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Experiment No.

7 – Transient Heat Transfer

Section 1.0: Introduction Learning outcomes: The learning outcomes of this experiment include assembling the piece of apparatus that was used for the experiment safely. At the end of the experiment the student should be able to explain the transient nature of heating and cooling a tank of aqueous solution, and to estimate the rate of heat loss from the tank to the surroundings. Gain valuable experience of computer data logging as this will be used throughout the duration of the experiment. The final learning outcome of recognising the hazards inherent in the experiment is of very high importance.

Theory: The heat content of a system is called the enthalpy; which is a thermodynamic property of a system equal to the sum of the product of its volume and pressures and the internal energy. The enthalpy of the batch of solution is given by the equation: H = Mcp(T-T0) (1)

Where M (kg) is the mass of the solution, cp (KJ/ kg.K) is the specific heat capacity of the solution and T0 (K) which is a constant is the datum temperature at which the enthalpy is taken as zero.

Thus the rate of change of the enthalpy of the solution during heating or cooling is given by: dH/dt = McpdT/dt (2)

Where the notation dH/dt means the rate of change of enthalpy (KJ) and dT/dt is the change in time (s).

A similar equation to that of equation (2) above may be written for the stainless steel tank used in this experiment. The energy balance may be written in the form: Q = McpdT/dt + MTcPT dTT/dt + Qloss (3)

In the above equation Q (J) is the rate of heat input from the condensing steam. MT is the mass (kg) of the tank of temperature TT and cPT is the specific heat capacity of the stainless steel used in this experiment from which the tank is fabricated. Qloss (J)

neglecting cooling of the condensate: Q = mhfg (4) Relevance: Transient heat transfer is based largely on Newton’s law of cooling which states that “the rate of change of the temperature of an object is proportional to the difference between its own temperature and the temperature of its surroundings”. Section 2. Transient heat transfer is widely applicable in the real world. One of its most common uses is when working with mechanical parts that act in concert with one another. It can be used when designing a car. making sure that none of the parts get too hot and cause a fire hazard inside the engine.0 experimental work: System used: Experiment and procedure: The following equipment was provided in the laboratory:       Tank with heating/cooling coil Stirrer Condensate trap Waste steam condenser PICO TC-08 data-logger unit with four type K thermocouples attached Computer and data-logging software . We can see from equation 3 that the difference between the rate of heat supply Q and the rate of heat lost Qloss is equal to the rate of increase of the enthalpy of the tank and its contents.is the rate of heat loss to the surroundings which occurs as there is a difference in temperature. The rate of heat input Q is given by the product of the rate of condensation of the steam m and its enthalpy of vaporisation hfg.

some of which will condense. Create a plan of what to do in the experiment . The supply of steam will be turned off when a steady state has been reached and the cooling of the solution within the tank by loss of heat will be observed. Firstly decide what measurements need to be taken throughout the duration of the experiment and draw a sketch of the apparatus showing clearly how to assemble it.Figure 1: Computer and data logging software PICO TC-08 data-logger unit with four type K thermocouples attached Stop watch Waste steam condenser Measuring cylinder Condensate trap Tank with heat cooling/coil The experiment undergone here was that of heating a well-mixed batch of solution by passing steam. Finally the tank will be cooled at a faster rate by passing cooling water though the coil. through a heating coil that was immersed in solution.

Safety goggles and laboratory coats must always be warn inside the laboratory due to potential hazards like the one just addressed. Steam was used for the heating of the solution and thus parts of the apparatus were very hot. So setting up the apparatus properly will prevent serious health risks such as very serious burns. Results Graph 1: 120 Temperature versus time 100 80 Temperature ˚ 60 40 20 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Time (s) 5000 6000 7000 8000 Inlet coil temperature In-tank temperatures outlet coil temperatures Ambient air temperature .Precautions: It is essential that in this experiment that the apparatus is properly set up. if the steam. All tubing connections must be clipped properly before the experiment is undergone. Waste stream must be condensed before release to the drain. which is heated to over 100 degrees. comes in contact with skin.

