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ME 2252 MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY II II year Mechanical Engg.

B-Sec Notes on Lesson UNIT I : THEORY OF METAL CUTTING

Material removal process

Types of machine tools Turning machines Drilling machines Boring machines Milling machines Grinding machines

Shaping and planing machines Gear cutting machines

Unconventional machining machines

copy milling machines, centreless grinding machine, broaching machine etc.

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Chip formation Discontinuous chip Continuous chip Orthogonal cutting

Continuous chip with built-up edge

Mechanics of orthogonal cutting Merchants cutting force circle Orthogonal cutting with shear plane Strain and strain rate in orthogonal cutting

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Special machines like automats, copy turning machines, reaming ,

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Requirement of a cutting tool material Cutting tool materials Carbon tool steels High speed steel

Cemented carbides Coated carbides Ceramics Diamond Cubic boron nitride(CBN)

Tool wear Flank wear Crater wear Diffusion wear

Taylors tool life equation

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Cutting fluids o Cooling action Types of cutting fluid Straight mineral oils

Surface finish

Ideal surface finish in turning

Function of a cutting fluid

o Lubricating action

Water based emulsions

Mineral oils with additives

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Tool life

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Cast cobalt alloys

UNIT II : CENTRE LATHE AND SPECIAL PURPOSE LATHES

Centre lathe constructional features Head stock

Bed Carriage Feed rod Lead screw Feed change gear box

Lathe specifications Distance between centers Swing over the bed

Swing over the cross slide Horse power of the motor Number of speeds Number of feeds

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Cutting tool geometry o Nose radius

Cutting tools

o Back rake angle o Side rake angle o End relief angle o Side relief angle o End cutting edge angle o Side cutting edge angle

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Tail stock

Types of tools Parting tool Turning tool Right hand turning tool

Radius turning tool Thread cutting tool Chamfering tool Internal turning tool Inter facing tool Recess or groove making tool Internal threading tool

Lathe operations Turning Facing Knurling Parting Drilling Boring

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Taper turning methods Form tool method Thread cutting method

Compound rest method Tailstock set over method Using taper turning attachment

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Left hand turning tool

Special attachments Copy turning attachment Radius turning attachment

Machining time and power estimation

Capstan And Turret Lathe The principle parts are Bed Head stock Cross slide and saddle

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Capstan lathe

Comparison of capstan and turret lathe

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Turret lathe allowing the turret to be of large size. as 200mm. there is no such difference. 5

The turret saddle and auxiliary slide

Short slide since the saddle is Saddle moves along the bed, thus clamped on the bed in position.

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2. than 50mm. 3. when it is nearing cut.

Light duty machine, generally for Heavy duty machine, generally for components whose diameter is less components with large diameters

Too much overhang of the turret Since the turret slides on the bed,

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Automatic lathes
Classification

Automatic lathes may be classified based on their Size Type of blank machined Processing capacity Machining accuracy obtained Principle of operation design features

Number of spindles and work positions Type

Cutting off Swiss type

Special type

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Cutting off bar Bar Special type

Multiple spindles automates

Drilling, forming, cutting off bar

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Automatic screw machine

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Single spindle automates

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UNIT-III : RECIPROCATING AND MILLING MACHINES

Shaper The main parts of shaper are

Column Table Ram

Tool head assembly- tool feed handle, tool slide, apron, clapper box, tool holder

Specifications Stroke length Length and width of table

Motor horse power

Range of ram speeds

Planer

The main parts of planer are Bed

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Table Columns or housing Cross rail Tool head Specifications Dimensions of the table Horizontal distance between the two vertical housings Length that the table can travel Height from top of the table to the top of cross rail Type of drive

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Number of ram double strokes per minute

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Base

Types Of Milling Machine Column and knee type o Horizontal o Vertical

o Turret type

o Simplex o Duplex o Triplex

Planomillers

Special type o Rotary table o Drum type o Copy milling

o Keyway milling

o Spline shaft milling machine

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Horizontal Milling Machine Base Column Knee Saddle Table Arbor Over-arm Spindle

The basic parts of the horizontal milling machine are

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Production type

o Universal

Specifications The maximum length of longitudinal, cross and vertical travels of the table and its dimensions Main drive motor power

Distance from spindle nose to table surface

Milling cutters Based on construction Solid Inserted tooth type

Based on mounting Arbor mounted

Shank mounted Nose mounted

Based on rotation

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Based on helix Left hand helix Plain milling cutters Side and face milling cutters Slitting saw Special form cutters End mills

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Right hand rotation Left hand rotation Right hand helix 9

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Number of spindle speeds

Methods of milling Upmilling (conventional milling) Down milling (climb milling)

The types of hole making operations performed on these holes are Drilling Boring Reaming Counter sinking Counter boring Tapping

The main parts are Base Column

Radial arm Drill head

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Salient features

Provides movement of the spindle in three directions Several holes can be drilled on a work piece without moving the same.

