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HONG KONG EXAMINATIONS AUTHORITY HONG KONG CERTIFICATE OF EDUCATION EXAMINATION 1998 BIOLOGY PAPER I 1.

Attempt THREE questions only 2.Each question consists of three parts. 3.All questions carrry equal marks . 4.In each question, 2 additional marks will be awarded for effective communecation. 5.The diagrams in this paper are NOT necessarity draw to scale. 1. (a) In a marine museum, living marine animals are kept in different exhibition areas according to their animals group. Some of the animals in the museum are shown in the diagrams below:

(i) Using the letters provided. Name the animal group to which they belong. state all the animal(s) that should be placed in the exhibition area for reptiles. (4 marks) (v) The population of F in Nature has decreased continuously in recent years. (2 marks) 1. (b) Two similar pieces of dialysis tubing were set up as shown in the following diagrams. The concentrations of the sucrose solution and the glucose solution were the same. Suggest two ways of preventing the extinction of F. (1 mark) (ii) B and E are kept in the same exhibition area. . Suggest an explanation for this. (2 marks) (iv) The amount of daily food intake unit mass of A is much greater than that of C. (1 mark) (iii) State two structure differences between A and C which explain why that of C. Suggest an explanation for this.

The height of the solution column in each capillary tube was measured and recorded in the table below. (3 marks) (iii) Explain the difference in the rate of change of solution levels between set-ups A and B during 0-20 minutes. (3 marks) 1. Time (min) Height of solution column in the capillary tube Set-up A(mm) Set-up B(mm) 0 0 0 10 103 25 20 170 40 30 200 45 40 205 46 50 205 44 60 205 41 (i) Present the results in the form of a graph. there are different causes for the disease diabetes is a hereditary disease. (c) In humans. Whether a person has this type of diabetes or not is controlled by a pair of alleles. (4 marks) (ii) Explain the change in the solution level in the capillary tube of set-up A during 020 minutes. The pedigree below shows the inheritance of this type of diabetes in a family: .

whether the allele for this type of diabetes is dominant or recessive.(i) Deduce. (Marks will not be awarded for genetic diagrams. (2 marks) 2. (3 marks) (iii) Give two suggestions to a diabetic person in order for him to maintain a normal blood glucose level. (a) The photomicrographs below show the transverse of a leaf and a young root of the same plant: .) (5 marks) (ii) State the possible genotype(s) of individual 5. Define the symbols you use. with reasons.

There members of a family. (2 marks) (iv) Draw a labeled diagram to shown the possible appearance of a cell of G when a section of the root is mounted in a concentrated salt solution. Q and R. (1 mark) (ii) With reference to the photomicrographs. took a blood test to find out if they are immune to this disease. explain how each of the following cell types is structurally adapted to its specific function: (1) cell type A (3 marks) (2) cell type F (3 marks) (iii) Using the letters provided.(i) State one function that is common to cell type A and cell type F. (b) Hepatitis B is a disease of the liver caused by a virus. P. construct a flowchart to outline the route of transport of organic food from the site of production in the leaf to the site of storage in the root. (3 marks) 2. The results of the blood test are shown in the table below: P Q R Hepatitis B antigen in the blood Absent Absent Present .

Classify A.Level of antibody against hepatitis B in the blood (unit per dm3) 0 297 0 (i) (1) P was advised to have a hepatitis B vaccination. (2 marks) (iii) Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bone material of a person decrease and the bones become more porous and lighter than normal. B. Apart from vaccination. (2 marks) 2. (2 marks) (iii) Hepatitis b is transmitted through contact with the body fluid of an infected person. Suggest. (2 marks) 3. Explain how P could become immune against the disease after vaccination.(4 marks) (ii) State how the vertebrae help to maintain the upright posture of a person. suggest two measures that can prevent the transmission of this disease. B. Suggest a reason to explain the difference in their blood test results. C and D can be classified into two types according to their freedom of movement. one way in which people could reduce the chance of getting osteoporosis. It is more common in old people. with a reason. (c) The diagram below shows part of the human skeleton: (i) Joints A. C and D into these two types. Name these two types of joints. (4 marks) (2)Would this vaccination allow P to become immune to other types of hepatitis? Why? (2 marks) (ii) Both Q and R have not received any hepatitis B vaccination before. (a) The diagram below shows part of the circulatory system and its neighbouring .

