This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
An asphalt pavement structure is made up of multiple layers. Conventionally, soil, granular material, asphalt binder are used for construction of asphalt pavements. Various other admixtures are also used. Economical, environmental, social and safety issues call for use of innovations in road construction technology. Innovations are possible in the development and usage of various pavement materials, as well as in design and construction applications. This paper presents a brief review on modern and upcoming pavement materials in asphalt pavement construction.
Innovative pavement materials
Building a road infrastructure project may involve the following considerations. • • • • • • • Structural considerations Functional considerations Economical considerations Environmental considerations Construction considerations Safety considerations Aesthetic considerations
The application potential of various innovative materials, as per the above classification scheme, have been discussed briefly in the following.
From structural considerations A pavement needs to be structurally safe against various modes of failures during its design life. Thus, it is desirable to use materials which improve the structural capacity of the pavement system. Fiber reinforced asphalt mix (Maurer and Malasheskie 1989; Serfass and Samanos 1996; Abtahi et al. 2010), geosynthetics (IFAI 2010, Saathoff and Vollmert 2010), stabilizers (Ingles and Metcaf 1972; Hausman 1990; Little and Nair 2009), asphalt binder modifiers (RILEM 1998; Asphalt Handbook 2000; Roque et al. 2005) etc. are examples of such materials. Fiber reinforced asphalt mix is made by mixing fibers (for example, polypropylene, polyester, asbestos, cellulose, carbon, glass, steel etc.) to the asphalt mix. It improves
2 . Goel and Das 2004. geosynthetics. reflective ceramic paint. 2005). geomembranes. 2010) – this is termed as cool pavement. Liu et al. Asphalt pavement surface being good absorbent of heat energy. fibres. From functional considerations For pavement to be functionally serviceable it must provide durable travel surface with appropriate skid resistance. 2009. moisture damage. anti-oxidants. Use of geosynthetics and porous pavements may help in better drainage of pavements. Use of innovative materials can bring down the cost of road construction. light colored aggregates and colored asphalt) are used in asphalt pavement so as to avoid this effect (Kinouchi et al. Sometimes rejuvenators are also used to achieve the desirable mechanical and performance related properties of asphalt mix (Karlsson and Isacsson 2006). asphalt materials collected from old and deteriorated asphalt pavements are mixed in suitable proportion along with the new aggregates and virgin asphalt binder to obtain the recycled mix (McDaniel et al. geonets etc. The asphalt layer is made thermally conductive by using suitable fibres (Wu et al. Geosynthetics are a class of materials which includes geogrids. Example of such materials may be use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in recycling process. drainage. 2009). Asphalt Handbook 2000. 2000. Further. From economical considerations Road building projects involve huge investment of money. plastics etc.resistance against aging. Geogrids are mainly used for reinforcement (ETL 2002. Karlsson and Isacsson 2006). 2010) for this purpose. industrial and domestic waste materials etc. Pryce 1999. various fillers. Wu et al. 2008. Pomerantz et al. Proper drainage system makes the pavement durable and keeps surface dry. Roque et al. the moisture present in pavement may freeze. Apart from the usage of conventional materials in making pavement surface. liquid flowing through tubes embedded in asphalt layer can extract this heat which can even be used for heating purpose elsewhere (Mallick et al. application of slag aggregate (Wu et al. geotextiles. Thermally insulating paint is an emerging material which can prevent this to happen. separation and filtration (Holtz 1998). During extreme winters. 2000a). geotextiles provides the benefits of reinforcement (Hausmann 1987). Similarly. Suitable materials (for example. are used to enhance the properties of asphalt binder (RILEM 1998. geomembranes can be used as moisture barriers (Holtz et al. extenders. Stabilizers are used to enhance the properties of soil or granular material by physical or chemical interaction. reflection cracking etc. Emery 2010) is an example of a new material used for improving the skid resistance. fatigue cracking. 2007. (Serfass and Samanos 1996. it gives rise to heat island effect in urban areas (Rosenfeld 1998. Maurer and Malasheskie 1989). Giroud and Han 2004). In the asphalt recycling process. bleeding. polymers. 1998).
