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Topic

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Biodiversity

LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Describe the classification of organisms according to LinnaeusÊ binomial system; Explain the variety of living things and their characteristics in the animal kingdom; Identify the types of plants in the plant kingdom; and Discuss the classifications of microorganism.

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INTRODUCTION

There are various ways of dividing the living world into kingdoms. According to the five kingdoms recommended by the Institute of Biology UK, these five kingdoms are prokaryotae, protoctista, fungi, animalia and plantae. As the living organisms are diverse, a systematic classification is needed. This is based on the Linnaeus taxonomic hierarchy. Taxonomy is a hierarchical system for classifying and identifying organisms.

ACTIVITY 4.1
List three different organisms that you think would fairly represent each of the five kingdoms.

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TOPIC 4

BIODIVERSITY

4.1

CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS, ACCORDING TO LINNAEUS’ BINOMIAL SYSTEM

As there are enormous varieties of individual living things, biologists believe that classification is essential for our survival. The most popular classification is the binomial system devised by Carolus Linnaeus. Each type of organism is given a name consisting of two words. The first word is the genus name, while the second is the species name. For example, the scientific name of paddy is Oryza sativa. Oryza is the genus name, while sativa is the species name. What is the importance of classification in biology? The importance can be explained as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) To allow biologists to arrange massive data in a managed system; To assign unidentified organisms rapidly into the current system; To discover natural relationships among all classified organisms; To support the organic evolutionary theory of living organisms; To expand other related fields such as morphology, anatomy and physiology. Characteristics are derived from these fields in taxonomic works; To enrich the current taxonomic system. This is possible when new species are found; To prepare a systematic methodology for global living classification; and To aid ecologists in studying interactions among organisms efficiently.

(f) (g) (h)

In addition to naming species, Linnaeus also grouped species into a hierarchy of categories. The base of the hierarchy is species. Species can be defined as a group of organisms that are morphologically and anatomically similar. In addition, they should be able to produce fit offspring. A few related species with close morphological and anatomical characters are grouped under the same genus. Likewise, a few related genera are to be grouped under a family. Following this, a few related families come under the same order and related orders under similar class. Next, phylum consists of a few related classes and related phyla are to be put under a kingdom. See Figure 4.1 on how a grizzly bear is classified.

A taxon is a name for an organism in any level of the Linnaeus hierarchy system.org In understanding the taxonomic hierarchy. . the term „taxon‰ should be wellunderstood.goldiesroom.TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY W 87 Figure 4.1: Hierarchical classification of the grizzly bear Source: http://www.

and learned how to recognise their taxonomy.1: Taxonomy of Maize and Rat Category or hierarchy Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Plantae Tracheophyta (Angiospermophyta) Angiospermae (Monocotyledoneae) Glumiflorae Maydeae Taxon Maize Animalia Chordata Mammalia Rodentia Muroideae Rat Zea Mays Rattus Rattus FromȱTableȱ4. answer the questions below. Table 4.1. 1.2 ANIMAL KINGDOM We have gone through how animals are classified. Let us now continue our topic with the study of the animal kingdom.ȱweȱcanȱextractȱandȱsayȱthatȱtheȱfamilyȱtaxonȱforȱratȱisȱMuroideaeȱ andȱZeaȱisȱtheȱgenusȱtaxonȱforȱmaize.ȱȱ ACTIVITY 4. 4. Examples of taxa are shown in Table 4.2 Referring to the Internet. .1.2 for some of the animals in this kingdom. See Figure 4. or kingdom Animalia (also known as Metazoa). Why do we need to put the binomial naming system or scientific names in the italic form? Instead of the italic form. is there any other way to represent those words in the binomial naming system? 2.88 X TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY Category or hierarchy refers to each level of the hierarchical scheme.