361 27.469 kJ kg-1 K-1 0.859 31.24 kg 0.515 Discussion Observations and treatment of results: a) Steady state is a situation where a system does not change over time in which a change in one direction is continually balanced by another.820 31.038 42. For e.Table 1: Data Specific heat capacity of water Enthalpy of vaporisation of water Mass of tank body Mass of tank lid Mass of coil and fittings Specific heat capacity of stainless steel Specific heat capacity of copper 4.385 kJ kg-1 K-1 Table 1: Table of results Time started (s) 665 770 855 956 1044 1162 1281 1361 1471 1556 1711 1808 1937 2058 2180 2302 2406 2546 2637 2740 2833 2935 Duration (s) 34 35 35 36 33 33 33 32 33 32 33 33 35 34 34 34 32 32 33 32 32 33 Mass of cup + water (g) 29.55 kg 0.3 27.45 27.21 27.444 27.492 32.055 30.470 30.127 31.792 29.185 kJ kg-1 K-1 2257 kJ kg-1 1.519 32.92 kg 0.972 32.272 32.465 31.866 31.g.662 30.811 27. .098 32.

866-19.667 kW Time started (s) 665 770 855 956 1044 Duration (s) Mass of cup + water (g) Condensation Heat input rate rate (kW) (kW) 34 35 35 36 33 29. It then reaches steady state for a while. In this experiment a steady state situation can be recognized when there is no longer a temperature gradient and the total heat input equals the total heat output. this is when the derivative dy/dt=0. This can be seen when the total inlet coil temperature equals the total outlet coil temperature.859 0.783888343 0.667142647 0.272 32.000356833 0.805372833 0.000347314 0. where there is no net flow of heat. when the steam is turned off it decreases with a gradient that is less negative than that of both the inlet and outlet coil temperatures. When the steam is turned off the outlet coil temperature follows an almost identical pattern to that of the inlet coil temperature as it decreases exponentially.803234057 0.total heat input to a system equals total heat output. The outlet coil and intank temperatures both experience an exponential rise when the steam is turned on and both reach a steady state at a temperature just below that of the inlet coil temperatures first steady state.866 31.000355886 0. The in-tank temperature reaches its first steady state after that of the outlet coil temperature.755274273 . When the steam is turned off the inlet coil temperature begins to decrease exponentially. over 100˚. When the cooling water is turned on the in-tank temperature decreases exponentially faster than that of the outlet coil temperature and reaches its second steady state at about the same time. and when the cooling water begins to flow through the system it drops to that water temperature and is then at a second steady state. c) The heat input rate can be calculated via the equation: Q = mhfg (4) Where the condensation rate m = mass of water collected (M)/ time water was turned on (t) For example at 665 s Q = (29. b) We can see from graph 1 that the coil inlet temperature immediately rises to the steam temperature which is used to heat it.972 32.816/34*1000)*2257 = 0.662 30.000334636 0.000295588 0.

3 27.768679485 0.4 0. We can see here that the heat rate is not constant and has no real correlation throughout the period up to steady state.47 30.519 32.000383303 0.82 31.460859371 0.563897344 0.000300875 0.865114939 0.825427219 0.2 Heat input rate (kW) 1 0.361 27.055 30.000233875 0.000233303 0.832766618 0.098 32.889394788 0. the heat input values against time started.529465647 0. The in-tank temperature from graph 1 shows that its values of its temperature against time are exponential and not constant.792 29.515 0.679074875 0.526564939 d) Graph 3: 1.038 42.6 1.000333625 0.538435563 0.000238563 0.000368971 0.444 27.527855875 0.000647257 0.8 0.465 31.000340576 0.2 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Time started (s) Series1 Heat input vs time started The above graph shows Q.000394061 0.492 32.773603848 0.1162 1281 1361 1471 1556 1711 1808 1937 2058 2180 2302 2406 2546 2637 2740 2833 2935 33 33 32 33 32 33 33 35 34 34 34 32 32 33 32 32 33 31.767516788 1.000340061 0.45 27. .000249844 0.505704788 0.682543353 0.752991625 0.6 0.21 27.4 1.000234588 0.000342758 0.000365719 0.811 27.000224061 0.000302412 0.127 31.

