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CONTENTS

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AIR-LAYERING TECHNIQUE ETIOLATION GRAFTS METHODS

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Plaque graft Graft of majorcan escutcheon Graft of Crown under plastic bag Omega graft Graft of small shield Graft of lateral subcortical Stake Graft of a Full Single Crack Graft of full double Crack Graft in Conifers

Compatible hosts for the different fruit trees

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AIR-LAYERING TECHNIQUE
Air-layering is a technique of reproduction of trees and shrubs, by means of which the emission by roots in a branch is caused, to cut it later and to separate it of the plant mother, giving rise this way to new independent identical tree to her. In order to improve the success of this technique it is advisable, although non-essential, to cover with an opaque tape the piece with crust with the small branch that we want to lean, to cause his transformation in crust without chloroplasts, more similar to the crust by the roots, which is called ETIOLATION. This way they increase the probabilities of success, since the etiolated crust emits roots with facility, even in trees of very difficult rooting. I put the example of an aerial layer in a Litchi sinensis:

SPRING: to cover with opaque tape a piece with crust.

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SPRING OF THE FOLLOWING YEAR: to retire the opaque tape and to verify that the crust already is etiolated, transformed into crust of root without chloroplasts.

With two parallel and clean cuts to clear a ring of crust of a centimeter. In order to facilitate the emission by roots still more hormones of rooting in the ring and the rest of the etiolated crust can be put, although it is not essential.

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Soon we come to fill up it with crowd. 4 . vegetal earth or sphagnum and we tied it in its superior part . staying as a glass.Next we take a piece of plastic transparency. surrounded with him the small branch to lean and we tied it with a cord in its inferior part.

disturbs or sphagnum and we repeated the injections every 2 or 3 weeks. disturbs or sphagnum contacts perfectly with the ring of the crust. so that the earth. Next we injected water with a syringe to dampen the earth. 5 .We strongly tied the layer with a cord.

6 . FOUR MONTHS AFTER: In an inspection of the layers it is verified if already they have taken root and. in affirmative case.Next we covered the layer with paper with newspaper or one laminates of aluminum paper. is come to clear the paper of newspaper. to isolate it of the sun and the light.

Next the layer taken root is cut with a clean cut. c 7 .Another taken root layer.

which means that already we have new tree.jardin-mundani. Normally they lose the old leaves and immediately they appear. They are watered abundantly and they are placed in a place with much light. Source: http://www.com/English/Air-layer.Layers already cut fence sights. identical to the plant mother.htm 8 . but without direct sun. And only lack to already clear the plastic wrapper to them with taken care of much of not breaking the set of earth and roots and transplanting them in flowerpots with vegetal earth.

In this image several inferior branches of Mundani tree. 9 . Then the branch below the etiolated zone is cut. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius. The newspaper blade does not let pass the light and its off-white color is not warmed up with the direct sun. One is due to thus make in the branches exposed to the light pave direct. to deprive them of the light. the crust is already etiolated. the buried part undergoes a natural process of etiolation with later emission of roots. depriving it of the light by means of the positioning of an opaque tape around the part of the branch that we want to etiolate.ETIOLATION TECHNIQUE The Etiolation is a technique based on the capacity of a vegetal branch in transforming its crust with chloroplasts. specially the very obstinate plants to generate root. which allows the clonic reproduction of the plants. between a three minimum of and a maximum of twelve. When private being of the light. since in mundani tree does not work the aerial leaned one. put rooting hormones and sowing to him in a flowerpot or its definitive place. In the nature east phenomenon of spontaneous form when being takes place cover a low branch of tree. by its strong tendency to auto-pruning of the lowest branches. shrub or liana by a landslide or the leaves fallen in Autumn . when clearing the sticky tape and the newspaper blade. so that the sun does not reheat (it cooks or it burns) the zone to etiolate. This same one happens in the techniques of simple and earthed up layer. are seen to which them the crust in different parts with newspaper blade has been surrounded covered by sticky tape. in crust without chloroplasts. very similar to the crust of the roots. This way the transformed crust has greater facility in emitting roots. After months. able to make the photosynthesis. been able by the taken root one of a branch directly in the ground.

reason why can be done without the newspaper blade. 10 . because the leaves give shade him and prevent that the sun reheats the zone to etiolate.In this other image sees a branch of Litchi sinensis surrounded by a black tape. In this case a tape can be put black.

or to cut the branch below the etiolated zone. already without chloroplasts. At this moment two ways can be followed: to make him a layer.Happened between three and twelve months the opaque tape retires and the etiolated crust is observed. 11 . with the absorbent surface like the one by the roots and with small points that are the radical sketches. to put to him rooting hormones and to seed it in a flowerpot or its definitive place. method very used by the nurserymen and the teachers of the Bonsai aerial.

