α
α
ρ

(24)
Generalized Dispersion of Atmospheric Aerosols on Unsteady Convective Diffusion... 63
The solution of equation (13) satisfying the condition (9) is
2
0
1 2 3 4
2 2 2
2
( )
a e
u C C C e C e P
a
−αη
αη −αη
η
η+ + + + − ⋅
α α −
(25)
where
2
0
0
1
W x
e
e
a
− α
α

.
The average velocity is given by,
u

=
1
0
1
2
udη

u

=
3 2 1 2 4 4 1
1
1
4 4 4 6 2
k k k k k k k
e
−α
j \
− + − +
+ +
, (
α α ( ,
3 5 6 1 1
(cosh 1)
1 1
2 2
k k k
e e
a
a
a a a a
α −α
j \ j \
+ + − +
− − − −
, ( , (
( , ( ,
(26)
Hence C, the concentration of aerosol in the atmosphere which diffuse in a fully developed flow, can be
written as
2 2
2 2
C C C C
u D
t x
x y
j \
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
+ +
, (
, (
∂ ∂
∂ ∂
( ,
. (27)
The initial and boundary conditions for solving equation (27)
C

(0, x, y) =
0
1
for
2
s
C x x ≤ , (28a)
C

(0, x, y) =
1
0 for
2
s
x x > , (28b)
C
y


(t, x, 0) = 0, (28c)
C
y


(t, x, h) = 0, (28d)
C(t,∞, y) =
C
y


(t,∞, y) = 0. (28e)
Where C
0
is the concentration of the initial slug input of length x
s
and equation (28a, 28b) represent the
initial concentrations equation (28e) specifies that the concentration does not reach points far away downstream
and equations (28c, 28d) specifies that there is no transfer of mass flux at the walls. We make equations (27)
and (28a-e) dimensionless using
*
2 2 2
0
; ; ; ; ; ;
s
s e
Dx C u y Dx uh tD
u X X P
C u h D
h x h u h
θ η τ (29)
and obtain
2 2
*
2 2 2
1
e
u
P X
∂θ ∂θ ∂ θ ∂ θ
+ ⋅ +
∂τ ∂τ
∂ ∂η
. (30)
64 P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar
Where
*
u
u
u , nondimensional velocity of atmospheric fluid. We define the axial coordinate moving with
the average velocity of flow as x
1
= x – u

t which in dimensionless from is X
1
= X – τ, where
1
2
1
x D
h u
X . Then
equation (30) becomes
2 2
2 2 2
1 1
1
e
U
X
P X
∂θ ∂θ ∂ θ ∂ θ
+ ⋅ +
∂τ ∂ ∂ ∂η
(31)
with
u u
u
U

.
The non-dimensional initial and boundary conditions from equations (28a-28e) are given by
θ

(0, X
1
, ) =
0
1
for
2
s
C x x ≤ , (32a)
θ

(0, X
1
, ) =
0
1
for
2
s
C x x ≤ , (32b)
∂θ
∂η
(τ, X
1
, 0) = 0, (32c)
∂θ
∂η
(τ, X
1
, 1) = 0, (32d)
θ

(τ, ∞, η) =
∂θ
∂η
(τ, ∞, η) = 0. (32e)
The solution of equation (31) subject to the conditions (32a-e) are written, following Gill and
Sankarasubramanian [6], as a series expansion in the form
2
1 1 1 1 2 1
2
1
1
( , , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ...
m m
m
X X f X f X
X
X
∂θ ∂ θ
θ τ η θ τ + τ η τ + τ η τ +


(33)
Where θ
m
is the dimensionless cross sectional average concentration and is given by
1
1 1
0
( , ) ( , , )
m
X X d θ τ θ τ η η

