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BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends

CityofChicago,2005to2010

FinalReport

SiimSt,Ph.D.
LuGan
Piyushimita(Vonu)Thakuriah,Ph.D.ProjectLead
UniversityofIllinoisatChicago

MelodyGeraci
PatrickKnapp
ActiveTransportationAlliance

CharlieShort
ChicagoDepartmentofTransportation

November,2012

ThisreportwasgenerouslyfundedthroughagrantfromtheIllinoisDepartment
ofTransportation,andbytheCityofChicago.

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

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BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

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Disclaimer The analysis and views presented in this report are the sole
responsibility of the authors.

Acknowledgements

The research team is indebted to the help given by, Lori Midden of the Illinois Department of
Transportation, Parry Frank of the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning, Tracie Smith of
the Childrens Memorial Hospital, Chicago, and Chrystal Price of the American College of
Surgeons. We are grateful to William Vassilakis, formerly at the University of Illinois at Chicago
and Dr. Caitlin Cottrill, Postdoctoral Research Associate at Massachusetts Institute of
Technology National University of Singapore for their help with the project.

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TableofContents

Chapter1:KeyFindings...........................................................................................................1
Chapter2:Introduction,ReportObjectivesandOrganizationoftheReport............................3
2.1:Introduction........................................................................................................................3
2.2:ObjectivesoftheReport....................................................................................................3
2.3:OrganizationoftheReport.................................................................................................4
Chapter3:BackgroundandOverviewoftheBicyclingEnvironment........................................5
3.1:TrendsinBicycleUse..........................................................................................................5
3.2:NationalTrendsinBicycleSafety.......................................................................................6
3.3:BicycleSafetyinChicago....................................................................................................7
3.3.1:ChicagoBicycleSafetyTrends......................................................................................7
3.3.2:ChicagoBicycleCrashesComparedwithCrashesforOtherModes............................9
3.4:ChicagoversusSuburbanChicagoandtheRestofIllinois...............................................10
3.5:PeerCityComparisonofCyclingtoWorkandCrashes....................................................12
3.6:ComparisonwithOtherLargeCities................................................................................15
Chapter4:CharacteristicsofCyclistsInvolvedinCrashes......................................................18
4.1:BicycleUseandSafetyTrendsbyAgeandGender..........................................................18
4.2:EducationLevelofCyclists...............................................................................................25
Chapter5:VehiclesandOperatorsInvolvedinBicycleCrashes.............................................26
5.1:AlcoholandBicycleCrashes.............................................................................................26
5.1.1:BloodAlcoholContentofMotorists...........................................................................26
5.1.2:BloodAlcoholContentofCyclists...............................................................................27
5.1.3:HitandRunCrashes...................................................................................................28
5.2:AgeandGenderofMotorists............................................................................................29
5.2.1:AgeofMotorists.........................................................................................................29
5.2.2:GenderofMotoristsInvolvedinBicycleCrashes......................................................29

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

5.3:VehicleTypeandUse........................................................................................................30
5.4:DriverandVehicleManeuvers..........................................................................................34
5.5:Dooring..............................................................................................................................36
5.6:BicyclistActivity.................................................................................................................37
5.6.1:BicyclistAction............................................................................................................37
5.6.2:BicyclistLocation.......................................................................................................39
5.6.3:BicyclistHelmetUse..................................................................................................40
Chapter6:EnvironmentalFactorsandRoadConditions........................................................41
6.1:EnvironmentalFactorsduringCrashes.............................................................................41
6.1.1:WeatherRelatedFactors...........................................................................................41
6.1.2:LightConditions..........................................................................................................42
6.1.3:WeatherRelatedRoadSurface..................................................................................43
6.2:RoadwayEnvironment......................................................................................................43
6.2.1:RelationtoIntersections............................................................................................43
6.2.2:RoadDefects...............................................................................................................47
6.2.3:RoadwayTypeandNumberofLanes.........................................................................47
6.2.4:RoadwayClassification...............................................................................................49
6.2.5:TrafficSignalControl..................................................................................................50
6.3:WorkZones.......................................................................................................................53
Chapter7:TemporalDistributionsofCrashes........................................................................54
7.1:CrashesbyQuarter............................................................................................................54
7.2:BicycleCrashesbyMonth.................................................................................................55
7.3:CrashesbyDayofWeek....................................................................................................57
7.4:TimeofDay........................................................................................................................59
7.4.1:FatalCrashesbyTimeofDay......................................................................................59
7.4.2:InjuryCrashesbyTimeofDay....................................................................................60
7.4.3:DooringCrashes..........................................................................................................60
7.4.4:FatalandInjuryCrashesbyHour................................................................................61
7.5:SpecialEvents....................................................................................................................63

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Chapter8:SpatialDistribution..............................................................................................65
8.1:OverallSpatialDistributionofCrashes.............................................................................65
8.2:ChicagoCommunityAreas................................................................................................67
8.2.1:HighestandLowestNumberofBicycleCrashes........................................................70
8.2.2:PerCapitaCrashes:MappedbyCommunityAreas....................................................72
8.3:Hotspots............................................................................................................................73
8.4:MajorCrashCorridors.......................................................................................................76
8.5:MajorArterialHotspots....................................................................................................77
8.6:DooringCrashes................................................................................................................77
8.7:LandUsesnearCrashLocations........................................................................................79
8.7.1:SchoolsandUniversities.............................................................................................79
8.7.2:CentralBusinessDistrict.............................................................................................83
8.7.3:ResidentialNonCentralBusinessDistrict...............................................................84
Chapter9:SummaryandLimitationsoftheStudy.................................................................86
9.1:StudySummary.................................................................................................................87
9.2:Limitations.........................................................................................................................87
TechnicalAppendixA:DataandStudyArea..........................................................................89
A.1:Data...................................................................................................................................89
A.2:StudyAreaandPeerCities................................................................................................90
TechnicalAppendixB:BackgroundBicyclingSafetyTrendsandLiterature...........................93
B.1:BenefitsofBicycling..........................................................................................................93
B.2:OverallTransportationSafetyTrends...............................................................................94
B.2.1:TrendsinBicycleSafety..............................................................................................94
B.2.2:ChicagoAreaTrendsinBicyclingandBicycleCrashes...............................................96
B.3:RiskFactorstoBicycling:AReviewoftheSafetyLiterature.............................................96
B.3.1:CrashCausationandCrashRisk..................................................................................97
B.3.1.1:DynamicsofBicycleCrashes...............................................................................97
B.3.1.2:RiskFactorsContributingtoCrashInvolvement................................................99
B.3.1.3:ExposureBasedRiskEstimation.......................................................................102

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B.3.2:CrashSeverityandEffects........................................................................................102
B.3.2.1:FactorsDeterminingCrashSeverity.................................................................103
B.3.2.2:TypeofTraumaandExtentofInjury................................................................103
B.3.3:ComparativeStudies................................................................................................104
B.3.4:DataandInformationSystems.................................................................................105
B.3.5:CrashCountermeasuresandEvaluation..................................................................106
References...........................................................................................................................109

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ListofTables
Table31:Bicyclecrashesbytypeofinjuryandfatalities,CityofChicago,20052010................8
Table32:FatalandinjurycrashesinCityofChicago,20052010................................................9
Table33:FatalitiesinIllinoisandindicesbynumberofbicyclecommutersandpopulation...11
Table34:Peercityfatalityindices,20052009...........................................................................14
Table35:Peercityfatalitiesbygender,2005to2010...............................................................15
Table36:Bicyclingandwalkingasmodeoftransportationtoworkinmajorcities,2010.......17
Table41:Gendermixofbicycling...............................................................................................18
Table42:Chicagobicyclingestimates,2007..............................................................................19
Table43:Genderofcyclistsinjuredinbicyclecrashes..............................................................19
Table44:Fatalitiesandinjurycrashesper100millionmilesoftravel......................................20
Table45:Bicyclingbyage,milesandminutesperday,2007*..................................................21
Table46:BicyclistfatalitiesbyageandgenderinCityofChicago,20052010.........................22
Table47:BicyclistsinjuredbyageandgenderinCityofChicago,20052010..........................23
Table51:Bloodalcoholcontentofdriversinvolvedinfatalbicyclecrashes.............................26
Table52:Apparentphysicalconditionofdriversinbicycleinjurycrashes................................27
Table53:BloodAlcoholContentofbicyclistsinfatalcrashes,2005to2010............................28
Table54:Knownageofdriverinvolvedinfatalcrash................................................................29
Table55:Genderofdriversinvolvedinbicycleinjurycrashes..................................................29
Table56:Vehicletypeinvolvedinbicycleinjurycrashes...........................................................30
Table57:Vehicleuseduringcrash.............................................................................................32
Table58:Driveractioninfatalcrashes,CityofChicago,20052010.........................................34
Table59:Driveractioninbicyclevehicleinjurycrashes............................................................35
Table510:Vehiclemaneuverpriortobicycleinjurycrashes.....................................................36
Table511:Allversusdooringbicyclecrashes,byinjurytype....................................................37
Table512:Bicyclistactioninfatalcrashes,20052010..............................................................37
Table513:Bicyclistactionininjurycrashes...............................................................................38
Table514:Bicyclistlocationinfatalcrashes,CityofChicago,20052010.................................39
Table515:Bicyclistlocationinbicycleinjurycrashes................................................................39

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Table516:Helmetuse,2005to2009.........................................................................................40
Table61:Weatherconditionsduringbicyclecrashes................................................................41
Table62:Lightconditionsduringbicyclecrashes......................................................................42
Table63:Roadsurfaceconditionsduringbicyclecrashes,20052010.....................................43
Table64:Bicycleinjurycrashesatintersections........................................................................43
Table65:Intersectionswiththegreatestnumberofinjurycrashes.........................................45
Table66:Roaddefects...............................................................................................................47
Table67:Locationrelatedfactorsforfatalbicyclecrashes,20052010...................................47
Table68:Roadwaytype..............................................................................................................48
Table69:Numberoftravellanes...............................................................................................49
Table610:FatalandTypeAcrashesbyroadwayclassification.................................................50
Table611:Allinjurycrashesbyroadwayclassification..............................................................50
Table612:Trafficcontroldeviceatfatalcrashes.......................................................................51
Table613:Trafficcontroldeviceatinjurycrashes.....................................................................51
Table614:Conditionoftrafficcontroldeviceatfatalandinjurycrashes.................................52
Table615:Injurycrashesinworkzones,20052010.................................................................53
Table71:BicycleinjurycrashesbycalendarquarterinChicago,20052010............................54
Table81:Bicyclecrashesandmilescycledinsixcommunityareaswiththemostcrashes......68
Table82:Fifteencommunityareaswiththehighestnumberofinjurycrashes........................70
Table83:Fifteencommunityareaswiththelowestnumberofinjurycrashes.........................71
Table84:Dooringcrashescomparedtoallinjurycrashesbymajorarterials,2010.................78
TableA1:CMAPsTravelTrackerSurveymodeshareforselectedmodes................................92
TableB1:Bicyclecrashliteraturecategories..............................................................................97
TableB2:Safetycountermeasuresandstrategiesusedincitiesandstates............................108

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

ListofFigures
Figure31:Numberofdailybicyclecommuters,CityofChicago,2000to2010..........................5
Figure32:Numberoffatalitiesbyselectedtransportationmodes,19952009........................7
Figure33:Numberofbicycleinjurycrashesper100,000population.........................................8
Figure34:Comparisonofpedestrianandbicycleinjurycrashes,2005to2010.......................10
Figure35:Bicyclistsasapercentofalldailycommuters,peercities,2010.............................13
Figure41:Ratioofmaletofemaleinjuryrates.........................................................................24
Figure42:Annualaverageinjurycrashrateper100,000residents..........................................24
Figure51:Hitandrunbicyclecrashes,2005to2010................................................................28
Figure52:NumberofSUVsinvolvedinbicyclecrashes............................................................31
Figure71:Injurycrashesbymonthandinjurytype,2005to2010total..................................55
Figure72:Fatalbicyclecrashesbymonth,20052010.............................................................56
Figure73:Fatalbicyclecrashesbydayofweek,20052010......................................................57
Figure74:Injurycrashesbytypeofinjuryanddayofweek......................................................58
Figure75:Fatalbicyclecrashesbytimeofday,20052010.......................................................59
Figure76:Injurybicyclecrashesbytimeofday,20052010.....................................................60
Figure77:Dooringcrashes,20102011......................................................................................61
Figure78:FatalandTypeAinjurycrashesbyhour,2005to2010............................................62
Figure79:TypeBandCinjurycrashesbyhour,2005to2010..................................................63

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ListofMaps
Map61:Intersectionswithatleastteninjurycrashes..............................................................44
Map71:BicycleinjurycrashesonthesixFourthofJulysfrom2005to2010...........................64
Map81:Fatalandserious(TypeA)injurycrashesinCityofChicago,20052010.....................65
Map82:TypeBandCinjurycrashesinCityofChicago,20052010.........................................66
Map83:FatalitiesandTypeAinjurycrashes,20052010..........................................................67
Map84:FatalitiesandTypeAcrashesfrom20052010per2010population..........................72
Map85:TypeBandCcrashesfrom20052010per2010population.......................................73
Map86:Allinjurycrasheshotspots...........................................................................................74
Map87:FatalandTypeAinjurycrashhotspots........................................................................75
Map88:Majorarterialsofinjurycrashes..................................................................................76
Map89:Nonintersectioninjurycrashes...................................................................................77
Map810:Highschoolvicinitieswithinjurycrashes...................................................................79
Map811:Primaryschoolhotspots.............................................................................................81
Map812:Primaryschoolhotspotsinthefarwestside.............................................................83
Map813:DowntownTypeBandCinjurycrashes.....................................................................84
Map814:NorthSideTypeBandCinjurycrashes.....................................................................84
Map815:HydePark/UniversityofChicagoareaTypeBandCinjurycrashes.........................86

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

Chapter1: KeyFindings
CHICAGOBICYCLECRASHSAFETYTRENDS,20052010

1. Thirtytwocyclistswerekilledincrasheswithmotorvehiclesfrom2005to2010.
2. Thenumberoffatalcrashesdecreasedby28percentfromsevenin2005tofivein2010.
3. Almost9,000bicyclistsincurredinjurycrashesduringthesixyearperiod.
4. Thenumberofinjurycrashesincreasedfrom1,236in2005to1,566in2010.

WHEREDIDCRASHESOCCUR:SPATIALANDLOCATIONALDIMENSIONS

5. Approximately55percentoffatalandinjurycrashesoccurredatintersections.
6. Ahighnumberofcrasheshaveoccurredonornearmajordiagonalarterialstreets
includingMilwaukeeAvenue.
7. Sixofthe77communityareasjustnorthandnorthwestoftheLoopaccountedforone
thirdoftheinjurycrashesbutmorethanonethirdofthebicyclemiles.
8. ThehighestnumberofinjurycrasheswasinWestTown(justwestoftheLoop)followed
byNearNorthSideandLoganSquare.

WHENDIDTHECRASHESOCCUR

9. Thelargestnumberofinjurycrashesoccurredfrom4:00pmto7:00pmbutfatalities
werehighestfrom8:00pmtomidnight.
10. Therewerefivefatalitiesfrom4:00pmto7:00pmbutninefatalitiesfrom8:00pmto
midnight.
11. Approximately45percentofthefatalandinjurycrashesoccurredduringthreesummer
months.
12. Thegreatmajorityofcrashesoccurredduringdaylighthoursandingoodweather.
13. Sundaysaccountedforthehighestnumberoffatalitiesbutthefewestnumberofinjury
crashes.

CHARACTERISTICSOFCYCLISTS:GENDERANDAGE

14. Maleswerethreetimesmorelikelytobeinvolvedinbicyclecrashesthanfemales
overall,andinmostagegroups.
15. Theratioofmaletofemalecrasheswaslowestinthe2024agegroup(1.98)but
increasedsteadilywithage.Itwas12timeshigherformalesinthe7584agegroup.
16. Thegreatestnumberofmilescycledwereloggedbycyclistsaged2534buttheyhad
muchlowercrashratesthanyoungercyclists.

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

EXTENTOFCYCLINGANDHOWHASITCHANGED

17. Since2000,thenumberofbicyclecommutershasincreasedby150percent.
18. Nationally0.6percentofworkerscommutedtoworkbybicyclein2010.InChicago,that
percentwas1.3percent(15,000cyclistsdaily).
19. Amongpeercities,ChicagohasmorebicyclecommuterspercapitathanNewYorkor
LosAngeles,butfewerthanPhiladelphiaandSeattle.

COMPARINGBICYCLECRASHESWITHPEDESRIANCRASHES,20052010,

20. Whilethenumberofmotorvehiclecrasheswithpedestriansdeclinedduringthe2005
2010studyperiod,crashesinvolvingbicyclesincreased.
21. Hitandrunaccountedfor25percentofbothinjuryandfatalbicyclecrashes.Itwas
muchlowerthanpedestrianfatalandinjurycrashes,41and33percentrespectively.

CRASHCIRCUMSTANCESHELMETUSE,TYPESOFMOTORVEHICLESANDALCOHOL

22. Helmetswereknowntobeworninonlyonefatalcrash.
23. Cyclistsarereportedtohavecrossedagainstthetrafficlightin20percentofthefatal
crashesbutinonlysevenpercentoftheinjurycrashes.
24. Fourintenfatalitiesandinjurycrasheswereduetomotoristsnotyieldingrightofway.
25. Taxis(forhirevehicles)wereinvolvedinoneintwelveinjurycrashes.
26. Cyclistshadbloodalcoholcontent(BAC)overthelegallimitin22percentofthefatal
crashes.

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

Chapter2: Introduction,ReportObjectivesandOrganizationoftheReport
ThechapterbeginswithabriefoverviewofbicyclesafetyinChicagofrom2005to2010
followedbyadescriptionoftheprimaryreportobjectives.Thechapterconcludeswitha
summaryofthereportorganization.

2.1:Introduction
Nationwide,bicyclefatalityandinjuryrateshavebeendecliningalongwithmostotherformsof
transportation.IntheCityofChicago,motorvehiclecrasheshavesimilarlybeenonthedecline.
Yettherecenthistoryofbicycleinjurycrasheshasbeenmixedwithanoverallincreasein
bicyclecrashesfrom2005to2010.Thismaybeattributabletothelargeincreaseincycling.
Theseincreasesinbothbicyclingandinjurycrasheshavenecessitatedtheneedtodevelopa
seriesofsafetystrategiesthataddressbicyclesafety.
Between2005and2010,atotalof1,021personswerekilledintheCityofChicagoinallcrashes
involvingmotorvehicles,includingdrivers,othermotorvehicleoccupants,pedestriansand
bicyclists.Totaltransportationfatalitiesdeclined32percentinthecityduringthisperiod,with
191personskilledin2005comparedto128in2010.Thetotalnumberofpersonsinjuredinall
crashesinthecitydeclinedfrom25,831in2005to19,865in2010(adecreaseofabout23
percent).Thesedecreasesinthecityreflectnationaltrends.
Bycontrast,duringthesameperiod,32bicyclistswerekilledintheCityofChicago.Bicycle
fatalitiesduringthisperiodexhibitimprovementoverthesesixyears,withsevenfatalitiesin
eachofthefirsttwoyearsofthesixyearperiodandfivefatalitiesineachofthelastthree
years.Thelowestnumberoffatalitieswasin2007withthree.Thenumberofinjuredbicyclists,
however,hasincreasedfrom1,236in2005to1,566in2010,withahighof1,782in2007.
Twoadditionalstatistics,however,showslightlymoreconsistencyinthemodesttrendof
increasingbicycleinjurycrashes.First,bicyclecrashes,asapercentofallcrashes,have
increasedfromlessthansevenpercenttonearlytenpercent.Second,thenumberofbicycle
crashespercapitahasincreasedfromapproximately47in2005to62in2010.Regardlessof
themetric,thereisevidencethatbicyclecrasheshaveincreasedduringthestudyperiod.Still,
bicycling(asmeasuredbythenumberbicyclecommuters)hasgrownmorerapidlythanany
measureofthenumberofcrashes.

2.2:ObjectivesoftheReport
ThepurposeofthisreportistoreviewtrendsinbicyclesafetyintheCityofChicago,andto
identifywaystoimprovebicyclesafety.Theoverallgoalofthereportistoprovideasystematic
assessmentofthewho,whatandhowofsafetyriskstobicycliststosupportsafety
countermeasuresandlongtermbicycleplanningactivities.Thereporthastwoobjectives.

Objective1:ToanalyzebicyclecrashesintheCityofChicago.Ouroverallobjectiveistomake
acomprehensivepresentationofbicyclecrashtrendsinChicagooverthe20052010period.

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

First,wehavepresentedanoverviewofthebicyclingusageandsafetytrendsinthecityand
comparedthesetonationaltrendsandtothoseinpeercities.Wehaveconsideredfatalities
andinjuriesincurred.Wehaveexaminedthecharacteristicsofcyclistsinvolvedincrashesand
thatofthevehiclesandvehicleoperators.Environmentalfactors(weatherandlightconditions)
andthecharacteristicsoftheroadwaywherecrasheshaveoccurredwerethenexaminedas
wellasroadsurfaceconditions.Wethenanalyzedseasonalandtimeofdaypatternofcrashes,
includingcrashpatternsrelatingtospecialevents.Wealsoexaminedthespatialdistributionof
crashesbycommunityarea,corridors,locationtypeandidentifyhotspotswherecrasheshave
occurred.

Weusedtwotypesofdatafortheanalysis:(A)safetydataoncrashes,injuriesandtraumafrom
theIllinoisDepartmentofTransportation(IDOT),NationalHighwayTrafficSafety
Administration(NHTSA)andtheAmericanCollegeofSurgeons,and(B)traveltrenddatato
identifypatternsinbicycleusefromtheU.S.CensusBureau,NationalHouseholdTravelSurvey
(NHTS)andtheChicagoMetropolitanAgencyforPlanning(CMAP).Moreinformationregarding
thedatausedisgiveninTechnicalAppendixA.

Objective2:Torecommendacollectionofstrategiestoimprovebicyclesafetythat
incorporatesoursummaryandthecrashdataanalysis.Thesearedesignedtoassistin
developingfuturecoursesofactionregardingwaysinwhichbicyclesafetycanbeimprovedin
theCityofChicago.

Tomakethereportselfcontainedasastudyofbicyclecrashes,wehaveundertakenareview
ofthepublishedliterature,aswellasofpolicyandplanningdocumentspublishedbythe
FederalHighwayAdministrationandstateandmetropolitanplanningorganizationsto
understandthetypesofactivitiesthatarebeingundertakentoimprovebicyclesafety.

2.3:OrganizationoftheReport
Thereportis
organizedasfollows:
Chapters3through8
presentthefindings
onbicyclesafety
trends.Chapter9
presentsasummary
ofthestudyandits
limitations.Thereport
hastwotechnical
appendices:Appendix
Adescribesthedata
usedandAppendixB
presentsadditional
backgroundmaterialandaliteraturereview.

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

Chapter3: BackgroundandOverviewoftheBicyclingEnvironment
Thischapterbeginstheanalysisofcrashdata.ItexaminesthegrowthinChicagoandcompares
ittonationaldataandinformationfromothercities.

3.1:TrendsinBicycleUse

Nationallytherehasrecentlybeenanappreciableincreaseinbicycling.Closetoonepercentof
alltripsreportedforalltrippurposes(includingwork,shopping,socialtrips)werebybike
(NationalHouseholdTravelSurvey(NHTS),2009)andthetotalnumberofbicycletrips
increasedfrom1.7billionannualtripsin2001tofourbillionreportedtripsin2009(NHTS,
2009).TheCensusBureaujourneytowork(commuting)datashowsthatbicyclingtoworkhas
increasedfrom0.4percentin2000to0.53percentin2010(U.S.CensusBureau,2010).
BicyclinghasincreasedatahigherrateinChicagothannationally.Usingthesamecensusdata,
thenumberofdailybicyclecommutersinChicagohasriseninthismillenniumfromjustunder
6,000toover15,000(Figure31).Thisincreaseofapproximately9,000additionalbike

Figure31:Numberofdailybicyclecommuters,CityofChicago,2000to2010

Source:ACS,2000to2010

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

commuterswereachievedduringaperiodinwhichtherewasadecline,thoughmodest,inthe
numberofcommutersresidinginthecity.Therefore,theriseinbicyclingmodesharewas
proportionatelyslightlyhigher,increasingfrom0.5percentto1.3percentofcommuters,2000
to2010.ThisputsChicagowellabovethenationallevelintermsofcommutingtripsandhigher
thanmanyothermetropolitanareas.

3.2:NationalTrendsinBicycleSafety
Whilebicyclinghasgrowninpopularity,thenumberofbicyclefatalitiesnationallyexhibitsa
slightdownwardtrendwitha
substantialdeclineduring
ourstudyperiod.From2005
to2009,thenationalnumber
ofbicyclefatalitiesdeclined
from786to630(Figure32).
Thisisadecreaseof20
percent.However,safety
gainsforallmotorvehicle
crashfatalitieswere
considerablyhigher,witha
declineinfatalitiesamong
motorvehicledriversof24
percentandamong
passengersof31percent.Thisdifferencemaybeattributablethe13percentdeclinein
highwaypassengermiles(http://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics)
from2005to2009,aperiodduringwhichbicycleusehasshowntheoppositetrend,i.e.,has
grownrapidly.Alsoimportantisthedeclineamongpedestrianfatalities,16percent,though
thedeclineisnotasgreatasforthemodes(driverandmotorvehiclepassenger)citedabove.It
maybenotedthatthenationalpopulationincreasedduringthe20052009periodby18million
people,makingthedeclineinfatalitiesevenmoreimpressive.

