You are on page 1of 15


Control Concepts



Close-loop Control
A controller is used to compare the error and output Different ways to react, called control modes Clock based control Event base control Combination of both


PI. PID CRIS.5/9/2012 Terminology Lag: A change in condition being controlled does not immediately produce response Steady state error: The difference between the set value input and the output after the transient have died away CRIS. BITS PILANI 4 2 . BITS PILANI 3 Control modes Two –step mode Proportional mode (P) Derivative mode (D) Integral mode (I) Combination of modes: PD.

BITS PILANI 5 Two –step mode Can be avoided by. It keeps a constant value of the variable by on and off Eg. Bimetallic thermostat Oscillation of controlled variable T on off T CRIS.5/9/2012 Two –step mode Temp. BITS PILANI 6 3 . Instead of a single value of variable a range is specified called dead band Large dead band: large fluctuation of the variable Small dead band: increased the frequency of switching CRIS.

the error is expressed as a % of the full range of value Prop. BITS PILANI 7 The output is proportional to the error. band 100% Controlled o/p set point 0% 0 error + % change in controller output = Kp x % change in error CRIS. Output (movement) = (xly) x (the error) 4 . Gain = xly.5/9/2012 Proportional mode (P) Size of controller output is proportional to the size of error Controller o/p is expressed as a % of the full range of possible o/p within the prop. Band Also.

Terminology Range The range is the two extreme values between which the system operates. A common controller output range is 4 to 20 mA.g.: a controller is an amplifier which gives an output which is proportional to the size of the input. a temperature control system might operate between 0° C and 30° C and so have a span of 30° C. e.5/9/2012 Ex. Span The span is the difference between the two extreme values within which the system operates. 5 .

this being generally termed the deviation. =Change in output (s) / E(s) = Kp CRIS. Proportional mode (P) Change in output = Iout – Io = Kpe Iout= o/p percentage at percentage error e Io = controller o/p at zero error Kpe = change in controller o/p from set point Taking laplace transformation Change in o/p (s) = Kp E(s) Transformation func. this being the absolute deviation as a fraction or percentage of the span. Fractional deviation The deviation is often quoted as a fractional or percentage deviation. BITS PILANI 12 6 .5/9/2012 Terminology Absolute deviation The set-point is compared to the measured value to give the error signal.

That’s why it is always employed with Proportional control T Controlled o/p T CRIS. = KD s CRIS. = Iout – Io = KD(de/dt) Laplace transformation (Iout – Io)(s) = KD sE(s) Transfer func. BITS PILANI 13 Derivative control error It can react for a constant steady error.5/9/2012 Derivative control The change on controller o/p from the set point value is proportional to the rate of change with time of the error signal Change in o/p of c. BITS PILANI 14 7 .

Prop.5/9/2012 PD Control Change in o/p = Kpe + KD(de/dt) error T Controlled o/p Transfer func.=…. Element Derivative Element T CRIS. BITS PILANI 15 PD Control Change in o/p= Kp +KD (de/dt) Iout = Kp +KD (de/dt)+ I0 I0= o/p at set point (Iout .I0)(s)= Kp E(s) + KD s E(s) Transfer function = KD (s+ 1/TD) TD= KD / Kp derivative time constant 8 .

BITS PILANI 18 9 .= (1/s) KI T CRIS.5/9/2012 Integral Control Rate of change of control o/p is proportional to the i/p signal dI/dt = KIe error T Iout – Io = ∫ K e dt I Controlled o/p Transfer Func. BITS PILANI 17 Digital Controller Ana + Clock Measurement ADC Digi Micro-Pro Digi Ana Correction DAC Element O/P Process CRIS.

5/9/2012 Digital Control A Micro –processor is in close loop control This receives inputs from sensors & provide o/p to the actuators. Components may have analogous signal so it uses ADC & DAC Clock supplies pulse to the control components CRIS. BITS PILANI 20 10 . BITS PILANI 19 Digital Control Following cycle of events: Samples the measured value Compare it with set value & generate error Calculations & give O/P Send O/P to DAC Wait until next sample time CRIS.

temperature etc. BITS PILANI 22 11 . BITS PILANI 21 Velocity control Shows oscillations when controlled by P PD is a solution Use a second feed back. feed back.) CRIS. It may use a techo-generator for sensing rotational speed CRIS.5/9/2012 Advantages & Disadvantages Any mode of controlling can be applied at any instant of time by changing the only the program Many separate process => Single controller. by multiplexing Better accuracy (no drift with time. called vel.

BITS PILANI 24 12 . BITS PILANI 23 Adaptive Control Adapts the changes and change the parameter (optimum) itself Based on use of microprocessor or micro controller Three stage of operation Start operating at assumed condition Desired performance compared with actual Minimize the error CRIS.5/9/2012 CRIS.

selection) Only gain is changing Making table Quick CRIS. Gain scheduled control Adjustment Auxiliary measurement + Controller Correction process - measurement CRIS.5/9/2012 1. BITS PILANI 25 1. Gain scheduled control Pre-programmed adaptive control Preset change (table of values. BITS PILANI 26 13 .

Self tuning control Also called as auto-tuning It continuously tunes its own parameters based on monitoring the variable that the system is controlling and the output from controller Small disturbance created and then check the response Response compared to desired one. and parameter adjusted CRIS. BITS PILANI 27 2. BITS PILANI 28 14 .5/9/2012 2. Self tuning control Adjustment Parameter estimator + Controller Correction process output - measurement CRIS.

Model reference adaptive systems An accurate model of system developed Set value is fed to both model and actual system Difference between these two compared CRIS. BITS PILANI 29 3.5/9/2012 3. Model reference adaptive systems model + Adjustment - + Controller Correction process output - measurement CRIS. BITS PILANI 30 15 .