Roman Catholic Mariology

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This article is about Roman Catholic perspectives, and does not reflect the views of other segments of the Catholic Church such as Eastern Catholics. For general Christian views, see Mariology.

A series of articles on

Roman Catholic Mariology

General articles Mariology • Veneration of the Blessed Virgin • History of Mariology • Mariology of the saints • Mariology of the popes •Marian Societies Devotions Rosary • Scapular • Immaculate Heart • Seven Joys • Seven Sorrows • First Saturdays • Acts of Reparation • Hearts of Jesus & Mary • Consecration to Mary Dogmas and Doctrines Mother of God • Perpetual virginity • Immaculate Conception • Assumption •Mother of the Church • Mediatrix• CoRedemptrix Expressions of devotion Art • Hymns • Music •Architecture Key Marian apparitions

(approved or worthy of belief)

Guadalupe • Miraculous Medal • La Salette • Lourdes • Pontmain• Laus • Banneux • Beauraing •Fátima • Akita Papal Bulls Ineffabilis Deus •Munificentissimus Deus • Bis Saeculari Papal encyclicals Redemptoris Mater • Ad Caeli Reginam • Fulgens Corona •Deiparae Virginis Mariae •Ingruentium Malorum • Ad Diem Illum Papal Apostolic Letters and other teachings Rosarium Virginis Mariae •Marialis Cultus Key Marian Feast Days Dec 8 Immaculate Conception • Jan 1 Mother of God • Mar 25 Annunciation • Aug 15 Assumption
Roman Catholic Mariology is theology concerned with the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ and developed by the Catholic Church. "The Blessed Virgin, because she is the Mother of God, is believed to hold a certain infinite dignity from the infinite good which is God."[1][2] Theologically, Roman Catholic Mariology deals with not only her life but also with veneration of her in daily life, prayer, hymns, art (where she has been a favorite topic), music, and architecture in modern and ancient Christianity throughout the ages.[3][4][5] The development of Roman Catholic Mariology is ongoing. It continues to be shaped not only by papal encyclicals but also by the interplay of forces ranging from sensus fidelium, to the writings of the saints, to the construction of major Marian churches at the sites of Marian apparitions. In some cases, sensus fidelium has influenced Marian papal decisions, providing Mariology with a "theology of the people" component that distinguishes it from other parts of formal theology. In terms of popular following, membership in Roman Catholic Marian Movements and Societies has grown significantly in the 20th century. This has continued to be matched by support from the Holy See, with Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) stating: "It is necessary to go back to Mary, if we want to return to the truth about Jesus Christ ".[6] The ongoing development of Mariology continued in the 20th century, e.g. in his Angelus address in September 1985 Pope John Paul II coined the term The Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary, and in 1986 addressed the international conference on that topic held at Fátima, Portugal.[7][8][9] In parallel to the traditional views, since the late 19th century, a number of other perspectives have been presented as a challenge to Roman Catholic Mariology. These have ranged from feminist criticisms that consider the image of Mary a construct of the patriarchal mindset which limits equal opportunity for women, to other Christian views that see Mariology as a distraction from Christ, to modern psychological interpretations of Mary as the equivalent of mythical Goddesses ranging from Diana to Kwan Yin.[10][11][12]

called Mariology. Mary and her son Jesus are very close but not identical. Marian teaching.1 Mary is Mother of all Christians 5. redeemer and redeemed.[13]Mariology is Christology developed to its full potential. The figure of Mary contributes to a fuller understanding of who Christ is and what he did. a Christology without Mary is incomplete because it is not based on the total revelation of the Bible. while contributing to the teaching of Christ. In the Roman Catholic view.1 Perpetual virginity of Mary 4. Mariology is a logical and necessary consequence of Christology: Jesus and Mary are son and mother.5 Reparations to the Virgin Mary 6 Mariology as theology of the people o o  6.3 Co-Redemptrix 5.4 Assumption of Mary 5 Other Marian doctrines o o o o o  5. is also a separate discipline.2 Mother of God 4. Therefore.[14] In Catholic theology.1 Traditional views 7.[15] .4 Queen of Heaven 5.3 Immaculate Conception of Mary 4.1 Influence of visions 6.2 Mary as Mediatrix 5.2 Immaculate Conception 9 Centers for Mariological studies 10 Further reading 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References [edit]Mariology and Christology In Roman Catholicism.Contents [hide]     1 Mariology and Christology 2 History and development 3 Papal teachings on the Blessed Virgin Mary 4 Dogmatic teachings o o o o  4.1 Assumption of Mary 8.2 Liberal perspectives 8 Eastern Catholic differences o o      8.2 Impact on the Catholic Church 7 The multitude of perspectives o o  7.