Althoughtherearemanyimportantdifferenceswithrespecttothesociodemographicsofusers
andoverallusepatterns,perhapsthemostdirectcomparisoniswithmotorcyclefatalities.
Bothbicycleandmotorcycleusehasincreasedduringthestudyperiodandbothtypicallyhave
justtwowheels.During2005to2009,motorcyclefatalitiesdecreasedby2.5percentbut
actuallyincreasedby16percentinthreeyears(20052008)beforethesharponeyeardrop
from2008to2009.Duringthelongerperiod,since1995,however,therehasbeenadramatic
100percentincreaseinthenumberofmotorcyclefatalities.Bycontrast,bicyclistfatalities
recordedanapproximately25percentdeclinebetween1995and2009.

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

Figure32:Numberoffatalitiesbyselectedtransportationmodes,19952009

Source:FARS,19952009,http://wwwfars.nhtsa.dot.gov/Main/index.aspx

3.3:BicycleSafetyinChicago
Nationally,thenumberofbicycle
fatalitieshasdeclinedconsiderably.
Butsincethegrowthofcyclingin
Chicagohasexceededthenational
trend,itisnecessarytoexamine
Chicagocrasheswiththisinmind.
BelowweexamineChicagobicycle
crashesandcomparethemtoother
modes.
3.3.1:ChicagoBicycleSafetyTrends
Duringthestudyperiod,bicycle
fatalitiesinChicagohavedeclinedbut
duetotheirsmallnumberitisdifficult
topointdefinitivelytoasolidtrend.In
thefirsttwoyearsofthestudyperiod,

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

2005and2006,thereweresevenfatalities(Table31)ineachyearversusfivefatalitiesineach
ofthelastthreeyears(2008and2010).Thesenumbersindicateadecreaseof28percent,with
thelowestnumberofthreefatalitiesin2007.

Table31:Bicyclecrashesbytypeofinjuryandfatalities,CityofChicago,20052010
Type
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Total
Fatalities
7
7
3
5
5
5
32
A*
127
186
178
159
162
149
961
B**
734
645
895
719
648
851
4492
C***
375
554
709
628
576
566
3408
Totalinjuries
1236
1385
1782
1506
1386
1566
8861

TypeAInjuries:anyinjuryotherthanfatalinjurywhichpreventstheinjuredpersonfromwalking,driving,ornormally
continuing the activities he/she was capable of performing before the injury occurred. Includes severe lacerations,
brokenlimbs,skullorchestinjuries,andabdominalinjuries.

**

TypeBInjuries:Anyinjury,otherthanfatalorincapacitatinginjury,whichisevidenttoobserversatthesceneofthe
crash.Includesbumponthehead,abrasions,bruises,minorlacerations.
Type C Injuries: Any injury reported or claimed which is neither of the above. Includes momentary unconsciousness,
claimsofinjuriesnotevident,limping,complaintofpain,nausea,hysteria.

***

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Thedataonbicyclecrashinjuriesarelesssymbolicofacleartrend.Althoughthenumbershave
increasedoverallfrom2005to2010,injurycrasheswerefewerin2010thanthepeakyearof
2007.Shownonapercapitabasis,Figure33indicatesthehighestinjurycrashlevelwasin
2007,thesameyearwiththelowestnumberoffatalities.Generally,since2007,therehasbeen
adecrease,thoughthelowestoverallnumberofinjurycrasheswasin2005.

Figure33:Numberofbicycleinjurycrashesper100,000population

Source:computedfromIDOTMotorVehicleCrashDataand

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

AmericanCommunitySurvey(ACS)populationdata
3.3.2:ChicagoBicycleCrashesComparedwithCrashesforOtherModes
Therehasbeenarelativelysteadydeclineinfatalandinjurycrashesinvolvingalltransportation
modesinthecity.From2005to2010,bothbicycleandmotorvehiclefatalcrashesdeclinedby
approximately28percent(Table32).Theuseofbothmodesmayhaveincreased;however
bicycleusagehascertainlyincreasedmore.

Perhapsduetothesharpriseinbicycleuse,thenumberofinjurycrasheshasincreasedfrom
2005to2010(27percent)whileinjurycrashesinvolvingallmodeshavedeclined(14percent).
Still,thenumberofbicycleinjurycrashesrosedramaticallyinthefirsttwoyearsonlytodrop
almostthesameamountthenexttwoyears(to2009).Thiswasfollowedbyanotherincrease
in2010.Giventhesedata,itisdifficulttoconclusivelyarguethereisalongterm,ongoing
phenomenon,especiallysincethereappearstobenochangeinthenumberofinjurycrashes
from2006to2009(1,385versus1,386).Overall,however,theprevailingtrendpointstoan
increaseintheannualnumberofbicyclecrashes.

Fatal
Crashes

Injury
Crashes

Table32:FatalandinjurycrashesinCityofChicago,20052010
Mode
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Bicycle
7
7
3
5
5
5
Pedestrian
65
48
49
55
34
30
All
179
176
164
156
141
127
%Bicycle
4%
4%
2%
3%
4%
4%
Bicycle
1236
1385
1782
1506
1386
1566

TOTAL*
32
281
943
3%
8861

Pedestrian
All
%Bicycle

3406

3781

3686

3484

3130

2914

20,401

18,505
6.7%

18,516
7.5%

17,541
10.2%

15,599
9.7%

15,645
8.9%

15,881
9.9%

101,687
8.7%

*Crashesinvolvingpropertydamagearenotincluded

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Figure34showscyclingandpedestrianinjurycrashesoverthestudyperiod.Incontrastto
bicycleinjurycrasheswhichhaveincreasedoverallfrom2005to2010,pedestrianinjury
crashesdeclined(from3,406in2005to2,914in2010).Perhapsthisispartlyduetothelarge
increaseinbicyclingintheregion.Iftheuseofabicycleintheworktripisanindicationofa
moreuniversaluseofbicycles,thenitisnotsurprisingthat,withasurgeinuse,thereisnotan
obviousdeclineininjurycrashes.Atsomepoint,however,wemightexpectalongterm
decrease.Manymodesoftransportationexperienceincreasesincrasheswhentheyfirst
becomepopularandthendeclineastheybecomemoreuniversallyused.Motorvehicle
fatalitiesintheU.S.havebeendecliningfornearlyfortyyears(sincetheearly1970s)despite
thegrowthinpopulationandlevelsofvehicleuse.

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10

ItisalsoappropriatetonoteherethattheinjurycrashesinTable31andFigure34donot
includecrasheswithonlypropertydamage.Comparingthesetotalswithotherstudieswould
makethisapparent.Therearethreereasonsfornotincludingcrashesthatonlyhaveproperty
damage.First,likethelimitednumberofpropertydamagecasesinvolvingpedestrians,there
arerelativelyfewsuchbicyclecrashesassociatedwithonlypropertydamage.Second,since
injuriesarenotsustained,theyfallintoadifferentclassofcrashes.Third,propertydamage
datavarysubstantiallyduringthestudyperiodandwouldcomplicateassessinganoverallcrash
trend.
Figure34:Comparisonofpedestrianandbicycleinjurycrashes,2005to2010

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

3.4:ChicagoversusSuburbanChicagoandtheRestofIllinois
Table33showsthattheCityofChicagoaccountsforapproximately22percentofthe
statewidefatalitiesandjustoverhalfofthefatalitiesinCookCounty.Therearealsofewer
fatalitiesinthefivecollarcountiesthaninsuburbanCookCounty,whichmayreflectusage
levels.
Statewide,thenumberoffatalitiesin2010waslowerthanin2005,buttheintermediatedata
donotshowanobvioustrend.Yetwhenthedataarecombinedintotwoyearperiods,thelast
twoyears,2009and2010,havealowertotalthanthefirsttwoyearsandonefewerfatality
thanthemiddletwoyears.

ThesubareasshowninTable33similarlydonotshowupwardordownwardtrends.Perhaps
therestofIllinoisandChicagoshowtheclearestpatternofdecreasingfatalities.

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Table33:FatalitiesinIllinoisandindicesbynumberofbicyclecommutersandpopulation
Year
Cityof Suburban
Collar
Restof
Total
Chicago
Cook
counties
Illinois
2005
7
3
6
15
31
2006
7
7
1
10
25
2007
3
4
1
9
17
2008
5
3
7
12
27
2009
5
3
2
9
19
2010
5
8
4
7
24
Total
32
28
21
62
143
Bike
12,706
4388
4507
8877
30,478
commuters
Fatalities
2.5
6.4
4.7
7.0
4.7
/1000
commuters
Population
2,824,064 2,432,937 3,099,766
4,486,399 12,843,166
1.1
1.2
0.7
1.4
1.1
Fatalities
/100,000
population
Source:20052009ACSfornumberofcommutersandpopulation,
andIDOTMotorVehicleCrashDataforfatalities

ThelowerpartofTable33alsoprovidesameanstofurtherinterpretthedatabycomputing
twoindices.Thefirstdividesthenumberoffatalitiesbythousandsofcommuters.Asa
measureofexposure,thisshowsthatChicagohasthelowestindexlevelfollowedbythecollar
counties(DuPage,Lake,McHenry,WillandKanecountiesinnortheasternIllinois).Sincethe
numberofcommutersdoesnotnecessarilyreflectthetotalnumberofusers,wealsoindexby
populationsize.Themoreaccurateexposuremeasureislikelytobebetweenthetwo
surrogateexposuremeasures,commutersandpopulation.

ThepopulationindexshowsthatthecollarcountieshavethelowestindexfollowedbyChicago.
TheChicagolevelmirrorsthestatewidefigure.AgaintherestoftheIllinoishasthehighest
index.SuburbanCookhasthesecondhighestlevelasinthepreviousindex.

ThesenumbersmaybefurtherexaminedbyobservingthatChicagohas22percentofthe
statesfatalitiesand22percentofthestatespopulation,but42percentofthestatesbicycle
commuters.Inthisregard,Chicagosdatarankswellincomparisonwiththeothergeographies
inTable33.

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3.5:PeerCityComparisonofCyclingtoWorkandCrashes
PeercitiesarethoseplacesthatmostresembleChicagoinsizeandcharacter.Whilenotwo
placesarealikeinallcriteria,thereareasmallnumberofplacesthatarebroadlysimilarto
Chicago.Fourcriteriaweredevelopedfortheidentificationofpeercities:(1)over500,000in
population;(2)populationdensityofover5,000residentspersquaremile;(3)atleast75
squaremiles;and(4)atleast17percentproportionofcommutersthatusenonautomodes.
ThesecriteriaarepatternedaftertheNewYorkPedestrianSafetyStudy,whichusesthreeof
thefourcriteria[notnumber(3)NewYorkCityDepartmentofTransportation,2010].
AdditionaldetailsontheselectionofpeercitiesaregiveninTechnicalAppendixA.

Sincethescientificcommunitydoesnothave
guidelinesforthedefinitionofapeercity,wealso
includeinthisreportthetwelvelargestcitiesin
theU.S.andsomeothernoteworthyplacesfor
comparison.Increasingtothesetwelvecities
permitstheinclusionofanothermidwesterncity
Indianapoliswhilekeepingtheanalysistoa
manageablenumber.Still,thepeercities
representthemostmeaningfulcomparisonsof
statisticssuchasmodeshare.

WeexamineU.S.Censusbicyclingtoworkdata
becauseitistheonlylargesample,annualdata
thatshowlevelsofbicyclingincitiesacrossthe
nation.Wealsocomparedbicyclesafetystatistics
ofChicagotothesepeercities.
Incomparisontoourtwomostimmediatepeer
cities,LosAngelesandNewYork,Chicagoin2010
hadnearlyasmanybikecommuters(15,096)as
LosAngeles(16,101),amuchlargercity.ThepopulationofLosAngelesexceedsthatofChicago
byapproximatelyonemillionpeople.NewYorkCityhasnearlythreetimesChicagos
populationbuthaslessthantwicethenumberofbicyclecommuters(27,917).
Figure35showsthatthemodeshareforbicyclistsisnoticeablyhigherinChicagothaninNew
YorkandLosAngeles,butlowerthaninPhiladelphiaandSeattle.Thissuggeststhatincreasesin
modesharesince2000areimportantbutthereisstillthepotentialforhigherlevelsofbicycling
inthefuture.NotealsothatthegeographicallyclosestpeercitytoChicagoisMilwaukee,which
hasamodeshareapproximatelyhalfthatofChicago.

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Figure35:Bicyclistsasapercentofalldailycommuters,peercities,2010

Source:U.S.CensusBureau,ACS,2010data

Amongthepeercities,Chicagoranksthirdinthenumberoffatalities,behindNewYork(photo
onright)andLosAngeles(Table34).
Further,Chicagoisalsothirdbased
onanindexthatiscomputedby
dividingthetotalnumberoffatalities
overafiveyearperiod(20052009)
bythousandsofbicyclecommuters
duringthesameperiod(weusethe
numberofcommuterssincethereis
nootheruniversaldataonbicycle
use).Onthebasisofthisstatistic,
Chicagoisonlymarginallyhigher
thanBaltimore.
Table34showsarelationship
betweenthefatalityindexandcity
size.NewYorkclearlyhasthehighestrateandMilwaukeeandSeattlehavethelowestrates.

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14

Table34:Peercityfatalityindices,20052009
(Fiveyearsoffatalitiesdividedbytheaveragenumberofdailybikecommuters)
City
Fatalities Commuters1 Index2

NewYork
LosAngeles
Chicago
Philadelphia
Seattle
Baltimore
Milwaukee

97
35
293
16
8
3
1

22,420
13,764
12,706
8921
8981
1428
1803

4.33
2.54
2.28
1.79
0.89
2.10
0.55

Averagenumber20052009
Totalfatalitiesdividedbythousandsofcommuters
3
FARSreportsslightlyhighernumbersthanIDOT
2

Source:20052009AmericanCommunitySurvey5YearEstimatesand
FARS:FatalAccidentReportingSystem,ftp://ftp.nhtsa.dot.gov/fars/

WhatismostremarkableaboutthepeercitiesistheextenttowhichNewYorkdominatesthe
numberoffatalities.Itaccountsforhalfofthebicyclefatalities,eventhoughithasjustunder
onethirdofthebicyclecommuters(seealsoTable36).

Also,ChicagosfatalitynumberislowerthanthatofLosAngeles,eventhoughthetwocities
haveaboutthesamenumberofbicyclecommuters.
Moreover,thegendermixisverydifferent.Onlyfour
percentoftheLosAngelesfatalitiesarefemale,versus15
percentforChicagoand12percentamongthepeercities.

Table35alsodepictsthechangeinthenumberoffatalities
onanannualbasis.Itisapparentthattherearelargeyear
toyearfluctuations;thusanassessmentofonlyannualdata
wouldlikelynotbeparticularlyinformative.Wetherefore
examinedthefirsttwoyears(2005and2006)versusthelast
twoyears(2008and2009).The2010FARSdatawerenot
availableatthetimeofthisanalysis.

Allofthecitieshadlowernumbersinthelasttwoyears
versusthefirsttwoyears,exceptSeattle(partlyduetosmall
numbers).Chicagosfatalitiesdroppedfrom14to12,Los
Angelesfrom15to12.Collectively,thenumberoffatalities
inthesevencitiesdroppedby12percent.Sincebicyclingis
mostprevalentinlargecities(otherthancollegetowns),the
dropinfatalitiesrestatesthenationalimprovementin

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15

bicyclefatalities.However,weseehowtheadditionofoneyearofdatachangesthetrend.In
2010thereweremoremaleandfemalefatalitiesthanin2009andalsoalargejumpinmale
fatalitiesinLosAngeles.Theoverallincreaserosefrom28to42fatalities,evenwiththeslight
declineinChicagofromsixtofive(weuseIDOTdatathroughoutmuchofthisreportthatshows
nochangeinChicagofrom2009to2010).

NewYorkCity
LosAngeles

2005
M F
16 4
5 0

2006
M F
15 2
9 1

2007
M F
24 2
8 0

2008
M F
20 2
7 0

2009
M
F
11
1
4
1

2010
Total
M
F
M F
15
3 101 14
12
0 45 2

Chicago
Philadelphia
Seattle
Baltimore
Milwaukee
Total

6
2
0
1
0
30

7
4
1
1
1
38

2
4
2
0
0
40

5
2
1
1
0
36

4
2
2
0
0
23

5
2
0
1
1
36

1
0
0
0
0
5

0
0
1
0
0
4

1
1
0
0
0
4

1
1
0
0
0
4

2
0
1
0
0
5

0 29 5
2 16 4
1
6 3
0
4 0
0
2 0
6 203 28

Percent
F
12%
4%
15%
20%
33%
0%
0%
12%

Table35:Peercityfatalitiesbygender,2005to2010
Source:FARS:FatalAccidentReportingSystem,ftp://ftp.nhtsa.dot.gov/fars/

3.6:ComparisonwithOtherLargeCities
AmorethoroughassessmentoftherelativepositionofChicagoincludesalargercollectionof
citiesandcharacteristics.Table36showsthatwhenthebasisforcomparisonisexpandedto
thetwelvelargestcities,Chicagosrankjumpstosecondplace,sinceSeattledropsfromthelist
ofpeercitiesandofthe12largestcitiesonlyPhiladelphiahasasharehigherthanChicago.

Whenwefurtherbroadenthescope
ofcomparison,placeslikePortland,
SanFrancisco,Minneapolisand
Washington,D.C.appearwithhigher
bicyclemodeshares.Asstated
earlier,someofthesehighlevelshave
beenachievedwithrelativelysmall
citylandareas.

InTable36,wehavealsoincluded
theshareforwalkingtowork.Places
suchasBoston,Washington,D.C.and
NewYorkarecitieswherewalkingto
workiscommon.WhileChicagocannotcomparewiththeseplacesintermsofpedestrian
modeshare,the6.5percentisstillmorethantwicethenationalshareof2.8percent.

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

16

The walk percentage is also given as a possible indicator of the potential to which the bike
sharemayriseinthefuture.Thismaybeusefulifthereisaninterestinknowinghowhighthe
bicyclemodemayrisewithaconcertedefforttopromotebicycling.

Thelogicforthisinferenceisthatwalkingactsasasurrogateforthedensityofresidentsand
urbanopportunitiesmainlyjobsandcouldpossiblybeattainedbybicycling.Table36
presentstheratioofbikingtowalking.Ifoneweretosubscribetothislogicthatthewalking
shareisapossibletargettowhichbicyclingtoworkmightrisethentherelativemagnitudesare
important.Accordingly,Chicagohasalreadyachieved20percentofthistarget,with1.29
percentthatbicycletoworkversus6.54percentforthosethatwalktowork(fivetimesas
many).

NotethatinPortland,the
ratioisjustoverone(more
cycliststhanwalkers)and
inSacramentotheratiois
0.86.InSacramento,
however,amongmale
commuters,thereis68
percentmorecyclingthan
walkingtowork.Females
disproportionatelywalk
more;thereforethe
cycling/walkingratiois
0.86.Perhapsitwouldbe
tooambitiousinmost
placestoevenreacha
ratioof0.5,butata
minimumtheratiomay
provideusefulinformation
astowhatmaybepossible
inthefuture.

Lastly,Table36showsthepercentageofthebicyclecommutersthataremale.Thehighest
levelsarefoundinDetroit,DallasandPhoenix.Conversely,womenmakeupthehighest
percentageofcyclistsinPhiladelphia,BostonandPortland.

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17

Table36:Bicyclingandwalkingasmodeoftransportationtoworkinmajorcities,2010

Commuters

US
Illinois

136,941,010 731,286
5,792,659 33,427

NewYork*
LosAngeles*
Chicago*
Philadelphia*
Seattle
Baltimore
Milwaukee
Houston
Phoenix
SanDiego
Dallas
SanAntonio
SanJose
Jacksonville
Indianapolis
SanFrancisco
Washington,D.C.
Boston
Portland,OR
Columbus,OH
Sacramento
Detroit
Austin,TX
Minneapolis
Miami

By
Percent
bicycle
bike

Walk

Percent
walk

0.53% 3,797,048
2.77%
0.58%
178,901
3.09%
Peercities
3,615,588 27,917
0.77%
364,273
10.08%
1,706,116 16,101
0.94%
61,154
3.58%
1,168,318 15,096
1.29%
76,372
6.54%
583,734 10,503
1.80%
48,318
8.28%
339,160 12,306
3.63%
29,070
8.57%
256,622
1,788
0.70%
16,532
6.44%
249,594
1,723
0.69%
11,736
4.70%
Twelvelargestcities*,notfoundaboveinpeercities
961,240
4,393
0.46%
20,641
2.15%
620,072
3,576
0.58%
11,025
1.78%
620,939
6,390
1.03%
18,178
2.93%
543,348
820
0.15%
9,895
1.82%
591,725
1,159
0.20%
13,686
2.31%
426,136
2,708
0.64%
6,768
1.59%
375,579
843
0.22%
6,700
1.78%
366,017
1,935
0.53%
7,035
1.92%
Othernoteworthycities
437,814 15,208
3.47%
41,362
9.45%
296,717
9,288
3.13%
34,895
11.76%
309,620
4,369
1.41%
49,007
15.83%
286,228 17,035
5.95%
15,078
5.27%
370,337
2,498
0.67%
11,205
3.03%
188,974
4,725
2.50%
5,507
2.91%
196,706
651
0.33%
4,905
2.49%
412,291
4,242
1.03%
12,184
2.96%
200,853
6,969
3.47%
13,458
6.70%
164,340
1,550
0.94%
6,166
3.75%
Source:U.S.CensusBureau,ACS,2010

Ratio
Bike
biketo percent
walk
male
0.19 73.6%
0.19 71.4%
0.08
0.26
0.20
0.22
0.42
0.11
0.15

79.1%
78.4%
72.3%
58.4%
70.1%
81.5%
77.8%

0.21
0.32
0.35
0.08
0.08
0.40
0.13
0.28

81.3%
90.2%
69.1%
92.3%
77.0%
83.6%
79.2%
83.2%

0.37
0.27
0.09
1.13
0.22
0.86
0.13
0.35
0.52
0.25

67.3%
67.9%
61.2%
64.9%
67.1%
75.5%
100%
77.9%
75.5%
79.9%

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18

Chapter4: CharacteristicsofCyclistsInvolvedinCrashes
Inthischapter,weexaminebicyclingpatternsintheCityofChicagobygender,ageand
educationallevels.Wealsoexaminethedetailsofcrashstatisticsbythesesociodemographic
groupings.

4.1:BicycleUseandSafetyTrendsbyAgeandGender
Moststudiesshowthatthemajorityofcyclistsaremale,withtheexceptionthatwomenare
morelikelymaketripstoschoolbybicycle(Garrard,etal2008;Krizek,etal2005).Usinga
varietyofsourcesandcircumstances,weestimatethatmalestypicallyaccountfortwothirdsto
threequartersofthecyclists(Table41).UsingtheCMAPTravelTrackersurveydata,wefind
thatinChicago,malesareparticularlypredominantinrecreationalandentertainmenttrips,
accountingfor78percentofthesetrips.Femalesaccountforroughlyonethirdofthetripsin
theCMAPTravelTrackerSurvey,and27percentofthecyclistsinaCDOTdowntowncount.
Variable

Table41:Gendermixofbicycling
Male

Chicago
BicycletripsperdayCMAPsurvey
CMAProutineshoppingtrips
CMAPrecreationandentertainmenttrips
20052009ACSjourneytowork
CDOTDowntownBikeCount13/9/2011*
Chicagofatalities2005to2010
BeyondChicago
Fatalitiesinpeercities20052009
Nationalfatalities2008
Nationalfatalities2009

No.

27

Percent
66%
59%
78%
72%
73%
84%

167
93
81

88.4%
87.0%
85.2%

9303

Female
No.

3620

22
623
549

Total

Percent
34%
41%
22%
28%
27%
16%

9722
32

11.6%
13.0%
14.8%

189
716
630

*http://www.chicagobikes.org/pdf/NBPDcount_stats.pdf

SourceforChicagodata:CMAPTravelTrackerSurvey,20078
Sourceforstatewidedata:IDOTCrashData,20052010
SourceforNationaldata:FatalityAnalysisReportingSystem(FARS)

Thelargestgenderdifferencesareinfatalitiesstatistics.Nationally,femalesaccountedfor
approximatelyoneofeverysevenfatalities,or13.0and14.8percentin2008and2009
respectively.ThisissimilartothesixyeardataforChicago,wherethefemaleportionof
crasheswas16percent.Forcomparison,onlyninepercentofbicyclistswhodiedasaresultof

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19

crashesinNewYorkCityfrom1996through2003werefemale(NYCDOT),thoughmorerecent
datashowthatthisstatistichasrisento12percentinthelastsixyears.LosAngelesresultin
thissamedatacategoryisfourpercent(Table35).
Somedifferencesmaybeattributabletogreaterexposureandhigherspeedsformales(Table
42).Femalesaccountforjustunderonethirdofthemilestraveled(Note:TheCMAPTravel
Trackersurveyprovidesveryusefulinformationforthisstudy;however,thedataprocessed
andreportedarenotintendedtobeprecise,inpartduetothesmallsamplesizeandoverall
objectivesoftheCMAPsurvey).
Table42:Chicagobicyclingestimates,2007

Daily
Daily
Average Average
miles* minutes* minutes/ miles/
trip
trip
Female
98,200
800,000
22.1
2.70
Male
221,600 1,660,000
23.1
3.08
Total
319,800 2,460,000

Ratio
2.3
2.1
1.05
1.14

Speed
MPH
7.3
8.0
1.10

*The minutes and miles are estimates computed by the authors from CMAP survey data and are not
intendedtobeprecisecomputationsanddonothaveadefinedmarginoferror

Source:ComputedbytheauthorsfromCMAPTravelTrackerdata,2007

Whilemalesaccountforapproximatelytwiceasmuchcycling,theyincurthreetimesmore
injuries(Table43).Thethreetooneratiolargelyholdstruethroughoutthesixyearstudy
period.Onlydatafortheyear2008fallsbelowthisratio.