industrial and domestic wastes. Robert et al. Foamed asphalt is manufactured by injecting water into hot asphalt binder. From construction considerations Innovative construction techniques can significantly affect the durability. and some are used as partial replacement of aggregates. 1989). 3 . it may economize the project cost. Some of the examples of domestic wastes that are used in road construction are incinerated residue. Some of the examples of application of innovative materials in construction are foamed asphalt. Nunes et al.Attempts have been made to use various industrial and domestic wastes for road construction projects (Sherwood 1995. From environmental considerations Some examples of innovative materials from environmental considerations are use of RAP in recycled mix. steel slag (Hunt and Boyle 2000). glass waste (Larsen 1989. quarry waste (Rezende and Carvalho 2003) etc. Since these materials have voids. It can be made using rubber particles bounded with suitable binder such as polyurethane (NR2C 2008) or asphalt binder (Nilsson et al. 1996). Foamed asphalt utilizes the benefits of a cold mixing method (like emulsified asphalt mix) and it has good flexibility and fatigue resistance (Ramanujam and Kendall 1999. materials have self-cleansing effect on pavement surface. Fujishima et al. Thus. 2003). Wen et al. 2000. Some of these materials are used as admixtures to binders. colliery spoil. Chen and Liu 2010). Photocatalytic materials help removing the air pollutants by decomposing them in the presence of light and hence removing the pollutants at the source itself (Beeldens 2010. fly ash (Mroueh and Wahlström 2002. Oxides of manganese. 2008). Further. China clay. marble dust (Okagbue and Onyeobi 1999). photocatalytic materials. sewage sludge. Murphy et al. roofing shingles etc (ETL 1999). these act as efficient noise reducers. titanium and cobalt are found to be photocatalytically active (Layton 2010). NR2C 2008. Some examples of use of industrial wastes in road construction are nonferrous slag (Mroueh and Wahlström 2002). 1991). glass and ceramic. cement grouted bituminous macadam (Goel and Das 2004) etc. 2003). emulsified asphalt. construction and demolition waste (Sherwood 1995). Poroelastic materials have pores and low dynamic stiffness. poroelastic materials etc. warm asphalt. Frazer 2001. economy and man-hours needed during the construction. crumb rubber (Shuler 1985. This is helpful in terms of tackling environmental pollution and waste disposal problems. Ramanujam and Jones 2007) and less temperature susceptibility (Jenkins et al. Hughes 1990. The first two materials have already been introduced briefly in the preceding paragraphs.
light reflecting paint (Kinouchi 2010) are examples of some of the materials which can be used to improve aesthetic look of the pavement. Beeldens. A synthesis of warm-mix asphalt. S. Report No.. These innovative materials have immense potential in terms of structural. Chowdhury and Button 2008).. 2000a). M. pp. From aesthetic considerations Colored asphalt (Lin and Luo 2004). and Wimsatt. Texas Transportation Institute. 2000b) are some of the traits needed for a safe pavement. and newer materials are being added to the existing list continuously. safety and aesthetic aspects of road building technology.. C. This is achieved by using additives to asphalt binder or using foamed asphalt. A. College Station. Construction and Building Materials. The list presented is neither exhaustive nor prioritized. M. 2007.. 2000. M. Asphalt Institute. Estakhri. Ready mixes for pothole repair (FHWA 1999) and self illuminating pavement marking (NCHRP 2008) are also examples of some innovative materials from safety considerations. last accessed on September 2010.. Belgian Road Research Center.. Texas A&M University System. sufficient skid resistance. and these need to be explored further so as to develop a sustainable road infrastructure. 2000b) and heat island effect (Pomerantz et al. 1998. http://www.Warm asphalt is manufactured at relatively lower temperature than conventional hot mix asphalt (Koenders et al.. References Abtahi. 871–877. W.. 4 . 