You are on page 1of 8

Freud's Studies of the Occult By: Rebecca A.

Drayer The purpose of this paper [is] to show that the phenomena Freud studied were not true paranormal occurrences, but rather incidents that could be explained by psychoanalytic theory. I myself am not sure whether or not paranormal phenomena exist; I just don't think that the ones described here fall into that category. With that disclaimer, here it is... Professor Sigmund Freud was an extraordinarily controversial figure in his day. His followers adored him, and hailed him as a "Columbus" of the mind. On the other hand, his critics, who were just as vehement, found his views to be outlandish and sometimes referred to him as "the most consummate of charlatans."(1) Even today, feelings about him run to either extreme, with little or no middle ground. No doubt Freud's reputation as an eccentric was enhanced by his delvings into the occult. Although it often seems difficult to believe, Freud spent a distinct portion of his professional life investigating paranormal phenomena. (Ernest Jones, in his three-volume biography, states rather scornfully that Freud's interest in the paranormal represents proof of the fact "that highly developed critical powers may co-exist in the same person with an unexpected fund of credulity."(2)) Much as more traditional psychoanalysts might like to ignore this aspect of their mentor's career, it must be addressed in order to obtain a complete picture of Freud's personality. It is logical to wonder at this point whether Freud truly believed in the phenomena he spent so much time studying. Most scholars tend to agree that Freud was basically a skeptic, but was willing to keep an open mind about certain aspects of the occult. Peter Gay, author of a comprehensive biography, asserts in his book that Freud thought that most "supernatural" phenomena could be explained in a more naturalistic fashion. However, he did believe that thought transference might be possible under certain conditions.(3) Ernest Jones adopted a slightly different position on the subject of Freud's belief in the occult. Despite his derogatory statement concerning Freud's credulity, he contends that equal amounts of evidence exist to either support or deny Freud's belief in the paranormal. He calls Freud's attitude an "exquisite oscillation between scepticism and credulity."(4) Jones summarizes his opinion by saying that for Freud, the desire to believe was in constant battle with a bias towards disbelief, and that the conflict was apparent in Freud's writings on the subject.(5) It is not the purpose of this paper to determine the precise extent of Freud's acceptance of paranormal phenomena. Such speculation is best left to the scholars and biographers. The intent of this essay is to demonstrate that Freud should not have believed in the occult, since most of the phenomena to which he ascribed a supernatural origin can be better explained by elements of modern psychoanalytic theory. Freud first became involved with the paranormal in 1905. He published his last paper on the subject in 1932. During the intervening years, both he and some of his colleagues, particularly Carl Jung and S_ndor Ferenczi, devoted a great deal of time and energy to the study of the occult.(6) (One of Freud's favorite quotes during those years was, "There are more things in heaven and earth than are dreamed of in your philosophy."(7)) However, not one of the occurrences they witnessed or heard about would today be taken seriously by a respectable parapsychologist. Instead, these instances can be interpreted in several different ways. They could represent examples of the unconscious mind acting in ways that can be predicted by

these chance actions will possess unconscious motivations which will attempt to find conscious representations. He had. Alternatively. Even psychoanalysts unconnected to Freud became interested in the subject.(19) However. first been trained as a medical doctor. in one of his papers on technique Freud stated that an analyst must "turn his unconscious like a receptive organ towards the transmitting unconscious of the patient. This more closely corresponds with Freud's definition of thought transference. Superstitions should be dealt with first.(15) This inclination towards rational definitions extended to the occult.(14) published papers on their theories of the role of the occult in psychoanalysis. According to him. Freud proposed a possible physical basis for thought transmission (which presumably could be extended to telepathy as well) based on an analogy with the telephone. however. since the person will most likely have been brought up to deny .(10) This definition is different from the one employed by professional parapsychologists. Helene Deutsch and Istv_n Holl_s. the average person knows very little about psychoanalytic theory. even though they seem connected with the supernatural. they could be examples of investigators only seeing what they wish to see. He described psychoanalysts as having fundamentally materialistic and mechanistic attitudes. These categories can be further subdivided into prophetic and telepathic occurrences. the person will be unaware of the significance of his own chance actions. In this paper. they are really products of the unconscious mind. They define telepathy as "extrasensory awareness of another person's mental content or state. He postulated that the thoughts or other mental processes that are transmitted are transformed into physical processes such as waves or rays. in which he describes his opinion of a soothsayer whom they had both visited. he will project them onto the external world(20) and will view external chance events as having the ability to reveal things that would otherwise be hidden from him.