Table43:Genderofcyclistsinjuredinbicyclecrashes

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total Percent Percent


known
Male
Female
Unknown
Total

777 1046 1347 1093 1064 1163 6490


72.86%
243 334 429 405 328 381 2120
23.80%
226
17
14
9
4
27
297
3.33%
1246 1397 1790 1507 1396 1571 8907
100%
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

75.38%
24.62%

100%

Tofurtherunderstandtherelationshipbetweenmaleandfemalecycling,weexaminedthe
crashratespermilescycled.Table44showsthatfemaleslivinginChicagocycle36million
milesannually,andtogetherwithmaleslogover110millionmilesannually.Usingthestandard
usedintransportationliteratureonmotorizedfatalities,weestimatethattherateforfemales
is2.8fatalitiesforevery100millionbicyclemilestraveled(BMT).Formales,theratiostandsat
approximatelytwotimeshigherat5.5.Therateforallcyclistsis4.6fatalitiesper100million
BMT.Mostofthebicyclemileagedatausedinthesecalculationswerebasedonhousehold

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travelsurveyscompiledlargelyin2007whentherewereonlyatotalofthreefatalities.Using
thisasthebase,thefatalityratesforthatyearwasonly2.6permillionsBMT.

Table44:Fatalitiesandinjurycrashesper100millionmilesoftravel
(fatalitiesandinjuriesrepresenttheannualaverageoverthesixyearstudyperiod,
milesbikedareconservative,approximateestimates)

Annualmiles

Fatalities/
Injurycrashes/
100millionmiles
100millionmiles
Female
36,000,000
2.8
1000
Male
81,000,000
5.5
1400
RatioM/F
2.25
2.0
1.4
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashDataandCMAPTravelTrackerdata,2007

Thesenumbersarehigherthanfornationalmotorvehiclefatalities,thathavedecreasedin
recentyearsto1.14per100millionmilestraveled.Inmakingthiscomparisontwopointsneed
tobeacknowledged.First,thebikemilesareestimatedfromCMAPhouseholdsurveydatathat
includesdataonbicyclingbutwasnotweightedstrictlywithbicyclinginmind.Second,bicycles
andmotorvehiclestravelonverydifferentroadways,especiallyinaCityofChicagoversus
nationalcomparison.Manyofthemotorvehiclemilesareloggedoninterstatehighways,
impracticalformostcitytrips.Still,thestatisticsprovideacrudecomparisonoftherelative
safetyoftworatherdifferentmodesoftravel.ThefemalepermilefatalityrateinChicagois
approximatelytherateformotorvehiclesabout35yearsago,regardlessofgender.Themale
rateof6.7fatalitiespermillionmilestraveledwastrueforhighwayfatalitiesabout60years
ago.Inthe1930s,therateofmotorvehiclefatalitiesper100millionmilesoftravelwasover
ten.

Regardingdemographics,bicyclingseemstoincreaseinpopularityuptoage34andthen
decreases.Thelargestnumberoftripsismadebycyclists25to34yearsofage,butthedatain
Table4.5needtobeevaluatedwiththecaveatthattheyarebasedonarelativelysmallsample.
InparticularsincetheCMAPTravelTrackerdatainTable45aredividedintoeightage
categories,someoftheagegroupsmayreflectdata,inparticular,thatarebasedonasmall
samplesize.Nevertheless,thereisevidencethatcyclingmilesandminutesalsoincreasewith
ageuntilage34,atwhichpointitbeginstodecline.The5564agegroupfitsthepatternfor
numberoftripsanddistance,buttheiraveragesinthelasttwocolumnsdonotfitanyobvious
pattern.Withoutthis5564agegroupitappearstheaveragetripdistance(milesandminutes)
increaseswithage(lasttwocolumns).
Sincegenderandagearebothrelatedtobicycleuse,itwouldbeinformativetoexamineboth
genderandagetogether.Webeginbyexaminingfatalitynumbersandtheninjurydatarates.

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Table45:Bicyclingbyage,milesandminutesperday,2007
(Eightagecategoriesyieldatablewithunevensamplesizessothat
thedatainthistableshouldnotbeinterpretedprecisely)

Age
<5
514
1524
2534
3544
4554
5564
65+
Total

Trips

Distance

Minutes Average Average


distance minutes
<1
1
10
1.3
13.9
8
17
158
2.1
20.2
18
40
371
2.1
20.2
48
109
1096
2.3
23.0
14
40
356
2.8
25.0
12
33
314
2.8
26.8
6
10
96
1.6
16.4
1
4
34
2.8
27.3
107
252
2434
2.3
22.6
Source:EstimatedfromCMAPTravelTracker2007

Thegreatestdifferenceinthefatalityratesbetweenmalesandfemalesisforcyclistsolderthan
34(Table46).Fortheseoldercyclists,therearenofemalefatalitiesbut15malefatalities.A
similarpatternwasfoundinNewYorkCitywithmuchhigherfatalitynumbers,where4554
yearoldmenhadthehighestdeathrateat8.3permillionresidents(NYCDOT).InChicago,
thereisalsoanoticeabledifferenceinthe1014yearold
agecategory.Conversely,thefatalityratesareessentially
thesameforthetwoagecategoriesbetween15and24
yearsinageaswellasthecategory59years.By
combiningthe59and1014agecategoriesintooneage
category514wefindthatbothChicagoandNewYork
hadfivetimesmoremalefatalitiesthanfemale.

Furthermore,Table46clearlysuggeststhatmalecyclists
over 24 years of age are in a special category. For these
cyclists, the ratio of male to female fatalities is 19:1.
Theremaybemoremalecyclistsinthisagerange,butit
ishighlyunlikelythatitisthesameratio,19:1.Theinjury
ratiofortheageover24groupiscloserto3:1(Table47).

Like the number of fatalities, the number of injuries


increases with age and again peaks at the 2534 age
group. But unlike fatalities, injuries decline consistently
withincreasingage(Table47).Fatalitiesseemtopeakat
numerous age categories including 4554 (the highest
number)and6574yearagegroups.

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Table46:BicyclistfatalitiesbyageandgenderinCityofChicago,20052010
Age(years)
Male
Female
Total
Total
killed

<5
59
1014
1519
2024
2534
3544
4554
5564
6574
7584
85+
Total

Population

Fatality
rate*

0 107,904
1
88,712
4
92,581
1
95,562
2 109,645
4 265,102
3 204,779
6 175,753
2 119,382
3
66,998
1
38,504
0
11,046
27 1,375,968

0.0
1.9
7.2
1.7
3.0
2.5
2.4
5.7
2.8
7.5
4.3
0.0
3.3

Total
Killed

Population

Fatality
rate

0 103,359
1
88,685
0
88,160
1
93,533
2 112,518
1 267,347
0 198,982
0 182,307
0 138,883
0
87,541
0
59,902
0
26,879
5 1,448,096

0.0
1.9
0.0
1.8
3.0
0.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6

Total
killed

Population

Fatality
rate

0 211,263
2 177,397
4 180,741
2 189,095
4 222,163
5 532,449
3 403,761
6 358,060
2 258,265
3 154,539
1
98,406
0
37,925
32 2,824,064

0.0
1.9
3.7
1.8
3.0
1.6
1.2
2.8
1.3
3.2
1.7
0.0
1.9

*20052010averageannualfatalitiesdividedbymillionsofresidentsintheagegroup

Source:Populationdata:20052009AmericanCommunitySurvey5YearEstimates
Fatalitydata:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Withmoreinjurydatathanfatalitydata,therelationshipbetweenageandinjurycrashesis
moreevident.Forbothmalesandfemales,therateperpopulationincreaseswithageuntilthe
2024agegroup.Withincreasingagebeyondthe2024group,bothratesdecline.Moreover,
thesecommentsapplytonotonlytheratebutalsothenumberofinjurycrashesineachage
category.

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Table47:BicyclistsinjuredbyageandgenderinCityofChicago,20052010
(Genderisnotrecordedfor286injurycrashes;thereforethesedataarenotincludedhere)
Age

Male
Injured

Avg.

Female

Population*

annual

Injury

Injured

rate*

Avg.

Total

Population

annual

injured

Injury

Injured

rate*

Avg.

Population

annual

injured

Injury
rate*

injured

<5

18

3.0

107,904

28

1.0

103,359

10

24

4.0

211,263

19

5-9

243

40.5

88,712

457

83

13.8

88,685

156

326

54.3

177,397

306

10-14

668

111.3

92,581

1203

179

29.8

88,160

338

847

141.2

180,741

781

15-19

664

110.7

95,562

1158

209

34.8

93,533

372

873

145.5

189,095

769

20-24

971

161.8

109,645

1476

503

83.8

112,518

745

1474

245.7

222,163

1106

25-34

1365

227.5

265,102

858

571

95.2

267,347

356

1936

322.7

532,449

606

35-44

826

137.7

204,779

672

231

38.5

198,982

193

1057

176.2

403,761

436

45-54

791

131.8

175,753

750

166

27.7

182,307

152

957

159.5

358,060

445

55-64

338

56.3

119,382

472

48

8.0

138,883

58

386

64.3

258,265

249

65-74

118

19.7

66,998

294

17

2.8

87,541

32

135

22.5

154,539

146

75-84

48

8.0

38,504

208

1.0

59,902

17

54

9.0

98,406

91

85+

12

2.0

11,046

181

0.0

26,879

12

2.0

37,925

53

425

70.8

100

16.7

525

87.5

6487

1081.2

1,375,968

786

2119

353.2

1,448,096

244

8606

1434.3

2,824,064

508

Unknown
Total

*20052010averageannualinjureddividedbymillionsofresidentsintheagegroup
Source:Populationdata:20052009AmericanCommunitySurvey5YearEstimates
Fatalitydata:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Moreimportantly,thereisaverydramaticdecreaseininjurycrashesfromthe2024groupto
the2534group.Thereisa45percentdropintheinjuryrateforallcyclistsanda52percent
dropforfemales.Thisiscompellingevidencethatcountermeasurestoreducinginjurycrashes
needtofocusontheyoung,targetingmainlythoseovertenyearsofageandincreasingthe
focusasageincreasesuntilatleastage24.Still,allcyclistswouldbenefitfromsafetytraining
andrefreshers,regardlessofage.
Finally,thegenderdifferencewithrelationtoinjurycrashesis,again,ratherstriking.Females
accountfor24percentofinjuriesfromcrashesbutonly16percentofthefatalities.Thereare
morethanthreetimesasmanyinjurycrashesamongmalesthanfemales.Thehighestratios
areforcyclistsover55yearsofage(Figure41).Therearealsoaboveaverageratiosinthe10
19agegroup.Themajorexceptiontothistrendisinthehighriskcategory,2024.Inthisage
grouptheratioisjustunder2.0.Thissuggeststhatwhilefemalecyclistshavemuchlower
injurycrashrates,the2024agegroupmaymeritspecialattentioninimprovingbicyclesafety,
forbothmalesandfemales.

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Figure42illustratestherelationshipbetweenmaleandfemalecyclistinjurycrashratesbyage
shownaboveintabularform.Thereisgenerallyaconsistentpatternwithmalesexperiencing
higherratesandnumbersforeachagegroup.Thereare,however,twoagecategoriesthat
seemoutofstep:1014and4554years.Inthesetwoagegroups,maleshavehigherrates
thanthepatternimpliedbytheshapeofthelineforfemalecyclists,anddonotconformto
steadilyincreasinganddecreasingratesfoundforfemales.Lastly,bothlinespeakat2024
yearsofage.
Figure41:Ratioofmaletofemaleinjuryrates
(Rateisinjuryperpopulationintheagecohort,thereisnodatapointfor85+
sincetherewerenoinjuriesforfemales)

Source:PreparedbytheauthorsfromIDOTMotorVehicleCrashData
Figure42:Annualaverageinjurycrashrateper100,000residents

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Source:PreparedbytheauthorsfromIDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

4.2:EducationLevelofCyclists
Educationlevelsattainedmayalsoprovideuswithinformationregardinghowwemight
developcrashcountermeasures.TheCMAPTravelTrackerdatasuggestthatthereisan
apparentrelationshipbetweeneducationalattainmentandcyclingactivity,butthesamplesizes
donotpermitdefinitiveanalysis.Thepositiveassociationbetween(1)levelofeducation
attainedand(2)theamountofcyclingisconsistentwiththeinformationinChapter8that
includesmapsdepictingthehighnumberofcrashesontheNorthSideofChicagobetweenthe
KennedyExpresswayandLakeMichigan.Thisisanarearepletewithyoungprofessionals.

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Chapter5: VehiclesandOperatorsInvolvedinBicycleCrashes
Inthischapterweexaminetheconditionofvehicles,driversandbicyclistsatthetimeofthe
crashaswellashitandrunstatistics.

5.1:AlcoholandBicycleCrashes
HighBACofdriversinvolvedintrafficfatalitieshasbeenalongstandingproblem.Nationally,
thepercentageofmotorvehicledriversexceedingthepermittedBAClevelof0.08has
remainedsteadyforoveradecade(http://www.fars.nhtsa.dot.gov/Trends/TrendsAlcohol.aspx)
atapproximately32percentandaccountedforover10,000fatalitiesin2009.
5.1.1:BloodAlcoholContentofMotorists
Ofthe32bicyclefatalitiesinourstudyperiod,onlysixmotoristsreceivedafieldsobrietytest,
andonerefusedtobetested.Ofthesesix,fourhadnoalcoholintheirsystemandtwohad
positiveresults,butwithinthelegallimit(Table51,usingFARSasadatasource).Thesetwo
positivelevelswere0.1and0.7,thelatterbeingclosetothelegallimit.
Table51:Bloodalcoholcontentofdriversinvolvedinfatalbicyclecrashes
BAClevelfordrivers
Frequency
(g/dL)
BAC=0
4
0.001<BAC<0.08
2
BAC>0.08
0
Testrefused
1
Testnotoffered
22
Total
29
Source:FARS

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Regardinginjuries,theIDOTdatareportnearly9,000crashinjuries,butlessthanonepercent
wereclassifiedashavingadriverimpairedbyalcoholordrugs,medicatedorhadbeen
drinking(Table52).Over99percentofmotoristsareidentifiedasappearingnormal,i.e.,
thecontributingcausewasnotduetodruginducedimpairment.

Table52:Apparentphysicalconditionofdriversinbicycleinjurycrashes
Condition
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total Percent Percent
known
Normal
892 983 1283 1063 981 1101 6303 70.73% 99.24%
Impaired

5
4
5
4
4
6
28
0.31%
0.44%
alcohol
Impaireddrugs
0
0
2
2
1
0
5
0.06%
0.08%
Illness
0
0
2
0
0
0
2
0.02%
0.03%
Asleep/fainted
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.00%
0.00%
Medicated
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0.01%
0.02%
Hadbeen
1
2
2
0
2
1
8
0.09%
0.13%
drinking
Fatigued
0
2
0
0
0
2
4
0.04%
0.06%
Other/unknown
347 406 499 444 403 461 2560 28.73%

Total
1245 1397 1794 1513 1391 1571 8911 100.00% 100.00%
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData
5.1.2:BloodAlcoholContentofCyclists
Ofthe27fatalitiesforwhichBACisavailable(sevenwerenottestedforalcohol),eightbicyclists
showedmeasureablealcoholintheirsystem(Table53).Fourofthesehadlevelsover0.08,
whichisthelegallimitformotorvehicledriversinIllinois,oralmost15percentofthosewho
weretested.Twohadlevelsof0.06,justbelowthe0.8level.

Using0.08asabenchmark,theDUIpercentageforbicyclistsis14.8percent.Thiscomparesto
32percentformotorvehiclefatalitiesintheU.S.and35percentinIllinoisin2009
(http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/transportation/motor_vehicle_accidents_and
_fatalities.html).Usingalowerlevelof0.06,thestatisticrisesto22percentforbicyclists.The
percentageforbicyclistscomparedtomotorvehicleoperatorsmaybelowerinpartduetothe
lackofagelimitforbicycleuse,unlikemotorvehicledriverswhoneedtobeatleast15yearsof
age.InChicago,sixcyclistsunderthelegaldrivingagewerekilledinbicyclecrashes.

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Table53:BloodAlcoholContentofbicyclistsinfatalcrashes,2005to2010
BACtestresult(g/dL)
Frequency
0.00
19
0.01
1
0.02
1
0.06
2
0.11
1
0.14
1
0.18
1
0.25
1
Total
27
14.8percentDUIamongtotaltestedbicyclists
Source:FARS
5.1.3:HitandRunCrashes
Hitandruncrashescontinuetobeavexingproblemforbicyclecrashes(Figure51).They
accountforapproximatelyaquarterofallfatalitiesandbicycleinjurycrashes.Whilethese
proportionsmayseemhigh,theyarelowerthaninthecaseofpedestriancrashes.From2005
to2009,33percentofthepedestrianinjurycrashesand41percentofthepedestrianfatalities
werehitandrun.
Figure51:Hitandrunbicyclecrashes,2005to2010

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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29

5.2:AgeandGenderofMotorists
5.2.1:AgeofMotorists
Over60percentofthedriversinvolvedinfatalcrasheswerebetween25and44yearsofage
(Table54).Onlyoneinfourwasover44yearsofage.Malesaccountedforapproximatelytwo
thirdsofthefatalcrashes,andonlyinthe25to34agegroupdidfemaledriversoutnumber
maledrivers.

Table54:Knownageofdriverinvolvedinfatalcrash
Age
Male Female Total Percent
1524
3
0
3
11.1%
2534
3
4
7
25.9%
3544
9
1
10
37.0%
4554
3
0
3
11.1%
5564
1
3
4
14.8%
65+
0
0
0
0.0%

19
8
27

Source:FARS

5.2.2:GenderofMotoristsInvolvedinBicycleCrashes
Itisalsoinformativetoexaminethegender
mixofmotorvehicledriversinvolvedin
bicyclecrashes.Table55showsthatmales
comprisethemajorityofdriversinvolvedin
bicyclecrashes.Theyaccountforalmost
twothirdsofthedriversinvolvedininjury
bicyclecrashes.Thisratioseemstobe
constantoverthesixyearstudyperiod.

Table55:Genderofdriversinvolvedinbicycleinjurycrashes

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2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Total Percent Percent


known

Male
Female
Unknown
Total

635 703 880 752 670 801 4441


331 399 545 414 394 425 2508
279 295 369 347 327 345 1962
1245 1397 1794 1513 1391 1571 8911
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

49.84% 63.91%
28.14% 36.09%
22.02%

100%
100%

5.3:VehicleTypeandUse
Typicalhouseholdvehicles,including
passengercars,SUVsandvans,
accountforapproximately90percent
ofbicycleinjurycrashes(Table56).
Busesaccountforanothertwo
percent.Largevehiclessuchasbuses
andtrucksmayinflictseriousdamage,
buttogetheraccountforlessthanfive
percentoftheinjuries.Wepursuethis
lineofexaminationbecausethe
literatureisrepletewithsimilarstudies,suchastheassociationbetweenbicyclecrashes,buses
andtaxisandtheiruse(Pai,2010).

Table56:Vehicletypeinvolvedinbicycleinjurycrashes
Vehicle type involved in 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total Percent Percent
bicycleinjurycrashes
known
Passengercar

880

921 1167

980

937 1109

5994

71.45%

74.16%

Sportutilityvehicle(SUV)

87

91

122

120

130

165

715

8.52%

8.85%

Van/minivan

93

100

103

82

83

106

567

6.76%

7.02%

Pickuptruck

30

41

40

45

38

54

248

2.96%

3.07%

Bus

25

18

26

20

20

38

147

1.75%

1.82%

Trucksingleunit

16

14

26

18

14

97

1.16%

1.20%

Tractorw/semitrailer

27

0.32%

0.33%

Motorcycle(over150cc)

20

0.24%

0.25%

Motordrivencycle

0.10%

0.10%

Tractorw/osemitrailer

0.08%

0.09%

Othervehiclewithtrailer

0.06%

0.06%

Allterrainvehicle(ATV)

0.04%

0.04%

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Other

39

40

51

40

35

39

244

2.91%

3.02%

Unknown/NA

40

51

64

59

56

37

307

3.66%

Total

1219 1283 1611 1374 1325 1577

8389 100.00% 100.00%

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData
Thetotalnumberofinjurycrasheshas
fluctuatedfromyeartoyear,butafewofthe
vehicletypesshowevidenceofatrendover
thestudyperiod.Duringthelastfouryear
period,thenumberofsingleunittrucks
involvedinbicyclecrasheshassteadily
declined.Theydecreasedfrom26in2007to
onlyninein2010.
Increaseshavebeenregisteredbypickup
trucks.Thoughtheincreasesarenotsteady,
theriseintheirinvolvementhasbeenfrom30
in2005to54in2010.Themostnoticeable
increase,however,hasbeenwithSUVs.Figure
52showstherisefrom87in2005to165in
2010.Notonlyhastherebeenanincrease
everyyear(modestinsomeyears)butthere
hasbeenalmostadoublinginthenumber
duringthestudyperiod.

Figure52:NumberofSUVsinvolvedinbicyclecrashes

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32

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData
Table57examinestheroleofmotorvehiclesmorecloselybynotingthetypeofuseduringthe
injurycrash.Asanticipatedfromtheprevioustable,personaluseisthemostcommonvehicle
use.Thisisfollowedbytaxis(togetherwithotherforhirevehicles).Thisgroupaccountsfor
onein12bicyclecrasheswithinjuries.CTAbuses,commercialvehiclesandpoliceallaccount
formorethanonepercentofthecrashes.
ManyoftheindividualusesshowninTable57trendwiththetotalnumberofbicycleinjury
crashes,makingitdifficulttoidentifytheirindividualtrends.Policevehicles,however,showa
steadydeclinesince2007.Thenumbershavedeclinedfrom20in2007to12in2010,twoyears
thathadahighnumberofinjurycrashes,1611and1577respectively,showinglittleoverall
decreaseincrashes.
Table57:Vehicleuseduringcrash
Typeofuse
Notinuse
Personal

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total Percent


50
810

38

54

51

846 1084

885

Percent
known

50

296

3.53%

4.21%

855 1024

5504

65.61%

78.36%

53

Taxi/forhire

80

91

110

114

90

107

592

7.06%

8.43%

Citybus

19

15

23

11

13

31

112

1.34%

1.59%

14

20

11

16

15

104

1.24%

1.48%

12

13

20

17

14

12

88

1.05%

1.25%

37

0.44%

0.53%

Commercialsingleunit
Police
Construction/maintenance

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33

Othertransit

33

0.39%

0.47%

Masstransit

32

0.38%

0.46%

Stateowned

12

0.14%

0.17%

Schoolbus

0.10%

0.11%

Towtruck

0.08%

0.10%

Camper/RV

0.06%

0.07%

Fire

0.05%

0.06%

Drivereducation

0.04%

0.04%

Ambulance

0.04%

0.04%

Housetrailer

0.02%

0.03%

27

33

39

35

33

36

203

2.42%

2.89%

187

211

235

223

236

273

1365

16.27%

Other
Unknown/NA
Total

1219 1283 1611 1374 1325 1577


Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

8389 100.00% 100.00%

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5.4:DriverandVehicleManeuvers
In24ofthe32fatalities,theactiontakenbythemotorvehicledriverisknown.Inhalfofthese
cases,thedriverisreportedtohavecontributedtothefatalitybyeitherfailingtoyield,driving
toofastorengaginginanimproperlanechange(Table58).Inonethirdofthecases,there
wasnoidentifiedactionandinanotherfourcasestheactionwasclassifiedasother.
Table58:Driveractioninfatalcrashes,CityofChicago,20052010
Driveraction
Frequency
Percentknown
None
Failedtoyield
Toofastforconditions

8
10

33%
42%

4%

Improperpassing
1
Other
4
Unknown
8
Total
32
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

4%
17%

100%

Failuretoyieldrightofwaywasalsoa
majorfactorinapproximately40
percentoftheinjurycrashes(Table5
9),similartothetrendshownforfatal
crashesshownintheprevioustable.
Improperactionsassociatedwithlane
change,backing,passing,parkingand
turningarealsocontributors,but
collectivelyaccountforapproximately
onlyfivepercentoftheinjurycrashes.
Injustoverathirdofthecrashes,the
driverwasnotinvolvedinamaneuver
listedinTable59.Inessence,the
drivermaneuversinbothfataland
injurycrashesarerathersimilar.The
differencemaybeattributedtothemuchlargerdatabaseofinjurycrashesthatpermitsmore
detailregardingothermaneuvers.

