Determination of Grinding Rate Constant of Lakan Lead and Zinc Deposit


Determination of Grinding Rate Constant of Lakan Lead and Zinc Deposit
H. Hekmatnia*, M. Taghimohammadi* and B. Rezaie**
*Student of Mining, **Professor of Mining Metallurgy and Petroleum Faculty of Amir_Kabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

ABSTRACT: The importance of grinding is its direct or indirect effect on entire process. Problem of liberation degree, over grinding and slime coating that reduced the flotation efficiency are controllable in grinding stage. Therefore a correct understanding of grinding is very important. Importance of grinding constant rate is that usually all of particles that enter in grinding circuit don’t have a similar grinding rate constant. The intention of this paper is simulation and optimization of Lakan ball mill and grinding medium optimization. For determination of grinding rate constant and also for investigation of relation between the ball diameter and selection function the NGOTC freeware was used. By investigating the relation between the ball diameter and selection function, it was found that the ball with 130 mm diameter is suitable for grinding medium.

1. INTRODUCTION One of the most important comminution parameters is breakage rate (selection function) that is an expression of kinetic of comminution that depends on various parameters like ore characteristics, mill diameter, mill speed, size and quality of balls. Comminution usually designate as first order kinetic. For various reasons the breakage rate is important, for example by this factor we can be generalized the picture of comminution method in each size fraction, and ability of ball selection and so it can used in mill simulation (Kotake, 2004). Furthermore the breakage rate is depending on shape of grinding media too (Ipec, 2006). In general terms relation between selection function and time can be explained by equation (1) (Ipek, 2006; King, 2001):
D (1) = − KD WD dt Where WD and KD are weight and breakage rate of particle of size D, respectively. In a number of papers KD is shown by S that is representative of Selection function. By solving the equation will acquire:

 ( t)  ln w D  = − S1 t (2)    w D ( 0)  Where S1 is KD in equation (1). WD (t) and WD(0) are the mass of the materials of size D at grinding time t and 0, respectively (Ipek, 2006; King, 2001). This paper presents the effects of ball diameter on the specific rate of breakage of lead and zinc ore determined under standard conditions in a small laboratory ball mill by NGOTC freeware.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS Representative samples were collected from Lakan lead and zinc mine in the province of Markazi in middle of Iran. A systematic random sample was taken from the feed and the product of ball mill. The diameter and length of ball mill is 2.6 and 3 m, respectively. The sieve analyses of feed and products are shown in figure 1. Worthy of mention that input parameters of NGOTC freeware are breakage function, residence time distribution function and size distribution of feed and product of ball mill (farzanegan, 2002).



Mineral Processing Technology (MPT 2007)

Fig. 1: Feed and product sieve analyses 2.1 Selection Function Calculation Method First, fifteen monosize fractions (9525, 6300, 4750, 3350, 2360, 1700, 1180, 850, 600, 425, 300, 212, 150, 106 and 75 µm) were prepared and ground batch wise in a laboratory-scale ball mill for determination of the breakage function. Each sample was taken out of the mill and dry-sieved for product size analysis. The grinding medium was a mixture of 38.1 mm, 25.4 mm and 19mm steel balls that the number of balls in each size fraction was 15, 56 and 51, respectively. The grinding time in each batch was 15 second, and kept on grinding up to the time which approximately 45 or 50% of samples pass through the first screen, and grinding test was carried out. Then, the breakage function was calculated based on Herbst and fuersteneau, bérube and modified Herbst and fuersteneau’s methods by BFDS software written by students of Amir_Kabir University. The calculated breakage function is shown in figure 2. Investigation shows that this function is no normalized.

A method for determining the selection function is using size distribution of feed and product of operational industrial mill. To find the size distribution, in this procedure a sample of feed and a sample of product are taken and screened. Then using this information and the previous results of calculated breakage function and inputting them in to the NGOTC Software, the selection function of the mill is calculated directly. On the basis of previous studies, the retention time in ball mill is 6 minutes. NGOTC have designed base on one unit plug flow, one unit small perfect mixer and two units large perfect mixer. The following order form:


τ τ τ τ


= τ SPM = 1



τ =τ τ




1 7

(4) (5)



(6) The resident time function parameters are τPF = 0.6, τSPM = 0.6and τLPM = 4.2. As three breakage function calculated by berube, Herbst and fuersteneau and modified Herbst and fuersteneau method were available, the selection function of each was calculated and compared. The results of calculated selection function by software are shown in figure 3.