In this other image a branch of avocado is seen surrounded by opaque tape sprint. 12 .

Source: http://www. In this case ways can be followed such that in the case of the Lichi sinensis: leaned aerial or it seeds of the branch in flowerpot or its definitive place with rooting hormones.htm 13 . after clearing the tape to him to sprint.jardin-mundani.And here another branch of avocado already etiolated is appraised.com/English/etiolation.

GRAFTS METHODS These are the grafts that I usually do. I hope that it serves to you as aid and you are animated to try it.--- ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Plaque graft Graft of majorcan escutcheon Graft of Crown under plastic bag Omega graft Graft of small shield Graft of lateral subcortical Stake Graft of a Full Single Crack Graft of full double Crack Graft in Conifers 14 . I will be adding the explanation of other methods as it is them doing.List of compatibilities between grafts and hosts. --.

Soon with aid of the knife to graft the crust of the wood of each side is taken off as if we opened a window and a little stands out the crust of each side in vertical sense. that can have one. surrounding it completely. that it is the only part of the tree that grows and must make intimate contact with the cambium of the plaque.Plaque graft I put like example a Graft of Washington Navel orange tree on lemon tree. Soon with the aid of the knife the crust is taken off and it removes finds out. doing two horizontal cuts united by a vertical section in form of laid down H. so that soon it does not cover completely the plaque. Next of the knife to graft two complete horizontal cuts in the crust take control of a branch of the variety to graft. In the first place it is cut with the knife to graft the crust of the host in a smooth zone and without buds. followed of another vertical section that one both horizontal cuts. two and up to three buds. This is the plaque to graft. 15 . Observe the clearest cambium under the crust.

indicated by both petioles of the leaves. That is the alive part of the plaque and that must be united intimately with the cambium of the host. so that they do not cover the plaque completely.The plate already taken off and prepared to be grafted. Next the plate in the window of the host is placed. that we will have cut to diminish the sweating of the graft. with the two parts of the crust already reduced. Notice the juicy inner cambium of clearer color. Observe that the plaque and the window of the host have the same measures. In this case the plaque has two buds. 16 .

very easy to handle and its transparency allows to see the state of the graft. the petioles fall down touching them with the finger and leave a green affluent wound in the plaque. as much in its superior part as in its inferior part. once taken hold the graft. special for grafts of citruses. Source: http://jardin-mundani. leaving discovered both buds with the petioles. Once surrounded completely the graft. must agree with the crust of the window of the host. Next the graft is tied with transparent plastic tape. Spent about 10 days. so that there is a continuity.htm 17 . if they have not brought forth the buds already. It is very resistant.Here the reduced crust of the host is appraised better. This tape is the same one that is used for the grafts in tomatoes and watermelons.com/English/GRAFTS/plaque. After 15-20 days untie the tape and. if the graft is successful. simply make two simple knots with both ends of the tape. The crust of the plaque. they do not take too much in doing it.

Also it is possible to be done in Summer. but in this case. which. C--. when it suffers the lignification and becomes hardened. that is the only part of tree that grows: towards outside giving to the Floema or crust and towards inside giving to the Xilema or wood. but also it serves for other trees or shrubs of soft wood. In first place you make a small cut on the host in form of small tongue and next another cut over of about 3 or 4 centimeters. I have made several grafts of majorcan escutcheon grafting some buds of Datura arborea of red flowers on another one Datura of white flowers.Graft of majorcan escutcheon I put like example a graft of fig tree with two harvests of figs on a wild fig tree born of seed of about 4 years. In this image it is appraised very well the form of the cut and the three layers of the stem: A--. Also it is a good method for the avocado. when the host and the graft are in the heat of growth. also in form of tongue more large. the Carob tree and the white and black mulberry trees. B--. the Asimina triloba (Paw-Paw tree).The internal layer with the Xilema or tender alive wood. the mango.The very thin intermediate layer or Cambium.Exterior layer with the skin or dead crust and underneath the Floema or alive crust. This method of graft is special for fig trees and others ficus. the bud is not developed until the following Spring. This type of graft can be done in Spring. dies and gives true wood. giving rise to a shrub with flowers of two colors. cutting until arriving to the inferior little tongue and detach a piece of crust with a little of wood. 18 .

without touching the internal part. which must be avoided not to contaminate with bacteria and fungi the cut. that is not lignified yet absolutely. 19 . Petiole of the cut leaf serves us to manipulate with facility the escutcheon. The escutcheon must have the same exact form of the cut that we have made before on the host. You can see the bud without developing and the inferior cut on half-bevel form that it will fit in the inferior tongue of the cut of the host. which would make fail the graft.Next you cut an escutcheon with a little wood that contains a bud without developing and a leaf. which must be cut leaving petiole. The escutcheon with wood must be of tender wood of the same year. that is.