2010. J. construction.be/pdf/tra/tra_beeldens_txt. Asphalt Handbook.brrc. and Hejazi. environmental. SWUTC/07/0-5597-1. Closing remarks The present paper has discussed briefly the various innovative materials for asphalt pavement construction. A. 24. Fiber-reinforced asphalt-concrete – a review. Sheikhzadeh. It provides both flexibility and rigidity to the mix. Pomerantz et al. S. Good riding surface. Innovative materials for achieving good skid resistance and surface drainability have already been discussed in the previous sections. which improves the workability of the mix. These are also helpful in improving safety (Pomerantz et al.pdf. In cement grouted bituminous macadam (Oliveira et al. 2008 and 2009) a porous asphalt skeleton is filled with cementious grout. Button. appropriate visibility (Rosenfeld et al. An environmental friendly solution for air purification and self-cleaning effect: the application of TIO2 as photocatalyst in concrete. Lexington. From safety considerations A road has to be safe for its users as well as for the construction workers. Vol. 2007. 2000. Button et al.. thus incorporating the advantages of both asphalt and concrete mixes. Texas.
375–379. J.. D.129/publications/eng-tech-ltrs/etl1110-1189/entire. 2001. Army Corps of Engineers.. Texas A&M University System. http://www. 4. http://www.. R.org/archive/legacy/nsa_186-1_steel_slag_utilization_in_asphalt_mixes. Washington. J.S. 174. and Boyle.... and Button.. National Conference on Materials and their Application in Civil Engineering. J. Geosynthetic design and construction guidelines. D. Emery. Emerging road materials and innovative applications. J.com/Geo/geo_education_resources/GMAHandbook_v002. M. Soil stabilization principles and practice. L. FHWA-RD-99-168. R. 5 . 2000. C. State research project 511. 109. Virginia Transportation Research Council. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews. Engineering principles of ground modification. Frazer. R. Department of the Army U. L. Journal of Hazardous Materials. G. T.. R.. Feasibility of using recycled glass in asphalt mixes. R. 2000. 2008. Texas Transportation Institute. Sydney. 775-786. B. Jenkins. I. Publication no.nationalslag. O. Hamirpur. Goel. and De Groot. Rao. and Berg.. 2002. and Metcaf. Steel slag utilization in asphalt mixes. 130(8). Van de Ven. J. Titanium dioxide photocatalysis. A. 1. K. 1999. 7th Conference on Asphalt Pavements for Southern Africa. SWUTC/08/473700-00080-1. Report No. S. Holtz... pp. manual of practice. Army Corps of Engineers. 2004.. Vol. and Das.. development of design method. A review of warm mix asphalt. ETL 1110-1-188.C.. last accessed September 2010. Zimbabawe. Y. VTRC 90-R3.. 2010.P.201-233.. Geotextiles for unpaved roads . Characterisation of Foamed Bitumen. Use of waste materials in pavement construction. 1998. W. pp. accessed September 2010. Engineer Technical Manual. 1990. Geotextiles and Geomembranes. N.. 1–21. and Han. Hughes. last accessed September 2010.S.. Use of geogrids in pavement construction. Ingles. Victoria Falls. 1972. G. A. FHWA HI-95-038. Design method for geogrid-reinforced unpaved roads. 174-177. Fujishima.pdf.76. D. pp. College Station. 1987. IFAI Handbook of Geosynthetics. 5. pp. Materials and procedures for repair of potholes in asphalt-surfaced pavement. Vol. vol.. Geosynthetic Material Association. Washington. D. L. Steel slag in hot mix asphalt concrete. and Tryk. last ETL 1110-3-503. J. J.. and Liu. Southwest Region University Transportation Center.. Giroud. Chowdhury. Hunt. NOx removal from vehicle emissions by functionality surface of asphalt road. No. http://140. pp.194.. Texas. US Department of Transportation. FHWA 1999. Barry.Chen. Butterworths. M. 1990. Hausmann. F. 2003.a review of design procedures. Titanium dioxide: environmental white knight?.. A.. Federal Highway Administration. McGraw Hill. A. Christopher. Vol. 2004. Virginia Department of Highways and Transportation and the University of Virginia.pdf. Department of the Army U. National Slag Association MF 186-1. Hausmann.pdf. B.C. Report No.. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering.ifai. Oregon Department of Transportation. Environmental Health Perspectives. A.. M. M.