Marian doctrines of the Catholic Church. from the masses of believers. 5th century. It includes dogmas. and at times from religious experiences of young and simple children on remote hilltops. confirmed and hypothetical theological positions on Mary. includes a permanent spiritual unity with Christ. the controversies and the cultural aspects of Marian devotion. but a devotional concept embraced by millions of Catholics who venerate the Blessed Virgin Mary.Christ and Mary. Marian apparitions. which have then influenced the higher levels of the Holy See in Rome via sensus fidei. and Marian Feast days are detailed in Blessed Virgin Mary. She is seen as the original image of the Church.[17] The Church is the people of God as she is the Body of Christ. 16th century. Being the Body of Christ. developments and controversies of the ecclesiogical movement. this article on Roman Catholic Mariology presents an overview of the major issues. or. mosaic. which is the subject of Catholic Mariology. is a key theme in Roman Catholic Mariology. Most Mariologists agree with this position.[19] In his 1946 publication Compendium Mariologiae. Marian devotions during the months of May and October. respected Mariologist Gabriel Roschini explained that Mary did not only participate in the birth of the physical Jesus but also. Mother of the Church. Therefore. but excluding the overall perspectives. taught by St. she entered with him into a spiritual union. As discussed below.[20] This echoed the sentiments of Pope Saint Pius X who in Ad Diem Illum stated: "there is no more direct road than by Mary for uniting all mankind in Christ. Chora Church. Popes highlighted the inner link between Marian dogmas and the full acceptance of christological dogma. Mariology is both part of abstract doctrine and an important part of church life: Marian prayers. traditions. [edit]History and development Main article: History of Roman Catholic Mariology Santa Maria Antiqua. with conception. being not only material. . [18] The Church lives in its relation to Christ. are the central part of Mariology consisting of confirmed teachings and doctrines regarding Mary's life and role. "To Christ through Mary". Louis de Montfort.[16] Early Christians and numerous saints focused on this parallel interpretation. it differs from other parts of theology in that its progress has quite often been driven from the ground up."[21] Mariology is ongoing. Mariology is not simply a theological field studied by a few scholars. The divine salvation plan. contemporary as well as historical. in the Forum Romanum. including the four dogmas mentioned below. as Vatican II states. seat of Pope John VII. pilgrimages to Marian shrines. the Church has also a relation to his mother. Marian titles.