(17) Additional evidence for Freud's belief in this physical basis for the occult can be found in a letter of his to Ferenczi. will be imprisoned in the unconscious. the repressed material tends to be a death wish against a loved one. It can be shown that. it will be a relatively simple matter to extrapolate from them to the other supernatural happenings that Freud studied.(22) It is common for an individual to feel both love and hate for the same person. contemporaries of Freud's.Freud's theoretical papers.(16) Once these waves or rays reach their target.(12) Freud often thought that telepathy.Some Points of View. the individuals who are "telepathically" linked must share strong emotional ties. beliefs that seemingly chance events actually have a hidden meaning and can predict the future. a process he considered to be closely connected to telepathy. Belief in Chance and Superstition -." Freud described the phenomenology of superstitious beliefs. Freud thought that she had a "physiological gift" that allowed her access to the thoughts of others. A substantial portion of one of Freud's papers was devoted to an examination of superstitions. if it did actually exist. might prove to be useful in the analytic setting.(21) Usually. Because of this. Freud never made any secret of his bias towards a scientific explanation of mental phenomena. The hatred."(11) No mention is made about the necessity of an emotional link or the type of event that can be transmitted. they are transformed back into the original mental processes. According to him. Freud defined telepathy as the instantaneous transmission of an event between the minds of two people. Since the person has no other way to express his hidden desires. From there. Indeed. The occult phenomena that Freud described in his personal communications and published papers can be divided into two broad groups: phenomena that are associated with dreams and those that occur during waking hours. even though they were willing to search for undetected qualities of the mind and soul. after all. called "Determinism."(13) Other psychoanalysts jumped on the same bandwagon. they deserve mention here because a belief in the supernatural is intimately connected with them. Freud also spent some time examining superstitions.(8) While superstitions are not strictly occult phenomena.(9) and the event that is transmitted should be charged with negative emotions.(18) It is time to turn to the occult phenomena themselves.

and hence the dream would not exactly reflect the nature of the communication. Since superstitions are usually associated with anticipations of trouble. he was quick to state that the only reason for mentioning the connection between telepathy and dreams was that sleep seemed to be conducive for the reception of telepathic communications.(28) Mysticism had no place in the study of dreams. Telepathic messages. however.(30) According to Freud's theory of dreams. His daughter from his first marriage .(34) This dream was reported to Freud via correspondence.(33) At this point. It falls to science to recognize this fact and project it back into a psychology of the unconscious. as Freud would so often repeat.such negative emotions.(31) A process called the dream-work serves to transform the latent into the manifest. he claimed. that is exactly what analysis does. Freud wrote several papers dealing with this subject. Occult phenomena tend to be linked with dreams for the additional reason that both seem very mysterious. There is the latent dream. both dreams and their subject matter . but the supernatural really has no place in the theory of dreams. it can be seen that they are really unconscious expectations of punishment for evil thoughts.(35) The dreamer was a mature widower who had remarried. An excellent example of a "telepathic" dream that was stripped of its paranormal nature can be found in Freud's paper "Dreams and Telepathy. since telepathy in no way altered the fundamental character of the dream.(23) Interestingly. he very rarely analyzed prophetic dreams.occult or mundane -. Freud was unable to interview the dreamer.(25) (ed. He repeatedly maintained. then analysis should enable alternative interpretations of the dreams to be made that do not involve the supernatural. he says. As will be subsequently proved. emphasis) The next topic to be covered is one on which Freud concentrated a great deal: the appearance of occult phenomena in dreams. Freud remarked that dreams were frequently regarded as "portals to the world of mysticism" and were seen by the uneducated as occult phenomena in their own right. would not be treated any differently by the mind than any other material used in dreams. Naturally. However. he was convinced that the last two digits represented the age at which he would die. indeed. As a result.(27) In one of his papers. His telephone number in 1899 was 14362.(32) Freud postulated that a telepathic message would serve as the latent dream-content.(24) As alert as Freud was to the causes of superstitions. Both. If so. He was particularly susceptible to number superstition. Freud hoped that psychoanalysis would be equally successful at uncovering other types of occult phenomena.called telepathic messages are modified and distorted by the dream work. it is necessary to point out a flaw in Freud's explanation of telepathic phenomena. only analysis of a telepathic dream would enable it to be distinguished from a nontelepathic one. The message would be distorted during the dreaming process. will fabricate a supernatural reality in order to express unconscious processes and relationships. he fell prey to them nonetheless. The two are often grouped together because they occur together. he attributed his own superstitions to an unconscious desire for immortality instead of the usual repressed hostility.