. C. van de.. A quiet poroelastic road surface manufactured in a normal asphalt mixing plant.. 2004. and Kanda. active. McDaniel. U. TRB. R. Ulmgren. Connecticut Department of Transportation. M.ams. FL/DOT/SMO/91-388. NCHRP Synthesis 380. G. EATA. Nilsson. Report No. D. M. New Road Construction Concepts. 13-23. 1989. 343-21-89-6. D. Kinouchi. pp.. Feasibility of utilizing waste glass in pavements. International ISAP Symposium on Asphalt Pavements and Environment.Karlsson. Evaluation of crushed glass in asphalt paving mixtures.. European Acoustics Association. By-products and recycled materials in earth construction in Finland—an assessment of applicability. and Page.trb.. G. Healing of porous asphalt concrete via induction heating. Transportation Research Board.com/ams/pdfpapers/79804. National Research Council. O. Resources.confex. Schlangen.. J. N. Transportation Research Record.. 1248. Innovative process in asphalt production and application to obtain lower operating temperatures. Barcelona. A. Washington. 527-542. Murphy. D. N. A. Anderson.161-172.org/nr2c . and Wahlström. last accessed September 2010. http://onlinepubs.. Web-only document 144. Mroueh.M.. Vol. T. D. D. Bowen. Layton. Little. Acoustic 08. L. Transportation Research Board. pp. 6 . Washington. and Peterson. K.. 2000.. E. West... Zurich.. NR2C. M. C...18(1). Capturing solar energy from asphalt pavements. and Malasheskie. Vol. Turner. K. Mallick. in-pavement marker systems. 255–261. and Wilms.pdf. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. Recommended practice for stablization of subgrade soils and base materials. S. and García. D. Material-related aspects of asphalt recycling – state-of-the-art. R.howstuffworks.. 2nd Eurasphalt & Eurobitume Congress. 2006. http://science. P. NCHRP Web Document 30. pp. N. Field performance of fabrics and fibers to retard reflective cracking. Switzerland. N. http://www.pdf . D. 1991. U. Soleymani. H. 2002. 2009. A. C.C.. P. Hardy. Forum of European National Highway Research Laboratories. How Artificial Photosynthesis Works. H. Conservation and Recycling. Liu.. Larsen. 2008.com/environmental/green-tech/energy-production/artificialphotosynthesis. S. and Isacsson.. Paris. Ven... Recommended use of reclaimed asphalt pavement in the Superpave mix design method. M. R. No. B. B. and Luo. Florida DOT Research Report No. Bhowmick. Construction and Building Materials. 35. H.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_w144. TRB. last accessed September 2010. Road Materials and Pavement Design.. Maurer. 1989. Yoshinaka. NCHRP. Fukae. a synthesis of highway practice. Development of cool pavement with dark colored high albedo coating. 117–129. 2008 Applications of illuminated.. pp.. Larsen. Fading and color changes in colored asphalt quantified by the image analysis method. G. R. C. R. Chen.. M.. 81-92. Lin. T. 11.. S. and Nair. 2008. http://www. last accessed September 2010. National Research Council. C. 2000. and Sandin. last accessed September 2010.. R. pp. D. B. 2010. 18.fehrl. and Hulen... Á.... 2008. Q. pp. Koenders. Washington..htm .
