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1. See figure 1. Steam drivers are comprised of single or multistage turbines. 1. Gas drivers cover gas turbines or gas engines. These machine are generally specified for lower volumes than centrifugal compressors. Centrifugal compressors are specified for large quantities of vapor.3 for the most widely used patterns. . steam and gas.1 Reciprocating compressors Reciprocating compression is the force converted to pressure by the movement of the piston in a cylinder. extremely high pressures may be developed.3 Compressor Drives Drivers fall into three categories. reciprocating and centrifugal. as pumps are used to increase liquid pressure .2. 3. requiring their own cooling systems . either fully condensing of backpressure . i. electric. 2000 HP or more. Introduction Compressors are the mechanical means to increase vapor pressure. There are two basic types of compressors.e. Introduction Reciprocating Compressors Centrifugal Compressors Drives 1. Because of their reciprocating action these machines cause piping.2 Centrifugal Compressors Centrifugal compression is the force converted to pressure when a gas is ejected by an impeller at increasing velocity. If several stages of compression are employed. The quantity of vapor to be moved and discharge pressure it usually the deciding factor in the type selected . 2. Electrical drivers range from small flameproof motors to large motors. compress it and discharge it at a higher pressure.Table of Contents 1. These machines are not subject to pulsation and therefore do not produce vibrational effects . 2. Each has one specific duty to intake vapor at low pressure.1 Types of Machines Reciprocating compressors can be obtained in a variety of patterns from a simple single cylinder to multicylinder multistage machines. Reciprocating Compressors 2. if not properly designed and supported. Pressure differential may be small or large. to pulsate. vibrate and generate fatigue . 1. 4.
2. It must support the compressor and all its auxiliary equipment.Figure 1 below is a single cylinder machine. pressure and volume of gas to be compressed. Gas compression raises temperature. may be single or double acting. Figure 4: single acting cylinder. The compression cylinders are all on one side of the frame. Figure 5 : double acting cylinder. Figure 2 is a balanced horizontally opposed multicylinder machine. 2. but for low heat increases a glycol filled jacket may suffice . compression and discharge area per cylinder.3 Compressor Foundation. Inlet temperatures of 40 oC may be raised to over 100 oC by the act of compression. Gas engine driven machine (note: gas engine may take 'V' form) Figures 4.type engine. springs will be used locally to support the snubbers . The cylinder gets hot and depending on the vapor being compressed. 2. Multicompression stages : number of times the vapor is compressed by going through a series of compression cylinders to increase pressure. having one suction. Cylinder and Snubber Supports The foundation for LP reciprocating compressors must be independent from all other foundations. cylinder diameters and lengths vary according to the composition. It will operate at low speed.5 for details of cylinder arrangements. Likewise the snubber supports must be attached to the foundation concrete. will need some form of cooling. good maintenance accessibility and possibly reduced pulsation in suction and discharge piping. Dimensions from frame center line to cylinder nozzles will vary with compression forces. In a reciprocating machine.2 Types of Cylinders Figure 3. Poor . compression and discharge areas per cylinder. Cylinder supports are supplied by the vendor if they are required. compression is violent and heat rise is great. having two suction. it can also be multistage . Figure 3 is a gas fuelled angle . It will operate at low speed. may be single or double acting. They must be attached to the foundation concrete. This will usually be in the form of cooling water.4 Compressor Layout Effective compressor layout results in cost savings on process and utility piping.
will probably be equipped with a travelling gantry crane which will be manually or electrically operated. All dimensions must be confirmed from certified vendor drawings. The compressor building must be sized very early in the layout stage when only preliminary dimensions are available. Pits. Allow a maintenance area at one end of the building. A 6 meter bay should be sufficient . the crankshaft should run at right angles to the suction and discharge headers. It may be known that the overall length of the machine is 6 meters and the width is 4 meters. Since these must not be connected to the machine foundations. If there is any doubt that the vapor is near its dew point. local control panel. If they conflict with any of the following notes.layout does the opossite. the suction line must be steam traced between the suction drum and the compressor inlet or local to the compressor inlet. especially to valves and drains .1500 mm due to other items occupying floor space. With two or more machines. locate the crankshaft parallel to the suction and discharge headers. To these dimensions must be added adequate clearance for maintenance plus possible control valve stations. the building size will be affected. particularly if they are long. It is usual for the suction piping to be routed to the top of the cylinder and discharge piping from the bottom. Compressor houses containing more than one machine. As liquids do not compress. the flow diagrams will always take precedence. For balanced horizontally opposed compressors. as in addition to the necessary building and maintenance clearances. TYPICAL LAYOUT OF COMPRESSOR HOUSE & SUCTION KNOCK OUT DRUM For angle type compressors. . The height of the mezzanine floor abovegrade will be kept to a minimum consistent with the adequacy of space for piping and access. a small quantity would do extensive damage. This feature can influence the overall dimensions of the house. See below figure. extensive precautions must be taken to ensure that absolutely no liquid enters the compressor cylinder . the vertical reactions of the loaded crane will increase foundation size. lube oil equipment. Allow 2 meters all around the original dimensions. etc. trenches and similar gas traps should be avoided in gas compressor houses . In practice this 2 meter allowance will provide a walkway of only 1200 . Process Department will advise the extent and it will be shown on the flow diagram. 2. Liquids must be prevented from entering the compressors. It is usual for compressor vendors to indicate the overall foundation dimensions on their layout drawings. allow 2 meters between compression cylinders to allow for adequate piston removal.5 Piping Layout The piping layout will follow the plow diagrams as issued for the job. (These should be requested as early as possible). Large reciprocating gas compressors will usually be elevated abovegrade with mezzanine floor level with the top of the foundation for operation and maintenance.