Devotional practices grew in number. Pope Pius XII issued the Dogma of the Assumption and the Second Vatican Council declared Mary to be the Mother of the Church. and chants such as Ave Maris Stella and the Salve Regina emerged and became staples of monastic plainsong. popes have highlighted the inner link between Virgin Mary and the full acceptance of Jesus Christ as son of God. Prayers to Mary included the Ave Maria. The Renaissance period witnessed a dramatic growth in Marian art and masterpieces by Boticelli. Early Christians focused their piety at first more upon the martyrs around them. Theologically. is dated in its earliest form to around the year 250. In the 5th century. Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael were produced. the sub tuum praesidium. With the victory at Battle of Lepanto (1571) accredited to her. During the Reformation. the encyclicals Mystici Corporis. among the most famous being Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. it "signified the beginning of a strong resurgence of Marian devotions. the Catholic Church defended its Mariology against Protestant views.The history of Mariology goes back to the 1st century.[22] The earliest recorded prayer to Mary." [23] The baroque literature on Mary experienced unforeseen growth.[25] Mariology in the 20th century was dominated by a genuine Marian enthusiasm. Popes have been an important element in shaping both the theological and the devotional aspects of the Roman Catholic perspective on the Blessed Virgin. The Middle Ages saw growth and development for Mariology and brought major champions of Marian devotion to the fore. This resulted in a great development of Marian art and Mariology during the Baroque Period. the Council of Trent confirmed the Catholic tradition of paintings and artworks in churches. Following that. Lumen Gentium and Redemptoris Mater being . John Damascene and Bernard of Clairvaux. including Ephraim the Syrian. the Third Ecumenical Council declared Mary as Theotokos (God-bearer). they saw in Mary a bridge between the old and the new. Teaching of the Assumption of Mary became widespread across the Christian world. More than 500 pages of Mariological writings were published during the 17th century alone. Churches dedicated to Mary were constructed across the Christian world.[26] [edit]Papal teachings on the Blessed Virgin Mary Main article: Mariology of the popes Crowned Madonna Della Strada in the Church of the Gesu in Rome. Pope Pius IX proclaimed it a dogma.[24] Mariology in the 19th century was dominated by discussions about the Immaculate Conception and in 1854. In the 16th century.

his Holy Mother. during . Saint Pope Pius X with the encyclical Ad diem illum encouraged the entire Church to honor the Virgin Mary."[37] [edit]Dogmatic teachings Main article: Roman Catholic dogma Marian Roman Catholic dogmas have two functions: they present infallible Church teachings about Mary and her relation to Jesus Christ. popes have emphasized the role of Mary as the Mother of the Church and the Marian elements of Christology. and that the more a soul is consecrated to her the more will it be consecrated to Jesus Christ. initiatives. or those teachings infallibly taught to be Revealed by the ordinary universal Magisterium."[35] These papal documents reflect the support of the popes for both Marian devotions and Marian doctrines. popes Alexander VII and Clement X both promulgated the veneration of the Heart of Jesus and the Heart of Mary. these doctrines were held by the Church prior to the date of official definition. it follows that among all devotions that which most consecrates and conforms a soul to our Lord is devotion to Mary. Pope Leo XIII issued 11 encyclicals just on the Rosary. Pope John Paul II quoted Saint Louis de Montfort.[31][32][33][34] A number of Marian papal encyclicals and Apostolic Letters have been issued since the 16th century. prayers. As in the case of the Immaculate Conception or the Assumption. feast days.examples. a practice that was followed by pope Pius XII in the 20th century via the crowning of the Salus Populi Romani icon. These doctrines come in several forms. De Fide Definita or De Fide Credenda doctrines have the highest degree of dogmatic certainty.[27][28] Popes have at times followed on devotions initiated by previous popes. and said: Since Mary is of all creatures the one most conformed to Jesus Christ.[36] In recent years. means that Mary was a virgin before. All Marian dogmas teach about her divine son and highlight the divine nature of Jesus Christ.[29][30] Similarly. but open for discussion. the acceptance and support of Marian congregations. Pope Clement VIII started the venerative practice of crowning Marian images. and they praise Mary and. popes have fostered the veneration of the Blessed Virgin through the promotion of Marian devotions. The two Marian dogmas of Assumption and Immaculate Conception were established by popes in the 20th century. In 1904 at the 50th anniversary of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception. In Ecclesiam Suam Pope Paul VI called Mary the "ideal of Christian perfection". God's deed on Mary. the formal recognition of Marian apparitions such as in Lourdes and Fátima. Furthermore. for instance in the 16th century. The date of definition must be accepted by all faithful members of the Catholic Church as contained specifically in the Deposit of Faith and owed supernatural faith in itself (de fide credenda) There are four Marian dogmas among a large number of other teachings about the Blessed Virgin:[38] Name First Magisterial Definition Dogma content Perpetual virginity Baptismal symbols since Third 'Perpetual virginity of Mary'. as he declared the Queenship of Mary. and. In his 2002 Apostolic LetterRosarium Virginis Mariae. a concept which was embraced by pope John Paul II in the 20th century as the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus and Mary. namely teachings which have been specifically defined as Revealed by an extraordinary definition by a Pope or Ecumenical council. through Mary.