Follows it a very thin green line that is the true CAMBIUM. Follows it the alive Xilema that little by little is lignified towards inside. This has two purposes: on the one hand the juice of petiole serves in the first days like food and hidratation of the escutcheon. after about 8 -12 days. Several grafts can be done simultaneously to the host. The internal white part is the Xilema in process of lignification.Here very well you see the three layers of any lignified plant. even of different varieties of fig tree. putting it so that the three aforesaid layers agree. this one yields easily and it is come off the escutcheon. when touching petiole with the finger. 20 . which are reabsorbed to survive and on the other hand. Next toward outside follows it the Floema or alive crust. Also it is possible to be tied with raphia to graft. However if the graft fails. Next the graft with transparent plastic tape is tied. Next the escutcheon is placed in the cut of the host. followed of the dead and dry crust. It is very resistant. if the graft is successful. This tape is the same one that is used for the grafts in plants of tomatos and watermelons. very easy to handle and its transparency allows to see the state of the graft. leaving a green and hale mark. the petiole falls with difficulty or it stays glued on the dead and dry escutcheon. the only layer that grows and that must be put in intimate contact with the cambium of the host so that its union takes place and the graft is successful. See that has been left petiole outside.

which is indicative of success. so that it can appear. this one has been given off with much facility. returning it to tie immediately. when doing a slight pressure with the finger on petiole. In this image you go away the green and hale mark and heals left by petiole when being given off.They have spent 8 days and. but leaving the bud discovered. This detail means that the escutcheon is well alive and that already receives nutrients and water of the host. In this phase it is necessary to hope one more week and soon to untie the graft. 21 .

At this moment or a little before. In other species this is not due to do until the buds of the graft measure 10 or 15 cm.Some weeks have passed and the bud of the escutcheon begins to appear. given his facility to sprout again after an energetic pruning. but in the case of fig tree in general it is possible to be done without problems. 22 . cut the host over the graft. if you are sure that the graft is successful. without too much danger to drown to the host or the bud of the graft.

One week later the bud measures about 4 cm. 23 . Already we have a fig tree of the wished variety.

And here it is after 27 days..com/English/GRAFTS/Escutcheon-majorcan.jardin-mundani.htm 24 . It have grown 30 cm. Source: http://www.

-Grapefruit tree. In these caducous trees also this type of graft can be done in the heat of vegetation. from half-full of May to end of August. treating them as if they were of perennial leaf. using the same described technique next. -Lemon tree. since it needs that tree already is wide-awake of its winter lethargy and the crust of the host takeoff with facility. 25 . In the first place a branch of the host is cut with a hand saw. -Finger Lime (Microcitrus australasica) In the trees and shrubs of caducous leaf the technique is the same one. -Avocado.Graft of Crown under plastic bag I put like example a Graft of mandarin tree of Philippines on lemon tree. I have made grafts successfully with this technique in: -Orange tree. This type of graft can be made in Spring in nobody tree or shrub of perennial leaf. but one becomes from half-full to end of Winter and it is possible to be done without plastic bag. -Kumquat. -Mandarin tree.

26 . in the crust of host with the knife to graft.Next you make a vertical cut of about 5 cm. leaving petiole and you cut with half-bevel form with the knife to graft one of the sides of the cutting. With the aid of the later part of the knife to graft the crust of the host is taken off. We must avoid to touch with the fingers the cut part. cut its leaves. Next you take a small branch of the variety you want to graft. except the superior one.

introducing all the bevelled part. Next the cutting by the bevelled side is introduced within the cut of the host. 27 .Here we see as it is left the half-bevel cut. so that both cuts contact intimately and its union can be produced.

28 .Thus it is introduced the cutting.

29 . you hope that the buds have about 10 or 15 cm and you untie the cord. avoiding so the cutting is dried. since in this time already both cambiums have been united and the host already provides some water and nutrients to the graft. the plastic bag can be retired. In case you live in a zone whipped by winds. you tie the buds to the branches of the host so that they are not broken. without forgetting the superior part of the cut of the host and the superior part of the cutting. with which its drying by sweating is avoided. When the buds of the cuttings appear.Next the graft with green cord is tied and it smears all the graft with mastic to graft. This way it is sealed the graft hermetically. After about 15 or 20 days. Later you moisten the cutting with water cleans and cover the graft with a transparent plastic bag.