(34)
Here equation (33) signifies that the difference between θ and its mean θ
m
can be accounted by the convective
and diffusive contributions. This is based on the observation of Taylor [12].
Integrating equation (31) with respect to η in [0, 1] and using the definition of θ
m
given in equation (34)
we get,
1 1 2 2
2 2 2
1 1 0 0
1
m m
e
d U d
X
P X
∂θ ∂ θ ∂ θ ∂
⋅ + η − θ η
∂τ ∂
∂ ∂η
∫ ∫
(35)
Substituting equation (33) in equation (35) we get
1 2
1 1 1
2 2
1 1 1 0
1
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ...
m m m
m
e
X f X U d
X X
P X
∂θ ∂θ ∂ θ j \ ∂
θ τ + τ η τ + ⋅ − η
, (
∂ ∂τ ∂

( ,

(36)
One can introduce the generalized dispersion model with time-dependent dispersion coefficient as
2 3
1 2 3
2 3
1
1 1
...
m m m m
K K K
X
X X
∂θ ∂θ ∂ θ ∂ θ
+ + +
∂τ ∂
∂ ∂
(37)
Generalized Dispersion of Atmospheric Aerosols on Unsteady Convective Diffusion... 65
Comparing equation (36) and (37) we get
1
2
1
2
0
( ) ( , ) , ( 1, 2, 3, ...)
i
i i
i
K Uf d i
P

δ
τ − τ η η

(38)
Here f
–1
= 0 and δ
i2
is the Kroneckar delta.
Equation (37) is solved subject to the condition
θ
m
(0, X
1
) = 1
1
2
s
X X ≤ ,
θ
m
(0, X
1
) = 0
1
2
s
X X > ,
θ
m
(τ, ∞) = 0 (39)
Substituting equation (33) in equation (37) and following Gill and Sankarasubramanian (1970) using
1
1 1 1
( )
K K i
m m
i
K K i
K
K
X X
+ + ∞
+

∂ θ ∂ θ
τ
∂τ∂ ∂

.
We obtain
2 2 2
2 2 1 1
1 1 1 2 1
2 2 2 2
1 1
1
( ) ( ) ( )
m m
e
f f f f
Uf K f K U K
X P X
, ] , ]
∂θ ∂ θ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
− + + τ + τ − + − + + τ
, ] , ]
∂τ ∂ ∂τ ∂η ∂ ∂η , ]
¸ ] ¸ ]
2
2
2 2
2
1 1 1 2 2
2
1 3
1
( )
( )
K
K K
K K K i K i
e K i
f f
K
Uf K f f K f
P
+ ∞
+ +
+ + + −

, ]
∂ ∂
j \
τ − + − + + τ + + , ]
, (
∂τ
∂η , ] ( ,
¸ ]
∑ ∑
= 0 (40)
Equating the coefficients of
1
K
m
K
X
∂ θ

(K = 1, 2, 3, ...) in equations (40) to zero, we obtain the following set of
partial differential equations:
1
f ∂
∂τ
=
2
1
1
2
( )
f
U K

− − τ
∂η
(41)
2
f ∂
∂τ
=
2
2
1 1 1 2
2 2
1
( ) ( )
e
f
Uf K f K
P

− − τ − τ +
∂η
(42)
2 K
f
+

∂τ
=
2
2
2
2
1 1 1 2 2
2
3
1
( )
( )
K
K
K K K i K i
e i
f
K
Uf K f f K f
P
+
+
+ + + −


j \
τ −
− − τ − +
, (
∂η
( ,

(43)
We note that to evaluate K
i
’s we need to know the f
K
’s. For this, solve equation (43) for f
K
’s subject to the
initial and boundary conditions.
f
K
(o, η) = δ
K
0
, K = 1, 2, 3, ... (44a)
K
f ∂
∂η
(τ, 0) = 0 (44b)
K
f ∂
∂η
(τ, 1) = 0 K = 1, 2, 3, ... (44c)
Further,
1
0

f
K
(τ, η)

dη = 0 K = 1, 2, 3, ... (44d)
66 P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar
From equation (38) for i = 1, using f
0
= 1, we get K
1
as
K
1
(τ) = 0. (45)
From equation (38) and (45) we get
K
2
(τ) =
1
1
2
0
1
e
U f d
P
− η

(46)
First, we have to solve equation (41) for satisfying the conditions (44a) because equation (42) and (46)
require f
1
to find K
2
(τ). For this, as before we write
f
1
= f
10
(η) + f
11
(τ, η). (47)
Where f
10
(η) corresponds to an infintely wide slug which is independent of τ satisfying
10
df