(29) Furthermore.content. the belief that certain numbers had a special significance. Telepathic dreams were the more common type of "occult" dreams investigated by Freud. telepathic dreams should in all ways adhere strictly to the accepted view of dreams. there are two types of dream-contents.content. whom he did not know personally." which was published in 1922. The important questions instead should be why the paranormal seems to surface repeatedly under dream conditions(26) and whether the phenomena involved are truly paranormal in nature. Freud compares superstitious people with paranoiacs. that supernatural phenomena are fundamentally distinct from dreams. which is the material actually remembered by the dreamer. This number served to remind Freud of his mortality. then how is it possible to prove that they are indeed telepathic? Might they just be other unconscious images altered beyond immediate recognition so that they appear to be telepathic in nature? If this is the case. which consists of the actual psychical material behind the dream. and there is the manifest dream.could only be understood by scientific investigation.

At the same time. during this period. K's presence.(46) The family barrister. He only analyzed one of these. at a particular spot on Vienna's main street. The dreamer therefore felt certain that she would have thought about him during the delivery. To support them. He stated that he and his daughter were very close. had not written down the dream immediately after she had woken up. In his dream. both the dreamer and his first wife were very fond of children. began to give music lessons. the barrister continued to offer help and support to Frau B.(45) This fact proved to be crucial to Freud's explanation of the situation. and that they had frequently corresponded during the pregnancy. became ill with tuberculosis.. and eventually died. The appearance of twins instead of a single child could be explained by a wistful notion on the part of the man that if his first wife were still alive she would love to have more than one grandchild." was related to Freud several years after its occurrence. this "telepathic" dream has been shown to be a wish-fulfillment fantasy on the part of the dreamer. Indeed. the man vividly saw his second wife and the twins she had just given birth to. She remembered one instance when she was sobbing wildly and wishing for Dr.(43) The dream. However. K. it might have been an unconscious expression of the man's belief that his daughter had miscalculated the length of her pregnancy by one month. something he could not do because of his lack of personal contact with the dreamer.(40) Therefore. Frau B.(44) At first glance. and stated that one was a boy and the other a girl. the man considered his second wife unfit to raise children. Freud still insists that the existence of telepathy has not been disproved.(38) To give Freud credit. In addition. Therefore.(42) These are the words of a man who does not want to admit that the "desire to believe" has been made futile by the necessity of disbelief. stated that one night she had dreamed that she met a certain Dr. K was a friend and had at one time been her physician. that she had been married twice. he managed a different type of affair with Frau B. instead of the dream being a telepathic message of the birth. they would really be due at the time of the dream. Instead. Dr.(37) Finally. managed the financial affairs of Herr B. this dream would indeed appear to be premonitory. since it predicted an event which later came to pass. He stated that the dream could presumably be a manifestation of a repressed desire on the part of the father to violate the incest taboo and have his daughter bear his children. but was not expecting the baby for another month. the man lost his money. a woman whom Freud called Frau B. Freud also learned from Frau B. actually met Dr. the man received a telegram stating that his daughter had given birth to different-sex twins at the approximate time of the dream. Frau B.. had been to an elderly rich gentleman. The first time. Dr. also called Dr. However.(36) The dreamer proceeded to offer more information about himself and his family situation. The man gave a very detailed description of the newborn babies. there was no evidence of her having even remembered the dream before the meeting. Freud offered a perfectly rational psychoanalytic interpretation that attributed this kind of dream to activity of the censor between the unconscious and the conscious. K. and helped her find students. at that spot. since she probably thought of him a great deal and he probably visited her . down to the color of their hair. in he walked. The dreamer. was extremely supportive.(39) Furthermore. Freud claimed that the appearance of the man's second wife as the mother of the twins represented nothing more than a wish that the daughter could be his second wife.'s scruples prevented her from obtaining any real happiness from this relationship. K. many years before. he immediately acknowledged the possibility that the dream might have a non-paranormal explanation. In "Dreams and the Occult. Frau B.(41) However. K. and he had absolutely no qualms about stripping it of its supernatural character.was pregnant at the time of the dream. described in "A Premonitory Dream Fulfilled. The next day. Several years after the marriage." he states that the possibility of telepathy could only be dismissed if all the circumstances of the case were thoroughly examined. instead of the babies being due a month from then.(47) Even though the love affair was not a complete success. At the exact moment of her wish. despite this interpretation. Two days later. Frau B. The second type of "occult" dream that Freud analyzed is the prophetic dream. (Freud did not even consider this to be prophetic.