Thus it has been left the lemon tree after grafting his five branches. And this is the result after 40 days. When they measure about 10 cm. The buds have appeared and they already measure 4 cm. 30 . I will clear the fastening so that it does not drown the graft and the sap can happen without difficulty.

already without the tying. the buds measure more than 30 cm.htm 31 . Source: http://jardin-mundani.Spent months. Down on the right another graft is seen on the same host of lemon tree.com/English/GRAFTS/Crown. and the graft is consolidated.

In the grafts Omega of trees and shrubs of perennial leaf it is necessary to cover the graft with a plastic bag. This type of graft can be made in all the trees and shrubs. A detail important to consider is that the stake to graft and the host must have the same thickness exactly. but not if they become when the tree is still hibernating. Also the grafts must be covered with leaf expires if they are made vegetation in the heat of. as much of leaf expires like of perennial leaf. in nobody més included/understood between end of Winter and principles of Autumn.Omega graft I put like example a Graft of female Kiwi on male Kiwi. 32 . In the first place it is cut with scissors to prune a piece of stem with a yolk of the plant to graft and next it is come to do the cut to him Omega in its inferior part with a special apparatus for this type of grafts.

And here the blade in form of Omega is appraised. Professional Grafting Pliers. 33 .Here podeis to see these special pliers.

34 .The same piece of seen previous stem of side.

35 .In the host an inverted cut with the same apparatus becomes. where it will fit the graft exactly.

introducing it of side is reconciled.Next the graft in the host. 36 . respecting the bending in Omega. Here the perfect anchorage of the graft in the host can be seen in detail.

Source: http://jardin-mundani. it is smeared with mastic to graft the superior end of the graft so that it does not lose water and is not attacked by fungi and it is left without covering with a plastic stock market. by being of leaf it expires and to be still hibernating.com/English/GRAFTS/Omega.Next it is tied with special plastic tape to graft tomateras and watermelons.htm 37 .

that is. that is. May and June by bud guarding. that small shield is successful but the bud does not appear until the following Spring. It is the typical graft of the citruses and the rose bushes. This type of graft becomes April. that the bud sprouts the same year and in July.Graft of small shield I put like example a graft of Navelate orange tree on lemon tree. 38 . in form of T. In the first place it is cut with the knife to graft the crust of the host in a smooth zone and without buds. doing a horizontal cut and another vertical that downwards goes from the horizontal cut several centimeters. August and September by bud sleeping.

helping us with the knife to graft. leaving in the open the white and substantial cambium. the crust of both sides is taken off as if we opened a window. 39 .Next. Here you see in detail as the crust is detached.

with their typical form of medieval shield. you took off small shield. making handle with taken care of with the knife to graft. 40 . which you will have cut to diminish the sweating of small shield. avoiding to touch with the knife the internal part of the bud. Soon. trying that is left in the superior wide part a good bud with petiole of a leaf. Thus we must have left small shield.Next you take the branch of the variety to graft and with the knife to graft you cut the crust in small shield form.

Here you see the internal part of small shield with the green cambium and several small points that correspond from top to bottom to the internal part of the bud. the alive part that grows and is united intimately to the cambium of the host. the base of petiole of the leaf (two small points) and soon more down the outline of a thorn. since when trying to take off them. When manipulating the small shield you must avoid to touch with the fingers the internal and substantial part. In order to avoid to touch it. that is. You must avoid to take the small shield with a thorn. that in this case has not been developed. the Cambium.Lateral vision of small shield with cut petiole. 41 . the thorn does not take off and it breaks the small shield. we must take the small shield by petiole.

the introduction of small shield is very easy. 42 . If we have taken off well the crust of the host.Next you take the small shield by the petiole and you introduce it in the opened small window of the host.

there is a continuity in the crusts. trying that the superior part of small shield contacts with the horizontal cut of the host.Once introduced you must perfectly fit it in the opening of the host. once taken hold the graft. so that. 43 .

Source: http://www. petiole dries. which means that this one has died and the graft has not taken hold. since. In case you have not this tape. so that. if it is taken off. Past 20 or 25 days.jardin-mundani. in successful case. leaving outside the petiole. However. the bud appears and you can untie the plastic tape.com/English/GRAFTS/Smallshield.And finally you tie the graft with transparent plastic tape. leaving in small shield a green wound. if it is not alive.htm 44 . to the 12 or 15 days. it leaves a brown wound in small shield. it will be taken off with much facility. the fastening can be made without problems with green or white raphia. touching it with the finger. This tape is the one that is habitually used for the grafts of tomato and watermelons. that will serve us to know if the small shield is alive.