= 0 at η = 0 (48a)
f
10
= 0 at η = 1 and (48b)
1
10
0
f dη

= 0 (48c)
f
11
(η, τ) is τ dependent. Then equation (41) using (47) becomes
2
10
2
d f

=
1
1
F
[(k
1
k
2
– k
3
k
2
+ k
4
)

η – k
4
η
2
+ k
1
e
αη
+ (k
5
– k
3
– k
6
) e

+ k
6
e

+ k
6
e
–aη
+ F
0
] (49)
11
f ∂
∂τ
=
2
11
2
f ∂
∂η
(50)
Solution of equation (49) satisfying the conditions (48a, 48b)
f
10
=
3 4
1
1 2 3 2 4 4 5 3 6
2 2
1
1
( ) ( )
6 12
a
k e e
k k k k k k k k k
F
a
−αη η
,
η η
− + − + − − +
,
α ¸
2
5 3 6 6 1 6 0
2
1
1 ( )
2
a
k k k k k k e F
F a a
a
− η
]
− − η , ]
+ η − + + +
]
, ]
α ¸ ]
]
4 1
1 2 3 2 4 5 3 6
2 2
1
1
1
( ) ( )
6 12
a
k k e e
k k k k k k k k
F
a
−α
,

− + − + − − +
,
α ¸
0 5 3 6 6 1
6
( )
2
a
F k k k k k e
k
a a a

]
− −
+ + + − +
]
α ]
(51)
Equation (50) is the well-known heat conduction equation and is solved by using separation of variables.
The solution of equation (50) satisfying the condition f
11
(τ, η) = – f
10
(η) is given by
f
11
=
2
1
cos
n
n n
n
A e

−λ τ

λ η

(52)
where A
n
=
1
10
0
( ) cos ( )
n
f d − η λ η η

(53)
Generalized Dispersion of Atmospheric Aerosols on Unsteady Convective Diffusion... 67
and λ
n
= nπ. Hence
f
1
=
3 4
1
1 2 3 2 4 4 5 3 6
2 2
1
1
( ) ( )
6 12
a
k e e
k k k k k k k k k
F
a
−αη η
,
η η
− + − + − − +
,
α ¸
2
2
6 0
2 3 2
2
cos ( )
2
n
a
n
k e F
F F A e
a
− η
−λ τ
]
η
+ η + + λ η
+ +
]
]

(54)
and K
2
(τ) =
1
1
2
0
1
e
f Ud
P
− ⋅ η

(55)
Substituting for f
1
(η) from equation (54) in equation (55) and completing integration, we get the dispersion
coefficient. The lengthy expression of the same is calculated using Mathematica 7.0 software and numerical
results are obtained given in the appendix.
Similarly, K
3
(τ), K
4
(τ) and so on are obtained and we found that K
i
(τ), i > 2 are negligibly small compared
to K
2
(τ). Hence the dispersion model (37) now leads to
2
2
2
1
m m
K
X
∂θ ∂ θ

∂τ

.
Whose solution is θm(X
1
, τ) =
1
1 1
2 2
2
2 2
X X
s s
X X
T T
erf erf
+ −
, ] j \ j \
+
, ] , ( , (
( , ( , ¸ ]
.
Where
2
1
2
0 0
( ) and ( )
x
z
T K y dy erf x e dz
τ