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Driveraction

None
Failedtoyield
Disregardedcontrol
devices
Toofastforconditions
Improperturn
Wrongway/side
Followedtooclosely
Improperlanechange
Improperbacking
Improperpassing
Improperparking
Licenserestrictions
Stoppedschoolbus
Emergencyvehicleon
call
Evadingpolicevehicle
Other
Unknown
Total

Table59:Driveractioninbicyclevehicleinjurycrashes
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total Percent

360
357
21

390
385
38

477
551
34

368
452
26

358
463
25

9
15
3
12
12
13
7
3
1
0
0

14
23
8
11
10
16
10
2
1
2
1

19
24
8
15
15
15
10
2
0
2
1

16
35
4
10
16
10
10
2
0
1
1

13
27
2
16
15
9
6
0
0
1
4

431 2384
525 2733
14
158
11
33
6
13
14
8
9
4
0
2
0

82
157
31
77
82
71
52
13
2
8
7

0
0
2
0
0
0
2
136 155 165 165
137 138
896
296 331 454 397
315 363 2156
1245 1397 1794 1513 1391 1571 8911
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Themotionordirectionofthevehicleisgivenin
Table510.Theprevioustable(Table59)
describedtheactionofthedriver.Accordingto
availabledata,themotorvehiclewasmoving
straightaheadinnearlyallcases.Bothturning
vehiclesandenteringtrafficfromparkingeach
accountedforlessthanonepercentofdriver
actions.

Percent
known

26.75%
30.67%
1.77%

35.29%
40.46%
2.34%

0.92%
1.76%
0.35%
0.86%
0.92%
0.80%
0.58%
0.15%
0.02%
0.09%
0.08%

1.21%
2.32%
0.46%
1.14%
1.21%
1.05%
0.77%
0.19%
0.03%
0.12%
0.10%

0.02%
0.03%
10.05% 13.26%
24.19%

100.00% 100.00%

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Table510:Vehiclemaneuverpriortobicycleinjurycrashes
Vehiclemaneuver
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total Percent
Straightahead
Passing/overtaking
Turningleft
Turningright
Turningonred
Uturn
Startingintraffic
Slow/stopleftturn
Slow/stoprightturn
Slow/stop
load/unload
Slow/stopintraffic
Drivingwrongway
Changinglanes
Entertrafficfrom
parking
Unknown/NA
Total

735
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
6
0
0
0
0
2

803 1014
1
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
5
2
0
0
0
1
0
4

1
0
1
10

825
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
2
1

791
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
2

0
0
0
3

918 5086 56.81%


2
6 0.07%
1
3 0.03%
0
2 0.02%
0
1 0.01%
0
2 0.02%
0
1 0.01%
0
2 0.02%
1
16 0.18%
0
1 0.01%
0
0
0
3

1
1
1
24

Percent
known
98.81%
0.12%
0.06%
0.04%
0.02%
0.04%
0.02%
0.04%
0.31%
0.02%

0.01%
0.01%
0.01%
0.27%

0.02%
0.02%
0.02%
0.47%

501
587 774 689 602 652 3805 42.50%
100%
1249 1402 1805 1521 1398 1577 8952
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

5.5:Dooring
Whenabicyclistrunsintoamotorvehicle
doorthatisopenedunexpectedly,itis
knownasacaseofdooring.Weusethe
IDOTdataondooringstartingwith2010;
thereforethesummariesreportedbeloware
forarelativelyshortperiodoftime.Itshows,
however,thatdooringisassociatedwith
disproportionatelymoreTypeBinjuries
(Table511).AddingTypesAandBtogether
showsthehighdegreeofsevereinjuries
commonwithdooring(TypeCinjuriesare
theleastserious).

100%

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37

(Thephotographsarethrougharearviewmirror).

Table511:Allversusdooringbicyclecrashes,byinjurytype
Injurytype Allnondooringcrashes
Dooringcrashes
TypeA
11%
8%
TypeB
51%
61%
TypeC
38%
31%
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData20052010andIDOTDooringData20102011

5.6:BicyclistActivity
Inthissectionweexploretheactionsof
bicyclistsandwherethecrashoccurred.
Itconcludesbyexaminingthe
propensitytowearahelmet.
5.6.1:BicyclistAction
Wefirstconsiderfatalcrashesfollowed
byinjurycrashes.Over45percentof
the32fatalitiesoccurredwhile
bicyclistsweremovingintraffic.Inover
onethird(11)ofthefatalitiesthecyclist
wasmovingwiththeflowoftraffic
(Table512)andinonlytwocaseswasthecyclistmovingagainsttheflow.Signalized
intersectionsrepresentasignificantproblemarea.Atsignalizedintersectionswherefatalities
occurred,cyclistscrossedagainstthesignalinsixofthecases,or20percentofthetime.Lastly,
leftturnswerethecontributingfactorinthreeof32fatalities.
Table512:Bicyclistactioninfatalcrashes,20052010
Bicyclistaction
Fatalities Percent
Percent
known
Turningleft
3
9.4%
10.3%
Enterfromdrive/alley
1
3.1%
3.5%
Crossingwithsignal
2
6.3%
6.9%
Crossingagainstsignal
6
18.8%
20.7%
Walking/Ridingwithtraffic
11
34.4%
37.9%
Walking/Ridingagainst
2
6.3%
6.9%
traffic
Playinginroadway
1
3.1%
3.5%
Otheraction
3
9.4%
10.3%
Unknown/NA
3
9.4%

Total
32
100%
100%

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Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Likefatalcrashes,asimilarlyhighpercentageofinjurycrashes(50percent)alsooccurredwhile
thecyclistwasmovingintraffic(Table513percentknown).Again,asimilarlyhighproportion
oftheseintrafficinjuriesoccurredwhenmovingagainsttraffic,approximately20percent.
Thelackofexposuredatamakeitimpossibletoknowifthisisdisproportionatetoactualtraffic.
Also,crossingatsignalizedintersectionsisthesecondhighestcontributortobicyclecrashes,
accountingfor20percentofthecrashes.Inslightlymorethanonethirdofthesecrashes,the
cyclistwascrossingagainstthesignal.

Table513:Bicyclistactionininjurycrashes
Bicyclistaction
Injurytype
Total
A
B
C
Turningleft
25 107
86
218
Turningright
15
46
40
101
Enterfromdrive/alley
33 209 147
389
Noaction
26 119 112
257
Crossingwithsignal
91 505 372
968
Crossingagainstsignal
69 275 185
529
Entering/Leaving/Crossingschoolbus
0
0
1
1
(within50ft)
Entering/Leaving/Crossingparkedvehicle
1
13
9
23
Entering/Leaving/Crossingnotat
13
52
38
103
intersection
Walking/Ridingwithtraffic
288 1624 1084 2996
Walking/Ridingagainsttraffic
94 374 296
764
Walking/Ridingto/fromdisabledvehicle
0
6
2
8
Waitingforschoolbus
0
2
3
5
Playing/workingonvehicle
0
1
1
2
Playinginroadway
7
25
29
61
Standinginroadway
0
5
10
15
Workinginroadway
0
1
4
5
Otheraction
87 483 382
952
Intoxicated
2
10
8
20
Unknown/NA
176 658 658 1492
Total
927 4515 3465 8907
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Percent Percent
known
2.45% 2.94%
1.13% 1.36%
4.37% 5.25%
2.89% 3.47%
10.87% 13.05%
5.94% 7.13%
0.01% 0.01%
0.26%
1.16%

0.31%
1.39%

33.64% 40.40%
8.58% 10.30%
0.09% 0.11%
0.06% 0.07%
0.02% 0.03%
0.68% 0.82%
0.17% 0.20%
0.06% 0.07%
10.69% 12.84%
0.22% 0.27%
16.75%

100%
100%

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39

5.6.2:BicyclistLocation
Overtwothirdsoffatalitiesoccurredinroadways(Table514).Nextinfrequencyarecrashes
thatoccurredinalocationwhereacrosswalkwasnotavailable.

Table514:Bicyclistlocationinfatalcrashes,CityofChicago,20052010
Bicyclistlocation
Number Percentage
Inroadway

22

68.8%

Incrosswalk

9.4%

Notinavailable
crosswalk
Crosswalknotavailable

3.1%

12.5%

Drivewayaccess

3.1%

Notinroadway

3.1%

Total

32

100%

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Injurieswerealsomostprevalentinroadways,butthesecondmostcommonlocationwasin
crosswalks(Table515).Studieshaveshownthatmarkedcrosswalksareperceivedby
individualsassafezones,andtheymaynotbeasattentivetomotoristswhoarenotfully
engagedindriving.

Table515:Bicyclistlocationinbicycleinjurycrashes
Bicyclistlocation
Injurytype
Total Percent
A
B
C
Inroadway
604 2877 2052
5533 62.12%
Incrosswalk
128 724
539
1391 15.62%
Notinavailablecrosswalk
17
55
57
129
1.45%
Crosswalknotavailable
10
27
10
47
0.53%
Drivewayaccess
10
78
93
181
2.03%
Notinroadway
22 127
103
252
2.83%
Bikeway
15 110
71
196
2.20%
Unknown/NA
121 517
540
1178 13.23%
Total
927 4515 3465
8907
100%
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Percent
known
71.59%
18.00%
1.67%
0.61%
2.34%
3.26%
2.54%

100%

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5.6.3:BicyclistHelmetUse
Oneoftheprovenmeansofminimizing
seriousinjuriesfrombicyclecrashesis
helmetuse.Amongthe29fatalities
recordedbetween2005and2009,onlyone
cyclistisknowntohaveusedahelmet
(Table516).Importantly,thereportingfor
theremaining28crasheswasnotconclusive
astowhetherahelmetwaswornornot
(recordedoncrashreportsasnone
used/notapplicable).Forthisreason,
conclusionsregardingthetruerateof
helmetuseinthesecrashes,ortheimpact
oncrashseveritycannotbedrawnfrom
thesedata.

Table516:Helmetuse,2005to2009
Helmetuse
Number Percent
known
NoneUsed/NotApplicable
26
97%
Used
Unknown
Total

1
2
29

4%

100%

Source:FARSftp://ftp.nhtsa.dot.gov/fars/
However,nationaltraumadataindicatethatthepercentageofincidentsinwhichhelmetsare
usedhasrangedfrom22to24percent(basedonapproximately50,000traumaincidents
between2007and2010).

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Chapter6: EnvironmentalFactorsandRoadConditions
Inthischapterweexaminetherelationshipofbicyclecrashestoenvironmentalfactorssuchas
weatherandlightconditions.Thisisfollowedbyadiscussionofroadconditions.

6.1:EnvironmentalFactorsduringCrashes
Previousresearchsuggeststhatbicycle/motorvehiclecrashesareassociatedwithpoorlylit
streets,streetswithoutmediansandhighspeedlimits.Weexploresomeofthesepointsinthis
section.
6.1.1:WeatherRelatedFactors
Perhapssurprisingly,inclement
weatherdoesnotseemtobea
majorcontributortobicycle
crashes.Thismaybeduetothefact
thatcyclinglevelsarelowduring
inclementweather;however,we
havenoexposuredata(miles
traveledininclementweather)to
assesshowweathermay
disproportionatelycontributeto
crashes.

Thegreatmajorityofinjuryand
fatalcrashesoccurredinclearweather(Table61).Rainwaspresentinlessthantenpercentof
crashes,suggestingthatbicyclingpredominantlyoccursduringgoodweather.

Weather
Clear
Rain
Snow
Fog/smoke/haze
Sleet/hail
Severecrosswind
Other
Unknown
Total

Table61:Weatherconditionsduringbicyclecrashes
Fatal
Injurycrashtype
Injury Percent
crashes
A
B
C total
29 807
3932
2939
7678
86.65%
2 93
320
252
665
7.50%
11
22
23
56
0.63%
20
91
69
180
2.03%

4
8
12
24
0.27%

1
3
3
7
0.08%
1
6
30
10
46
0.52%
19
86
100
205
2.31%
32 961
4492
3408
8861 100.00%
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Percent
known
88.70%
7.68%
0.65%
2.08%
0.28%
0.08%
0.53%

100.00%

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42

6.1.2:LightConditions
Inadditiontoclearweather,the
majorityofbicyclecrashesoccurred
duringdaylighthours,innearlythree
offourcrashes(Table62).Mostof
theremainingcrashesoccurred
duringhoursofdarkness,butin
locationswheretheroadwayis
lighted.Thisisthecasein18percent
ofinjurycrashesandmorethanone
thirdoffatalcrashes.InChapter7,
thedisproportionatenumberoffatal
crashesintheeveninghoursis
exploredfurther.

Table62:Lightconditionsduringbicyclecrashes
LightConditions
Injurycrashes
Injurycrashtype
Total
Injury
percent
A
B
C
Daylight
635
3269
2479
6383
72.03%
Dawn
18
54
45
117
1.32%
Dusk
35
168
126
329
3.71%
Darkness
53
154
137
344
3.88%
Darkness,lightedroad
209
794
566
1569
17.71%
Unknown
11
53
55
119
1.34%
Total
961
4492
3408
8861 100.00%
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Percent
known
73.02%
1.34%
3.76%
3.94%
17.95%

100.00%

Fatal
crashes
17

2
2
11
0
32

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6.1.3:WeatherRelatedRoadSurface
Expectedly,thedataonroadsurfacescanbeinferredfromthefindingsrelatingtotheweather
data(Table63).Nearly90percentofcrashesoccurredwhentheroadsurfacewasdryandten
percentwhenitwaswet.Again,asexpected,snoworslushwasrarelythecontributingfactor.
Table63:Roadsurfaceconditionsduringbicyclecrashes,20052010
Roadsurface
Fatal
Injurycrashtype
Injury
Injury Percent
total
percent
known
A
B
C
Dry
29 802
3875
2878 7555
85.26%
89.16%
Wet
2 114
415
322
851
9.60%
10.04%
Snoworslush

5
18
22
45
0.51%
0.53%
Ice

1
2
6
9
0.10%
0.11%
Sand,mud,

1
3
2
6
0.07%
0.07%
dirt
Other

1
7
0
8
0.09%
0.09%
Unknown
1
37
172
178
387
4.37%

Total
32 961
4492
3408 8861 100.00% 100.00%
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

6.2:RoadwayEnvironment
6.2.1:RelationtoIntersections
Intersectionsrepresentagreaterhazard
tobicyclistscomparedtootherroadway
sections.Table64showsthatoverhalf
ofbothfatalandinjurycrashesoccurred
atintersections.Thedatareflectthe
natureoftheChicagostreetsystem,
withmanydiagonalstreetscreating
complexintersections.

Intersection
related
Yes
No
Total

Table64:Bicycleinjurycrashesatintersections
Fatalcrashes
Injurycrashtype
Total Percent
Number
Percent
A
B
C
18
56.3%
541
2436
1836
4813
54.3%
14
43.8%
420
2056
1572
4048
45.7%
32
100%
961
4492
3408
8861
100%
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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44

Intersectionsrepresentapotentialhazardforalltraffic,andparticularlytobicyclesand
pedestrians.Map61showsintersectionsthatrecordedatleasttencrashes.Thevastmajority
oftheseintersectionsarelocatednorthwestofdowntownChicago.Onlyoneintersectionis
locatedsouthoftheLoopandoutsidethegreaterdowntownarea,atArcherandWestern.
Map61:Intersectionswithatleastteninjurycrashes

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Thesizeofanintersection(geographicscope)isnotfixedandvariesbyintersectiondesignand
complexity.We,however,usethesamesizedefinitionforallintersections.Specifically,ifa
crashoccurswithin125feetofthecenterpointoftheintersection,itiscountedasan
intersectioncrash.
Table65showsthatnoneofthe12intersectionswiththehighestnumberofcrashesare
locatedintheimmediatedowntownarea.TheintersectionatChicagoandHalstedisthesite
closesttotheLoop.
Thetwointersectionswiththehighestnumbersofcrashesarelarge,complexintersections
wherethreemajorarterialroadwaysconverge.Thehighestnumberofintersectioncrashes
occursattheintersectionofDamen,FullertonandElstonAvenues,followedcloselybythe
intersectionofChicago,MilwaukeeandOgdenAvenues.Manyofthehighcrashintersections
areassociatedwithdiagonalstreets,includingMilwaukee,ClybournandLincoln.Thelargest
numberofcrashesatanondiagonalintersectionisatChicagoandHalsted.

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45

Crash
count

Table65:Intersectionswiththegreatestnumberofinjurycrashes
N/Sstreet
E/Wstreet
Diagonalstreet/Avenue
Communityarea

20
19

DamenAve
n/a

FullertonAve
ChicagoAve

17
16
16
15
15
14

HalstedSt
LakeShoreDr
CaliforniaAve
HalstedSt
DamenAve
DamenAve

ChicagoAve
MontroseAve
n/a
FullertonAve
NorthAve
DiverseyAve

14
14
14
14
14

n/a
AshlandAve
HalstedSt
DamenAve
ClarkSt

ElstonAve
MilwaukeeAve&Ogden
Ave
n/a
n/a
MilwaukeeAve
LincolnAve
MilwaukeeAve
ClybournAve

FullertonAve
MilwaukeeAve
CortlandSt
n/a
ArmitageAve
n/a
n/a
WickerParkAve
n/a
RidgeAve
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

LoganSquare
WestTown
WestTown
Uptown
LoganSquare
LincolnPark
WestTown
NorthCenter/Lincoln
Park
LoganSquare
LoganSquare
LincolnPark
WestTown
Edgewater

Map62showsthe
locationsofthehighcrash
intersectionsmoreclearly.It
isevidentthatthediagonal
arterialsaccountforthe
vastmajorityofcrashes.
ThisincludesMilwaukee,
Elston,Clybourn,Lincoln
andClark.Theseareall
importantarterialsradiating
fromdowntownChicago.
Halstedisthemajor
exception,followedby
NorthAvenue.
Amongtheintersectionsclosesttodowntownareat(1)HalstedandMadisonand(2)Roosevelt
andState.Theyarenot,however,inthelistofthe12highestcrashintersections.

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46

Map62Intersectionswithlargenumberofinjurycrashes

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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47

6.2.2:RoadDefects
Theroadcircumstancesseemnottobeanimportantelementinbicyclecrashes.Nodefects
werereportedin97percentofthecrashes(Table66).SomeofthedefectslistedinTable66
areinevitableovertheshorttermbeforemaintenancecrewscanact,suchasdebrisonthe
road.
Roaddefects
Nodefects
Constructionzone
Maintenancezone
Utilityworkzone
Workzoneunknown
Shoulders
Rut,holes
Wornsurface
Debrisonroadway
Other
Unknown
Total

Table66:Roaddefects
Fatal
Injurycrashtype
Injury
total
A
B
C
30
864 4000
2770 7634
0
10
46
28
84
0
0
2
2
4
0
0
0
3
3
0
2
3
2
7
0
0
0
1
1
1
2
11
9
22
0
3
11
10
24
0
6
19
38
63
0
3
13
6
22
1
71
387
539
997
32
961 4492
3408 8861
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Injury
percent

Percent
known

86.15%
0.95%
0.05%
0.03%
0.08%
0.01%
0.25%
0.27%
0.71%
0.25%
11.25%
100.00%

97.08%
1.07%
0.05%
0.04%
0.09%
0.01%
0.28%
0.31%
0.80%
0.28%

100.00%

6.2.3:RoadwayTypeandNumberofLanes
Mostfatalbicyclecrashesoccurontwowaystreets.Over80percentareonsuchstreets(Table
67).Onewaystreetsaccountforoneineightfatalities.Thelackofexposuredatapreventsus
fromassessingthedegreetowhichonewaystreetsaresafer.
Table67:Locationrelatedfactorsforfatalbicyclecrashes,20052010
RoadwayType
Fatalities Percent
Twoway,Notdivided
10
31.3%
Twoway,Divided,nomedianbarrier
11
34.4%
Twoway,Dividedw/medianbarrier
5
15.6%
Onewayorramp
4
12.5%
Alleyordriveway
1
3.1%
Other
1
3.1%
Total
32
100.00%
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Injurycrashestendtooccuronthesameroadwaytypesasfatalities(Table68).Thelargest
differenceappearstobeontwowaydividedstreetswithamedian.Only6.2percentofthe

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48

injurycrashesoccurontheseroadwaysincontrastto15.6percentoffatalcrashes,morethan
twiceasmany.
Roadwaytype

Table68:Roadwaytype
Injurycrashtype
Total
Percent Percent
known
A
B
C
282
1352
1028
2662 30.04% 32.44%
369
1713
1093
3175 35.83% 38.70%

Twoway,NotDivided
Twoway,Divided,nomedian
barrier
Twoway,Dividedw/median
63
269
180
barrier
Twoway,Centerturnlane
5
19
17
Onewayorramp
105
526
357
Alleyordriveway
41
230
182
Parkinglot
5
19
23
Other
37
167
123
Unknown
54
197
405
Total
961
4492
3408
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

512

5.78%

6.24%

41
0.46%
0.50%
988 11.15% 12.04%
453
5.11%
5.52%
47
0.53%
0.57%
327
3.69%
3.99%
656
7.40%

8861 100.00% 100.00%

Thedataonnumberoflanesis
noteasilyinterpreted,since
overhalfofthefatalcrashesfall
intothenotapplicable
category(51.7percent).What
standsout,however,asseen
fromTable69,isthat
approximatelyhalfofthenon
intersectionfatalcrashes
occurredonfourlanefacilities
(24.1percentofallcrashes).
Nonfatalinjurycrashesare
muchmorelikelytooccuron
fourlanestreets.Fourlane
facilitiesfrequentlyhavehigher
speedlimits;therefore,speedmaybeacontributingfactortothehighproportionoffatal
crashes.

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Table69:Numberoftravellanes
Totalno.oftravel Fatal Percent Injurycrashtype
Total
lanes(both
known
A
B
C
directions)
NAUsedfor
15 51.7%
183 781
636
1600
intersection
1
4 13.8%
121 675
558
1354
2
3 10.3%
328 1632
1187
3147
3

30 102
73
205
4
7 24.1%
189 775
570
1534
5

5
27
16
48
6

18
83
30
131
7

0
8
2
10
8

1
7
4
12
9

3
8
5
16
10+

3
0
1
4
Unknown
3
80 394
326
800
Total
32
100%
961 4492
3408
8861
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Percent

Percent
known

18.06%

19.85%

15.28%
35.52%
2.31%
17.31%
0.54%
1.48%
0.11%
0.14%
0.18%
0.05%
9.03%
100.00%

16.80%
39.04%
2.54%
19.03%
0.60%
1.63%
0.12%
0.15%
0.20%
0.05%

100.00%

6.2.4:RoadwayClassification
Inmosturbanareas,localstreetsaccount
forovertwothirdsofroadwaymilesand
serveprimarilyresidentialareas.
Collectorsaccountforgenerallylessthan
tenpercentofroadmilesandtypically
connectresidentialareaswithhigher
orderroadwaysandcommercialareas.
Arterialsusuallyaccountforonequarter
ofroadwaymilesbutconsiderablymore
traffic.
InChicago,collectorsandminorarterials
accountforthegreatmajorityoffatal
andTypeAbicyclecrashes(Table610).
Principalarterialandlocalroadsshow
roughlyequivalentnumbersofthese
crashes.Trendsfrom2005to2010are
notimmediatelyapparent,butfrom2006
to2010thenumberoffatalandTypeA

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crashesshowsignsofdecreasing.Thesameholdsforprincipalarterials,downfrom40to23,
andforcollectors,decreasingfrom77to53.FatalandTypeAcrashesonminorarterialshave
heldsteadyoverthelastfouryears.
Table610:FatalandTypeAcrashesbyroadwayclassification
Roadwayclass

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Total

Percent

PrincipalArterial

22

40

37

25

32

23

179

18.0%

MinorArterial

32

39

45

45

43

46

250

25.2%

Collector

50

77

61

68

50

53

359

36.2%

LocalroadorStreet

28

35

32

26

34

28

183

18.4%

Interstate

0.8%

Unknown

14

1.4%

134

193

178

167

167

154

993

100.0%

Total

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData
Consideringallcrashes(Table611),minorarterialsandcollectorsagaindominate,butlocal
streetshaveahigherpercentageofthecrashesthanprincipalarterials.Sincelocalstreetstend
tohavelowerspeeds,thecrashesapparentlyareproportionatelylessserious.Subtracting
Table610datafromTable611yieldsTypeBandTypeCinjuries.Thesedatashowthatlocal
streetshave46percentmoreTypeBandCinjurycrashesthanprincipalarterials,whereasfatal
andTypeAcrasheswereverysimilar,183versus179.
Table611:Allinjurycrashesbyroadwayclassification
Roadwayclass

2005

2006

2007 2008 2009

2010

Total

Percent

PrincipalArterial

201

197

264

226

227

259

1374

15.5%

MinorArterial

293

346

447

377

357

416

2236

25.2%

Collector

403

501

654

546

485

570

3159

35.7%

LocalroadorStreet

323

318

386

328

282

293

1930

21.8%

Interstate

12

14

53

0.6%

Unknown

12

18

22

17

21

19

109

1.2%

1236

1385

1782 1506

1386

1566

8861

100.0%

Total

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData
6.2.5:TrafficSignalControl
AsseeninTable612,50percentoffatalbicyclecrashesoccurredatlocationswithnotraffic
signals.About34percentofthecrashesoccurredatsignalizedlocationsandanothernine
percentoccurredatstopsigns.Giventhesmallnumberoffatalcrashesversustheinjury
crashes,therearenonoteworthydifferencesbetweenTables612and613,i.e.,thepresence
oftrafficcontroldevicesseemedtobesimilarinfatalandinjurycrashes.Apossibleexceptionis
laneusemarkingsthataccountedforsixpercentofthefatalcrashesbutlessthanonepercent
injurycrashes.Still,thisdescribesonlytwofatalities,whichmayhavebeenanaberration.