-Plum tree. -Peach tree. -The trees of caducous leaf in the heat of vegetation. -Mango. but the graft must be covered with a bag of plastic: -Medlar of Japan. since it needs that the host is beginning to already wake up of the winter lethargy and its crust takeoff with facility: -Pistachio. This method can be used successfully in the following trees of caducous leaf from half-full of the Winter to end of the Spring. -All the species of citruses.Graft of lateral subcortical stake I put as example several stake grafts or prongs of female pistachio on pistachio born of seed. depending on the species. -Avocado. -Apple tree. Thuia… 45 . In trees of perennial leaf it is equal of successful. -Pomegranate tree. -Khaki. even in Summer. -Alpricot. -Some ornamental coniferous: Juniperus. -Quince. -Almond tree. -Cherry tree. -European medlar tree (Mespilus germanica).

In the first place a cut in T in a smooth zone of the crust of the host is made with the knife to graft. With care and helping yourself with the separator of the knife to graft, the crust is taken off as if a window was opened.

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The stake to graft is reduced in bevel by a single side.

Not bevelled side of the stake.

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The stake by the bevelled side is introduced underneath the raised crust of the host.

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The result is the same one.It is not necessary to introduce the stake under both sides of the raised crust. 49 . is sufficient that it is introduced in one of the two sides. since most important it is to intimately contact the bevelled part of the stake with the subcortical cambium of the host.

the bud can bring forth and save the graft. which is an advantage in case. the wind breaks the graft. 50 .In this case it is left a bud introduced. once taken hold and brought forth the graft. If it is left the part introduced.

Next the graft is tied strongly with raphia to graft. 51 .

The union with mastic to graft is smeared. 52 .

modified by me. but changing the small shield by a stake. to be able to take off the crust with facility. with the reservation of which in those of perennial leaf the stake is replaced by little branch with leaves and the graft is covered with plastic transparency bag during several weeks. This type of graft can be done in all the trees and shrubs. Another circumstance to consider is that the host must be on the verge of waking up of the hibernation. changing the cut of host in form of tongue-piece by the cut in T of the crust. And the lateral subcortical grafts are already made. as much of caducous like perennial leaf. 53 . equal to cuts of graft of small shield. This type of graft is a variant of graft of lateral Crack. so that it does not dehydrate.Here two subcortical lateral grafts are seen on different levels in the same branch from pistachio tree.

After bringing forth the bud of the stake. Two weeks passed.And here have you the result. I have cut the superior part of the host. making difficult the passage of the sap. I will clear the fastening of raphia. Source: http://www.com/English/GRAFTS/lateralsubcortical.jardin-mundani.htm 54 . so that all the sap goes to the graft and grows vigorous. so that this one does not strangle to the graft. spent about two months.

Usually they take hold quickly and. cutting the leaf that accompanies to the bud leaving petiole and wetting the stake with clean water once made the graft. that is to say. Later the graft is covered with plastic bag during 2 or 3 weeks. -Apple tree. -Plum tree. -Apricot. I have successfully done it in: -Almond tree. the bud appears to the 15 or 20 days. This type of graft can be done in all the rosaceous arboreal plants of caducous leaf in hibernation and other trees whenever they are of caducous leaf and in hibernation at the moment of making the graft. -Quince. if they become before finishing month of July. The graft in the Grapevine becomes just as in the indicated species or with a stake with a single bud or at the most two. -Nashi. -Pomegranate tree. The same previous method can be applied to the grapevines of vineyard and grapevines of vine arbor at the height of summer from end of June to principles of August. protecting it of the intense sun with the shade of a branch. 55 . -Sour cherry tree. -Pistachio. from half-full to end of Winter. changing the stake by a little branch with leaves and covering the graft with a transparent plastic bag during several weeks. choosing the stakes of still slightly green new vine shoot of the year and with a already mature bud (this method in green receives the name of herbaceous Graft). -European medlar tree. -Cherry tree. -Kiwi. to avoid its dehydration. -Pear tree. -Peach tree. Also it is possible to be done in trees and shrubs of perennial leaf from end of Winter to end of Spring.Graft of a Full Single Crack I put as example a Graft of Cherry tree on a sucker of Sour cherry tree.

In the first place it is cut with scissors to prune the sucker or host to the wished height. We part by half in longitudinal sense the host with a knife to graft. 56 . thinking about the height that we want that the grafted tree has.

57 .. depending on the thickness of the stake to graft: the more heavy it is the more long must be the cut.The cut agrees that it is of between 5 and 10 cm.

where the stake of the graft will be inserted.The host divided in form of V. 58 .

59 .With the knife to graft reduce in bevel the stakes to graft by both sides like a wedge (It is very important that the host and the stake to graft have the same diameter exactly).