Since both figures were named Dr. the patient would be in the same position as her mother. and thinking about the bygone romance made her uncomfortable.) The reason why the patient could not have children was that her husband had been sterilized by an earlier illness. Of more use is Freud's analysis of some of the spontaneous experiences recalled by himself or by his patients and friends.quite often. since they are based on actual memory-traces(55). a man whose child she had unconsciously wanted her entire life.. a psychical construct which plays an important role in childhood development. (Freud's theory of repression states that derivatives of a repressed idea that are far removed from the actual idea will be able to enter consciousness. she had consulted a fortuneteller in the lobby of a Paris hotel. although they were no longer intimate.(64) .(52) According to Freud's interpretation. Frau B.(56) Even though Frau B. she nostalgically dreamed of the day when he visited at the exact moment she had wanted him to. yet she desperately wanted to bear children.'s conscious mind. She was very young-looking and had removed her wedding ring. The patient could not help but feel pleasure at recollecting the fortune-teller's prediction of the fulfillment of her fondest wish.(60) One such failed prophecy was reported by a 43 year-old female patient of Freud's. To the patient. he attempted thought transference with Ferenczi and his daughter Anna(57) and on one occasion observed Jung as he supposedly made objects rattle of their own accord. when the woman had been 27 years old. created a dream in response to an actual event. but they owe their greatest value to the fact that they represent repressed material in the unconscious. He particularly liked to examine prophecies of fortunetellers that did not come true..(53) This phenomenon is similar to a screen memory.(54) They are not entirely fabrications. remarried and was widowed again. He conducted several experiments of his own.(61) (Freud claimed that she reason she wanted to bear children was so that her husband could replace her father. The fortuneteller. during which time Frau B. this identification with her mother would be tantamount to taking her mother's place with her father. however. Frau B. The prophecy was never fulfilled. At that point a distorted derivative of the dream was able to gain access to Frau B. Therefore. K. Rather. she went for a walk and met the physician Dr. prophesied that she would get married and have two children by age thirty-two. As a result. K. She had married late (she was over thirty at the time of her wedding).(50) Later on that day. Frau B. learned that her mother's life had proceeded along a path remarkably similar to that predicted by the fortune-teller. but had managed to have two children by the time of her thirty-second birthday. Screen memories can be defined as memories of one's earliest years that are actually formed during later periods of emotional arousal.(58) However. she had been left with money and a child. the barrister was still involved in administering her affairs. it still suggests the formation of some sort of screen construction. Freud proposed the following interpretation of the dream.(59) but rather in supporting the existence of telepathy. Dr. that period in her life had generally been an unhappy one. He claimed that the significance of these prophecies did not lie in predicting the future. the dream was repressed and she did not remember it when she awoke in the morning. but for some reason he did not come. these experiments were generally inconclusive. However.(62) Many years before coming to Freud. she recalled the entire experience with a certain amount of pleasure. This time. Monsieur le Professeur. if the fortune-teller's words were true.)(48) The dream occurred more than twenty-five years after these events.(49) Based on all this information. Besides examining dream-related occult phenomena. yet the woman expressed no hostility towards Monsieur le Professeur in her sessions with Freud. As a result. K.(63) Freud.'s dream was not in any way involved with childhood events or memories. At the time of her analysis she was childless. believed that she had dreamt the actual rendezvous. upon questioning his patient. had been expecting a visit from Dr. K. Freud describes many such occurrences.)(51) The neutral figure of the physician was substituted for the emotionally charged figure of the barrister. Freud also studied those that appeared in the conscious life of a person.