π

∫ ∫
.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
One of the by products of modern development is the atmospheric pollution. This pollution has great impact on
future of mankind, overtaking infections diseases and nutritional disorders. Many scientists and engineers are
working hard to find causes for atmospheric pollution and methods to control them. Therefore, it is essential to
monitor the atmospheric pollution due to pollutants.
The axial dispersion in a couple stress fluid bounded by electrodes is studied using generalized dispersion
model. The dominent dispersion coefficient given by (55) is computed for different values of couple stress ‘a’
and the dimensionless time ‘τ’. The results are graphically represented in Fig. 2. It show that for non zero
values of electric number ‘W
e
’ that is in the presence of electric field, the dispersion coefficient K
2
(τ) – P
e
– 2
increases with the increase in ‘a’. Further, K
2
(τ) – P
e
– 2
, values are spaced out for small values of time τ << 0.45
and becomes steady and are closer when τ << 0.75. Figs 3 and 4 depict the mean concentration θ
m
with axial
distance x for different values of ‘a’ for fixed τ. These figures reveal that there is marked variation of concentration
with the axial distance and time. It is apparent from these figures that the effect of increasing ‘a’ is to decrease
the peak value of the mean concentration. This implies that the concentration is more distributed in the x-direction
for larger and larger values of Peclet number ‘P
e
’. Figure 5 is the plot of mean concentration versus τ for
different values of ‘a’. We observe from these figures that the concentration at the points outside the input slug
(x > X
s
) are obviously less than those at the points inside the slug. We also see that it decreases with the increase
in τ for points inside and outside the slug.
The parameters that influence K
2
and θ
m
are the couplestress parameter ‘a’ and electric number ‘W
e
’. Here
the behaviour of K
2
is to increase with the increase in ‘a’. We see that as τ increases θ
m
tends asymptotically to
zero. The proposed model and analysis presented here also suggests that the pollutants can be removed from the
atmosphere and this rate of removal would depend upon the rate of introduction of the pollutant and other
parameters.
68 P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar
Figure 2: Effect of Couple Stress on Unsteady Dispersion Coefficient (K
2
(τ ττ ττ))
Figure 3: Mean Concentration (θ θθ θθ
m
) Varying Along Axial Distance for Different Values of
‘a’ and for Fixed X
s
= 0.019, τ ττ ττ = 0.3 and P
e
= 10
Figure 4: Mean Concentration m Varying Along Axial Distance for Different Values of
‘a’ and for Fixed X
s
= 0.019, τ ττ ττ = 0.03, P
e
= 10
Generalized Dispersion of Atmospheric Aerosols on Unsteady Convective Diffusion... 69
Figure 5: Mean Concentration θ θθ θθ
m
Varying Along Dimensionlesstime τ ττ ττ at
X
s
= 0.019, X = 0.1 and P
e
= 10
REFERENCES
[1] Aymoz G., Jarezo, J. L., Jacob V., Colomb A., and George C., (2004), Evolution of Organic and Inorganic Components
of Aerosol During a Saharan Dust Episode Observed, 34(3), Chan Y., In the French Alps. Atmospheric Chemistry
and Physics, 4, 2499-2512.
[2] Dentener E. J., Cannichael G. R., Zhang Y., Lelieveld J., and Crutzen P. J., (1996), Role of Mineral Aerosol as a
Reactive Surface in the Global Troposphere, Journal of Geophysics. Res., 101(22), 869.
[3] Finlayson-Pitts B. J., and Pitts J. N., (1997), Tropospheric Air Pollution: Ozone, Airborne Toxics Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons and Particles, Science, 276, 1045.
[4] Gallimbert I., (1998), Recent Advancements in Physical Modelling of Electrostatic Precipitators, Journal of
Electrostat, 43, 219.
[5] Gill W. N., and Sankarasubramanian R., (1970), Exact Analysis of Unsteady Convective Diffusion, Proc. Roy. Soc.,
London. Series, A 316, 341.
[6] Gill W. N., and Sankarasubramanian R., (1972), Dispersion of Non-Uniformly Distributed Timevariable Continuous
Sources in Time-Dependent Flow, Proc. Roy. Soc., London. Series A, 327, (1972)191.
[7] Gupta P. S., and Gupta A. S., (1972), Effect of Homogenous and Heterogenous Reactions on the Dispersion of a
Solute in the Laminar Flow between Two Plates, Proc. roy. Soc., London., A 330, (1972) 89.
[8] Jayaratne E. R., and Verma T. S., (2004), Environmental Aerosols and Thier Effect on the Earths Local Fair Weather
Electric Field, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 86, 275.
[9] Malkus W. V. R., and Veronis G., (1961), Surface Electroconvection, Physics of Fluids, 4, 13.
[10] Rudraiah N., and N.G, C.O., (2004), A Model for Manufacture of Nano-Sized Smart Matrials Free from Impurities,
Current Sci., 86(8),1076.
[11] Stokes V. K., (1996), Couple Stress in Fluids, 9, 1709-1715.
[12] Taylor G. I., (1953), Dispersion of Soluble Matter in Solvent Flowing Slowly Through a Tube, Proc. Roy. Soc.,
London, A 219, 186.
P. Meena Priya
*
& Nirmala P. Ratchagar
**
Mathematics Section, Faculty of Engineering and Technology,
Annamalai University, Annamalainagar-608 002, India.
E-mails:
*
meenapriya au@yahoo.com
**
nirmalapasala@yahoo.co.in
70 P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar
APPENDIX
k
1
=
0
2 2 2
( )
a
a α α −
k
2
= 1 – e
– α
k
3
=
0
2 2 2
( )
a
a a α −
k
4
=
2
P
k
5
=
2
P
a
k
6
=
2
0
2 2 2 4
1 ( ( 1)
2 Sin [ ]
( )
a a
a e e a P e
h a
a a a
−α
j \
− −
+
, (
, (
α −
( ,
k
7
=
1
2
e
−α
α + +
α
k
8
=
1
2
a
a e
a