The reduced stake in form of wedge seen from the reduced side . 60 .

61 . trying that the crust of the host touch the crust of the stake. in order that the cambium of both can be united.Put the stake within the longitudinal section of the host.

62 .The two parts of the graft adjust well.

63 .The union is tied with raphia to graft.

once dry. waterproofing the graft and avoiding losses of humidity. it acquires plastic consistency perfectly.This paste or mastic to graft is excellent. since. since it have fungicide substances. as well as preventing the development of fungi that could rot the graft. 64 .

65 .If you have pruned the terminal bud (very advisable thing already which it stimulates the sprout of the lateral buds). you must to also put mastic in the terminal end of the stake to avoid the dehydration of the stake.

66 .The smeared of all the graft is continued. to obtain a hermetic closing.

Now only remain to wait for a few weeks. to see the results.And the graft of full single Crack is already done. 67 . I hope that these explanations accompanied by photos are to them useful.

Passed 50 days this one it is the result.com/English/GRAFTS/fullsingleCrack. Source: http://www.jardin-mundani.htm 68 .

we divide it by half in longitudinal sense with the knife to graft. After cutting the sucker to the wished height. 69 .Graft of full double Crack I put as example a graft of two stakes of european medlar tree (Mespilus germanica) on a sucker or host of wild pear tree.

in order that both cambiums merges. Next they are introduced well in the longitudinal section in V of the host. 70 .Two stakes of european medlar tree are prepared. reducing them in bevel by both sides with the knife to graft. fitting them so that the external crusts of both stakes contact and they are aligned with the crust of the host.

They are tied well with raphia to graft.

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It is smeared all well with mastic or paste to seal, without forgetting the trimmed ends of both stakes. And the graft of full double crack is already made. Several weeks later the result will be seen. This type of graft can be done from half-full to end of Winter in all the arboreal rosaceus plants of caducous leaf in hibernation: pear tree, apple tree, cherry tree, almond tree, apricot, plum tree, sour cherry, european medlar tree, quince, azarole, hawthorn, service tree, nashi, etc.. and in any other tree of caducous leaf and hard wood: khaki, pistachio, jujube, rivet, elm tree, etc... Also it is possible to be done in trees and shrubs of perennial leaf from end of Winter to end of Spring, changing the stake by a small branch with leaves and covering the graft with a transparent plastic bag during several weeks, to avoid the dehydration.

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Passed 50 days this one it is the result. The stake of the left apparently goes more delayed in the sprout, because their terminal buds are floral with a cocoon in each one of them. I had to take advantage of this stake because I took the stakes of another graft that I did three years ago and had few branches where to choose. They are of a old variety of European medlar tree, not cultivated in the actuality. I saved the variety taking a small stake of an old dying European medlar tree, that my grandfather grafted 70 years ago on a wild hawthorn. I grafted it on "a modern" European medlar tree that gives very great but totally insipid fruits. After three years, the graft already had sufficient branches and I have been able to take stakes to reproduce it by graft, not to lose the variety.

Source: http://www.jardin-mundani.com/English/GRAFTS/fulldoubleCrack.htm

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by their resinous sap. The conifers. If one is a more grown host. Pinus halepensis. If the host is very young you can graft with the method of full single Crack with a small branch of the same thickness that the host. does not blow the wind. In the case that I present you the host is wider than the small branch to graft and therefore the graft is of lateral Crack. Today is friday at 15 hours of 2 February of 2007. must graft in winter. of about 7 years old. the ground is drenched by a recent rain. when they emit less resin to be in the period of winter rest. the temperature is of 12ºC and the sky is cleared. The host is a healthy and vigorous mediterranean pine. conserving the apex of the host tree.Graft in Conifers I present you a Graft of Pinus pinea on Pinus halepensis. you can graft with the method of lateral Crack with a small branch of smaller thickness than the host. 74 . In this last case several grafts and to different heights can be done at the same time. which it happens through the graft and it favors its takes hold. In the conifers the best grafting method is the Graft of lateral Crack under plastic bag. that stretches the sap upwards.

A zone of the smooth and straight stem is chosen near the apex of the host. 75 .

With the knife to graft you make a cut in the crust in form of small tongue. deepening a little until the wood. 76 .

77 .Here you see the finished cut already.

The same previous cut. 78 .

79 .This is the small branch to graft that is due to choose hale and if possible of the part of the pine that watches the south. who receive more solar energy and have more sugars in its leaves and stem.

with the knife to graft you cut the inferior part of the small branch in double bevel. 80 . The other face of the cut in double bevel.After taking the inferior leaves.

The double bevel. side sight. 81 .

Now you introduce the small branch in the cut of the host. 82 .