(3 marks) (iii) (1) Substances in fluid C will eventually reach the heart. (4 marks) (ii) Describe how fluid B is formed from fluid A. (2 marks) 3.cells: (i) P is in the form of a highly branched network. Explain the importance of this feature to the function of P. Which chamber of the heart first receives these substances? (1 mark) (2) Describe how the continuous flow of fluid C towards the heart is maintained. (1 mark) (2) covering the flower with a plastic bag? (1 mark) (ii) Describe the events that lead to the formation of the Zygote after pollen grains are brushed onto the stigma. (3 marks) . (b) The diagrams below show some of the steps carried out by a farmer in the reproduction of a certain species of plant: (i) What is the purpose of (1) removing the anthers.

Bill.7 206. (2 marks) (iv) Suggest two precautions that have to be taken if the set-up is used to measure the rate of respiration of a potted plant. Give two reasons to explain why farmers prefer to grow the plant from its tubers.8 Control (without rat) 206. (3 marks) (2) Calculate the rate of respiration of the rat. Air was then pumped through the set-up for 30 minutes and the weight of flask A was measured again: Then the drying agent and the solutions in all three flasks were renewed. (c) The diagram below shows a set-up used to measure the rate of respiration of a rat at 30 ℃: A rat was first put onto the bell jar and the weight of flask A was measured. Using this information. The procedures were repeated without the rat in the bell jar. (2 marks) (iv) This species of plant is usually reproduced by means of its stem tubers. Before the examination started. (4 marks) 3. . The weights of flask A were recorded as shown in the below: Set-up Initial weight of flask A (g) Final weight of flask A (g) Experimental (with rat) 211. Bill took off his glasses and relaxed. sitting for an examination in the school hall.1 (i) Write a word equation for aerobic respiration. (1 mark) (ii) What is the use of the potassium hydroxide solution in flask A? (1 mark) (iii) (1) The decrease in weight of flask A in the control set-up is due to the evaporation of water from the potassium hydroxide solution.8 211. (2 marks) 4 (a) The diagram below shows a boy.(iii) Suggest the advantage of employing the shown in the above diagrams for reproducing the plant. explain the result in the experimental set-up.

Draw the image of the two hands of the clock formed on the retina of his eye. (b) In some parts of China. Describe the changes that occurred in his eyes when he tried to focus on his watch. farms cut and burn trees. (3 marks) 4.(i) Bill looked at the clock on the wall. Bill turned to his watch to check the time.m. (1 mark) (ii) Describe how the image on the retina generates vision in the brain. It was 9:00 a. Draw a ray diagram to show how his eye defect is corrected by his glasses. (4 marks) (iii) After looking at the clock. and build terraces for farming on hill slopes as shown in the photograph below: (i) Explain why the removal of trees may lead to serious soil erosion. he could not see his watch clearly without putting on his glasses. (2 marks) . (3 marks) (iv) Through Bill could clearly see the clock.

At the end of the year. state another function of this digestive juice. (1 mark) (2) Apart from digestion. (4 marks) 4. Different solutions were then added to the test and they were allowed to stand at 30℃. Tube 1 2 3 4 3 3 Solutions Hydrochloric acid 2 cm 2 cm added Solution A 2 cm3 2 cm3 3 3 Distilled water 2 cm 2 cm 4 cm3 Result after 24 hours × ˇ ˇ ˇ Key : ˇ= egg white cube present ×=egg white cube absent (i) (1) What can be deduced from the results of tubes 1 and 3? (1 mark) (2) What can be further deduced if the result of tube 2 is also taken into consideration? (1 mark) (ii) How would you confirm that the results obtained are due to the action of an enzyme in solution A? (3 marks) (iii) A digestive juice from the human body contains an enzyme which will produce the same result as solution A. (a) (Total : 10 +1 marks) (i) F (1 mark) (ii) *invertebrates(1 mark) (iii) A C . (1) State two uses of the fruits. (2 marks) ANSWER 1. Give two reasons to explain why the yield would decrease. (c) Four test tubes containing equal volumes of coagulated egg white cubes were set up. (4 marks) (iii) The scientist pointed out that the yield of the crop would decrease if the farmers grew the same type of crop in the same field over the years even though they adopted the above suggestion. The table below shows the solutions added to the test tubes and the results observed after 24 hours. The leaves and roots were ploughed into the field.(ii) A scientist suggested that the harmers should grow some leguminous plants along the edge of the field. (1) Name this digestive juice. (2 marks) (2) Explain how the soil fertility can be increased by growing leguminous plants and returning their leaves and roots into the field. (1 mark) (iv) 2 cm3 of juice sodium hydroxide solution and a few drops of copper sulphate solution are added to 5 cm3of solution A. What can be observed ? Explain your answer. the fruits of these plants were harvested.