Non-photosynthetic. Listed below are some phyla to be introduced with examples in English and Malay language.docstoc.TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY W 89 There are two types of animals. Members of the animal kingdom have the following characteristics: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Multicellular. Figure 4. Cnidaria – Jellyfish (obor-obor). Scientists estimated that 95% of the animal species found on this earth are invertebrates.2: Kingdom of Animalia Source: http://www. . Annelida – Earthworm (cacing tanah). Platyhelminthes – Tapeworm (cacing pita). Eukaryotic with no cell wall. Storage of excess carbohydrates as glycogen. and Nervous coordination. invertebrates and vertebrates. except for sponges.com We can discover a variety of living things in the animal kingdom – ranging from small to large animals. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Mollusca – Octopus (sotong kurita). feeding heterotrophically. Specialised tissues for movement and responses Most are sexually reproduced. Nematoda – Ringworm (cacing gelang).

and Chordata – Orang utan (orang utan). birds and mammals. Which one do you think is not an insect? 4. includes fish. reptiles. spider. Multicellular. grasshopper and dragonfly.1 Look at the list below: Spider. butterfly.90 X TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY (f) (g) (h) ȱ Arthropoda – Scorpion (kala jengking). SELF-CHECK 4. We are living in a tropical country and are surrounded by trees and grasses.3 PLANT KINGDOM All the plants that grow around us are under the same kingdom. See Figure 4. amphibians. and Autotrophic (some photosynthesis). Cellulose cell walls. crustaceans and mites. cells contain chloroplasts and they feed by . includes insects. the plant kingdom (or kingdom Plantae). Echinodermata – Starfish (tapak sulaiman). There are four general characteristics of a plant: (a) (b) (c) (d) Eukaryotic.3 for some of the plants in this kingdom.

docstoc.4: Asexual non-motile spores underside of fern leaves . and Angiospermophyta – Flowering plants.4). Filicinophyta – Ferns (see Figure 4. ȱ Figure 4.com ȱ In understanding plant biodiversity. Coniferophyta – Conifers. you need to know that there are four phyla: (a) (b) (c) (d) Bryophyt – Mosses.TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY W 91 ȱ Figure 4.3: Kingdom of Plantae Source: http://www.

Cone-bearing plants. lack xylem and phloem.e.3: Features of Monocotyledoneae and Dicotyledoneae Features Embryo Leaf veins Flower parts Secondary growth Class Monocotyledoneae One cotyledon Usually parallel Often in three Never woody Class Dicotyledoneae Two cotyledons Branching Often five. small structure gamethophyte called prothallus. Table 4. stems and roots with an elaborate vascular system of xylem and phloem. maize). and The body is anchored in the substrate by rhizoids. x x Conifers x x x Flowering plants x x x ȱ Some 250. Table 4. no flowers and no fruits. flowering shrubs and flowering trees.e. Table 4. True flowers. four or more Woody . This phylla is so large that plants in it are divided into two classes: (a) (b) Monocotyledoneae (i.2: Characteristics of Plants Common Name Mosses x x Ferns x Characteristic features Have no true stems or leaves. and Dicotyledoneae (i.4) but can also reproduce sexually. not roots and have motile male gametes.2 shows some characteristics of the plant kingdom. Coiled young leaves known as fiddleheads. rose). seed-bearing plants.3 shows the different features of monocotyledoneae and dicotyledoneae. It includes a wide variety of plants such as grasses. and Produce pollen for reproduction. and Fruits protect the seeds and help to disperse them efficiently. and Produce asexual non-motile spores underside of leaves (see Figure 4. Have needle-like leaves which are protected by a waxy cuticle. Reproductive structures are carried within the flowers.92 X TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY Table 4. The body has true leaves.000 species are Angiospermophyta phylla.

5: Categories of microorganisms Each of these categories has its own features based on shape. size. They are named by their shapes as shown in Figure 4.6: Names of bacteria ȱ . reproduction. ȱ Figure 4.2 List the differences between monocotyledoneae and dicotyledoneae. (a) Bacteria Bacteria are small unicellular organisms.TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY W 93 SELF-CHECK 4. 4.6. ȱ Figure 4.5).4 MICROORGANISM Microorganism can be classified into five categories (see Figure 4. nutrition and habitat.