as opposed to by any specific extraordinary definition. the Son of God Immaculate Conception Pope Pius IX (1854) Mary. the doctrine was generally accepted. and Pope Paul IV's Cum quorundam of 7 August 1555 at the Council of Trent. as did Epiphanius in his Medicine Chest Against All Heresies. was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory For a discussion of a proposed fifth Marian dogma. Virginity before birth Mary conceived by the Holy Spirit without participation of any man. whose conception and birth are miraculous. the text does not explicitly assert the doctrine of perpetual virginity.. loudly proclaimed. the teaching can be considered to have been always taught infallibly by the ordinary and universal magisterium as a truth contained in the deposit of faith. Ignatius of Antioch described the virginity of Mary as "hidden from the prince of this world . Eastern Orthodox. concerned with the character and purity of Mary. making Jesus her only biological son. means that Mary was a virgin before. Before this last extraordinary papal/concilliar definition. by the teaching of this dogma. Non-Christians questioned this belief of the early Church [40] Jews and Christians differed on the prediction in Isaiah 7. during and after giving birth. the Protoevangelium of James (c."[39] Thus.14 [41] Along with other Christian groups the . [edit]Perpetual virginity of Mary Main article: Perpetual virginity of Mary . (De fide) This oldest Marian Roman Catholic.2) that Mary gave birth painlessly in miraculous fashion without opening of the womb and without injury to the hymen. The work. see the section on Mediatrix and Co-Redemptrix below. having completed the course of her earthly life. and Virgin birth of Jesus 'Perpetual virginity of Mary'." The affirmation of the doctrine of Mary's virginity before. in Against Helvetius. (De fide). but wrought in the silence of God. 120-150). The earliest such surviving reference is Origen's Commentary on Matthew. really an afterthought.. Further important statements of the belief include the Lateran Synod of 649. Mariology . Athanasius described Mary as "Ever-Virgin". where he cites the Protoevangelium in support. Siricius' and others. By the 4th century. the faithful believe that Mary was ever-Virgin (Greekἀειπάρθενος) for the remainder of her life. and Oriental Orthodox doctrine affirms Mary's "real and perpetual virginity even in the act of giving birth to the Son of God made Man.Century and after giving birth Mother of God Council of Ephesus (431) Mary is truly the mother of God. Thomas Aquinas's teaching (Summa Theologiae III. In the year 107. Jerome. Orations against the Arians. was preserved immaculate from Original Sin Assumption into heaven Pope Pius XII (1950) Mary.28. claims that Joseph had children from a marriage previous to Mary. during and after the birth of Jesus was the principal aim of the early 2nd century work. Hilaryargued in favor of the doctrine in his Commentary on Matthew and to this may be added Didymus (The Trinity) Ambrose of Milan. However. because of her unity with Christ. at her conception.