"(74) Perhaps those who too fanatically believe in the occult were also born too late. 375. E. He imagined them returning to him after other treatments had failed and begging him to cure the little girl. New York: W. 382-383. Inc. telepathy is connected to infantile omnipotence fantasies. (7) Jones.(67) At that moment.W. Miniver coughed. Suddenly he experienced a vengeful fantasy against a couple who had refused to let him treat their daughter. Ernest. 1965. Had he really predicted the future in his thoughts? Probably not. According to Dr. 381. "Dreams and the Occult. On the surface.teller. p. I think the best explanation of why people believe in the occult was offered by Freud himself in "Psychoanalysis and Telepathy. 406. ed. the experience seemed prophetic in nature. Norton and Company. 375. . pp. A personal recollection of Freud's. "Determinism.. Peter. Professor!" Freud looked up to see the couple of whom he had just been thinking. Belief in Chance and Superstition -. He pictured himself saying in response that his professional abilities were the same as they were when he was but a lecturer. Inc.. The question to consider now is why people persist in believing in the occult. both of whom tend to believe in magic and the "omnipotence of thoughts. Inc. Sigmund.(65) However. Due to the hostility he felt towards them he suppressed the perception and instead took refuge in a seemingly spontaneous fantasy. There presumably exist mundane explanations for most of the other socalled supernatural happenings that are constantly being reported. Scratched his head and kept on thinking. she was relating an incident that had occurred many years prior to her analysis. p. George Devereux. Freud recalled taking a walk one night soon after he had received the title of professor. 3). And kept on drinking. New York: International Universities Press. 1957. 444-5. One theory he proposed was that his patient had transferred her strong unconscious desire to the fortune."(72) However. p. He believed that emotionally charged thoughts could be transferred quite easily. p. (2) Jones. "Miniver Cheevy. A. xvi. 1953.(68) Freud had been walking down a straight. Norton and Company.(66) This explanation seems much more plausible. (5) Jones." He stated that this type of belief was an attempt to regain by supernatural means "the lost appeal of life on this earth. deserted street. 1988. especially since it seems to signify the creation of a type of screen memory. p. Freud based his studies of narcissism on children and primitive people. and called it fate. there is a simpler explanation of the event. man's belief in his own occult powers is a way of elevating himself to the level of the "Divinity which he fashioned in his own likeness. especially if they were at the border between the conscious and the unconscious. Sigmund.W.." Psychoanalysis and the Occult. (3) Gay. George Devereux. (8) Freud. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud (vol. p. his reverie was disrupted by a loud voice saying. p. New York: Basic Books. reported in his paper on determinism and chance. It is probable that he had looked up and seen the couple in the distance. All the preceding examples of supposedly occult phenomena were proven to be natural occurrences instead. (4) Jones. 95. (6) Jones. born too late.Some Points of View. they weren't going to receive them now. References (1) Gay. p. 405. If they wouldn't avail themselves of his services then."(71) Or maybe belief in the paranormal is a type of narcissism.(70) So perhaps. (9) Freud. pp. the existence of which had already been successfully demonstrated in Freud's publications." The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. After all. (10) Jones.(69) So much for Freud's prophetic powers."(73) This puts me in mind of "Miniver Cheevy". 257.Freud was naturally curious as to how Monsieur le Professeur had come up with those particular numbers. New York: W. Freud: A Life for Our Time. Freud also suggested that the patient herself may have inserted the numbers into the prophecy. "Good day to you. Robinson's poem about a man who found no appeal in his life because he was born at the wrong time. as Helene Deutsch suggests. Freud believed it quite possible that she could have unconsciously falsified the memory. represents another seemingly paranormal phenomenon that was really caused by the workings of the unconscious.