− −
k
9
=
1 Cos [ ] h a
a
+
k
10
=
2
1 1
2
e
−α
− −
α
α
k
11
=
2
1 1
2
a
e
a
a
− +
k
12
=
2
2 Sin [ ] 2 h a
a
a

s
2
= Subscript [λ, y] = yπ
s
3
= Sum [s
2
, {y, 1, 1000, 1}]
A =
^
3
4
1 2 3 2 4 1 5 3 6 6 0
3 1
Cos[ ] 1
1
( ) ( )
^2
2 3
a a
s
k e e e
k k k k k k k k k k F
s F
a a

j j \ j \
− α

− + − − + − − − + , , ( , (
α ( , ( , (
3 2 5 3 4 6 1
2
3 3 1 3 1
Cos[ ] 1 ( )
^2 ( ^2) ^2
s F k k k k k
F
s s F s a a
\ j \ − − − j \
− + + + −
( , ( , (
α ( ,
( , ,
F
0
=
4
3 1 7 5 8 6 9 1 3 8 5 1 2 3 2
3
( )
12 12
k
k k k k k k k k k k k k k k k
j \
+ + + − − − − − +
, (
( ,
F
1
=
4
1 2 3 2 1 7 3 8 5 8 6 9
3
( )
12 12
k
k k k k k k k k k k k k
j \
− + − + − −
, (
( ,
Generalized Dispersion of Atmospheric Aerosols on Unsteady Convective Diffusion... 71
F
2
=
5 3 6 6 1
1
1 ( ) k k k k k
F a a
− − j \
− +
, (
α ( ,
F
3
=
0 5 3 6 6 4 1 1
1 2 3 2 4 5 3 6 6
2 2 2
1
1
( ) 1
( ) ( )
6 12 2
a a
F k k k k k k e k e e
k k k k k k k k k
F
a a
a a
−α −
j \
− −

− + − + − − + + + + − +
, (
α α ( ,
F
4
= (k
1
k
2
– k
3
k
2
+ k
4
)
F
5
= (k
5
– k
3
– k
6
)
F
6
=
3 5 0 5
2 2
1
1
F F F F
F
F a
j \

, (
( ,
F
7
=
3 6 0 6
2 2
1
1
F k F k
F
F a
j \
+
, (
( ,
F
8
=
3 1 0 1
2 2
1
1
F k F k
F
F
j \
+
, (
α
( ,
F
9
=
5 1 5 1
2 2 2 2
1 1
F k F k
F a F
j \
− +
, (
α
( ,
F
10
=
1 6 1 6
2 2 2 2
1 1
k k k k
F a F
j \
+
, (
α
( ,
F
11
=
0 5 5 4
2 2 2
1 1
2
F F F k
F F a
j \
+
, (
( ,
F
12
=
0 6 4 6
2 2 2
1 1
2
F k k k
F F a
j \