83 .The two parts of the graft adjust well.

If with the tied all the zone of the graft is well covered. it is not necessary to put mastic to graft or paste to seal.Next the graft with transparent plastic tape is tied. 84 .

If the host is in a very sunny zone. 85 . the graft with a tied branch is covered superficially. In order to avoid that the grafted small branch dehydrates. Next you cover the wet small branch with a transparent plastic bag and it is tied on the inferior part.The graft is finished. you moisten it with clean water. so that it does shade to it.

After thirty days you take off the plastic bag and. Source: http://www. A few days later the apex of the host over the grafted small branch is cut and gradually in the next weeks you prune all the branches of the host.jardin-mundani.com/English/GRAFTS/graft-conifers. you untie the graft. when the bud of the small branch appears in spring. until only is left the graft.htm 86 .

... except in the tropical countries where there are other compatible species of Casimiroa. guanabana. . -----Crataegus azarolus. List of compatibilities: . except in the tropical countries... the lemon tree and the bitter orange tree.. KUMQUAT.. specially the bitter orange tree.. -----Eryobotria japonica. the franc tree born of seed of the same species that the graft... -----Pyrus communis. CALAMONDÍN.. save exceptions. specially the lemon tree born of seed and the bitter orange tree....CITRUS PARADISI... .. etc.. mollissima. 87 .. the lemon tree that is the best host for kumquat and limequat.Compatible hosts for the different fruit trees Here I put a list of the more common compatible hosts for the Mediterranean and subtropical climate fruit trees.. .. The few exceptions are.. etc.. specially the grapefruit tree born of seed.. the Pistacia lentiscus and Pistacia terebinthus that are excellent hosts for the pistachio nut tree. can be grafted on any other tree of Citrus genus.CASTANEA SATIVA can be grafted on any other specie of Castanea genus: sativa. -----Sorbus domestica... .CASIMIROA EDULIS can be grafted only on other white sapote of Mexico.. for example..... CRATAEGUS AZAROLUS can be grafted on: -----Crataegus monogyna.. where also can be grafted on other trees of Annonaceae family: anon.. C. .... .CITRUS LIMONIUM also on any other tree of Citrus genus..ANNONA CHERIMOLIA can be grafted only on other Annona cherimolia.... the quince that are the best host for the common pear tree.. atemoya. etc. .CITRUS SINENSIS can be grafted on any other tree of Citrus genus... -----Mespilus germanica..c. …... -----Pyrus pyrifolia..... In all the cases the best host is always.CORYLUS AVELLANA only on other hazel trees.LIMERO.. TANGELO and “CHIRONJA DE PUERTO RICO” on any other citrus.CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA. -----Cydonia oblonga..

-----Pyrus pyrifolia “Nashí”... -----Crataegus azarolus...DIOSPYROS KAKI var... .. -----Crataegus azarolus. -----Crataegus monogyna.... . except in tropical countries where there are compatible species of Pouteria genus.DIOSPYROS KAKI only on Diospyros kaki born of seed...LUCUMA MAMMOSA of PERU only on other Lucuma mammosa... ..KUMQUAT . Diospyros virginiana and Diospyros kaki Sharon and in the tropical countries also on other trees of the Ebenaceae family of Diospyros genus. .... SHARON on common Diospyros kaki.JUGLANS REGIA on: -----Juglans regia born of seed. -----Sorbus domestica.. -----Crataegus monogyna. -----Eryobotria japonica. -----Pyrus communis.MALUS PUMILLA can be grafted only on other apple tree.. -----Mespilus germanica. -----Cydonia oblonga.... 88 . -----Juglans nigra.FICUS CARICA only on other fig tree and wild fig tree born of seed. ...... LIMEQUAT and CITRANGEQUAT on any other tree of Citrus genus. wild Diospyros kaki born of seed. specially the lemon tree and also on Poncirus trifoliata and Fortunella margarita.. -----Pyrus communis..FINGER LIME (Microcitrus australasica) on any tree of Citrus genus...... specially the lemon tree.ERYOBOTRIA JAPONICA on: -----Eryobotria japonica born of seed.…... -----Pyrus pyrifolia “Nashí”. -----Sorbus domestica... Diospyros virginiana and other tropical trees of Ebenaceae family. .. . -----Mespilus germanica.CYDONIA OBLONGA on: -----Cydonia oblonga born of seed.. …... .