A steam or electrical supply may be required if lube oil heaters are provided for either the compressor or gear box oil. Spectacle blindes will be installed at the compressor side of the isolating valves. piping and valves will normally run under the floor. Distance piece and packing vent piping will be manifolded into systems as indicated on the flow diagrams. When not furnished by the manufacturer. a relief valve will take be installed between the compressor discharge and block valve. When compressors are elevated with a mezzanine floor. These systems are either vented to atmosphere outside the compressor house or connected to a collection system. The relief valve will be provided with a bypass for hand venting. e. Suction and discharge piping will be kept as straight as possible between the compressors and headers. When more than one compressor is employed on the same service. 3.Suction and discharge headers will be located at grade level on sleepers up to the first piece of connecting equipment. The minimum line size used will be 3/4” .g. Branch connections to the compressor from the suction header will be taken from the top of the header . This system is used prior to startup. See figure 8. Piping local to cylinders shall clear the cylinder by sufficient distance to permit proper maintenance on the cylinder valves. suction KO drum or aftercooler. The use of short radius bends or tees and similar installations giving opposed flow shall not be permitted . Centrifugal Radial Compressor Centrifugal radial compressors ( figure 8) : the compression process is effected by rotating impellers of radial flow design ( figure 9 Radial Impellor) in fixed guide elements. Centrifugal Compressors 3. This relief valve will discharge into the suction line downstream of the block valve. Centrifugal axial compressors ( figure 10) : the force is converted into pressure by rotating vanes . Startup bypasses are to be installed between suction and discharge pipes of compressors and will be located between the compressor and the line block valve. Check for lines that have to be chemically and ensure drawings indicate this requirement . Utility piping will comprise cooling water supply and return to lube oil cooler also to cylinder jackets.1 Types of Machine Centrifugal compressors can be obtained in a variety of patterns. Piping shall not be less than compressor nozzle size. all piping to and from the compressors will be valved so that any compressor may be shutdown and taken out of service. Sufficient vents and drains will be provided so that water lines and jackets may be completely drained at shutdown.
etc. if the vendor has not stated a minimum elevation use 10 meters above the center line of the machines.in should the normal lubrication supply system fail. The lube and seal oil consoles are comprised of the following items : oil storage tank. For this reason suction nozzles are sometimes much larger or smaller than the line size for hydrocarbon process applications.12.4 Compressor Layout (See fig. these lines can be anchored at grade. will be located at grade. On multistage compressors two or more inlet nozzles may be provided . The suction and discharge connections of the compressor will most likely be on the underside. if used. Their purpose is for emergency lubrication. It will be necessary to increase the suction line diameter locally at the compressor nozzle. Note the lube oil header tanks. steam or gas turbine. Determine the type of travelling gantry crane. It is better if a pipe length of 3 dias of 30” pipe can also be accommodated . including the lube console . A typical compressor house layout is shown in figures 11 and 12.2 Size and Position of Nozzles Centrifugal compressor manufacturers have basic case designs. Note the withdrawal and maintenance areas. these must be elevated above the machines. the drive may be via a gearbox. Use 30” flange and a concentric reducer as a minimum.3 Compressor Foundations (See fig. 3. a 30” suction nozzle may have a 20” or 24” suction line. 3. They supply oil to the bearings until the machine comes to a standstill . 3. the suction lines are connected to suction drums controlled to maintain the various inlet pressures . 11.10 Centrigfugal axial compressors) The foundation of each machine will be combined with its direct coupled drives but must be independent from all other foundations. is clear of it. . Do not use a reducing flange as this will introduce full velocity to the rotor blades at a turbulent condition. It is usual to mount such machines on a tabletop about 4 meters high with elevated access all around. also the acoustic hoods. Here an electrical motor and a condensing type turbine has been used. They are driven by electric motors.between fixed guide vanes. Suction and discharge nozzles are either on the underside or the top of the compressor. and are tripped . The lube and seal oil consoles for both the compressor and turbine. and ensure that piping. filters. see fig 13 for details of removable spools.13 below) Centrifugal compressors are usually large capacity machines. For example. they change the rotor blade design to meet volume and pressure requirements. the flow is axial . Should these connections be on the top of a horizontally split case compressor.
