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Earth Science Reviewer Mika Reyes I.

Earthquakes vibration of the Earth due to rapid release of energy ; comes from the focus (within the Earths crust) and epicenter (point directly above the focus) ; seismic waves radiate in all directions from the focus ; H.F. Reid discovered the actual mechanism of earthquake generation which is from elastic rebound (the earths crusts move and rebound back to its original form A. Elastic Energy / Elastic Rebound discovered by H.F. Reid ; when two parts of the Earth separate, they snap back to their original form caused by elastic rebound ; until can hold the energy it wont release ; when it is released the form or shape of the plate snaps back to its original shape B. Focus center of the Earthquake within the Earths crust ; from the focus, seismic waves radiate in all directions C. Epicenter point on the Earths crust directly above the focus D. Faults / Fault Zones large fractures on the Earth (not just on top but within that is why it cannot be called a fault line) ; in plate boundaries, there can be both strikeslips and dip-slips 1. Dip-Slip vertical faults ; hanging wall (the one above) and footwall (supports) a. Normal hanging wall moves down ; caused by tension b. Reverse due to compression ; hanging wall moves up 2. Strikeslip horizontal faults ; shear ; move in opposing directions E. Seismic Waves 1. Body Waves travel within the Earths crust a. P Waves primary waves / pressure waves ; longitudinal waves ; volume changes ; compress and expand rocks ; can travel through solids, liquids and gasses ; rare factions and compressions ; vertical lines b. S Waves secondary waves / shear waves ; shake the particles at a right angle to their direction of travel ; can travel only through solids ; crests and troughs ; sinusoidal 2. Surface Waves travel on the outer part of the Earth a. L Waves love waves ; diagonally sinusoidal b. R Waves rayleigh waves ; big concave F. Seismology device used is a seismograph ; seismograms are waves from a seismograph Layers of the Earth A. Oceanic Crust thinner B. Continental Crust thicker *Shadow Zone 105 degrees 140 degrees (no seismic waves in this area due to the S waves not being able to pass through the outer core) *Mohorovicic / Moho discontinuity between the crust and the mantle because of the change in density *The higher the density, the faster the movement of the P & S Waves *Isostacy the higher the altitude, the longer the base *Gradual Flow solid but still flowing



Supercontinents: Vaalbara, Rodinia, Pangaea, Pangaea Ultima Continental Drift Theory A. Evidences 1. Fit of continents 2. Fossil evidences fossils are found in a certain area when connected 3. Geologic Provinces and Structures geologic structures have the same characteristics when together 4. Paleoclimatic Evidences glacial deposits, coal deposits, gypsum deposits, salt deposits B. Other Theories



1. Rafting 2. Isthmian Links (Land Bridges) 3. Island Stepping Stones C. New Evidences 1. Sea Floor Spreading 2. Paleomagnetism 3. Polar Reversal 4. Polar Wandering Plate Tectonics; Plate Boundaries A. Convergent compression ; reverse dip-slip 1. CC CC big mountains: Himalayas, Alps, Apalacians ; like two cakes colliding 2. OC OC like two pizzas colliding ; one goes up and the other goes down (subduction zone) creates trenches ; creates volcanic island arcs B. Divergent tension ; normal dip-slip splitting up ; magma separates ; when magma flows out, it creates rift, tension or faults ; creates linear (parallel) seas like the red sea ; upwarping ; rift valley ; new OC or linear sea ; new oceanic ridge C. Transform shear ; strikeslip Minerals A. Definition 1. Natural 2. Inorganic not part or not used to be part of a living thing 3. Solid 4. Definite Chemical Composition 5. Crystallite Structure can be seen within or externally B. Properties 1. Crystal Form the external expression of a mineral ; orderly order of atoms 2. Luster reflection of light ; appearance or quality of light reflected 3. Color the most obvious ; not always a useful diagnostic property 4. Streak color of mineral in powder form with the use of a streak plate or unglazed porcelain ; best way to identify a mineral ; even if the colors are different, streaks remain the same 5. Hardness depends on crystallite structure ; resistance of mineral to abrasion or scratching ; if a mineral scratches a glass, the hardness is harder than 5.5 ; if the nail doesnt scratch the mineral, the mineral is harder than 2.5 6. Breakage a. Cleavage break aong planes of weak bonding ; exhibited by the micas which are flat sheets ; pairs of parallel lines = planes of cleave ; goniometers determine adjacent planes of cleave ; smooth breaks b. Fractures no cleavage ; irregular or fibrous or conchoidal (resemble broken glass) 7. Specific Gravity no units ; weight of a mineral : equal volume of water ; water = 1.00 g/mL 8. Others taste ; feel ; magnetism ; reactive to acids C. Groups 1. Silicates with silicon a. Ferromagnesians dark silicates because of the presence of iron b. Non-Ferromagnesians light silicates 2. Non-Silicates without silicon a. Oxides oxygen (O) b. Sulfide sulfur (S) c. Sulfates sulfate (SO4) d. Carbonates carbon (C) react to acids e. Halides fluorine or chlorine (F or Cl) f. Native Elements