ed. "Determinism and Superstition." Psychoanalysis and the Occult.W. "Determinism and Superstition. "Determinism and Superstition.. Norton and Company.) (18) Jones. 87. 170. 50. Peter Gay. (in Devereux. (in Devereux." p. Sigmund. p.381. "The Occult Significance of Dreams." The Freud Reader. p.) (74) Collected Poems of Edwin Arlington Robinson.. George Devereux." Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. New York: International Universities Press. p. 935. pp." p.. (17) Freud.. (in Devereux. 50. Sigmund. (35) Freud. (in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. (in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. "Determinism and Superstition. 96. (65) Freud. 97." pp. p. 51. Sigmund.. "The Occult Significance of Dreams. p. Peter Gay. pp. (26) Freud. (21) Freud." pp." pp... p. (70) Devereux. 108. ed. pp. "Dreams and the Occult. Inc. p. p. "Dreams and the Occult. (51) Freud. ed. p. Inc. 57. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. 49. 61-62.. 71-2." Psychoanalysis and the Occult. (in Devereux.) (43) Freud. 76. (19) Freud.. p. "Dreams and the Occult. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. "The Dream-Work.) (29) Ibid.. pp. Inc. (38) Freud. 133." The Freud Reader. George Devereux. Sigmund.W. 49-50." p. ed. p. Sigmund. Sigmund. p. (47) Ibid. p. Sigmund. "Dreams and Telepathy. 72-3. Sigmund. ed.) (36) Ibid. 258. Benjamin B. "Psychoanalysis and Telepathy. New York: International Universities Press.. Sigmund. p. 76. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. "Occult Processes Occurring During Psychoanalysis. New York: W." pp. p. 95. (23) Freud. Sigmund. 1953. 97. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. ed. George Devereux. p. 126. 65.. 126. 378.. George Devereux. p. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. (in Devereux. (15) Freud. (71) Deutsch. p. "Dreams and the Occult. Sigmund." The Freud Reader. (in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. (72) Freud. George. 199. Sigmund. George Devereux. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. Norton and Company.. 264.. Bibliography Deutsch. (12) Freud. 59. (30) Ibid. (57) Jones. Inc. 260. "Recommendations to Physicians Practicing Psycho-Analysis. p. Sigmund. 98-99.. p." pp. 360.. Helene.. 50-1. "Psychoanalysis and Telepathy. "The Occult Significance of Dreams." pp. Sigmund. Sigmund." p. "Psychoanalysis and Telepathy. (31) Freud. (in Devereux. (55) Ibid. (32) Freud. (42) Freud. "Occult Processes Occurring During Psychoanalysis. (in Devereux. Inc. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. p.." Psychoanalysis and the Occult. (in Devereux. p." Psychoanalysis and the Occult. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. 1989. "Psychoanalysis and Telepathy. "Dreams and Telepathy.) (22) Jones." p. (14) Gay. (50) Ibid. Inc. Peter Gay. "A Premonitory Dream Fulfilled." The Freud Reader. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. (33) Freud. New York: W. 1953. 1953. p. "Dreams and the Occult. Sigmund. 49. 537.) (20) Jones. George Devereux." p. Norton and Company." p.) (53) Ibid. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. 75-6. p. 1954.) (63) Freud. 89. 378. 384-5. 348.. Inc. (in Devereux.) (24) Ibid. Inc. 91.W. (59) Freud. 58. 71. Inc. p. "Screen Memories." pp.) (60) Freud. p. Norton and Company. 88.W. p. 263-4.) (62) Freud.) (13) Freud. Helene.. p. Sigmund. 1953.) (39) Freud. (56) Ibid. Sigmund. p. (in Devereux. (27) Ibid.) (64) Ibid..W. (73) Freud. (in Devereux. "A Summary of Istv_n Holl_s' Theories..... p. p.. New York: International Universities Press. 1989. ed.. 97-8. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. (52) Freud. 257-8. (in Devereux. 1966. 51.. New York: International Universities Press." p. Sigmund. 1989. (49) Ibid. 124-5. ed. 264. "Repression. ed. "On Dreams. 98-99. 395. Sigmund. (in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. (in Devereux..) (67) Freud. Inc. (16) Jones. Psychoanalysis and the Occult." pp. 96. (41) Ibid. (58) Jones.) (61) Freud. 99.W. Sigmund. (25) Gay. ed. p. xliii. 1989. p. Sigmund. pp. (69) Ibid. Sigmund." Psychoanalysis and the Occult. (44) Ibid. 50." p. 50. p. 547. Sigmund. ed. 1989. 87. "On Narcissism: An Introduction. New York: The Macmillan Company. Psychoanalysis and the Occult." The Freud Reader. (46) Ibid. New York: International .) (66) Freud. New York: W. Norton and Company.. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Wolman. Sigmund. pp. "A Premonitory Dream Fulfilled.. Sigmund. (in Devereux. New York: W. Peter Gay." Psychoanalysis and the Occult." p. "Dreams and the Occult. (48) Ibid. Sigmund.) (34) The Freud Reader. Sigmund. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. (11) Handbook of Parapsychology. 1953. New York: W. 258-9. 148. ed. 571. Peter Gay. p. New York: W." p. "Dreams and the Occult. Inc. (in Devereux. (37) Ibid. 58. (in Devereux. 381. (in Devereux. (28) Freud. (45) Ibid.) (40) Ibid. Psychoanalysis and the Occult. 383-4. New York: International Universities Press. Sigmund. 1977. Norton and Company. (54) Freud." p. Sigmund." p. p.) (68) Ibid. pp. "Psychoanalysis and Telepathy. "Dreams and the Occult.