ȱ Table 4. Normally.94 X TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY Table 4. pairs.7: Bacteria with flagella Size Reproduction x x 0.4 gives you a list of bacteriaÊs features and their explanation. spread DNA within cytoplasm without enclosed membrane.8: Asexual reproduction of bacteria .7). Motile with flagella (see Figure 4.8). Offspring produced have same genetic materials (see Figure 4. asexual by binary fission. No real nucleus. Figure 4. Peptidoglican cell wall. bunches or chains. and Some has thick outer cell wall called capsule.1 ȝm to 10 ȝm. Figure 4.4: Features of Bacteria Feature Shape x x x x x Explanation Different organisation cell: singular.

edu Nutrition x x x Habitat x Autotroph with chlorophyll can make their own food. and Parasite get their food from living host. it is continued by binary fission but the offspring have different genetic materials. However. Saprophyte find their food by decomposing dead organism.psu.9). . Almost everywhere.9: Sexual reproduction of bacteria (conjugation) Source: www.10). Figure 4.personal.TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY W 95 x Sexual reproduction is through conjugation in extreme environment (see Figure 4. (b) Fungi Fungi or moulds are multicellular microorganisms that produce spores (see Figure 4.

and Chitin cell wall.5: Features of Fungi Feature Shape x x x Size Reproduction Nutrition Habitat x x x x Explanation Various structures. while mushroom is multicellular.htm.11 for examples of how protozoa looks like. Thread-like structure.10: Moulds on bread For further explanation on the features of fungi. . Table 4.5. 10 ȝm to 100 ȝm.net/FUNGUS/Fungi2. you http://leavingbio. water. Yeast is unicellular. (c) can visit this website: Protozoa Most protozoa are motile unicellular microorganisms. For further reading on fungi.96 X TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY ȱ Figure 4. No chlorophyll. Take a look at Figure 4. letÊs take a look at Table 4. hyphae lie on or in the substrate for nutrient source. they feed saprotrophically. Soil. Asexual (sometimes sexual) production of very large numbers of mini reproductive spores. rotten fruit/vegetables and overdue bread.

Plasmodium is an example of non-motile protozoa.12). Flexible thin cell membrane. and Some reproduce sexually through conjugation where meiosis took place (see Figure 4. Mostly asexual through binary fission or spores. 5 ȝm to 250 ȝm. pseudopodia. Paramecium species move using cilia. while ameoba move using their „fake‰ foot. Explanation x x x Size Reproduction x x x .6: Features of Protozoa Feature Shape x x Constantly changing. euglena move using flagella.11: Protozoa ȱȱ Table 4. and No cell wall.6 offers explanations on the features of protozoa. Table 4. Some protozoa have contractile vacuole for osmoregulation.TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY W 97 ȱȱ ȱȱ Figure 4.

intestine and blood vessel. .13: Phagocytosis process of feeding amoeba Source: www. cilia or pesudopodia swim for their food (see Figure 4.13).98 X TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY Figure 4. river.britannica. They cannot grow or multiply on their own and need to enter living cells and take over the cells to help them multiply. while the other with flagella.com Habitat x Watery area such as pond. (d) Virus Virus infects every type of living organism.12: Conjugation of Paramecium caudatum Nutrition x Protozoa with chlorophyll produce their own food. Viruses by themselves are not alive. Figure 4.