, (
( ,
F
13
=
0 1 1 4
2 2 2
1 1
2
F k k k
F F
j \

, (
α
( ,
F
14
=
2
0 4 4
2 2
1 1
7
6 12
F k F
F F
j \

, (
, (
( ,
F
15
=
0 2 3 4
3 1 0 3
1 1 1
1
(Cos [ ^ ^ ]) ( Sum[ , { , 1, 1000, 1}])
F F F F
e s s F s A n
F F F
j \
+ + −
, (
( ,
F
16
=
2
0 3 4 2 4
3 1 3 3
2
1 1 1
1
1
(Cos [ ^ ^ ]) ( ) Sum[ , { , 1, 1000, 1}]
2
F F k F F
e s s F s A n
F F F
F
j \
+ − + −
, (
, (
( ,
F
17
=
2 5 4 5
3 1 5 3
2 2
1 1
1
1
(Cos [ ^ ^ ]) ( Sum[ , { , 1, 1000, 1}])
F F F F
e s s F s A n
F F
F a
j \
− + −
, (
( ,
72 P. Meena Priya & Nirmala P. Ratchagar
F
18
=
2 1 4 1
3 1 3
2 2
1 1
1
1
(Cos [ ^ ]) ( Sum[ , { , 1, 1000, 1}])
F k F k
e s k s A n
F F
F
j \
+ + −
, (
α
( ,
F
19
=
0 4 2 4
3 1 1 3
2
1 1
1
2 1
(Cos [ ^ ^ ]) Sum[ , { , 1, 1000, 1}]
3
F F F k
e s s k s A n
F F
F
j \
− − −
, (
( ,
F
20
=
2 6 4 6
3 1 6 3
2 2
1 1
1
1
(Cos [ ^ ^ ]) Sum[ , { , 1, 1000, 1}]
F k F k
e s s k s A n
F F
F a
j \
+ + −
, (
( ,
K
2
(τ) =
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
5 5 6 6 1 1
2 2 2
1
1 1
6 6 6 6 6 6
^2 12
a a
F e F k e k k a e k a
pe F a a a a a
− − α jj j j
α α α α
+ , − , − + − + − , ,
, ,
α α α (
( ( (
2 2 2
1 14 15 16 19 0 1 3 4 4 4
1
(14 (12 5(6 4 3 )) 840 5 ( 7 2 ))
70
F F F F F F F F k F k a + + + + + + − + α
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
5 4 4 1 11 17 16 4 6 4 6 1 12 20 7
3 3
12( (2 ) ( 2 )) 12( 2 (2 )) F k F a F a F F a F a k k F k a F a F F a F a
a a
+ + − + − α − + + + + α
+
2 2 2 2 2 4 3
1 17 17 6 11 5 4
3
1
(12 ( (2 2 )) ( 2 ( 6 6 3 )
a
e F a F a F a F a F a a F F a a a a
a
+ − + + + − + − − − + − +
2 3 2 2 2 3 4 2 3
4 4 6
3
1
(24 24 12 4 ))) (24 24 12 4 ) 2( (6 6 3 )
a
k a a a a e a a a a F k a a a a
a

+ − + − + α + + + + + − + + +
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 1 9 1 9
1 7 20 12
12 12
6 ( ( ) (2 2 ))))
a
F F a e F F a
F a F a F a a F a a
a a
− α
α α
+ + + + + + α − +
− α − α
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 10 1 10 1 4 4 1 13 18 8
3
12 12 12 ( ( 2 ) (2 ( )))
a
F F a e F F a a k k F F F F F
a a
− − α
α α − + α + α + α + α
+ − +
+ α + α
α
2 2 2 2 2 3
1 18 18 8 13 1 4
3
1
( 12 ( ( ) (2 2 )) ( 2 (6 6 3 ) e a F F F F F k F
α
+ − α α + α + α + + α + α + − α + α + α + α
α
2 3 4
4
(24 24 12 4 ))))))) k + + α + α + α + α

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.