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Table612:Trafficcontroldeviceatfatalcrashes
Trafficcontroldevice
Frequency
Percent
Nocontrols
16
50.0%
Trafficsignal
11
34.4%
Stopsign/flasher
3
9.4%
Laneusemarking
2
6.3%
Total
32
100.0%
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData
Table613:Trafficcontroldeviceatinjurycrashes
Trafficcontroldevice
Injurycrashtype
Total
Percent Percent
known
A
B
C
Nocontrols
468
2207
1665
4340 48.98% 50.37%
Trafficsignal
303
1316
956
2575 29.06% 29.89%
Stopsign/flasher
148
760
596
1504 16.97% 17.46%
Yield
3
16
14
33
0.37%
0.38%
Police/flagman
2
4
0
6
0.07%
0.07%
Railroadcrossinggate
0
3
0
3
0.03%
0.03%
OtherRailroadcrossing
0
0
1
1
0.01%
0.01%
Schoolzone
0
1
0
1
0.01%
0.01%
Nopassing
3
18
13
34
0.38%
0.39%
Otherregulatorysign
2
4
4
10
0.11%
0.12%
Otherwarningsign
1
0
0
1
0.01%
0.01%
Laneusemarking
4
33
17
54
0.61%
0.63%
Other
5
23
25
53
0.60%
0.62%
Delineators(addedin
0
1
0
1
0.01%
0.01%
2008)
Unknown
22
106
117
245
2.76%

Total
961
4492
3408
8861 100.00% 100.00%
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Thefollowingtable(Table614)showsthe
conditionofthetrafficcontroldeviceduringthe
crash.Inbothfatalandinjurycrashestherewere
nocontroldevicesinhalfofthecrashes.Inplaces
wheretherewasacontroldevice,itwas
improperlyfunctioninginbothfatalandinjury
crashesinaboutthreepercentofthecases.While
thisisalowpercentage,itclearlyneedstobe
addressed.

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52

Table614:Conditionoftrafficcontroldeviceatfatalandinjurycrashes
Traffic Control Device
Fatal
InjuryCrashType
Total
Percent
Percent
crash
Known
Condition
A
B
C
Nocontrols
Notfunctioning
Functioningimproperly
Functioningproperly
Wornreflective
material
Missing
Other
Unknown
Total

15
0
1
15
0

480
10
32
391
0

2265
43
158
1769
4

1706
36
106
1337
2

4451
89
296
3497
6

0
0
1
1
2
0
13
60
49
122
1
35
192
171
398
32
961
4492 3408
8861
Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

50.23%
1.00%
3.34%
39.47%
0.07%

52.59%
1.05%
3.50%
41.32%
0.07%

0.02%
0.02%
1.38%
1.44%
4.49%

100.00% 100.00%

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6.3:WorkZones
Noneofthe32fatalitiesoccurredinaworkzone.Onlyonepercentofinjurycrashesoccurred
inworkzoneswiththemajorityincurringTypeBinjuries(Table615).Therewerealso12
seriousinjurycrashes(TypeA)inworkzones.Itislikelythatcyclistsareespeciallycarefulas
theyproceedintoroadconditionswhichareuncertain,commonlythecaseinworkzoneareas.
Table615:Injurycrashesinworkzones,20052010

Workzones

related

Yes

No

Total

Injurycrashtype
A
B
C
12
51
35
949
4441
3373
961
4492
3408

Total

Percent

98
8763
8861

1.1%
98.9%
100.0%

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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Chapter7: TemporalDistributionsofCrashes
Trafficsafetypatternshaveseasonalandtemporalvariations,reflectingbothlevelsofuseas
wellasinherentrisksthataffectcrashcausationandseverity.Inthischapter,weconsidersuch
variations,intermsofquarteroftheyear,month,dayofweekandhourofday.

7.1:CrashesbyQuarter
Table71showsthatfortheyears
considered,fatalitiesandinjuriesare
highestduringthethirdquarter.Since
weather(temperature)tendstobeafactor
inbiking,itisexpectedthatthisisthe
periodwiththehighestlevelofbiking
activity.Accordingly,thewintermonthsof
JanuarytoMarchhavethelowestlevelsof
injuries.Thefourthquarterhasthesecond
lowestfollowedbythesecondquarter.The
numberoffatalitiestendstofollowthis
patternwiththeslightexceptionthatthe
fourthquarterhasonefewerfatalityduring
thestudyperiodthanthefirstquarter,yetthefirstquarterhasthefewestinjurycrashes.

Table71:BicycleinjurycrashesbycalendarquarterinChicago,20052010
Quarter Crashes 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Average
1
Injury
67 117 134 100 119 117
109.0
JanMar Fatal

0.8

Injury

345

442

524

491

390

485

446.2

AprJun Fatal

1.8

Injury

614

598

803

710

626

684

672.5

JulSept Fatal

2.0

210

228

321

205

251

280

249.2

0.7

Injury

OctDec Fatal

Total

Injury
Fatal

1236 1385 1782 1506 1386 1566


7

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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7.2:BicycleCrashesbyMonth
Theseasonalpatternofinjurycrashesisquite
predictable.CrashesarelowinDecemberthrough
February,startbuildinginMarchandincrease
almostlinearlyuntilJuly.Injurycrashesbeginto
declinerapidlyfromAugustuntilDecember.
TypeAinjurycrashesaretheexception.Rather
thanpeakinginJulyasTypesBandCinjury
crashes,theypeakinAugust.Butthethreeinjury
typesareverysimilarinthatthemonthsof
December,JanuaryandFebruaryhavefewcrashes.
Thisimpliesthatwintermonthshavefewercyclists.
Theannualpatternsuggeststhatanaturaldivisionoftheyearintofourquarterswouldinclude
thesethreewintermonthsDecember,JanuaryandFebruaryintoonequarter,andthethree
summermonthsofJune,JulyandAugustintoanotherquarter.Theremainingthreemonths
beforeandafterthewintermonthswouldconstitutetheothertwoquarters.Withthis
alignmentofquarters,theautumnquarterofSeptember,OctoberandNovemberhashigher
injurynumbersthanthespringquarterofMarch,AprilandMay.Thissuggeststhattheinertia
ofcyclingactivitycontinuesfromthesummerintothecolderfallmonths,butisslowtostartin
thespringmonths.
Figure71:Injurycrashesbymonthandinjurytype,2005to2010total

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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Whilethemonthlyinjurydatarevealsa
patternofincreasingandthen
decreasingnumbers,thelowoverall
fatalityfigurescausethepatterntobe
lessdiscernible(Figure72).Again,
perhapsduetothesmallnumberof
winterbicyclistssuggestedinthe
previoustable,itisnotsurprisingthat
NovemberandDecemberhavethe
fewestnumberoffatalities.Still,
Novemberisnotamongthefour
lowestinjurycrashmonths.Likewise,
thefourfatalitiesinthefirsttwo
monthsoftheyear,Januaryand
February,versusnoneinthelasttwo
monthsoftheyear,mayhavemoreto
dowiththesmallnumberoffatalities
thanwithweatherrelatedfactors.

Figure72:Fatalbicyclecrashesbymonth,20052010

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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7.3:CrashesbyDayofWeek
Regardingwhenduringtheweekbicyclecrashesoccur,
fatalitypatternsaresomewhatdifferentthaninjury
crashpatterns.ThemaindifferenceisonSunday.
Sundaysarelikelytobecharacterizedbyrecreational
cycling,andperhapscorrespondinglytheyaccountfor
overonefifthofthefatalities.Indeed,itisthedaywith
thelargestnumberoffatalities(Figure73).Thelow
numberofinjurycrashesonSundaysfurthersuggests
thatthefatalityratesareunusuallyhigh.Closerscrutiny
showsthatfourofthesevenSundayfatalitiesoccurred
wellafter8:00pmorbefore2:00am,implyingthat
darknesswasafactor.
Remarkably,Saturdayshavelessthanhalfthenumber
offatalitiesthanrecordedonSundays.Sundaysdeserve
furtherconsiderationinestablishingcountermeasures.
SaturdaysaretiedwithMondaysandThursdaysforthe
lowestnumberoffatalities.Theinjurydatabelowsuggestthattheselattertwodayshavethe
lowestweekdaytrafficlevels.Inthisregard,MondaysandThursday,areinsyncwiththelow
numberoffatalitiesandinjurycrashes(thoughTypeCinjuriesarerelativelyhighonThursdays).
Figure73:Fatalbicyclecrashesbydayofweek,20052010

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData
Injurycrashesshowmoreuniformitythanfatalitiesoverthedaysoftheweek(Figure74).
WednesdaysandFridayshavethelargestnumberofTypeBinjuries.Fridaysshowthehighest
numberofTypeAandTypeCinjurycrashes.Collectively,Fridayshavethehighesttotalnumber

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58

ofinjurycrashes.Conversely,Sundayshavethelowestinjuriesofeachofthethreeinjurytypes,
underscoringtheanomalousfatalitynumbersofSundays(thoughthesmalloverallnumberof
fatalitiesmaybeafactor).Mondayshavethelowestweekdayinjurycrashesforeachofthe
threeinjurytypes.BasedonTypeBinjuries,bicycletrafficappearstobuildduringthefirst
threedaysoftheweek(MondaytoWednesday).
Figure74:Injurycrashesbytypeofinjuryanddayofweek
(thepercentagessumto100overthesevendayweekforeachinjurytype)

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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7.4:TimeofDay
Thetimeofdayisdividedintofiveperiodswiththelastone
consistingoffourhours.Hourlydataarealsopresentedto
providesomedetail.
7.4.1:FatalCrashesbyTimeofDay
Whilethenumberofinjuriespeaksearlierintheday,the
numberoffatalitiescontinuestoriseintoeveninghours.
Thehighesttotalisinthe8:00pmtomidnighttime
interval,eventhoughitistheonlyfourhoursinlength.The
othertimeperiodsinFigure75arealsodividedintofour
hourincrements.Duetothelikelihoodthatthereisless
cyclinglateintheevening,thehighnumberoffatalities
warrantsfurtherstudy.

Figure75:Fatalbicyclecrashesbytimeofday,20052010

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

BicycleCrashAnalysisandReviewofTrends,CityofChicago,2005to2010:FinalReport

7.4.2:InjuryCrashesbyTimeofDay
Crasheswithinjuries(Figure76)tendtoreflectthatsame
patternasfatalcrasheswiththeimportantexceptionthatthe
8:00pm12:00amtimeperioddoesnothavethelargest
numberofinjurycrashes,althoughitrepresentsthelargest
shareoffatalitycrashes.Foreachofthethreeinjurytypes,the
latenighttimeslothasthethirdlowestnumberofinjuries
amongthefivetimecategories.Inessence,itfallsintothe
medianrange.Thistemporaldistributionofcrashesisvery
similartothepatterninNewYorkCity,wheremorecrashes
occurbetween3:00pmand8:00pmthananyotherperiod
(NYCDOT).
Figure76:Injurybicyclecrashesbytimeofday,20052010

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData
7.4.3:DooringCrashes
Inlargepart,dooringincidentsreflectthesametimeofday
patternasforallotherinjurycrashes(Figures76and77).
Theygrowduringthecourseofthedayandpeakinthe
3:008:00pmtimeslot.Thistimeperiodaccountsfor
nearlyhalfofalldooringcrashes.Thispercentage,45.7
percent,islowerthanforTypeBandCcrashesbuthigher
thanTypeAcrashesinFigure76.Butinallfourcaseson
Figure76and77,thelasttimeperiod,8:00pmto
midnight,hasthethirdhighestproportionofcrashes.

60

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Figure77:Dooringcrashes,20102011

Source:IDOTDooringData20102011

7.4.4:FatalandInjuryCrashesbyHour
Giventhelatenightdifferences
citedabove,moreexaminationis
merited.Wethereforepresent
hourlydata,initiallyforfataland
TypeAdatatogether,since
graphingonly32fatalcrashesover
24hourswouldnotbevery
enlightening.NotethatFigure75
abovedepictsonlyfatalcrashes;
thereforeitlooksdifferentthan
Figure78.Figure78showsthat
seriousinjuryandfatalcrashes
seemtogrowsteadilyfrom4:00
amandpeakat5:006:00pm(17
onFigure78).Thesharpestriserunsfromveryearlymorninguntil8:00am,whilethesharpest
declineoccursafter9:00pm.Theoverallhighestlevelsarefrom2:00pmuntil9:00pm.

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Figure78:FatalandTypeAinjurycrashesbyhour,2005to2010

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Anexaminationofonlyfatal
crashesrevealsthatnineofthe
fatalitiesoccurredfrom8:00pm
tomidnight,withtwooccurring
eachhourwithoneexception
(threefatalitiesfrom11:00pmto
midnight).Thebusyfourhour
cyclingperiodfrom3:00pmto
7:00pmshowseightfatalities.
Darknessmaybeafactorinthe
largenumberoffatalcrashesafter
8:00pm.

ThegraphshowingTypeBandCinjurycrashes(Figure79)resemblesinlargeparttheprevious
graph(Figure78).Themostdistinctivedifferenceistheminipeakat8:00amonFigure79.
Overallitisevidentthattheafternoonperiodhasthehighestnumbersofcrashesofalltypes.

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63

ItisalsoagainevidentthateveninghourshaveadisproportionatenumberoffatalandTypeA
injurycrashes.OnFigure78thenextthreehoursafterthe5:006:00pmpeakallhadvery
highnumbers,notsoonFigure79(forlessseriouscrashes).
Figure79:TypeBandCinjurycrashesbyhour,2005to2010

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

7.5:SpecialEvents
Crashesduringmajorholidaysprovidesuswithauniqueopportunitytoexaminethespatial
patternofcrasheswhencommercialandworktriprelatedcyclingisamuchsmallerpartof
bicycletravel.WethereforeselectedJuly4thasadayinwhichmuchofthecyclingislargelyfor
recreationalandpersonalbusinesspurposes.
Map71showsthepatternforthesixFourthofJulyholidaysfrom2005to2010.Onthosedays
therewereatotalof24injurycrashes.Therewerenofatalcrashesonthesesixdays.Itshows
apatternthatisverydifferentfromothermapsinthisreport.
First,thecrashesseemtobescatteredthroughoutthecity.Second,thelargestclusterisinthe
generalvicinityof71stStreetandAshland.Thereareeightcrasheshere,countingtheserious
crashnear63rdandCalifornia(reddot).Thisvicinityaccountsforonethirdofthecrashes.
Third,thereareveryfewcrasheseastoftheKennedyExpressway.Alargenumberofcrashes
occurredinthisareaoverthesixyearperiod(seeMap81).Fourth,therearenocrashesinthe
LoopandonlytwointheCentralArea,onetothenorthnearDivisionandonetothesouthon
Roosevelt.Whatissimilartoothermapsinthisreport,however,istheMilwaukeeAvenue
corridor.TherearefourcrashesonMilwaukeewithoneseriouscrashplusthreeothersinclose
proximity.MilwaukeeAvenuemaythenbeoneofthefewallpurposearterialsthatservices
bothdailyandspecialoccasiontraffic.NootherarterialstandsoutonMap71.

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Map71:BicycleinjurycrashesonthesixFourthofJulysfrom2005to2010

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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Chapter8: SpatialDistribution
Thischapterpresentsaseriesofmapsdepictingthespatialpatternoffatalandinjurycrashes.

8.1:OverallSpatialDistributionofCrashes
Duringthesixyearstudyperiodtherewere32fatalitiesand961seriousinjury(TypeA)
crashes.AsisevidentonMap81,mostoftheseseriouscrasheswerejustnorthandnorthwest
ofthedowntownarea.ThenumberofcrashesseemstocontinuenorthnearLakeMichiganall
thewaytothenorthernboundarywithEvanstonatHowardStreet.Thisfindingisconsistent
withpreviousresearchonothercitiesthathasfoundthatcrashfrequency,severityand
circumstancesdifferedsystematicallyindifferentpartsofthesecities(Loo,2010).
Map81:Fatalandserious(TypeA)injurycrashesinCityofChicago,20052010

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66

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData
TherearescatteredclustersontheWestSideandfewontheSouthSide.TheHyde
Park/UniversityofChicagoneighborhoodandtheareaalongArcherAvenueappeartohavea
smallclusterofcrashes.Asawhole,theSouthSidehasrelativelyfewerseriouscrashes,though
someofthevoidareasareindustrialandgeneratefewbicycletrips.
AllotherinjurycrashesareshowninMap8.2,includingTypeBnonincapacitatinginjuriesand
TypeCpossibleinjuries.Theheavyconcentrationsaremoredifficulttoseehereversusthe
previousmap.Map82bettershows,however,thelocationsoflanduseswherebicyclingis
uncommon,suchasOHareAirport,thefarsouthLakeCalumetareaand,toalesserextent,the
southwestindustrialcorridorandMidwayAirport.Itagaindisplaysahighconcentrationof
crashesinthedowntownarea.
Map82:TypeBandCinjurycrashesinCityofChicago,20052010

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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8.2:ChicagoCommunityAreas
Map83showsthepatternoffatalandTypeAcrashesbycommunityarea(seeMap84for
communityareanames).Asabove,thedistributionoffatalandTypeAcrashesshowsalarge
numberofcrashesinthecommunityareasnorthofthedowntownarea.

Map83:FatalitiesandTypeAinjurycrashes,20052010

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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Ininterpretingthismap
itisimportanttonote
thatpopulationshave
shiftedsincethese
communityarea
boundarieswere
drawn.Therearefour
communityareason
theNorthSideeach
withpopulationsover
80,000,andsixonthe
SouthSideeachwith
fewerthan10,000
residents.
Therehasalsobeena
populationshiftinthe
downtownareaduring
thestudyperiod.From
2000to2010,theLoop
andthethreeadjacent
communityareashadacombinedpopulationincreaseofapproximately41,000residentsata
timethattherestofthecityexperiencedadropof240,000residents.
Consideringtheunderlyingpopulationdata,Map8.3expectedlyshowsthattherearesixnear
NorthSidecommunityareasthathave34percentofthefatalandseriouscrashes(Table8.1).
Thesesixcommunityareasaccountfor333ofthesecrashes,ormorethanonethirdofthecity
totalof961.Butitisestimatedthatthesixcommunityareasalsoaccountfor40percentofthe
bicyclemilestraveledbyChicagoresidents(CMAP,TravelTrackerSurvey).

Table81:Bicyclecrashesandmilescycledinsixcommunityareaswiththemostcrashes
(bycrashlocation;milesbyplaceofresidence)

Bicyclecrashes 000s
miles/
Fatal+
Total
day
TypeA
TotalofsixhighestCCAs
333
3206
129
Citytotal
976
8740
320
SixCCAsaspercentofcitytotal
34%
37% 40%
Source:2007CMAPTravelTrackerdataandIDOTMotorVehicleCrashData.
Communityarea(CCA)

Themilestraveledarecalculatedestimatesbytheauthorsusingpublicallyavailablefiles.

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TheLoop,with35crashes,couldbeadded
asaseventhcommunityareatothesixin
thepreviousparagraph,butitsmain
reasonforexclusionisitssmallpopulation
baseandhighbicycletrafficvolumes.Still,
thehighestcategoryneedstobedefinedat
somevalue(over45onMap83)andthere
mayalwaysbecommunityareasthatcould
beontheothersideofthedividingline
(categorydefinition).Thisneedstobe
consideredininterpretingthedataonMap
8.3,wherethehighestcategoryisover35,
aswellasothermaps.Specifically,some
areashavesmallnumbersofcrasheseither
becausetheyaresmallinareaorless
visuallyobvious;theyhavefewresidentsor
fewtrafficgenerators.Moreover,someareasexperienceheavythroughtrafficthatisnot
attributabletothelanduseordensitywithinthearea.
Map8.3alsoshowsaconcentricpatternonthenorthside.Asthedistancefromthedowntown
increases,thenumberofseriouscrashesdeclines.Thisconcentricpatternextendsfarthernorth
alongthelakeandnorthwestincontrasttothewest.

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8.2.1:HighestandLowestNumberofBicycleCrashes
ThecommunityareaswiththehighestnumberofcrashesaredisplayedinTable82.Thedatain
thefatalandTypeAcolumnsofTable82areshownonMap83andthepercentofall
bicyclecrashesinthecommunityareathatfallintothesetwocategoriesisgiveninthelast
columnofTable82.Notethatmostofthepercentagesareclosetotenpercent(seeMap84
forcommunityareanames).Thistenpercentlevelisrelativelylowincontrasttocommunity
areaswithlowerlevelsofcycling.

Table82:Fifteencommunityareaswiththehighestnumberofinjurycrashes
No. Communityarea
Fatal
A
B
C
Total
Percent
fatal+A
24

WestTown

72

387

300

761

9.72%

NearNorthSide

51

287

217

557

9.52%

22

LoganSquare

50

277

215

546

9.89%

LincolnPark

59

241

182

482

12.24%

LakeView

47

229

193

469

10.02%

28

NearWestSide

46

197

148

391

11.76%

32

Loop

35

190

106

331

10.57%

Uptown

29

127

108

264

10.98%

25

Austin

18

116

91

227

8.81%

23

HumboldtPark

31

95

67

193

16.06%

19

BelmontCragin

19

85

88

192

9.90%

77

Edgewater

20

85

83

188

10.64%

15

PortagePark

18

92

68

178

10.11%

21

Avondale

16

83

76

176

9.66%

RogersPark

17

85

73

175

9.71%

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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Table83showsthenumberofcrashesforthe15communityareaswiththelowestnumberof
crashes.Collectivelytheyhave237crashes.Thistotalisconsiderablylessthanthehighest
valuesforindividualcommunityareasatthetopofTable82.Eachofthetopthreecommunity
areasinTable82hasover500bicyclecrashes.

Table83:15communityareaswiththelowestnumberofinjurycrashes
No. Communityarea
Fatal
A
B
C
Total
Percent
fatal+A
52

EastSide

20

25

0.00%

62

WestElsdon

12

10

25

12.00%

EdisonPark

13

23

13.04%

18

Montclare

10

23

17.39%

45

AvalonPark

11

23

17.39%

48

CalumetHeights

11

21

9.52%

74

MountGreenwood

20

20.00%

51

SouthDeering

10

17

17.65%

37

FullerPark

13

0.00%

76

OHare

13

15.38%

55

Hegewisch

11

27.27%

36

Oakland

14.29%

50

Pullman

14.29%

47

Burnside

16.67%

54

Riverdale

0.00%

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Thepercentageofthecrashesthatareeither
fatalorhaveseriousinjuries(TypeA),however,is
considerablyhigherinTable83thanTable82.
Threecommunityareas(Table83)haveno
crashesthatareeitherfatalorTypeA;therefore
thepercentageiszero.Still,manyofthe
percentageshoveraround15percent,higher
thanonTable8.2.Someofthehighpercentages
maybeattributabletosmallvalues,but
collectivelytheyshowthatintheseareas,where
therearefewcrashes,highproportionstendto
beeitherseriousorfatal.

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8.2.2:PerCapitaCrashes:MappedbyCommunityAreas
Giventhediscussiononvariablepopulationlevelsineachcommunityarea,fromlessthan
3,000toalmost100,000,itwouldbeusefultoexaminemapsthatshowperpopulation
patterns.Map84showsthecumulativenumberoffatalitiesandTypeAbicyclecrashesfrom
2005to2010dividedbythe2010populationpercommunityarea.Inthisregarditisnotan
annualfigurebutrathermoreakintoanindexthatshowsthepatternofhighestpercapita
crashes.

Map84:FatalitiesandTypeAcrashesfrom20052010per2010population

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData
ThepatternonMap84resemblesMap83withseveralnoteworthydifferences,atleastonein
presentation.Specifically,inMap84thedataaredividedintofiveequalquintiles;each
categoryhasapproximately15communityareas.OnMap84thecategoriesarechosenbythe
mappingsystemsearchingfornaturalbreaksinthedata.

Map84showsthatmanyoftheareasthathavelargenumbersofbicyclecrashes(Maps81
and82)alsohavehighpercapitanumbers.WestEnglewoodontheSouthSideisanareawith

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highcrashespercapita.Also,JeffersonParkstandsoutonthefarNorthwestSide.Itisa
transportationhubwithnumerousChicagoTransitAuthority(CTA)andPacebuslines
convergingonaCTAstation,withawellusedprotectedbicyclerack(seephotoonpage70).