5 mark) Correct plotting and jointing of points (P) (0. 5 +0. 5 +0.5 mark) Labelling of graphs (B) (0. (b) (Total : 10 marks) (i) Title (T) (0. 5 +0. 5 mark) Correct choice of axes (A) (0.5 mark) . 5 mark) Correct labeling of axes with units (L) (0.has mammary glands no mammary glands ) no scales has slimy scales ) no lateral line has lateral line ) breathes by lungs breathes by gills )any two 1+1 marks (accept other reasonable answer) (iv) A has a highest body temperature than C(1 mark) This enables A to achieve a higher metabolic rate(1 mark) Thus A needs more food for respiration to release more energy(1 mark) To compensate for the faster heat loss to the surrounding(1 mark) Communication Skill (C) (1 mark) (v) Prohibit the overhunting of F ) prohibit the trading of F ) Protect breeding grounds of F ) Establish a reserve area to protect F ) Education people to protect the animals ) any two 1+1 marks (accept other reasonable answers) 1.

that means at least(1 mark) One of the parents must also possess one allele for the normal character(1 mark) At least one of the parents is heterozygous(1 mark) . therefore each of them must possess at least one allele for this type of diabetes (1 mark) Their children (individuals 3 and 4) are normal.(ii) The level of sucrose solution rose (1 mark) because the water potential of the sucrose solution was lower than that of distilled water(1 mark) thus water entered the dialysis tubing(1 mark) (iii) the rate of increase of solution level in set-up A was greater than that in set-up B (1 mark) since glucose cloud diffuse out of the dialysis tubing in set-up B while sucrose could not diffuse out in set-up A(1 mark) the difference in water potentials across the dialysis tubing in set-up A was greater than that in set-up B(1 mark) 1. (c) (Total : 10 +1 marks) (i) Individuals 1 and 2 have diabetes.

5 mark for site of storage. only the dominant allele is expressed(1 mark) Thus the allele for this type of diabetes is dominant(1 mark) Communication Skill (C) (1 mark) (ii) R=allele for this type of diabetes r =allele for the normal character(1 mark) RR(1 mark) Rr(1 mark) (iii) restrict carbohydrate/glucose intake(1 mark) injection of insulin(1 mark) 2. vacuole (any 3) (1.In a heterozygous condition.5 mark) 2.5 mark if there is no arrow sign) (iv) Large accurate diagram (D) (1 mark) Labels and title (L): * cell wall. (c) (Total : 8 marks) (i) *ball-and-socket joint : A and C (1+1 marks) *hinge joint : B and D (1+1 marks) (ii) Vertebrae are linked together by ligaments ) to form a column ) and they allow the attachment of muscles )any two 1+1 for maintaining the posture 3. 0.5 mark for site of production. (a) (Total : 12+1 marks) (i) protection against mechanical damage/infection (1 mark) (ii) (1) It is covered by a cuticle (1 mark) which is impermeable to water (1 mark) to prevent excessive water loss by evaporation (1 mark) Communication Skill (C) (1 mark) (2) It has root hairs/outgrowth (1 mark) to increase the surface area (1 mark) for water/mineral absorption (1 mark) (iii) B/C→E→J→G (2 marks) (0. cell membrane. cytoplasm. nucleus. 1 mark for route) (deduce 0.5 marks) Sign of plasmolysis (S) (0. (a) (Total : 10 +1 marks) .