To work out Qloss we can also assume that dT/dt and dTT/dt are the same. At the steady state reached at the end of the cooling process the rate of heat loss from the cooling water is the same as the gain from the atmosphere.05% Scales = [0. The in-tank.e) The rate of heat loss to the surroundings from the rate of cooling of the batch can be calculated from equation 3: Q = McpdT/dt + MTcPT dTT/dt + Qloss (3) Q=0 as the steam is turned off.1 Qwater = -(2*4.01)) = 0.564 kW.01 (approx) Thus: Qloss = -(2*4.0.01)+2.0005 g Measuring cylinder: +/.1) + 0.005/42.095 = 0. which is lower than the ambient temperature.185*(-0.0. At approx 3000s we are at steady state so taking a value from table 1 for Q as 0. h) The maximum rate of heat loss occurs during steady state when dt/dT=0.095 kW f) The rate of heat loss of the cooling water may be calculated from an extension of equation 3: Q = McpdT/dt + MTcPT dTT/dt + Qloss + Qwater Cooling gradient = -0.858 kW g) The tank temperature at the end of the cooling process is lower than that of the ambient temperature as shown in figure 1. Errors: Resolutions of the equipment: Stopwatch: +/. This can be found by taking the gradient of the graph at two points (100.47]*100=0.47*0.3000) and (80. this can again be calculated from equation 3: Q = McpdT/dt + MTcPT dTT/dt + Qloss (3) Q = Qloss here as we are at steady state and the derivative dt/dT = 0.1) + 2.012% . inlet and outlet temperatures all reach steady state at the end of the process and this is the second steady state as the system does not seem to be changing and the temperatures seem to be tending towards a constant.185*(-0.5000) dT/dt = (80 – 100)/(5000-3000) = -0. we have a value for Qloss to be 0.469*(-0.469*(-0.5 s Scales: +/.47*0.100 ml Percentage errors of the equipment: Measuring cylinder = [100/2000]*100= 0.564kW.

Most of the energy required in the experiment was used to get the system to steady state. .  Water poured into the beaker from the condensate trap continued to drip at the end.14% Reliability: This experiment was not carried out again and hence this decreases its reliability. As outlined previously the experiment shows us the need to assemble a piece of complex equipment safely as there are many potential hazards during the course of the experiment. but with the big sample that was taken in this experiment and the data logging software these results can be taken as somewhat reliable. Accuracy:  When moving the water in the beaker to the scales. Conclusion From an industry perspective we can see why chemical engineers prefer continuous processes rather than batch processes.  Also when the stopwatch was stopped and the tap was closed. so all of the water was not collected even though it may have only made a slight difference. So a continuous process will be more energy efficient and thus more cost effective in industry and this is what the transient heat transfer experiment shows us. so the masses of the water were down to the consistency of the experimenter. by using steam to heat up the solution.Stopwatch =[0. some of it was being evaporated and continued on the scales.05/36]*100=0. they may not have always have been consistent with one another.  Water poured into the beaker from the condensate trap tap was not always opened exactly at the 30 second mark.

Nomenclature: Table 4 Symbol H M T dH/dt dT/dt dTT/dt m Q Qloss MT cPT cp cc hfg Meaning Enthalpy of water Mass of solution Temperature Rate of change of enthalpy Rate of change of temperature Rate of change of tank temperature Rate of condensation of the steam Rate of heat input Rate of heat loss Mass of tank Specific heat of the material (stainless steel) Specific heat capacity of water Specific heat capacity of copper Enthalpy of vaporisation of water Units kJ K-1 kg K kJ K-1 s-1 K s-1 K s-1 K-1 s-1 kJ s-1 kJ s-1 kg kJ kg-1 K-1 kJ kg-1 K-1 kJ kg-1 K-1 kJ K-1 References mit.unified/www/SPRING/propulsion/notes/node129. Transient heat transfer (Convective cooling or heating) Available at: http://web. First year practical work handbook 2011-2012.html [Accessed 31 October 2011] School of chemical engineering and analytical science.edu/16.mit.d. 2004. . n.