ThemapofallTypeBandCcrashes(Map85)showstwodistinctionsfromMap84ofthefatal
andTypeAcrashes.First,thehighestcategoryreachesfromtheLoopallthewaytothe
northerncitylimits.Second,inthesouthernpartofthecitythereareproportionatelyfewType
BandCinjurycrashes.
Map85:TypeBandCcrashesfrom20052010per2010population

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

8.3:Hotspots
Thereareseveralconcentrationsofbicyclecrashesthroughthecity.Theseareplaceswhere
thereareunusuallyhighnumbersofcrashesthatwarrantfurtherexaminationtoascertainthe

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propercountermeasurestoreducecrashes.Map86identifiesthelocationsofmanyofthese
clustersandtheyarecalledhotspots.
Thehotspotsarecalculatedbyfirstmappingthelocationsofthecrashes.Theseplacesare
shadedinlightblueagainstthedarkbluebackground.Ateachcrashsitethesystemsearchesa
radiusofonehalfmile,andasitidentifiesadditionalcrashes,thecolorchangesinitiallytolight
Map86:Allinjurycrasheshotspots

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

green,yellow,orangeandfinallytored,signalizinganincreasingnumberofcrasheswithinthe
searchradius.OnMap86weuseasearchofallinjurycrasheswithinaradiusofonehalfmile,
butintheChicagoLoop,wherethereisahighconcentrationofcrashes,weusearadiusofone
eighthmile.

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Map86showsgraphicallywhatwehaveseenonprevioustablesandmaps.Thedowntown
areastandsoutasdoseveraldiagonalcorridors.MilwaukeeAvenueismostprominent,but
partsofElston,Clybourn,ClarkandLincolnarealsohotspots.
Map87issimilartoMap86butdisplaysonlythehotspotsforfatalandTypeAinjurycrashes.
AgainthedowntownareaandMilwaukeeAvenuestandoutasdoesLincolnAvenue,especially
whereitbeginstoconvergewithClarkStreet.
Map87:FatalandTypeAinjurycrashhotspots

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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8.4:MajorCrashCorridors
Inadditiontothemapofintersectionswithhighnumbersofcrashesandhotspotareas,dot
mapsofindividualcrashesareinformative.Map88showsthattherearealmostacontinuous
seriesofsitesthathaveexperiencedbicyclecrashes.Theseareshownonamapthatranges
fromGrandonthesouthtoBelmontonthenorthandwesttoeastfromapproximatelyKedzie
toHalsted.Damen(northsouthstreetinthemiddleofthemap)andMilwaukeeAvenueshave
particularlyhighconcentrationsofcrashes.Similarly,Halstedhasalargenumberofcrashes,
butthedensityislower.
Map88:Majorarterialsofinjurycrashes
(TypeBinjuriesarelargebluedotsandTypeCinjuriesaresmallreddots)

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

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8.5:MajorArterialHotspots
Otherthantheconcentrationsofcrashesatintersections(55percent),theremaybestreet
segmentsthathavehighnumbersofcrashes.Map89depictsthosestreetsegmentsthathave
thegreatestconcentrationsofcrashesnotassociatedwithintersections.MilwaukeeandClark
appeartohavethehighestlineardensitiesofcrashesthoughthehighestoverallareaisin
downtownChicagoandtheimmediateareatothenorth.
Map89:Nonintersectioninjurycrashes

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

8.6:DooringCrashes

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Somearterialsaremorepronetodooringcrashesthanothers.Sincewedonothaveexposure
data,weusethenumberofinjurycrashesasasurrogate.Onthisscale,arterialssuchas
Milwaukee,ClarkandHalstedhavethehighestlevelsofbicycleactivity.MilwaukeeandClark
alsohavethehighestnumberofdooringcrashes,butLincolnhasalmosttwiceasmanydooring
crashesasHalsted,eventhoughithaslessthanhalfasmanyoverallbicyclecrashes.We
thereforepresentaratioofdooringtoallbicyclecrashes.
Inthisratio,Lincolnhasthehighestvalue,6.0,followedbyClarkandMilwaukee.Otherarterials
withhighvaluesareArmitage,DamenandBelmont.Conversely,lowestratiosamongtheten
arterialswiththehighestnumberofbicyclecrashesarefoundonFullerton,Chicago,Western
andAshland.Thesearerelativelywidearterials.Morestudy,however,issuggestedtoidentify
someoftheunderlyingreasonsforthesedifferences,suchasparkingratesanddensities.
Table84:Dooringcrashescomparedtoallinjurycrashesbymajorarterials,2010
Thereexistsdoublecountingsinceintersectioninjurycrashesareattributedtomorethanonearterial.
Arterial
Fatalities
Injury
Dooring Ratio*
crashes
Milwaukee
Halsted
Clark
Western
Ashland
Damen
North
Fullerton
Chicago
Division
Diversey
Belmont
Lincoln
California
Kedzie
State
Grand
Elston
LakeShore
IrvingPark
Armitage
Cicero

0
834
33
0
715
11
4
658
28
4
590
5
2
520
4
4
509
19
0
494
7
0
454
1
5
428
2
2
367
7
1
350
4
0
332
12
2
331
20
0
319
5
4
302
6
0
294
6
0
277
2
3
255
0
0
255
0
2
241
4
4
238
9
4
225
0
*(Dooringx100/Injurycrashes)

4.0
1.5
4.3
0.8
0.8
3.7
1.4
0.2
0.5
1.9
1.1
3.6
6.0
1.6
2.0
2.0
0.7
0.0
0.0
1.7
3.8
0.0

Source:IDOTDooringData20102011andIDOTMotorVehicleCrashData,20052010

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8.7:LandUsesnearCrashLocations
Inthissection,weexploretheassociationbetweenbicyclecrashesandlanduses.
8.7.1:SchoolsandUniversities

Inassessingwhethertheremaybeanunusualprobleminthevicinityofschools,wesearched
forcrashesincloseproximitytoschoolsduringthebeginningandtheendoftheschoolday.We
haveselectedtheperiod7:00amto9:00amforthebeginningofschooland1:00pmto4:00
pmastheperiodassociatedwithdismissal.Wehavealsoselectedaquartermileradiusaround
theschoolastheprimarytargetarea.
Forhighschools,wehaveincludedbicyclecrashesthatfittheabovecriteriaforridersaged15
to18.TheresultisMap810.Itshowsthelocationsofthesecrashesandliststhethreehigh
schoolswiththreesuchcrashesandanother12withtwocrasheseach.Thehighschoolsthat
havethreecrashesarescatteredacrossthecitywithoneeachonthenorth,westandsouth
sides.Ingeneral,thedistributionofcrashesonMap810showsmorecrashesonthenorthern
peripheryofthecitythanpreviousmaps.
Map810:Highschoolvicinitieswithinjurycrashes

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Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Forprimaryschools,weusetheagegroup5to14.Therearefarmoreprimaryschoolsthan
highschoolsinChicago,andmorepotentialareasforanalysis.Indeed,Map811showsa
scatteringofhotspotsthroughoutthecity.Ofallthemapspresentedinthisreport,thisseems
todisplaythegreatestbalanceacrossthestudyarea.Therearefewoverwhelmingpockets
thoughwewillfocusinthenextparagraphonaclusteronthefarwestside.Thisbalance
impliestwothings.First,theproblemisuniformacrossthecity,notjustprimarilyinone
region.Second,itsuggeststhatyoungresidentsthroughoutthecityarebecomingbicycle
riders,whichcouldtranslatetomorebicycletrafficthroughoutthecityinthefuture.

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Map811:Primaryschoolhotspots

81

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82

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

AcloserexaminationofthefarWest
Sideshowsthattheareabetween

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MadisonandOgdenatCentralParkisaproblemarea(Map812).Perhapsexpectedly,sincethe
bicyclistsinthiscaseareyoung,thecrashesarepredominantlyonneighborhoodstreets.There
aretwodiagonalarterialsonthismap,GrandandOgden,andneitherseemstorepresent
problemarterials.

Map812:Primaryschoolhotspotsinthefarwestside

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

8.7.2:CentralBusinessDistrict
TheChicagodowntownclearlyhasalargenumberofbicyclecrashes.Manyoftheseareon
northsouthstreetsfromMichiganAvenuetoWellsincludingState,Dearborn,ClarkandLaSalle
(Map813).OutsidetheLoop,Halstedalsohasalargenumberofcrashes.

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Madisonisoneofthefeweastwestarterialswithalargenumberofcrashes.Justnorthofthe
Loop,GrandAvenueandKinzieStreetalsoareevidentonMap813.Beyondthisimmediate
downtownareaChicagoandMilwaukeeAvenuesappearprominently.
Map813:DowntownTypeBandCinjury
crashes

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

8.7.3:ResidentialNonCentralBusinessDistrict
CommunityareasfromRogersParktotheNearNorthSide,includingEdgewater,Uptown,Lake
ViewandLincolnPark,haveaconsiderablyhighlevelofbicyclingandbicyclecrashes(Map8
14).ClarkStreetisamajornorthsoutharterialthattendstoparallelthelakeandhasan
unusuallyhighconcentrationofcrashesespeciallynearthesouthend.

Map814:NorthSideTypeBandCinjurycrashes

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Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

TheUniversityofChicago/HydeParkareaisoneofthefewareasonthesouthernhalfofthe
citythathasasubstantialnumberofcrashes.Map815showstheTypeBandCinjurycrashes.

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Manyareon55thand57thStreetinandneartheuniversity.Therearealsoalargenumberof
crashesonDorchester,anorthsoutharterialeastofWoodlawn(streetnamenotshownon
Map815).

Map815:HydePark/UniversityofChicagoareaTypeBandCinjurycrashes

Source:IDOTMotorVehicleCrashData

Chapter9: SummaryandLimitationsoftheStudy

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Thissectionreviewsthemajorfindingsofthisstudy.Italsodiscussestheprincipallimitations.

9.1:StudySummary
Thefindingsinthisreportareimportantsincecyclingisgrowinginpopularitynationwide,and
Chicagoremainsaleadingcyclingcommunityamongthelargestcities.Chicagohasahigher
modeshareofbicyclecommutersthanLosAngelesorNewYorkCity.Italsohasalowerfatality
ratethanthesetwocities.Nevertheless,thereisroomforfurthergrowthinbicycleuseand
bicyclesafety.Amongsevenpeercities,bothSeattleandPhiladelphiahaveahigherbicycle
modesshareamongcommuters.TherearealsomorebicyclecommutersinSanFranciscoand
Portland.Also,therearefivetimesasmanycommuterswalkingtoworkversusbicycleusein
Chicago.Inmanyotherplacestheratioismuchsmaller,andinPortland,Oregonthereare
morecommutersusingbicyclesthanwalkingtowork.Walkingtoworkisanindicationofthe
proximitytoplacesofworkandasurrogateforthefeasibilityofbicyclingtowork.
ThemainfindinginthisreportisthatwhilethenumberofbicyclecrashesinChicagohasrisen,
thelevelofbicyclinghasincreasedatagreaterpace.Inthismillennium,thenumberofbicycle
commutershasmorethandoubled,whileduringthesixyearstudyperiodthenumberof
bicyclefatalitieshasincreased,butdeclinedsince2007,thepeakyearofbicyclecrashes.Given
thesharpriseincycling,thefactthatthenumberofinjurycrasheshasincreasedbutonly
modestlyisalsoapositivedevelopment.Still,anyincreaseincrashesrequiresattention.
Anotherpositivesignisthatalcoholismuchlessofaproblemassociatedwithbicyclecrashes
thanwithmotorvehiclecrashes.
Atthesametime,thereareafewareasofconcern.Intersectionsaccountforoverhalfof
bicyclecrashes.Roadwaydesignfeaturesholdpromiseinmitigatingthisproblem.Theevening
hoursareassociatedwithadisproportionatenumberoffatalities.Bettervisibilityandbetter
awarenessamongdriverswouldhelpthissituation.Alackofhelmetusecontinuestobea
factorintheseverityofbicyclecrashes.Whileonlyoneofthecyclistsinvolvedinfatalcrashes
areknowntohavewornahelmet,crashreportsrecordarenumerousunknowns,making
analysisofthisdatadifficult.However,nationaltraumadatashowthatonlyaboutaquarterof
theirbicyclecrashpatientsworeahelmet.

9.2:Limitations
Themainlimitationofthestudyistheunavailabilityofdata.IDOTscrashdataareveryuseful
andextensivesourceofinformationthatwehaveusedthroughoutthisstudy.Ascompleteas
itis,itonlyincludesdataonbicyclecrasheswithmotorvehicles.Theydoesnotinclude
informationoncrasheswithotherbicyclistsorpedestrians(i.e.onbikepaths)noroncrashes
withstationaryobjects.ThishasledustoexaminetheNationalTraumaDataBank(NTDB).
Whilethetraumadataareuseful,thedatasetincludesinformationonlyfromparticipating
hospitalsandwithoutlocationidentifiersforthosehospitals.Hence,wewereonlyabletodoa
nationalscanoftraumaregistrieswithoutbeingabletoinfertrendsfortheCityofChicago
specifically.

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Also,crashdataaremostusefulwhenthereisacomparabledatasetthatincludesexposure
information.TheChicagoMetropolitanAgencyforPlanningcollectedhouseholdtravel
informationin2007thatincludesover550bicycletripsintheCityofChicago.Thesedatahave
beenremarkablyuseful,eventhoughtheywerecollectedforregionaltraveldemandmodeling
purposesandhadnumerousobjectives,notjusttocollectinformationonbicyclinglevels.
Ideally,alargerdatasourcewouldbeavailableinthefuture.

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TechnicalAppendixA:DataandStudyArea
A.1:Data
Theanalysispresentedinthisreportusedtwotypesofdata:(A)safetydataand(B)traveltrend
andexposuredata.
SafetyData:Weanalyzedfoursourcesofsecondarysourcesofinformationonsafety:

IllinoisDepartmentofTransportation(IDOT)MotorVehicleCrashData,2005to2010;
IllinoisDepartmentofTransportation(IDOT)dooringdata,20102011;
National Highway Traffic Safety Administrations (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting
System(FARS),2005to2009;
AmericanCollegeofSurgeonsNationalTraumaDataBank(NTDB),20052010).

TheprimarydatasourceusedinthisstudyistheIDOTmotorvehiclecrashfile.Thesedata
includebicyclecrashesthatoccuronroadwayssharedwithmotorvehicles.Therefore,crashes
thatoccuronbicycletrailsorsinglebicyclecrashesthatoccurfromfallsorhittingobstructions
arenotincludedintheanalysisbasedonthisdata.Thedatasetiscomposedofpolicereports.
Inexaminingthesixyearstudyperiod,wehavefocusedonfatalcrashesinvolvingbicyclists
andcrashesinvolvingthreelevelsofinjurycrashes(TypesA,BandC).Wehavenotexamined
bicyclecrashesleadingtopropertydamage.Wehaveanalyzedfatalandinjurycrashesinvolving
cyclistsbythespatialdistributionandcharacteristicsofcommunitiesandneighborhoods,
locationofcrashes,timeofdayandyear,weatherconditionsandtrendsovertime.Results
havebeendisaggregatedbysociodemographicssuchasageandgenderandbycrash
characteristics(typeofcrash,levelofinjury).
WehavecomparedtrendsintheCityofChicagotothoseinanumberofotherareas.These
includeCookCounty,thestateofIllinois,peercitieswhichmostresembleChicagoinsizeand
characterandtheU.S.asawhole.For2010and2011,wewereabletoanalyzedooring
informationcompiledbyIDOT.InordertocontextualizebicyclefatalitiesintheCityofChicago
tonationaltrendsandalsotoobtaingreaterdetailsonfatalitiesthatoccurredinthecitythat
arenotavailablefromtheIDOTdata,weusedtheFARSdata.
Asnotedabove,thesafetydatadonotincludecrashesonbikepaths,singlebicyclecrashes
withstationaryobjectsorpedestrianbicyclecrashes.Inordertoobtaininformationoninjuries
resultingfromthesetypesofsafetyeventsandalsotounderstandhelmetwearingbehaviorto
agreaterextent,weanalyzedtraumadatafromtheAmericanCollegeofSurgeonsNational
TraumaDataBank.TheNTDBcontainstraumaregistrydatafromparticipatingtraumacenters
onanannualbasis,anditisimportanttonotethatthedataarenotofallpersonsadmittedto
hospitals.Atthetimeofwritingthisreport,wewerenotabletoobtainthelocationidentifiers

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90

ofthehospitalsinthedataset.Hence,wehaveanalyzedthetraumadataatthenationallevel
only.
TravelTrendandExposureData.Wehavealsodevelopedalimitedamountofexposuredata
forthepurposeofestimatingrelativerisk.Thefollowingsourceswereusedtoestimate
exposures:

U.S.CensusBureau,DecennialCensus(Census2010),
U.S.CensusBureau,AmericanCommunitySurvey(ACS2005to2010),
NationalHouseholdTravelSurvey(NHTS2009)and
ChicagoMetropolitanAgencyforPlannings(CMAP),TravelTrackerSurvey(TTS2007).

TheCensusBureaudataprovidespopulationfiguresandcommutingmodeshares.TheACS
provides,inadditiontopopulation,annualdataonbicycleuseinthejourneytowork,thereby
givingustheabilitytotracktrends.
WehavealsoextensivelyusedtheTravelTrackerSurveyconductedbytheChicago
MetropolitanAgencyforPlanning,theMetropolitanPlanningOrganizationfornortheastern
Illinois.Thissurveyincludesdatafromapproximately10,500householdsinnortheastern
Illinois.Itprovidesdailytraveldiariesandinformationonapproximately550bicycletripsmade
inChicago,regardlessoftrippurpose.CollectedfromJanuaryof2007toMarchof2008,the
datasetisfrequentlyknownastheTravelTrackerSurvey,andincludesinformationontrip
originsanddestinationsandwellasonthecharacteristicsofthetraveler.

A.2:StudyAreaandPeerCities
TheanalysispresentedinthisreportpertainsonlytotheCityofChicago.
Whileinsomestudiesthetermcityisambiguousandsometimes
includessuburbanareas,thefocusofthisstudyisentirelyonthearea
withintheChicagocitylimits.Inthiscontext,itisimportanttonotethat
thereisnonationalstandardonthescopeofcitylimits.Placeslike
Boston,SanFranciscoandMiamiarelessthanonequarterofthesizeof
Chicago(insquaremiles),whileplaceslikeOklahomaCity,Houston,
Phoenix,JacksonvilleandLosAngelesaremorethantwicetheareaof
Chicago.InFlorida,Jacksonvilleismorethan20timeslargerthanMiami
inlandarea,buttheMiamimetropolitanpopulationismorethanfour
timesgreater.Thesedistinctionsneedtobeconsideredinmaking
comparisonswithothercitiesandselectingpeercities.
Ourselectionofpeercitiesincludesthefollowingcriteria(1)population
greater500,000;(2)densitygreaterthan5,000residentspersquare
mile;(3)atleast17percentofthecommutersusepublictransit,bicycle
orwalktowork;and(4)theareaofthecityisatleast75squaremiles.
Forpeercities,therefore,weincludethecitysize(squaremiles)inthe

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listofcriteria,sinceseveralcitiesareparticularlysmallandencompassonlythehighdensity
core.SanFrancisco,BostonandMiamiarealllessthan50squaremiles.SinceChicagois227
squaremiles,acomparisonwithBostonorMiamiwouldnotbeparticularlymeaningful.A
moreappropriatecomparisonwiththesecitieswouldbewiththecoreareaofChicago,butthe
definitionofsuchanareaislikelytobearbitrary.
Theareasizecriterionis
appliedbecausesmall
citiestendtobeofhigh
density,thereforehaving
disproportionatelyhigher
bicyclemodesharerates
intheircoreareas.Asthe
areaincreases,the
numberofcyclists
increasesbuttheshare
declines.Forexample,
Washington,D.C.hasa
bicyclecommutingmode
shareof3.1percent,
considerablyhigherthan
the1.3percentinChicago.
ButD.C.smetropolitan
shareisonly0.54percent,
actuallylowerthanthe
Chicagometropolitan
figureof0.61percent.
Also,bothBostonandSanFranciscohavehigherpopulationdensitiesthanChicagoduetotheir
smallareas,thoughtheinnerCityofChicagocertainlyhasmuchhigherdensitythantheentire
cityasawhole.
Nodefinitionofpeercitiesmeetsallsituations.SanFranciscoisnot
oneofourpeercities,norisitamongthetwelvelargestU.S.cities,
butithasapproximatelythesamenumberofbicyclecommutersas
Chicago.ThesameistrueforPortland,Oregon.Portlandisa
uniqueplaceinmanyregards.Itistheonlycityamongthe50
largestthathasmorebicyclecommutersthanthosethatwalkto
work.Hence,therearefrequentlylimitationstocomparisonswith
otherlargecities.

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ThepointthatbicyclingvariesbyregioninthemetropolitanareacanbeseenusingCMAPs
TravelTrackerdata(TableA1).TheCityofChicagoandsuburbanCookCountyareeachdivided
intothreezones.ThecentralareaoftheCityofChicagoextendsfromHydeParkonthesouth
toLincolnParkandLakeviewinthenorthandtoHumboldtParkandNorthLawndale(adjacent
toCiceroAvenue)onthewest.Sinceitcoversaboutonethirdofthecity,thecentralarea
coversmorethanjustthecorearea.Moreover,centralChicagoasdefinedislargerinareathan
Boston,SanFranciscoorMiami.

ThetableshowsthatcentralChicago,withatwopercentbicyclemodeshare,hasamuch
higherrateofbicycleusethanotherpartsoftheregion.NorthChicagoalsohasahighshare
(1.5percent)whilethesouthernpartofthecityhasalowershare(0.1percent).Thus,usinga
smallcoreareayieldsahighermodesharethantheentirecity.

TableA1:CMAPsTravelTrackerSurveymodeshareforselectedmodes

Walk

Bike

Driver

Passenger

CTA
bus

CTA
train

Para
transit

School
bus

CentralChicago

26.4%

2.0%

33.3%

20.0%

10.9%

4.6%

0.1%

0.3%

NorthChicago

15.3%

44.2%

24.4%

6.9%

5.2%

0.0%

0.9%

SouthChicago

13.2%

41.1%

27.5%

11.3%

3.1%

0.2%

0.7%

NorthCook
County
WestCook
County
SouthCook
County
MetroRegion

8.3%

1.5%
0.1%
1.4%

59.3%

25.3%

0.6%

1.0%

0.0%

1.9%

11.0%

0.9%

53.0%

27.0%

1.3%

2.4%

0.0%

1.7%

6.7%

0.5%

59.2%

26.6%

0.5%

0.8%

0.1%

2.5%

10.4%
26.5
3.3
1.8
0.0%
1.8%
1.0% 53.0%
Source:ChicagoRegionalHouseholdTravelInventoryModeChoiceandTripPurposeforthe
2008and1990Surveys,CMAP,June2010

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TechnicalAppendixB:BackgroundBicyclingSafetyTrendsandLiterature
B.1:BenefitsofBicycling
Bicyclinghasthepotentialtoprovideseveralhealthandenvironmentalbenefits,inadditionto
itsintrinsicrecreationalvalue.Physicalactivityisconsideredtobeacriticalingredientin
reducingtheriskofpoorhealthoutcomessuchasheartdisease,diabetes,highbloodpressure
andimprovingobesitylevelsandhealthybones,musclesandjoints(U.S.DepartmentofHealth
andHumanServices,1996).IntheU.S,anestimated25percentofalladultsarenotactiveatall
andnearlyhalfofyoungpeopleaged1221arenotvigorouslyactiveonaregularbasis(Centers
forDiseaseControl,2011).Althoughrecentresearchhasfocusedonthetradeoffsassociated
withthesebenefitsversusindividualadversehealtheffectssuchashigherexposuretoair
pollutionandriskofatrafficaccident(forexample,seedeHartog,etal,2010),theoverall
opportunityformoderatetovigorousactivitytogetherwiththeabilitytoaccomplishtravel
objectivesmakebicyclinganimportantandsustainableinstrumenttoachievehealthgoals.
Nonmotorizedmodesoftransportationalsooffersignificantpotentialtoreducethenegative
externalitiesassociatedwithmotorizedtravelsuchastrafficcongestionanditsassociated
societalcostssuchasairpollutionandGreenHouseGas(GHG)emissions.Inaddition,cycling
canreducetheoutofpocketcostsassociatedwithmotorvehicletravelandprovidesan
alternativetomotorvehiclesforthosetypesoftripsforwhichtherearenopublic
transportationoptionsandwherethedistancesaretoogreattowalk.Whiletheeconomic
valueoftimesavingsandtravelreliabilitymayoutweighthebenefitsofcyclingincertaintravel
markets,inothertravelmarkets,suchasthoserequiringshortertrips,cyclingmaymake
considerableeconomicsense.IntheU.S.,theaveragebicycletripwas2.26milesin2009,
comparedto9.75milesforalltrips(NationalHouseholdTravelSurvey,2009).Fuel
consumptionandemissionratesonapervehiclemilebasisaremuchhigherforthefirstfew
milesofdrivingwhenvehicleenginesarecold,aphenomenonknownascoldstarts;reductions
inthenumberofshortvehicletripsbydivertingtocyclingandwalkingaremostlikelytoleadto
thelargestemissionreductionbenefitsonapermilebasis.Thesefactorspointtothe
importanceofconsideringstrategiestomakecyclinganintegratedpartofalargermultimodal
passengertransportationnetwork,consistingofwalking,bicyclingandondemandshared
greencompactandultracompactvehicles(forexample,forcarsharingandstationcars)
opportunitiesandfeedingmodesbymeansofwhichthesetransportationoptionscanbeused
withpublictransportation.
Duetoitspotentialtoexpandoptionsforlowcostandhealthypersonaltransportationandto
improvebroadersocietalandenvironmentaloutcomes,policyinterestinpromotingbicyclingas
amodeoftransportationhasincreasedsubstantiallyinthelasttwodecadesintheU.S.The
IntermodalSurfaceTransportationEfficiencyActof1991wasparticularlyresponsiblefor
bringingvisibilitytononmotorizedmodesoftransportation.The1994U.S.Departmentof
TransportationStrategicPlanexplicitlydrewattentiontoconsideringcyclingandwalkingneeds

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indesigningtransportationfacilities.However,benefitsareonlyapartoftheoverallstimulus
forpeoplepoweredtransportationmodes;astheamountofbicyclingincreases,asignificant
factormotivatingthesepolicyactivitiesissafety.