... except in tropical countries where also can be grafted on other tropical trees of Anacardiaceae family of Mangifera genus. -----Sorbus domestica. -----Persea indica.. -----Morus rubra.. -----Olea europea var.... europea....... -----Morus alba var... -----Morus nigra...MORUS NIGRA on: -----Morus alba.OLEA EUROPEA on: -----Olea europea var.MANGIFERA INDICA only on other mango tree. -----Crategus monogyna.. -----Pyrus communis.. . …. -----Mespilus germanica born of seed. pendula.. pendula. -----Pyrus pyrifolia “Nashí”. -----Crategus azarolus. .. -----Morus rubra.......... -----Morus alba var.MORUS ALBA on: -----Morus alba var... specially the bitter orange.MANDARIN and CLEMENTIN TREES on any other tree of Citrus genus. 89 .MESPILUS GERMANICA on: -----Cydonia oblonga.. sylvestris. . -----Morus nigra.MORUS RUBRA on: -----Morus alba... . . pendula..PERSEA AMERICANA can be grafted on: -----Persea gratissima or americana. -----Eryobotria japonica. ..

. -----Prunus avium. -----Prunus cerasifera...... -----Prunus persica... -----Prunus persica “Nectarina”.. . .PRUNUS AVIUM can be grafted on: -----Prunus avium. . -----Prunus amigdalus.. -----Prunus persica “Nectarina”..PRUNUS CERASIFERA on: -----Prunus cerasifera born of seed.. -----Prunus spinosa.. -----Prunus armeniaca.... sweet or bitter.PRUNUS ARMENIACA can be grafted on: -----Prunus armeniaca born of seed. -----Pistacia terebinthus. ..PRUNUS CERASUS on: -----Prunus cerasus... -----Prunus persica “Paraguayo”. -----Prunus amigdalus.. -----Prunus persica.. -----Prunus spinosa. -----Prunus persica... 90 ......PRUNUS AMIGDALUS can be grafted on: -----Prunus amigdalus born of seed. -----Prunus persica “Paraguayo”.. -----Prunus persica “Paraguayo”. -----Prunus persica “Nectarina”.. -----Prunus spinosa. -----Pistachio nut tree born of seed. -----Prunus cerasifera of diverse varieties.PISTACIA VERA on: -----Pistacia lentiscus... -----Prunus armeniaca. -----Prunus cerasus.

... -----Prunus cerasifera.. -----Prunus cerasifera.PSIDIUM GUAJAVA on any other specie of Psidium genus... -----Prunus amigdalus.. ... -----Prunus persica “Paraguayo”. -----Prunus armeniaca. -----Prunus persica “Paraguayo” born of seed. -----Prunus cerasifera.... -----Prunus armeniaca... -----Prunus armeniaca. . -----Prunus persica “Paraguayo” born of seed..PRUNUS PERSICA can be grafted on: -----Prunus persica born of seed.. -----Prunus spinosa. 91 . -----Prunus amigdalus. -----Prunus amigdalus.... -----Prunus persica.. -----Prunus amigdalus.. -----Prunus persica “Nectarina”.. -----Prunus persica “Nectarina”.PRUNUS SPINOSA on: -----Prunus spinosa...... . -----Prunus spinosa. -----Prunus armeniaca. -----Prunus cerasifera. -----Prunus persica “Nectarina”..PRUNUS PERSICA “NECTARINA” on: -----Prunus persica. -----Prunus persica “Nectarina”. -----Prunus spinosa.. . .. -----Prunus persica “Paraguayo”.PUNICA GRANATUM only on other Punica granatum..PRUNUS PERSICA “PARAGUAYO” on: -----Prunus persica.

-----Sorbus domestica. .... -----Mespilus germanica.. -----Eryobotria japonica... the chinese wild pear tree. -----Mespilus germanica. ... -----Pyrus pyrifolia.ZIZYPHUS SATIVA only on other Zizyphus. -----Crataegus monogyna. ..... …...jardin-mundani.. -----Pyrus communis born of seed. -----Crategus azarolus.....the list is unending.QUERCUS ILEX of sweet acorns only on other Quercus ilex. -----Eryobotria japonica.. -----Eryobotria japonica.VITIS VINIFERA only on other Vitis vinifera. Etc...... -----Mespilus germanica. Source: http://www..... -----Sorbus domestica...SORBUS DOMESTICA on: -----Sorbus domestica.... -----Pyrus pyrifolia “Nashi”..htm 92 .. -----Crataegus monogyna......PYRUS PYRIFOLIA “NASHÍ” on: -----Pyrus betulaefolia.... . -----Crataegus azarolus...... -----Crataegus azarolus.info/English/GRAFTS/List-compatibilities.. -----Crataegus monogyna.PYRUS COMMUNIS can be grafted on: -----Pyrus communis born of seed.. -----Cydonia oblonga... -----Cydonia oblonga.. -----Cydonia oblonga. -----Pyrus communis.