572-584. Freud. Freud. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Inc. Freud. "On Dreams." Psychoanalysis and the Occult. Norton and Company. "Screen Memories. 1954. Peter Gay. pp. pp. Peter Gay. Sigmund. The Freud Reader. pp. 1989. Norton and Company. 69-86. pp. Sigmund. Sigmund. Norton and Company. Norton and Company. 1953. George Devereux. Freud. Norton and Company. 568-572. Peter. ed." The Freud Reader. Gay.. Sigmund.. 142-172. 1993 Rebecca Drayer. Ernest.." (excerpt) The Freud Reader... Sigmund." The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. ed. 1957. 356-363. ed.W. "Totem and Taboo. Freud. Norton and Company. Norton and Company. Freud. New York: W.. New York: W. Inc. Inc." Psychoanalysis and the Occult. New York: W. 1989. New York: International Universities Press. pp. ed. 87-90. Collected Poems of Edwin Arlington Robinson." (excerpt) The Freud Reader. George Devereux." The Freud Reader. Inc. Inc. Peter Gay. Freud. the Occult and Politics . Devereux. pp. Peter Gay. "Recommendations to Physicians Practicing Psycho-Analysis. New York: W. Inc. "The Dream-Work.. Sigmund. George Devereux. New York: International Universities Press. George. New York: International Universities Press. Freud. Inc. ed. 56-68. ed. Sigmund. Inc. ed. pp. Inc. Norton and Company. 1965. Sigmund. Inc. 481-513. 170-183. 91-109. George Devereux. "Determinism." Psychoanalysis and the Occult. 1989. Peter Gay. New York: W.W. 3). 1989.. 199-203. pp. New York: W. 1953. Norton and Company. Freud. Inc. Inc. ed.. 1989. Sigmund. Sigmund. New York: International Universities Press. New York: The Macmillan Company. 239. Freud. Belief in Chance and Superstition -." (excerpt) The Freud Reader. p. Inc. "The Unconscious. Peter Gay. Sigmund. ed.. pp.W. George Devereux. ed. Robinson. Sigmund. "On Narcissism: An Introduction. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud (vol. "The Occult Significance of Dreams. New York: Basic Books. Benjamin B.. 1989. Inc. "A Premonitory Dream Fulfilled.W. ed. "Dreams and Telepathy. 1989. pp.Universities Press.W.W. pp.." (excerpt) The Freud Reader. Freud. Sigmund. 1953.W. 1989. 832 pp. Freud. Inc." Psychoanalysis and the Occult. Jones. "Psychoanalysis and Telepathy. Peter Gay.W. "Repression. ed. 967 pp. New York: International Universities Press..Some Points of View. pp. "Dreams and the Occult.. 1966. New York: International Universities Press. New York: W. 1953. 537 pp. pp. ed. "A Summary of Istv_n Holl_s' Theories. 117-126. Norton and Company. 1953. 49-51.W. Freud. ed. New York: W.." Psychoanalysis and the Occult. Edwin Arlington. Peter Gay. 810 pp.279. Freud. ed. Handbook of Parapsychology. pp. New York: W. New York: W.. pp." Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. 1977. Inc. Freud: A Life for Our Time. Sigmund. 1953. Inc." Psychoanalysis and the Occult. 1988. 545-562. 1953. Norton and Company." (excerpt) The Freud Reader. Inc. George Devereux. Freud.. 1018 pp. New York: W.W. Wolman.W. 133-146..