B.2:OverallTransportationSafetyTrends
In2009,nearlyhalfofallroaddeathsworldwidewereamongvulnerableroadusers
pedestrians,cyclistsandmotorcyclists(WorldHealthOrganization,2009).However,overall
safetylevelsvaryduetoanumberofconditions.Onefactorexplainingaggregatesafetylevelsis
exposurethatasmorepeopledriveinasociety,injuryandfatalityriskstodriversand
motorvehicleoccupantsincreases.However,theWHOreportedthatascountriesmotorize
fromhighlevelsofnonmotorizedmodes,theriskstovulnerableusersinitiallyincreaseand
thenleveloff.Inasimilarfashion,itmaybespeculatedthatashighlymotorizedtravel
environmentbecomemorenonmotorized,withgreaternumbersofpersonscyclingand
walking,riskstosuchusersincreaseatfirst,butthatsuchrisksdeclineovertime.However,itis
tooearly,inmanyways,toconcretelydeduceanytrends.Oneaspectofthistrendwasrecently
speculatedbyJacobsen(2003),whoanalyzedtherelationshipbetweentwodifferentmeasures
(injuriespercapitaandfatalitiespercapita)indiverseU.S.andEuropeansettingsrangingfrom
specificintersectionstocitiesandcountries.Hereportedthatcollisionratesinvolvingbicyclists
andpedestriansshareanegative,nonlinearrelationshipwithincreasesinusagelevels.As
walkingandbicyclingincrease,crasheswithmotorvehiclesarelesslikelybecausethereis
safetyinnumbers.Oneexplanationforthesetrendsisbehavioralchangesonthepartof
motorists,bicyclistsandpedestriansthatleadtoreducedconflictsituations;theother
explanationisthatasthenumberofuserswithinamodeincrease,policyanddesign
interventionsaretaken,which,inturn,improvessafetylevels.
Worldwide,trafficfatalitieshaveexhibitedadecreasingtrend.TheU.S.isnoexceptionandhas
alsoexperienceddecreasinglevelsoffatalities.However,motorvehiclecrashesremainthe
leadingcauseofdeath,accountingfor23percentofaccidentaldeathsin2007,whichisthe
fifthleadingcauseofdeath(Xu,etal,2010).Trafficfatalitiesreachedahighof54,589deathsin
1972,although,intermsoftotalmilestraveled,therelativeriskshavebeenalmost
continuouslydecreasingsincerecordswerekeptonvehiclemilestraveledin1921.Atotalof
32,885trafficfatalitieswererecordedin2010.Overall,the2010estimaterepresentsover24
percentdeclineintrafficfatalitiesfrom2005.ThisisdespitethefactthattheU.S.population
grewoverfourpercentduringthistimeandtotalvehiclemilesdrivenincreased(albeitata
slowerratecomparedtohistoricalgrowthratesduetotheeconomicrecession)froman
estimated2,989,480millionmilesinDecember2005to2,999,970millionmilesin2010.Injury
levels(severetominor)declinedaswellbyabout17percent.
B.2.1:TrendsinBicycleSafety
In2009,onlyonepercentofalltripsnationwidewerebicycletrips,althoughthisestimateisa
considerableincreasefrom0.7percentin1990.Yet,closetotwopercentofallonroad
fatalitieswerebicyclistsand2.3percentofalltrafficinjuriesin2009wereexperiencedby
bicyclists.Thefatalityrateper100millionbicycletripsin2009isestimatedtobe15.4,whilethe

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injuryrateper100millionbicycletripsis1,250.Whilethereisnoreliablecurrentestimateof
bicyclemilestravelednationally,using2009bicyclepersonmilestraveledfromtheNHTSasa
proxyforbicyclemilestraveled,thefatalityrateper100millionmilesbicycledisestimatedto
be7.0whiletheinjuryrateis570.Theseratesarehigherthanthoseformotorvehiclesand
pedestrians,butlessthanmotorcycles.
Duringtheperiod2005and2010,atotalof4,219bicyclistswerekillednationally.Bicyclist
fatalitylevelsappeartobedecliningaswell,with784bicyclistfatalitiesin2005nationallyand
618in2010,representingadropofabout21percent.Thisisalowerrateofimprovement
comparedtofatalitiesinallmodes.Closetotwopercentofalltrafficfatalitiesarebicyclist
fatalities.However,thenumbersofpersonssustaininginjuriesduringthistimeframeincreased
byover13percentandinjuredbicyclistshaveremainedatovertwopercentofallpersons
injuredintrafficcrashessince2008.
Thepersonal,socialandeconomicconsequencesoffatalitiesandinjuriesinbicyclecrashes,as
inthecaseofcrashesinvolvinganyothermode,isstaggering.Thecostsofroadtrafficcrashes
asaproportionofGrossNationalProduct(GNP)wasfoundtobeapproximately2.02.3
percentoftheGNPintheU.S.(Blincoeetal.2002;Elvik2000).Arecentstudy,basedon2005
data,estimatedthecosts(onmedicalspendingandduetoproductivitylosses)associatedwith
fatalandinjurybicyclistcrashestobe$5.4billion,withfatalbicyclecrashescostingmorethan
$1billion(Naumann,etal.2010).Bicyclistsincludedridersofunicycles,bicycles,tricycles,and
mountainbikeswhowerekilledorinjuredasaresultofacollision,lossofcontrol,crash,or
someothereventinvolvingamovingvehicleorpedestrian.Motorvehiclerelatedfataland
nonfatalinjurycostsexceeded$99billionintotal.Reflectingoverallusagelevelsandcrash
involvementrates,costsassociatedwithmotorvehicleoccupantfatalandnonfatalinjuries
accountedfor71percent($70billion)ofallmotorvehiclerelatedcosts,followedbycosts
associatedwithmotorcyclists($12billion),pedestrians($10billion),andbicyclists($5billion).
Perceptionsofsafetyrisksareadeterrenttobicyclingandindividualattitudesandperceptions
havebeenfoundtoplayasignificantroleinthedecisiontobicycle(Sener,etal,2009).These
includeperceptionsofsafetyfromcrashes,perceptionsofsafetyfromcrime,exercisehabits
andanoverallperceptionofbicyclefacilities(Rietveld,etal,2004).Neighborhoodswhere
individualsperceiveahighersafetyriskhavelowerphysicalactivitylevelsandlowerbicycling
levels(Boslaugh,etal,2004).Theresultsofasurveyofarepresentativesampleof9,616U.S.
residents16andolderindicatedthatmorethanoneintenbicyclists(13percent)felt
threatenedfortheirpersonalsafetyonthemostrecentdaytheyrodetheirbicycleinthepast
30days(RoyalandMillerSteiger,2008).Closeto88percentofbicyclistsfeelingunsafewhile
bicyclingfeltthreatenedbymotorists,37percentduetounevenroadwaysurfacesor
walkways,and17percentforperceptionsofcrimeandfourpercentbecausetheyfeltthat
therewasnotenoughspacetobicycle.
Numerousotherfactorsincludingtopography,landusepatterns,climate,bicyclefacilitiesand
facilityquality,andbicycleamenities(suchasshowersatworksitesandbicycleracksonbuses)
affectthedecisiontobike;foracomprehensivereview,seeSener,etal,(2009).Additionally,
residentsoflowdensitysingleresidentialneighborhoodsaremorelikelytoperceivetheir

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neighborhoodasdangerousforbicyclists,althoughcompact,mixeduseneighborhoodsexhibit
highercrashrates(Cho,etal,2009).Crane(2007)foundthatwomenplaceahighervalueon
safety.Safetycountermeasures,togetherwithotherdesign,education,enforcementand
planningapproaches,shouldbeanintegralaspectofoverallstrategiestopromotebiking.
B.2.2:ChicagoAreaTrendsinBicyclingandBicycleCrashes
Asindicatedearlier,nonmotorizedtransportationmodessuchasbikingandwalkinghave
madesignificantrecentgainsinusage.Nationally,closetoonepercentofalltripsreportedfor
alltrippurposes(work,shopping,socialtrips)werebybike(NHTS,2009).Anothersourceof
data,theCensusJourneytoWorkdata,showsthatbicyclingtoworkhasincreasedfrom0.4
percentofworktripsbyallmodesin2000to0.53percentin2010(U.S.CensusBureau,2010).
Thetotalnumberofbicycletripsincreasedfrom1.7billionannualtripsin2001tofourbillion
reportedtripsin2009(NHTS,2009).
TheCityofChicagohasalsoenjoyedresurgenceinbicyclingandbyseveralindicators,increases
incyclinginthecityhasbeengreaterthaninnationwideincreases.Commutingtoworkby
bicyclehasincreasedfromjustunder6,000dailytripsin2000toover15,000in2010.However,
bicyclesareusedforothertrippurposesaswell.Onlyabout15percentofallcycletripsarefor
workorworkrelatedpurposesinthecity(CMAPsTTS,2007).Bicyclesareusedpredominantly
forsocial,civicorrecreationaltripsaswellasforshoppingandrunningerrands.Theaverage
tripdistancecoveredbybicyclistsin2007inChicagowas2.11milesand75percentofalltrips
werelessthan2.75miles.Tripdurationwasanaverageof22.9minutes.Malesaremorethan
twiceaslikelytobikeinthecityasfemales.
Between2005and2010,atotalof1,021personswerekilledintheCityofChicagoinallcrashes
thatinvolvedmotorvehicles.Fatalitiesdeclined32percentinthecityduringthisperiod,with
191personskilledin2005and128in2010.Thetotalnumberofpersonsinjuredincrashesin
thecitydeclined,asinthenationalcase,from25,831in2005to19,865in2010(adecreaseof
about23percent).Duringthesameperiod,32bicyclistswerekilledintheCityofChicago;with
sevenfatalitiesin2005tofivein2010.Intermsofinjuredbicyclists,thenumbershave,in
contrasttoallcrashesbyallmodes,actuallyincreasedfrom1,236in2005to1,566in2010,
withahighof1,782in2007.

B.3:RiskFactorstoBicycling:AReviewoftheSafetyLiterature
Inthissection,wereviewtheliteratureonbicyclesafetywiththeobjectiveofunderstanding
riskfactorstowardsthedevelopmentoffuturecountermeasures.Thebicyclesafetyliterature
canbegroupedintofivebroadcategoriesgiveninTableB1.Thesestudiesattempttoimprove
ourunderstandingofthecauses,dynamics,riskfactorsandseverityofbicyclecrashes.Other
aspectsoftheliteraturefocusoncomparativestudiesandassessmentofthequalityof
informationonthebasisofwhichcrashescanbebetterunderstood.Onelineofresearch
focusesonsafetycountermeasuresandwaystoevaluatetheeffectivenessofthe
countermeasuresinalleviatingrisk.ThefivecategoriesaregiveninTableB1.

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Researchcategory

TableB1:Bicyclecrashliteraturecategories
Description

Bicyclecrashcausationand
crashrisk

Studies of the dynamics of bicycle crashes, risk factors


contributing to crash involvement, methods to estimate
exposuretoriskandriskbasedfatalityandinjuryestimation

Bicyclecrashseverityand
effects

Analysis of determinants of crash severity, type of trauma, the


extentofinjuryandsurvivaltrends

Comparativestudies

Studies of policy, planning and actionoriented implications


based on studies of bicycle facilities, use patterns and
supportingpoliciesinaninternationalcontext

Dataandinformation
systems

Studiesassessinggapsininformationsystemstostudyuniverse
ofbicyclecrashesandsafetyhazardstobicyclists

Bicyclecrash
countermeasuresandtheir
evaluation

Infrastructure, design and control to improve safety, education


andenforcementstrategies,modelsofinstitutionalpartnership
and coordination, methods to evaluate effectiveness of
countermeasuresbasedonsafetycriteria

B.3.1:CrashCausationandCrashRisk
Avoluminousamountofresearchhasexamineddifferentaspectsofbicyclecrashcausesand
factorsthatelevatetheriskofbicyclecrashes.Broadlyspeaking,thisareaencompassesthree
typesofresearch:studiesofthedynamicsofthecrash(inSectionB.3.1.1),factorsthatelevate
riskfactors(inSectionB.3.1.2)andexposurebasedriskestimation(B.3.1.3).
B.3.1.1:DynamicsofBicycleCrashes
Studiesofthedynamicsofbicyclecrashesidentifythechainofevents(precrash,crashand
postcrash)inthecrash.Theanalysisoftheactionsofbicyclists(motorists,pedestriansand
otherhumanelementspresentatthetimeofthecrash).Theroleplayedbytheequipment,
vehiclesandtheoverall(road,trafficcontrolandbicyclist)environmentinwhichthecrash
occurredandtheinteractionofthesedifferentelements,canimproveunderstandingofhow
andwhyacrashoccurred.
Bicyclecrasheswithmotorvehiclesoccurmostcommonlyonroadintersectionsandnot
surprisingly,havegeneratedthegreatestamountofresearch(Hunteretal.,1995;Summalaet
al.,1996;ThomandClayton,1992;RsnenandSummala,1998,2000;StoneandBroughton,
2003;HerslundandJorgensen,2003;WangandNihan,2004;Walker,2005;HelsandOrozova
Bekkevold,2007;Danielsetal.,2008,2009).Suchcrashesgenerallyexhibitcomplexdynamics
andtheinterplayofbehavioralandphysicalfactors.Thecrashesaremostoftentheresultof
infringementintothemotoristorbicyclistrightofway(ROW).Factorswhichhavebeenfound

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tobeimportantincludelossofcontrol,failuretoslowdownorstoponthepartofthemotorist
inmakingturnsinthepresenceofcyclists,misunderstandingoftheintentionoforunjustified
expectationsoftheactionsoftheotherparty,failuretodetecttheotherparty(motoristor
cyclist),inabilitytorealizepotentialdangerandlackoftimetoreact.
Forexample,RasanenandSummala(1998),inananalysisof188bicyclemotorvehiclecrashes
infourcitiesinFinlandfoundthatin37percentofcollisions,neitherdrivernorcyclistrealized
thedangerorhadtimetoyield.Intheremainingcollisions,thedriver(27percent),thecyclist
(24percent)orboth(12percent)tooksometypeofactiontoavertthecrash.Theauthors
identifiedtwocommonmechanismsunderlyingthecrashes:first,allocationofattentionsuch
thatthepresenceofotherroaduserswerenotdetected,andsecond,unjustifiedexpectations
aboutthebehaviorofothers.Themostfrequentaccidenttypeamongcollisionsbetween
cyclistsandcarsatbicyclecrossingswasadriverturningrightandabicyclecomingfromthe
driversrightalongacycletrack.Driverstendtolookleftforcarsduringthecriticalphaseand
only11percentofdriversnoticedthecyclistbeforeimpact.However,68percentofcyclists
noticedthedriverbeforethecrash,and92percentofthosewhonoticedbelievedthedriver
wouldgivewayasrequiredbylaw.
Nonintersectioncrashes,namely,samedirectioncrashessuchasthoseincurredwhenamotor
vehicleovertakesabicyclistorarearendcrashwhichoccurwhenadriverhitsacyclistfrom
behind,havereceivedrelativelylesserattention,comparedtointersectioncrashes.Motorist
behaviorsaredeemedtoberesponsibleformostrearendcrashesasthesearecasesofthe
vehiclefollowingthebicycletooclosely(CrossandFisher,1977),especiallyatnightwhenthe
majorityofrearendcrashesoccurandduetopoorconspicuityofthebicyclistdueto
inadequatereflectiveclothing,bicycletaillightsorpoorstreetlighting(Wood,etal,2009;Pai,
etal,2010).Crashesthatoccurduetoovertakinginnonintersectionroadwaystretcheshave
beenfoundtoleadtomoreinjuriouscrashesandhigherfatalitylevels,asthemotorvehicleis
likelytohavehigherspeedsmidsegmentcomparedtointersections,wherethevehiclehasto
slowdowntoturn(StoneandBroughton,2003;Pai,etal,2010).
Thelookedbutfailedtoseecrashes(HerslundandJorgensen,2003),wheremotorvehicle
driversreportlookinginthedirectionofthebicyclistbutnotseeingorperceivingher/his
presencewaswellresearchedinthe1990s,wellbeforethecurrentfocusondistracteddriver
safetystudies.Theauthorsinthiscaseconcludedthatinappropriatevisualfocusandlackof
reactiontostimulioutsidevisualfocus,perceptionfailureandfailuresinvisualsearchstrategies
inanotherwisefamiliartravelenvironment,contributedtothelookedbutfailedtosee
crashes.Anotheraspectofcrashdynamicscriticaltobicyclistsafetyisdriverresponseto
bicyclistdetectionandrecognition.Theresponsesexaminedarereactiontimes(Mathews,
1980),detectiontimes(Owens1994)andrecognitiontimes(Muttart,2000).Associated
outcomesexaminedaredetectiondistancesordistancefromwhenthebicyclistisdetectedto
whenthebicyclistisreached(Blomberg,1986,Moberly,2001),recognitiondistance,i.e.,
distancesfromwhenthebicyclistisrecognizedtowhenreached(Bolk,2008)andfrequencyof
recognition(Zwahlen,1997;Owens2007).

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Morerecently,theeffectofdriverdistractionhasbeenacauseforconcernrelatingtocrashes,
particularlyascellphoneuseforvoicecallsortextmessagingisontherise.Studieshaveshown
thattheuseofcellphoneshasadirectimpactonthedriversperceptionreactiontime,
experiencesofinattentionblindnessandcognitivedistractionandproblemsstayinginlanes
(NationalSafetyCouncil,2010).BasedontheNHTSAsNationalOccupantProtectionUse
Survey(NOPUS),theNSC(2009)estimatedthat11percentofdriversduringanydaylight
momentaretalkingonacellphone.In2008,anestimated200,000crashesinvolvedtextingor
emailing,versus1.4millioncrashesinvolvedtalkingoncellphones(NSC,2009).Todate,there
hasbeennoscientificstudyontheeffectsofdistractiononbicyclistsafety.Mostlegalbanson
cellphoneusewhiledrivingorbicyclingdonotextendtohandsfreedevices.
Overall,crasheswithmotorvehicleshavebeenreportedtoberesponsibleforarelativelysmall
fractionofalleventsleadingtobicyclistinjuriesasdeterminedfromhospitalandtraumadata
(forexample,SimanTov,2012,reportedthat30percentof5529injuredbicyclistsinIsrael
involvedamotorvehicle,andBabul,etal,2010reportedaremarkablysimilarnumber34
percent,basedon300bicyclecasesinTorontoandVancouverinCanada).
Onecategoryofnonmotorvehicle,bicyclecrashesleadingtoinjuriesinsignificantnumbersis
singlevehicle(orsinglebicycle)crashes.Fallingoffabicycle,hittinganobstacleontheroad
side,leavingtheroad,poorvehiclehandlingandhazardousconditions(duetounevenroad
surfaces)canalsoresultin(serious)injury.Ithasbeennotedthatrelativelylittlescientific
researchhasbeendoneinthisarea(Wegman,etal,2012)buthospitalrecordsindicatethat
theyconstitutealargeshareoftotalbicyclistinjuries(forexample,Schepers,2008;SimanTov,
2012).Anothercategoryofnonmotorvehiclecrasheswithpedestrians.Forexample,Pucher
andBuehler(),inastudyofsixCanadiancities,foundthatawidespreadsafetyproblemis
crasheswithpedestrianscausedbyillegalcyclingonsidewalksandfailuretogivewayto
pedestriansincrosswalks.
Crashesinvolvingbicyclistsstrikingopenmotorvehicledoorsofparkedcars(calleddooring)
isanexampleofbicyclecrashesthatdonotinvolvemovingvehicles.AsreportedbyPai,etal.
(2011),Collisionimpactsresultingfromfirstcontactwiththedoor(therebycausingcycliststo
tumble)and/orsecondcontactwiththegroundcanbedevastating,especiallytounhelmeted
bicyclists.Thereappearstobeadearthofpeerreviewedpublishedmaterialsonthissubject
aswellandthedooringcrashratesmaywellvarybetweenareas(forexample,Babul,etal,
2011notedthattheoddsofbeingdooredweregreaterforTorontocycliststhanVancouver
cyclists).DennerlienandMeeker(2002)describesasampleof100Bostonbicyclemessengers
whoreportedthat29percentofthecollisionstheyexperiencedwereduetodooring.Pai
(2011)reportedthattheprobabilityofdooringcrashesincreasesinroadwayswithlower
speeds(lessthan40mph),onewaystreetsandduringnighttime.
B.3.1.2:RiskFactorsContributingtoCrashInvolvement
Anotherstreamofliteraturewithinthecontextofcrashcausationisonriskfactors.Studiesof
riskfactorsfocusonthosehuman/sociodemographic(gender,age,income),environmental
(nighttime,daytime,weather),infrastructure(roadwaydesignanduse,presenceofbicycle
lanesandsidewalks,parking,trafficcontrol),risktakingbehavioramongmotoristsandrisk

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takingbehavioramongbicyclists(notwearinghelmets,useoflightsatnight,conspicuousor
reflectiveclothing,disobeyingtrafficrules,cyclingundertheinfluence)thatinfluencebicycle
crashinvolvement.Incontrasttostudiesofcrashdynamicswhichanalyzescharacteristicsof
crashes,riskfactorstudiesidentifythoseelementsthat,overall,arelikelytoincreasethe
likelihoodofbeinginvolvedinacrash.
B.3.1.2.1:HumanandSociodemographicRiskFactors
Childrenaccountforthemajorityofallbicycleinjurieslikelyduetotheirinexperienceandrisky
ridingbehaviors(Yeungetal.,2009;Leeetal.,2009;RosenkranzandSheridan,2003).More
severeinjuriesandfatalitiesrelatedtobicyclingarehigherforadults.Mostoftheseoccurasa
resultofcollisionswithmotorvehicles(RosenkranzandSheridan,2003;Yeungetal.,2009).
ReportsbyNHTSAshowthatduringthepast10years,therehasbeenasteadyincreaseinthe
averageageofbothcyclistskilledandthoseinjured.Cyclistsages25to64havemadeupan
increasingproportionofallcyclistdeathssince2000.Theproportionofcyclistfatalitiesamong
thoseages25to64was1.2timeshigherin2009asin2000(64percentand52percent,
respectively).Thoseunder16yearsofageaccountedfor13percentofallcyclistskilledand20
percentofallthoseinjuredintrafficcrashesin2009(NHTSA,2009).MaringandvanSchagen
(1990)pointedoutthateventhoughagebyitselfwasnotthecausalfactor,agewasstrongly
associatedwithvariablessuchasperceptualmotorspeedandcognitivedevelopmentthatare
relevanttoacrashsituation.Mostofthecyclistskilledorinjuredin2009weremales(87
percentand80percent,respectively).Thecyclistfatalityratepercapitawasseventimeshigher
formalesthanforfemales,andtheinjuryratepercapitawasmorethanfourtimeshigherfor
males.Thesetrendsarelikelytopartlyreflectusepatterns.
Somestudiesonriskfactorsuseanecologicalframework.Theecologicaldesignischaracterized
byitsconsiderationofdifferencesbetweengroupsratherthanindividuals(Walter,1991),
wherethegroupscanbedefinedbyplace(multiplegroupdesign),bytime(timetrenddesign),
orbyacombinationoftheabove.Inthebicyclesafetyliterature,anumberofstudieshave
utilizedtheecologicalframework;forexample,severalauthorshaveexaminedtheeffectof
wearingbicyclehelmetsasaninterventioninpreventingbicycleinjuriesandfatalitiesusing
suchanapproach(Lee,etal.,2000;Floerchinger,etal.,2000;Wesson,2000;Durkin,1999).
Otherauthorshaveutilizedtheframeworktoexaminecrashrisktoschoolagebicyclistsnear
schools(AbdelAtyetal.,2007),inurbanneighborhoods(Bagley,1994).CottrillandThakuriah
(2010)andThakuriahetal(2010)usedsuchapproachestostudyspatialvariationsinpedestrian
crashesintheCityofChicago.
Incontrasttothestudiesexaminingthedynamicsofactualcrashes,thereisapaucityof
researchfocusingontheassociationbetweenbuiltenvironmentsandperceivedcrashrisk.
Socioeconomicfactors,particularlythepercentageoflowincomehouseholdswithina
neighborhood,playedanimportantroleinthepredictionofbicycleaccidentrates(Epperson,
1995).Plessetal.(1989)reportedthatfamilyandneighborhoodcharacteristicswerestronger
riskfactorsforbicycleinjuriesthanchildrenspersonalityandbehavior;higherriskofinjurywas
relatedtofeweryearsofparenteducation,ahistoryofaccidentsinthefamily,anenvironment
judgedasunsafe,andpoorparentalsupervision.