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Universal Drilling Machine(Radial Drilling Machine)

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Hole making operations

UNIT-IV : ABRASIVE PROCESS, SAWING, BROACHING AND GEAR CUTTING Grinding wheel specification and selection Abrasive types

Silicon carbide Cubic boron carbide Diamond

Grain size Fine Medium Coarse

Bond Vitrified Silicate

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Metal Grade Soft Medium Hard Structure Open Medium Dense

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Synthetic resin Rubber Shellac 11

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Aluminium oxide

Grinding wheel types

Wheel balancing

Dressing and truing

Types of grinding machines Cylindrical grinding Surface grinding Centreless grinding

Cylindrical Grinding Machine The main parts are Base

Tables lower and upper table Head stock Tail stock

Wheel head

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Surface grinding machine Centreless grinding machine The main parts are Grinding wheel Regulating wheel

Horizontal spindle and reciprocating table Vertical spindle and reciprocating table Horizontal spindle and rotating table Vertical spindle and rotating table

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Types of feed in centreless grinding Infeed Through feed End feed

Honing

Honing is a low abrading process which uses bonded abrasive sticks for removing stock from metallic and non-metallic surfaces. The advantages of honing are Correction of geometrical accuracy Out of roundness Taper Axial distortion

Lapping

The process is employed to get

Extreme accuracy of dimension

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Super finishing generally used for integrity

Correction of minor imperfection of shape Refinement of the surface finish

Close fit between mating surfaces

Super finishing is another abrasive process which utilizes either a bonded abrasive like honing for cylindrical surfaces or a cup wheel for flat surfaces. It is

Removing surface fragmentation Reducing surface stresses and burns and thus restoring surface

Correcting inequalities in geometry 13

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Lapping is generally the final finishing operation done with loose abrasive grains.

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Dimensional accuracy

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Polishing and Buffing Polishing is done with a very fine abrasive in loose form smeared on the polishing wheel with the work rubbing against the flexible wheel. A very small amount of material is removed in polishing. In buffing the abrasive grains in a suitable carrying medium such as grease are applied at suitable intervals to the

high luster is generated on the buffed surface. The dimensional accuracy of the parts is not affected by polishing and buffing operations.

In this process a continuous moving belt with an abrasive is used for grinding the

being driven while the other remains idle. The workpiece is oscillated across the face of the abrasive belt to obtain a uniform belt wear and surface finish. Sawing machines

The various types of sawing machines used are Hack saw

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Manual Power Band saw Vertical Horizontal Contour Circular saw

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surfaces. The abrasive belt is normally passed between two wheels with one

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Abrasive belt grinding

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buffing wheel. Negligible amount of material is removed in buffing while a very

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Broaching Broaching is a multiple tooth cutting operation with the tool reciprocating similar to the sawing operations. The similarities end there, since in broaching the machining operation is completed in a single stroke as the teeth on the cutting tool called broach, are at a gradually increasing height corresponding to the feed per tooth of a milling cutter.

Broaching machines Push broaching machines Pull broaching machines Surface broaching machines

Continuous surface broaching machines

Gear cutting

Gear forming Vs Gear generation

Gear shaping Gear hobbing

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UNIT-V : CNC MACHINE TOOLS AND PART PROGRAMMING Numerical Control (N.C) It can be defined as a programmable automation in which the process is controlled by numbers, letters and symbols. Components of N.C o Program of instructions o Machine control unit o Machine tool

o Process planning o Part programming o Tape preparation o Tape verification o Production Components Of CNC A tape reader

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Micro or mini computer Machine tool Advantages Greater flexibility High productivity Good reliability Metric conversions Memory functions

Computer hardware interface and servo mechanism

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N.C. Procedure

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Manual part programming Coordinate function Feed function

Tool function Preparatory functions Miscellaneous functions Program number Tool length compensation Cutter radius compensation Canned cycles

Computer assisted part programming

Preparing the part programs for CNC machine tools manually is a viable system for any kind of job. But the assistance of a computer is desirable for part

respect is the complexity of the work piece which makes manufal part programming a very difficult exercise. Close tolerance contouring to some

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APT language statements Geometry Motion Post processor auxiliary

mathematically defined, or through a set of points other than a circular arc, is an example requiring too many coordinate calculations making manual part programming too tedious to be practicable.

The complete APT part program consists of the following four types of

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programming because of a variety of reasons. The first and foremost in this

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Speed function