all return lines must be free . Interconnecting piping must be in accordance with the flow diagram.2 Steam Turbines Two types of steam turbines must be considered. use reducers not reducing flange local to suction and discharge nozzles. Provision must be made for removal and service of the exchanger. The travelling gantry crane will be used to dismantle them. If a filter is required in the intake system. Make provision for removal of strainers in the inlet line. Suction and discharge piping must be supported so that the nozzles are not overloaded. sometimes an oil heater for startup. CACA machine consideration must be given regarding the safe location of the air intake. these fall into two categories : CACW (close . control instruments. Acoustic hoods may be required for both the compressor and turbine . CACW machines (see fig. etc. It is possible to obtain motors with the cooler mounted above or to one side of the motor. determine the size of the compressor house. These types of machines may require an area of 7 m x 7 m and. Maintenance area must be large enough to accommodate the acoustic hood.air . They may be of sectional construction. condensing and noncondensing. also that there is space behind the motor to remove the rotor . in a sealed room. 14) : may be mounted on a tabletop with the cooler located under. turbine and compressor half casing rotors. Large HP machines their own cooling systems .pumps. ensure that the tabletop is large enough to accommodate them. The noncondensing type uses high pressure steam and exhausts lower pressure steam to a stream .1 Electrical Motors Flameproof motors will be employed for small to medium HP machines.circuit air cooled machine ) .circuit water cooled machine ) or CACA ( closed . which will be outside the compressor house. oil cooler. provide access for replacement or cleaning .air .draining from the machines to the console. this must be taken into consideration when determining the elevation of the crane hook. 4. therefore. Drives 4. Ensure that the cables can be routed to the terminations. Silencers may be required in both the suction and discharge piping. 4. The cooling air circulating around the motor is itself cooled by water cooled heat exchanger.
If an air fan is used as a surface condenser it will usually be located above the turbine. Noncondensing turbine assemblies comprise a turbine. which must join the top of the header. These types of engines may develop 2. either on the compressor house roof or over a pipe rack. The cooling water lines associated with the condenser are large bore and some consideration must be given to the piping arrangement and placing of valves to give good operation and utilization of plot space. Ensure that adequate space is allowed for removal of cylinder heads and pistons. the lube oil console and header tanks will be required.header. Provision for operation and maintenance to all machinery must be provided . If the condenser is the shell and tube type.16 ) . The low pressure steam discharge line will be a large bore. a bellow may be required local to the turbine and a temporary strainer will be used for startup. a steam trap and drip pocket must be provided. either directly or through a gearbox. 4. The steam supply to the turbine will be taken from the top of the steam header. The turbine will required a similar lube oil console to that provided for the compressor.000 HP or more. the exhaust system must be considered. a similar arrangement to a steam turbine can be used. Combustion air to the turbine burner must be taken from a safe location outside the compressor house. The surface condenser may be mounted at grade alongside a grade-mounted turbine. Do not pocket the return drains. Maintenance access : provision must be made to dismantle the acoustic hood. but may take the form of an air fan ) to recover condensate. 4. The lube oil system may be integral with the engine that or . If the line has a low point. In addition. it will most likely be of the fixed tube plate design and will require access for rodding the tubes. An elevated lube oil header tank also be required.3 Gas Turbines When using a gas turbine to drive a compressor. lube oil console and header tank. (See fig. Surface condensers are often grade-mounted directly below the compressors turbine. With arrangement very little NPSH is available. The condensing turbine exhausts to a surface condenser (which is usually a large exchanger with hot well attached. this will be comprised of ducting to some heat recovery system. This arrangement employs a turbine with outlet nozzle directly connected via an expansion joint to the surface condenser. The machine may have both compression and drive cylinder attached to a common crankshaft.4 Gas Engines Gas engines are used to drive reciprocating compressors. Inlet silencer and filter will most likely be required. a bellow will most likely be required in the line. and remove half of the turbine casing and the rotor . either a steam raising plant or process heaters.
Combustion air must be taken from a safe location outside the compressor house.18). a large mass concrete foundation will be employed. will be provided. cooling water supply will be required and the usual clearance for tube pulling. Figure 1 below is a single cylinder machine. ensure that the engine is at suitable elevation to allow for free-draining oil return lines. therefore when routing piping this must be considered. If an air filter will be required. (see fig. The engine will most likely have a closed circuit jacket water cooling system. also fuel gas. the exhaust must be discharged outside the building. This system will be fitted with a silencer and flame trap. The general layout of the compressor house will enable the use of a travelling gantry crane for all maintenance. . may be single or double acting. arrange for maintenance access.17) The engine and compressor will be mounted on a common foundation that is independent of all other foundations. Due to the vibration produced by these machines. Utility systems will comprise a start-up air system. (see fig. If the former. Should the latter be used. enabling most of the piping to be kept low.in the form of a console. Likewise. It will operate at low speed. This will comprise a shell and tube exchanger or an air fan. It is not likely that a mezzanine floor will be employed local to the machines. Figures incl. etc.
it can also be multistage. It will operate at low speed. Figure 3.Figure 2 is a balanced horizontally opposed multicylinder machine. Gas engine driven machine (note: gas engine may take 'V' form) . may be single or double acting.
Figure 8: Centrifugal Radial Compressor .
Figure 9: Radial Impellor Figure 10: Centrigfugal axial compressors .
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