the drop in pressure of the thoracic cavity helps to draw Fluid C towards the heart(1 mark) The valves of the lymph vessels prevent the backflow of the lymph(1 mark) 3. (c) (Total :9 marks) (i) food/glucose + oxygen→carbon dioxide + water (1 mark) (ii) to absorb carbon dioxide in the air from the bell jar (1 mark) (iii) (1)The weight of flask A did not change (1 mark) . (b) (Total :11+1 marks) (i) (1) to prevent self-pollination/self-fertilization of the flower (1 mark) (2) to prevent any unwanted pollination/fertilization from other plants (1 mark) (ii) The pollen grains germinate and develop pollen tubes (1 mark) which carry the male gametes towards the ovules (1 mark) The male gamete fuses with the egg (1 mark) To form the zygote Communication Skill (C) (1 mark) (iii) Parents with selected characters are crossed (1 mark) so that offspring with desirable characters can be produced (1 mark) (iv) The desired quality of the plant can be maintained (1 mark) because the daughter plants produced from the tubers are genetically identical to the parent (1 mark) The daughter plants can develop faster/they have a greater chance to develop (1 mark) As more food is available in the tuber for the development/the development is more independent of environmental conditions (1 mark) 3.(i) The capillary network has a large total cross-sectional area (1 mark) so reduces the rate of blood flow/more time is allowed for the exchange of substance (1 mark) the numerous branches provide a large surface area (1 mark) for rapid exchange of substances between the blood and the tissue cells (1 mark) (ii) the pressure of fluid a near the arterial end is highest than that of fluid B (1 mark) some of the plasma except large proteins/some of the blood except large proteins red forced cells and platelets (1 mark) are forced through the thin wall of the blood capillary/P to form fluid B (1 mark) Communication Skill (C) (1 mark) (iii) (1) right atrium(1 mark) (2) The contraction of skeletal muscles helps to push fluid C along the lymph vessels OR during inspiration.

2 g CO2h-1 (0.8-211.7)/30 X 60 g CO2h-1(1 mark) =1.8)-(206. (a) (Total : 11 +1 marks) (i) (1 mark) (ii) Light-sensitive cells on the retina were stimulated(1 mark) Never impulses were set-up(1 mark) And transmitted along the optic nerve(1 mark) To the cerebral cortex for interpretation into vision(1 mark) Communication Skill (C) (1 mark) (iii) Ciliary muscles would contract(1 mark) Suspensory ligaments would slacken(1 mark) Lens would become more convex(1 mark) (iv) Convex lens ) lens of the eye ) nearby object (diverging rays) ) converging rays ) arrow sign ) image on retina ) title )any 6 3 marks 4. (b) (Total :10 +1 marks) (i) As the trees are cut.6. the soil is exposed/there is no tree roots to hold the soil firmly (1 mark) .02 g CO2min-1) (1 mark) (iv ) The bell jar has to be covered by a black cloth/paper (1 mark) The pot of soil has to be covered by a plastic bag(1 mark) 4.because carbon dioxide produced by the rat is absorbed by potassium hydroxide(1 mark) The weight of carbon dioxide absorbed was equal to the weight of water lost from the potassium hydroxide(1 mark) (2) (211.1-2.

nitrogenous compounds are released to the soil. thus increase the soil fertility(1 mark) Communication Skill (C) (1 mark) (iii) Depletion of specific minerals in the soil(1 mark) spread/increase in the population of specific pest(1 mark) 4.so that the soil can easily eroded by rainfall and wind(1 mark) (ii) (1) As food for humans or animals(1 mark) to provide seeds for growing new plants(1 mark) (2) There are symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the root nodules of leguminous plants(1 mark) The bacteria convert atmospheric nitrogen to nitrogenous compounds (ammonium ion/amino acids) (1 mark) Some of these is taken up by the plant for growth/protein synthesis(1 mark) When the leaves and roots decompose. (c) (Total : 9 marks) (i) (1) Solution A is necessary for the breakdown of the egg white (1 mark) (2) Hydrochloric acid and solution A are required for the breakdown of the egg white(1 mark) OR Hydrochloric acid is also required for the breakdown of the egg white(1 mark) (ii) Prepare another tube which is identical to tube 1(1 mark) except solution A has been boiled(1 mark) There would be no breakdown of the egg white in this tube(1 mark) (iii) (1) *gastric juice(1 mark) (2) to kill bacteria which enter the alimentary canal(1 mark) (iv) he solution will turn violet in colour(1 mark) because solution A contains an enzyme which is a protein(1 mark) .