Nucleic acid of bacteriophage contains DNA. while influenza virus (Figure 4.14: Bacteriophage virus ȱ Figure 4. ȱ Figure 4.14) is not covered by membrane envelope. while influenza virus contains RNA.TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY W 99 Bacteriophage virus (Figure 4.15) is enclosed with envelope.15: Influenza virus ȱ .

which is made up of bits of protein.0006 ȝm to 0.html . Explanation x Size Reproduction x x Figure 4. the progeny bacteriophages are released (see Figure 4. 0. Tiny bundle of genetic material. Many viruses do not have this envelope and are called naked viruses.100 X TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY Table 4.7: Features of Virus Feature Shape x x Various shape. and Lipid membrane covers the capsid. After binding. They will then replicate. When the host dies. get food from host. ȱ You can visit this website to see an animation of the HIV virus: http://www. ȱ Table 4. Some viruses have an additional layer around this coat called an envelope. the chromosomes are fused within the host cell membrane and spread into the host cytoplasm.4 ȝm (can only be seen through electron microscope).com/webcontent/animations/content/lifecycleh iv. either DNA or RNA.sumanasinc.16: Bacteriophage life cycle Nutrition Habitat x x Parasite.16). carried in a shell called the viral coat (capsid). The first step in a viral infection is the binding of a bacteriophage to a host protein.7 explains the features of virus. Living medium only.

Almost everywhere especially damp sites. it mates sexually.18: Spirogira elongated through binary fission Nutrition Habitat x x Autotroph because they have chlorophyll. Multicellular algae do not have true part like stem. brown and green algae Size Reproduction x x 1 ȝm to 60 m. asexual through binary fission (see an example in Figure 4. Normally.8 on features of algae. In extreme surroundings.ȱ Refer to Table 4.17: Red. .17). Motile algae glides or moves using their flagella Cellulosed cell wall. slimy algae has pectin cell wall Shape Figure 4. leaves and root. Phytoplankton is unicellular while seaweed is multicellular. Table 4. Depends on the surroundings. Presence of chlorophyll (green pigment) in green algae as well as red and brown pigments in different algae (see Figure 4.18).TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY W 101 (e) ȱ Algae Algaeȱareȱphotosyntheticȱorganismsȱthatȱoccurȱinȱmostȱhabitats.8: Features of Algae Feature Explanation x x x x x x Various shape. Figure 4.

to species. order. Give one way in which a bacterial cell wall differs from a plant cell wall. Flagella Bacteria Viruses Algae Fungi Protozoa Chlorophyll Spores 2.102 X TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY SELF-CHECK 4.3 1. family. place a (¥) if the feature is present or a (X) if the feature is absent for flagella. In the table below. class. genus and lastly. Which bacteria is motile? Give your reason. The hierarchy goes down from kingdom to phylum. A (a) (b) (c) (d) B C Identify each type of bacterium from its shape. Which type of bacteria is used for making probiotic drinks like Vitagen and Nutrigen? ȱ ȱ • The Linnaeus taxonomic hierarchy is used by taxonomists to organise organisms. Look at the three pictures below and answer the questions that follow. . chlorophyll and spores.

• • • Algae Angiospermophyta Animalia Annelida Arthropoda Autotroph Bacteria Bryophyta Chlorophyll Chordata Cnidaria Coniferophyta Dicotyledoneae Echinodermata Filicinophyta Fungi Genus Heterotroph Kingdom Linnaeus binomial system Mollusca Monocotyledoneae Multicellular Nematoda Phylum/Phyla Plantae Platyhelminthes Prokaryotae Protoctista Protozoa Saprophytic Species Taxon Unicellular Virus . cellulose cell walls.TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY W 103 • The five kingdoms of living things according to the Institute of Biology UK are prokaryotae. animalia. multicellular and autotrophic. There are four general characteristics of plants: eukaryotic. protoctista. algae and virus. Each kingdom has its own features or characteristics. protozoa. fungi. Animals are divided into inveterbrates and veterbrates. plantae and fungi. Microorganisms can be classified into bacteria.

.. (2000). T. .104 X TOPIC 4 BIODIVERSITY Brock. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Biologi STPM Jilid 1. D. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Fajar Bakti Sdn Bhd. K. M. Advanced biology. Lee Soon Ching & Liew Shee Leong. (2000). M. M. D. & Ward. New York: Oxford. Asas mikrobiologi dan penggunaannya. (1989). Brock. Kent.