= τ SPM = 0.1

Fig. 2: Calculated breakage function

Fig. 3: Calculated selection function by NGOTC

Determination of Grinding Rate Constant of Lakan Lead and Zinc Deposit


As observed here, these three methods almost agree with each other and minor difference is due to the inevitable lab and calculational errors. 2.2 Investigation of relation between grinding medium size and specific rate of breakage NGOTS freeware is able to determine selection function base on grinding medium size. For use this ability, mean diameter of grinding medium of operational mill and mean diameter of intended grinding medium must be existed. The grinding medium of ball mill of Lakan lead and zinc mine is mixture of 80 mm and 100 mm steel balls that the mean diameter of balls is 90 mm, therefore various size of ball give to the NGOTC and results of the software that is selection function was registered. The results of calculated selection function by software for various size of grinding medium are shown in figures 4 and 5.

Fig. 5: calculated selection function by software for various size of grinding medium

3. DISCUSSION As shown in figures 4 and 5 by increasing the particle size up to particular size, the breakage rate increased too. But from a particular size this trend change to be reverse. As a matter of fact the upward section of curve is normalized zone and downward section of curve is nonnormalized zone (Farzanegan, 2002). Also based on figure 4 and 5 for 80 and 100 mm Diameter balls, nonnormalized zone of curve start at 3350 and 2360 µm particles size, respectively. Attending to this fact that 35% of feed is in range of +3350–9525 µm, hence it’s better to increase the ball sizes. By increasing the ball size up to 130 mm, the nonnormalized zone get started at 6300 µm. with balls with diameter larger than 130 mm, does not caused any change in nonnormalized zone and last fraction grind nonnormalized. Based on figures 6 and 7 by increasing the ball diameter, rate of breakage will decrease.

Fig. 4: Calculated selection function by software for various size of grinding medium

Fig. 6: Variation of breakage rate for different ball diameter.


Mineral Processing Technology (MPT 2007)

3. Based on figures 3 and 4, the downward sloping point of curve for balls with 60, 80, 100 and 130 mm is started from 2360, 2360, 3350 and 6300 µm particle size, therefore if balls with 130mm diameter were used, it can increase the breakage rate of fractions of 4750 and 3350 µm. 4. The fraction of 9525 µm has a low rate of breakage, if this fraction rejected from the feed, the efficiency of ball mill will increase. REFERENCES
Fig. 7: Variation of breakage rate for different ball diameter [1] Deniz, V.; A study on the specific rate of breakage of cement materials in a laboratory ball mill, cement and concrete research, vol. 33, 2003. [2] Farzanegan, A. Knowledge-Based Optimization of Mineral Grinding Circuits, Theses (PH.D). McGill University, Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.(1998). [3] Ipek H; The effect of grinding media shape on breakage rate, Mineral Engineering, vol. 19 (p: 91-93), 2006. [4] Kamal, M., grinding kinetics of some Egyptian feldspar; Powder Technology, vol. 121, 2002. [5] King, R.P., modeling and simulation of minerals processing system, 2001 Butterworth Heinemann, oxford, England. [6] Kotake N., Suzuki K., Asahi. S., Kanada H., Experimental study on the grinding rate constant of solid materials in a ball mill, Powder Technology; vol 122; 2002 [7] Kotake N., Daibi K., Yamamoto. T., Kanda. Y., Experimental Investigation on a grinding rate constant of solid materials by a ball mill_ effect of ball diameter and feed size, Powder Technology, vol. 144, 2004.

The reason for this case is that by increasing the ball diameters the numbers of balls in the volume unit will decreases. Therefore the number of impacts decreases between particle and ball, subsequently the breakage rate decreases too. Using balls smaller than optimum size causes to coarse particles become accumulated in mill. In reality this show that each fraction needs special ball diameter for optimum grinding, thereupon various ball size must be exist in grinding media (Katake, 2002; Deniz, 2003). 4. CONCLUSIONS 1. Fractions of 6300, 4750, 3350 and 2360 µm, that made 35% of feed, have the greatest breakage rate. 2. Fractions of 212, 150, 106 and 75 µm have the least breakage rate.

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