Master’s thesis. H. Okagbue. Pomerantz. 2005. D. and Pomerantz. 2008. 4910-4504-964-12. P.. A. J. 87-96. 162.. Ramanujam. NCAT Report No. F. S. Akbari H. Pomerantz. 2000b... Oliveira. Pergamon Waste Management. Rosenfeld. L... Investigation of asphalt-rubber binders for use in pavement construction.. 1999. and Kendall.. J. M. Kandhal. Investigating the fatigue performance of grouted macadams. An examination of the geogrid as a compaction aid. Assessment of secondary materials for pavement construction: technical and environmental aspects. pp.. Akbari. New York. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.. Ramanujam. 2000a. pp. N. Vol..pdf. and Zoorob. S. 1999. The International Journal of Pavement Engineering. and Carvalho. J. T. Saathoff. L. C. 1996. applications and behaviour. No 53. Roque. Birgisson. Vol.. pp. The use of quarry waste in pavement construction. Southern Region Symposium. 115– 123. J.. Alternative materials in road construction.. 1995.. J. and Onyeobi. Vol... Romm. Journal of Transportation Engineering. Foamed bitumen stabilization. Guidelines for the use of modified binders. Berkeley. L. M. Report 17. Investigation and evaluation of ground tire rubber in hot mix asphalt. and Dowson.. Florida Department of Transportation. Issue TR2.. Dissertation. Montana State University. Energy and Buildings... L... J. National Center for Asphalt Technology. R. and Chang. J. S. Conservation and Recycling. Sherwood. pp. Graduate School. 1998. O. 28. Ph. Oliveira. Geosynthetics in geotechnical and hydraulic engineering. Final report. M. 8.. 193-230. 1999. 51. U.. 2003.. R. M. S. 2007. Thomas Telford Publications. Cool communities: strategies for heat island mitigation and smog reduction. Bituminous binders and mixes. Vol. C. 1998. T. A. and Samanos. C. R. H. B. H. Design of pavements incorporating grouted macadams. and Vollmert. 371-380. No. The effect of pavements temperature on air temperature in large cities. E & FN Spon. and Jones. 2. B. 7-14. 43443. 1-3. G. Pryce. Thom. Characterization of foamed-bitumen stabilization. Serfass. 91-105.. J. 16. LBNL No. London. Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists. RILEM. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Goondiwindi. 134.. C. http://www. Akbari. 1996.. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Transport. J. J... Nos. Pon.. Vol.bgr. and Zoorob. Robert. C. G. pp. Report no. Rezende. C. 1989.. R. Qld Department of Main Roads. 39.D. 111–122. S. J. E. Fiber-modified asphalt concrete characteristics. 89-3. Proceedings Roads at Work Developing Southern Queensland.. P.62. Bridges. R.. pp. Sangiorgi.. pp. Brown. and Harvey. Shuler. J. Engineering Geology.de/b114/geo_mining_hazards/saathoff. Potential of marble dust to stabilize red tropical soils for road construction. Resources.. T.. 65. and Drakos. E. T. submitted by University of Florida. Heat Island Group. and Dunning. last accessed September 2010. Fattorini. R.. College Station. Durability and visibility benefits of cooler reflective pavement. M. 1985. pp.. M.P. 2009.Nunes. Texas A&M University. 7 .
. 42. S.130-136. International Journal of Pavement Research and Technologies. 2003. Xue. Y. 2009.... Building and Environment. Qunshan. Tharaniyil. 1819. 27-31 Wu. Y. Y. and Chen.. 8 . Wang. M. H. pp. pp. Y. and Ramme.. M. Transportation Research Record. TRB. Vol. Investigation of performance of asphalt pavement with flyash stabilized cold in-place recycled base course. Vol. S. H. and Zhang. Laboratory study on solar collector of thermal conductive asphalt concrete. 2(4).. 2580–2585. B. Utilization of steel slag as aggregates for stone mastic asphalt mixtures.Wen. Chen.. Wu... pp. 2007..
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.