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B.3.1.2.2:EnvironmentalRiskFactors
Environmentalfactorsplayacriticalroleinincreasingbicyclecrashrisk.Byfocusingontwo
lane,undividedroadways,KlopandKhattak(1999)observedthatinjuryseverityincreasedin
fog,afterdarkonunlightedsections,withhigherspeedlimits,onroadsectionswithan
up/downgrade,anddecreasedwithincreasingaverageannualdailytraffic,streetlighting,and
aninteractionoftheshoulderwidthandspeedlimit.
FernandezdeCiezaetal.(1999)identifiedthatthemaincausesofbicycletrafficcrashesinSan
Juan,PuertoRicowere:excessivevehiclespeed,lackofproperilluminationduringthe
afternoonpeakperiodandatnight,andpoorroadwaydesign.Kimetal(2006)foundother
controllingfactorsincludinginclementweather,darknesswithnostreetlights,morningpeak
(6:00amto9:59am),headoncollisionsandtrucksresultinginadoublingintheprobabilityofa
bicyclefatality.Pai(2011)foundunlitstreets,adverseweatherandwetroadsurfacestobe
relatedtorearendcrashes.
B.3.1.2.3:RoadwayDesign
Someresearchindicatedthatcyclingonroadwassaferthanusingoffroadpathsand
sidewalks,intermsoftherelativeratesforfallsandinjuries(Forster,2001;AultmanHalland
Adams,1998;Moritz,1998;Rodgers,1997).However,SmithandWalsh(1988)andPucher
(2001)arguedthatcyclingwasmuchsaferwherebicyclefacilitiessuchasbikewaysandbike
laneswereprovided.Thisinconsistencyshowsthatbicyclesafety,intermsofriskofaccidents,
variessignificantlyandthattherearesafeandunsafebikepaths,justastherewillbeareas
whereonroadridingisrelativelysafe,e.g.widelanesandabicyclefriendlyenvironment,and
areaswhereonroadridingisrisky,e.g.narrowlaneswithlittleornoshoulders.
Roundaboutsarereportedtoreducetheriskofcrashes(Elvik,etal,2009)primarilydueto
reducedapproachandtravelspeeds.Theresultsaremixedbecauseincertainsituations(for
example,aBelgianstudybyDaniels,etal,2008,foundthatroundaboutsincreasedbicycle
injurycrashes).Complicatedinteractionsarisebetweencyclistsandmotorizedtrafficdueto
howcyclistsonaroundaboutintersectwithtrafficenteringorleavingaroundabout.Other
interventionssuchascycletracksphysicallyseparatingbicycletrafficfrommotorvehicletraffic
havebeenstudiedtoalesserextent.Bicyclefacilities(bicyclelanesandbicyclepaths)onroad
segmentswheremotorvehiclescandriverelativelyfast(>50km/h)havebeenfoundtoreduce
risksforcyclists(SWOV,2008).Aproblemspotwithcycletracksistrafficcrossings.Recent
researchbySchepers,etal(2011)indicatesthatcycletracksandrelatedcountermeasuressuch
asthecolorofmarkingsatbicyclecrossings,raisedbicyclecrossingsandotherspeedreducing
measureshaveacomplexrelationshipwithtwodifferenttypesofcrashes(typeIcrasheswhich
arethroughbicyclerelatedcollisionswherethecyclisthasrightofwayonthepriorityroadand
typeIIcrasheswhicharemotorvehiclerelatedcollisionswherethemotoristhasrightofway,
i.e.motoristonthepriorityroad).
B.3.1.2.4:RiskTakingBehavior

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Onemorecontroversialareaofresearchistheextenttowhichrisktakingbehavioramong
motoristsandbicyclists(disobeyingtrafficrules,notwearinghelmets,useoflightsatnight,
conspicuousorreflectiveclothing,drivingorcyclingundertheinfluence)influencebicyclecrash
involvement.Schrammetal(2008)notedthattherehasbeenlimitedresearchintotherisk
takingbehaviorsthatcontributetobicyclevehiclecollisions.Inreportedcollisionswherethe
vehiclewasconsideredtheatfaultparty,themostfrequentlyreportedcontributingfactors
were:unduecareandattention(19.5percentofcrashes),turninginthefaceofoncomingtraffic
(15.9percent),failuretogiveway(15.3percent),disobeyagivewaysign(13.0percent),
miscellaneousfactors(10.0percent),vehicleenteringadriveway(7.3percent),inattentionor
negligence(6.7percent),openingamotorvehicledoorcausingdanger(6.5percent),improper
turnotherthanuturn(4.1percent),disobeystopsign(3.9percent)andmiscellaneousroad
conditions(3.5percent).ResearchbyHunteretal(1996)demonstratedthatthevehiclewasat
faultin42.5percentofcollisions,thecyclistin35.9percent,withtheremaining21.6percent
undefined.Whiletheinformationpresentedwasnotdetailedintermsofviolationscommitted
orotherfactorsinvolved,itdidindicatethatthesinglemostfrequentcrashtypewasvehicle
failingtoyieldincrossingpathcrashesat21.7percent.
However,thereisevidenceintheliteraturethatalcoholconsumptionbybicyclistsmaybea
factorinsomebicyclecrashes(Petersson,etal,1997;NolandandQuddus,2004;Kim,etal,
2006;Nicaj,etal,2009).Avoluminousliteraturehascommentedontheriskreductionstohead
andbraininjuriesassociatedwithwearinghelmets(Depreitereetal.,2004;Robinson,2001;
SchieberandSacks,2001;Poveyetal.,1999;Thompsonetal.,1996;Wassermanetal.,1988).
Wearingfluorescentmaterialsinyellow,redandorangeimproveddetectionbydriversduring
theday,whilelamps,flashinglightsandretroreflectivematerialsinredandyellowreducedthe
riskoflowereddriverdetectionatnight(KwanandMapstone,2009).
B.3.1.3:ExposureBasedRiskEstimation
Studiesofexposurebasedriskestimationanalyzesthefactorsthatcontributetoexposureto
risk(forexample,numberofmilesbicycledortypeoftrafficconditionsinwhichbicyclingtrips
occur)inordertoestimatefatalityratesorinjuryratesgivenexposurerates.Thetrafficsafety
literaturehas,ingeneral,consideredawidespectrumofexposuremeasures.Illustrative
measuresincludedistancetraveled(Richter,etal,2005;Kweon,etal,2003),numberoftrips
taken(PucherandDijsktra,2003;Massieetal,1995;Beck,etal,2007)andamountoftime
spenttraveling(Chipman,etal,1993;LeeandAbdelAty,2005).
Detailedmeasuresofexposuressuchasmilestraveledortimedurationoftravelaredifficultto
deriveinthecaseofbicycletrafficforindividualcitiesormunicipalitiesbecausemost
householdtravelsurveys,fromwhichsuchmeasuresarederiveddonotcontainenoughbicycle
tripstoyieldvalidestimates.Bicyclecounts,whichareroutinelyconductedinmanycities,are
alsonotconductedatacityormunicipalitywidelevel.Manybicyclestudies,withafew
exceptionsexpressexposurebasedfatalityorinjuryrisksintermsofpopulationfigures(for
example,permillionpopulation)andarethereforepopulationbasedandnotexposurebased.
B.3.2:CrashSeverityandEffects

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Asecondmajorareaofresearchisonthephysicalconsequencesofbicyclecrashes(wehave
groupedstudiesonestimatedeconomicconsequencesunderCrashCountermeasuresand
Evaluation).Oneaspectofseverityresearchfocusesondeterminantsofcrashseveritybyasking
thequestion:onceinvolvedinacrash,whichfactorsdeterminetheextentofcrashseverityin
termsoftrauma?Asecondlineofresearchfocusesondescribingthetypeoftraumaandinjury.
B.3.2.1:FactorsDeterminingCrashSeverity
Theliteratureoncrashseverityfocusesonhumantolerancefactors(Wegman,2012),higher
speeds(StoneandBroughton,2003;Garder,1994),collisiontypeforexample,headonversus
samedirection(Kim,etal,2006;StoneandBroughton,2003;Pai,etal,2010)andhelmetuse
(Depreitereetal.,2004;Robinson,2001).AWorldHealthOrganization(2004)reviewof
Europeanstudiesontrafficfatalitiesconcludedthat50percentofalldeathsoccurredwithin
thefirstfewminutesafterthemotorvehiclecrash,eitherinthecrashsceneoronthewayto
hospitals.Responsetimeofemergencycareisacriticalingredientinoverallsafety.Prevention
ofdeathisdeterminedbyaccesstoemergencymedicalcenters,deliveryofmedicalcarebefore
arrivalatthehospitalandlevelandqualityoftraumacare(Piyawatchwela,2010;Sithisarankul
andSuwaratchai,2010).
SeverityofcrashesinvolvingabicycleiswellarticulatedinWegmenetal(2012),whowrote
thatAsadirectconsequenceofthelawsof(bio)mechanicsandthefragilityofthehuman
body,cyclistsarevulnerableintraffic.Cyclistsfalleasilyandcansustainseriousinjury.In
crashes,otherthansometimesbyabicyclehelmet,acyclistisunprotected.Braindamageisa
seriousandfrequentinjury,oftensustainedbyyoungpeopleinparticular.Whenacyclistis
injuredinacrashwithamotorizedvehicletravellingathighspeed,kineticenergyisprocessed.
Furthermore,acyclistcanlosecontrolofthebicycle,takeafallandbeinjured,especiallyifa
cyclistisinexperiencedorwhenobstaclesplayarole.Oftencyclistsfailtoobeythetrafficrules
andshowunexpectedbehaviorintheeyesofotherroadusers.Theconsequenceisthatcyclists
havearelativelyhighcrashratecomparedtothatofpedestriansandparticularlythatof
drivers.
B.3.2.2:TypeofTraumaandExtentofInjury
Asecondaspectofthislineofresearch,mostlyinthemedicalliterature,focusesonthetypeof
trauma,theextentofinjuryandsurvivaltrends.Arecentstudy(RivaraandSattin,2011)noted
thatabout900bicyclistdeathsoccurannually,andmostdeathsfrombicyclerelatedinjuries
arecausedbycollisionswithmotorvehicles.Headinjuryisbyfarthegreatestriskposedto
bicyclists,comprisingonethirdofemergencydepartmentvisits,twothirdsofhospital
admissions,andthreequartersofdeaths.ArecentFrenchstudyonthoseinjuredinbicycle
onlycrashes,foundthatfracturesoftheupperextremitiesaccountedforahighpercentage(50
percentofallinjuries);unspecifiedheadinjuries(unconsciousnesswithoutanyfurtherspecified
injury)accountedfor13.5percent,andinternalorganinjuriesfor5.5percent(3.6percentto
theheadand1.7percenttothetorso).
AnIsraelistudy(SimanTov,etal,2012)reportedthatratesofinjurytypedifferedaccordingto
agegroup.Forexample,head,faceorneckinjuriesweremoreprevalentamongchildrenthan
adults(30percentversus19percent,respectively),whiletherateofspinalcordinjurieswas

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substantiallyhigheramongadultsthanchildren(eightpercentversusonepercent,
respectively).Theoddsofhead,faceandneckorspineinjurieswerehigheramongchildrenand
adultsinvolvedinbicyclecrashesinvolvingamotorvehiclethaninanonmotorvehiclecrashes,
whereasthelikelihoodofaninjurytoextremitiesweresimilarregardlessofmechanism.
B.3.3:ComparativeStudies
Comparativestudiesattempttoderivepolicy,planningandactionorientedimplicationsbased
onstudiesofbicyclefacilities,usepatternsandsupportingpoliciesinaninternationalcontext.
MostcomparativestudiesexaminepoliciesinEuropeancitieswherebicyclingrateshavebeen
traditionallyhigh.
PucherandDijkstra(2003)examinedsuccessfulbicyclingpoliciesinTheNetherlandsand
Germany,anddrewconclusionsforsafebicyclingandwalkingintheU.S.Broadcategories
suggestedare:improvedtransportationinfrastructureforcyclingsuchasnetworksofbicycle
pathsandplanes;bicyclestreetswherecarsarepermittedbutcyclistshavestrictrightofway
overtheentirebreadthoftheroadwayandstrategiestosupportsuchseparaterightsofway
includingspecialbiketurnlanesleadingdirectlytointersections;separatebiketrafficsignals
withadvancegreenlightsforcyclists;bicyclistactivatedtrafficsignalsatkeyintersections;and
modificationofstreetnetworkstocreatedirect,fastroutingforbikes.Trafficcalmingmeasures
suggestedincludeloweredspeedlimits,physicalbarrierssuchasraisedintersectionsand
crosswalks,trafficcircles,roadnarrowing,zigzagroutes,curves,speedhumpsandartificial
deadendscreatedbymidblockstreetclosures.Othermeasuresrecommendedbasedonthe
Europeansituationincluderestrictionsonmotorvehicleuse,trafficeducationandstrict
enforcementofmotorvehicletrafficviolationlaws.
PucherandBuehler(2005),byexaminingsixCanadiancities,identifiedconsiderablegrowthin
cyclinginthe1970sand1980s.Bicyclingmodesharesinthesecitiesareroughlythreetimesas
highasinAmericancitiesofcomparablesize.Theselevelswereachievedthroughavarietyof
measurestopromotesafecyclingmeasuresandtobetterintegratecyclingwithpublic
transportationmodes.Safetymeasuresimplementedincludeuniformbikewaydesignand
trafficcontrolstandards,expansionofbothoffroadandonroadcyclingfacilitiesincluding
cycletracksandeducationalprograms.Yet,theauthorsreportedastagnationofcyclinglevels
inmanyCanadiancitiesinrecentyears,afterconsiderablegrowthduringthe1970sand1980s.
OneexplanationofferedforthestagnationisthatmanyCanadiangovernmentsdidnot
concurrentlyencouragethelevelofcarrestrictivepolicies,increasesinmotorvehicle
ownershipandusecostsandthedevelopmentofcomprehensive,integrated,regionalnetwork
ofcyclingfacilitiesasinmanyEuropeancitieswherebikemodalsharesaverageabout10
percent.Thesetypesofstrategies,togetherwithmandatorycompletionofacyclingeducation
coursebychildren,mayhelpraisecyclinglevelsonceagain.Despitetheseissues,forCanadaas
awhole,totalcyclingfatalitiesfellby50percentfrom1984to2002,from126to63,andtotal
cyclinginjuriesfellby33percent,from11,391to7,596(TransportCanada,2004).
Osbergetal(1998),onthebasisofobservingpassingbicyclistsinBostonandParis,notedthat
bicycletravelandusepatternsemergefromdifferentlawsandpublichealthpriorities,typesof
bicycleriding,typesofbicyclesusedandperceivedrisks.Among5,808passingbicyclists,there

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werelargedifferencesinhelmetandlightuse:only2.2percentofParisbicyclistsworehelmets
comparedto31.5percentinBoston.Incontrast,46.8percentofnighttimeParisbicyclistshad
workingheadortaillightscomparedtoonly14.8percentinBoston.Thesedifferenceshighlight
apointmadebyWegmanetal(2012)thattheliteratureoncountermeasurescannotalwaysbe
generalizedfromthespecificcontextwhereaparticularstudywasdone,unlessthereare
overallsimilaritiesinthebroadersocial,culturalandinfrastructureaspects.Hencemanyofthe
comparativestudiesstimulateideasonthetypesofcountermeasuresthatmaybeconsidered,
butsuitabilitytoaparticularcontextmayrequirecontextspecifictestingandevaluation.
B.3.4:DataandInformationSystems
Reliable,accurateandtimelysafetyrelateddataisaproblemworldwide.TheWHO(2009)
reportedthatamongthefactorsthatcanaffectthequalityofreporteddataarepolitical
influences,competingpriorities,andavailabilityofresources.Mostdatasystemsonsafetyin
theUSaregearedtowardscompleterecordsonmotorvehiclesafety,especiallyforincidents
thatinvolvemovingvehicles.Bicycleandpedestriancrashes,especiallythosethatleadto
injuriesasopposedtofatalitiesoftheusersofthesenonmotorizedmodesmaynotbe
completetothefullestextent.Veistenetal(2007)notedthatbicyclecrashesandinjuriesare
underreportedinpolicedata,withthisbeingmoreextensivethanforanyothertransportation
mode.StuttsandHunter(1998)foundthatonly48percentofcyclistsadmittedtohospitalasa
resultofacrashwerealsorecordedinstatemotorvehiclecrashfiles,andwithcrashesthat
occuronroadwaysonly50percentofcasesmatched.Itmaybenecessarytoconsiderthe
varyingreportingrequirementsindifferentjurisdictions,particularlyastheypertaintoproperty
damage.Itwasalsofoundthatthecyclistprofile(age,locationandinjurylevel)wassimilar
betweengeneralbicyclecrashesandbicyclevehiclecrashes,indicatingthatthepossibilitiesof
additionalbiasesmaynotbeproblematicinpolicereportedbicyclevehiclecrashes(Stuttsand
Hunter,1998).
Eventsthatinvolvenonmovingvehiclesforinstance,bymeansofdooring,wherebicyclists
areinjuredwhilebeingstruckbydriversorpassengersofmotorvehiclesopeningvehicledoors,
may not be reported. Injuries from singlebicycle crashes incurred when colliding into other
nonmovingobjectsmaysimilarlynotbeavailablefromcrashfiles(Heesch,etal,2011).
Otherincidentsmaynotbereportedatalltolawenforcementofficers,althoughthebicyclist
mayseekmedicalhelp.Someinjuredbicyclistsmaybetreatedinemergencyroomsbutnot
admittedtohospitals(forexample,Strutts,etal,1990,notedthatonlyaminorityofchildren
treatedintheemergencydepartmentforbicyclerelatedinjuriesareadmittedtohospitals),
leavingemergencyroomrecordsasasourceofinformation,andrulingoutpolicereportsand
hospitalrecords.
WhereastheBloodAlcoholContent(BAC)ofbicyclistskilledincrashesareavailable(from
FARS),thelevelsofbicyclistsinjuredincrashesarenotreportedinstatecrashfiles.However,as
notedpreviously,thereisevidenceintheliteraturethatalcoholconsumptionbybicyclistsmay
beafactorinsomebicyclecrashes.Theseissuesaresomeillustrativeexamplesofthegapsthat
existinbicyclecrashdata,whichmaylimitourunderstandingofthedynamicsofbicycle
crashesandcountermeasuresthatmaybeappropriate.

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B.3.5:CrashCountermeasuresandEvaluation
Avarietyofsafetycountermeasureshavebeenproposedtoalleviatetheriskoftheoccurrence
ofbicyclecrashesandtominimizeharmifacrashoccurs.Alineofresearchthatextendsthe
appropriatenessofcrashcountermeasuresisanevaluationofcountermeasuresbyusingsafety
relatedcriteria.Thecurrentliteratureonsafetycountermeasuresrecognizesthatthereisa
strongdegreeofdependencyonthebehaviorofindividuals(eithermotoristorbicyclistor
both)inreducingbicyclecrashes.Amultiprongedinterventionstrategyisneededtoreduce
thenumberandintensityofhumanerrorandviolations.
Onetypeofcountermeasurefocusesontheactionsofbicyclistsinpreventingfatalitiesand
injuriesnamelyusingbicyclehelmets.Effectively,theonlyprotectivedeviceavailablefor
cyclistsisthebicyclehelmet.Severalstudieshaveshownthataproperlydesignedhelmet
providesverygoodprotectionforthemostvulnerablepartofthebody,thehead,againstbeing
severelyinjuredinacrash(SWOV,2009).Bysomeestimates,themaximumeffectofabicycle
helmetisapproximatelya45percentreductionoftheriskofheadandbraininjurywhena
goodhelmetisworncorrectly.Yet,somequestionslingerabouttheeffectivenessofhelmet
safetystudiesprimarilyduetoselectionbiases;sincewearingahelmetisnotmandatoryin
mostsituations,bicyclistswhowearhelmetsmaybeanonrandomsampleofbicyclistswhoare
safecyclistswhenmeasuredonothercriteria.
Makinghelmetwearingcompulsoryforcyclistshasalsobeenfoundtoleadtoreductionsin
cyclingincountriessuchasAustraliaandCanada(Wegman,etal,2012).Although,inother
evaluationstudies,thisresultappearsnottobegeneralizabletootherplaces.Anotheraspect
ofbicyclistactionstudiedisbicyclistconspicuityandvisibilitystrategiesthataidintheearly
detectionoftheirpresencebymotorists.40percentofcyclistfatalitiesarereportedtooccur
duringthehoursofdarkness(Jaermark1991);ahighproportionofthesecrashesarerelatedto
frontalratherthanrearconspicuity(Gale1998).Basedon42studieswhichcomparedriver
detectionofpeoplewithorwithoutvisibilityaids,itwasfoundthatfluorescentmaterialsin
yellow,redandorangeimproveddriverdetectionduringtheday,whilelamps,flashinglights
andretroreflectivematerialsinredandyellow,particularlythosewithabiomotion
configuration(whichtakesadvantageofthemotionfromapedestrianslimbs),improved
pedestrianrecognitionatnight(KwanandMapstone,2007).Thornley,etal(2008),basedon
selfreportedrecallofcrashesinthepreceding12monthsamongbicyclistsinNewZealand
reportedsubstantiallylowercrashinjuryratesamongthosewhoreportedalwayswearing
fluorescentcolors.
Bicyclistshavebeenfoundtobenefitfromtrafficcalmingmeasures,specificallybyreducing
speedsofmotorizedtraffictolessthan30km/h.Infrastructuresolutionssuchasconverting
threelegorfourlegintersectionsintoroundaboutshasbeenwidelyresearched;although
roundaboutshavebeenfoundtogenerallyimprovefatalityandinjuryratesprimarilydueto
reducedapproachandtravelspeeds,theresultsaremixedbecauseincertainsituations,
complicatedinteractionsarisebetweencyclistsandmotorizedtrafficduetohowcyclistsona
roundaboutintersectwithtrafficenteringorleavingaroundabout.Otherinterventionssuchas

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cycletracksphysicallyseparatingbicycletrafficfrommotorvehicletraffichavebeenstudiedto
alesserextent.Bicyclefacilities(bicyclelanesandbicyclepaths)onroadsegmentswherecars
candriverelativelyfast(>50km/h)havebeenfoundtoreducerisksforcyclists(SWOV,2008).
Onelineofresearchhasconsideredchangesinvehicledesigntoincludecrashfriendlymotor
vehiclefrontsandsideunderrunprotectionfortrucktobuffercyclistsfrominjuriesand
equippingcarswithexteriorairbags.
PracticalapproachestoimprovebicyclistsafetyhavefocusedonfiveEs:Engineering,
Education,Encouragement,EnforcementandEvaluationandPlanning.Bicycleplanningand
safetyreportsfromseveralcitiesandstateswerereviewedforthispurpose.Specificstrategies
withineachgrouparesummarizedbelowinTableB2.

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TableB2:Safetycountermeasuresandstrategiesusedincitiesandstates

Strategy

Engineering

Actions
Install/Expandbikelanes

Respondtohighcrashlocations

EvaluateorcreatestateDOTguidelinesforcyclingawareness/responsiveness

Education

Improve/Maintainexistingbikelanes
Integratecyclingconsiderationsintoplanning,design,constructionandmaintenance policies
Conductsafetyaudits
Installadditionalcyclingamenities
Youngcyclisteducationcampaigns
Publicsafetyawarenesscampaigns
Driversafetytraining
Cyclistsafetytraining

Planner,engineering,andlawenforcementsafety training

Legalclinicslawsrelatedtocycling,lawsrelatedtodrivingaroundcyclists,insuranceissues,

andwhattodointheeventofacrash

Resourcestoencouragesafecycling

Encouragement
Encouragepoliticianstosupportcyclingdevelopment

Encouragebicycle&pedestrianfriendlydevelopment

Providebikeparkingandfacilities

Activelypromotesafecycling

Advocacytoincreasebicyclingandwalkingmovement

Enforcement
ConductSpeedandcrosswalkenforcementatsafetyhotspots

Trainlawenforcementofficersinbicyclelaws,crashreporting,andsafetyissues

Improvethereportingofbicycleandpedestriancrashes

Increasepenaltiesforunsafedrivingpracticesimpactingcyclists

Enforcesafecyclingpractices

Enforceorcreatesidewalkridingregulations

EvaluationandPlanning
Clarifyrulesrelatedtointeractionsbetweencyclistsandmotorists

Improvecollectionpracticesforcyclingcrashes

Establishaprocessforevaluatingcyclingsafetyresponses

Developmentofpriorityprojects

Conductadditionalcyclingtrafficstudies

Based on reports from New York City, Portland, OR; Washington, D.C.; Toronto, Ontario;
Arlington, VA; Boise, ID; Mineta Transportation Institute report; and the states of Georgia,
MontanaandMichigan.
WewouldliketothankDr.CaitlinCottrillforherhelpinproducingthistable.

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