or.[43][44] Virginity during birth Mary gave birth without losing her corporal virginity (De fide)." [45] indicating the miraculous nature of the Virgin birth. that Mary bore her son Jesus while still a virgin.Catholic Church continues to teach today. From the first formulations of her faith.[46] Virginity after birth Mary remained a virgin after giving birth (De fide). like Christ leaving the sealed tomb on Easter Sunday. This belief of the Church was questioned in its early years [47] Today most Protestants disagree with this teaching. advocated by Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople. The definition Mother of God (in Greek:Theotokos) was formally affirmed at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. c. although Martin Luther and his contemporaries believed in the ever Virgin Mary [48] The scriptures say little about this. this was the first specifically Marian doctrine to be formally defined by the Church. Her corporal integrity was not affected by giving birth. Pope Pius XII in Mystici Corporis "Within her virginal womb she brought into life Christ our Lord in a marvellous birth. The competing view. but insists that virginity during child birth is different from virginity of conception. but never "sons of Mary. or.[49] [edit]Mother of God Main articles: Theotokos and First Council of Ephesus Madonna and Child from Saint Catherine's Monastery. the Church has confessed that Jesus was conceived solely by the power of the Holy Spirit in the womb of the Virgin Mary. during and after giving birth. The Church does not teach how this occurred physically. Christ walking through closed doors. After Church fathers found common ground on Mary's virginity before. 600 Mary is truly the mother of God (De fide). mentioning the brothers of Jesus. Numerous early Church writers used analogies to explain this mystery.[42] The Fathers see in the virginal conception the sign that it truly was the Son of God who came in a humanity like our own. light and sun penetrating through glass windows. Catechism of the Catholic Church. was that Mary should be . affirming also the corporeal aspect of this event: Jesus was conceived "by the Holy Spirit without human seed"." suggesting to the patristical writers a broader family relationship.

Explaining his rejection of Nestorius' preferred title for Mary (Christotokos. The Immaculate Conception is. led by Cyril of Alexandria. we understand that. with which [body] the [W]ord was united according to the hypostasis. then. in truth. according to Roman Catholic dogma. but we know only one Christ. Jesus Christ. the conception of Mary. But we do not say that the Word from God dwelt as in an ordinary human born of the holy virgin. There is. affirmed the title Theotokos for Mary.. let him be anathema. this was unacceptable since by destroying the perfect union of the divine and human natures in Christ. We do not divide him into parts and separate man and God as though they were united with each other [only] through a unity of dignity and authority. both of them being apostles and holy disciples.. but because from her was born his holy body. when he became flesh. The council accepted Cyril's reasoning.. rationally endowed with a soul. and anathematised Nestorius' view as heresy. If anyone does not confess that Emmanuel is.. Joachim and Anne). by extension. separately. and in similar fashion. Mother of Christ). and that she was instead filled with divine grace. celebrated on December 8. on ..." (Cyril's third letter to Nestorius) [edit]Immaculate Conception of Mary Mary was conceived without original sin (De fide). [50] The Immaculate Conception was solemnly defined as a dogma by Pope Pius IX in his constitution Ineffabilis Deus. The feast of the Immaculate Conception. but he was united by nature and not turned into flesh. the mother of Jesus without any stain of original sin. For Peter and John were equal to each other in honor. meaning "Birth-giver of Christ. [T]he holy virgin gave birth in the flesh to God united with the flesh according to hypostasis.. from the first moment of her existence. Her immaculate conception in the womb of her mother. not as though the nature of the [W]ord or his divinity received the beginning of their existence from the holy Virgin. To them. by normal sexual intercourse (Christian tradition identifies her parents as Sts... It is further believed that she lived a life completely free from sin. the Word from God the Father with his own flesh. Nestorius' opponents. for this is insufficient in regard to natural union. another Christ from the woman. the human who was Son of Mary. was established in 1476 by Pope Sixtus IV. Cyril wrote: "Confessing the Word to be united with the flesh according to the hypostasis. it sabotaged the fullness of the Incarnation and. but this does not mean Catholics were free to believe in it or not. and is said to have been begotten according to the flesh" (Cyril's second letter to Nestorius). should not be confused with the doctrine of the virginal conception of her son Jesus.. Rather we reject the term 'conjunction' as being inadequate to express the union. she was preserved by God from the lack of sanctifying grace that afflicts mankind.. and therefore that the holy virgin is Theotokos (for she bore in a fleshly manner the Word from God become flesh). Cyril explained his doctrine. for that reason we call her Theotokos. have ventured to call the holy Virgin [T]heotokos. He did not extraordinarily define it as a dogma at this time.. God. Nor do we understand the manner of conjunction to be one of juxtaposition. we worship one Son and Lord. and the divine who was not.called Christotokos." to restrict her role to the mother of Christ's humanity only and not his divine nature. one Christ and Son and Lord.. viewed this as dividing Jesus into two distinct persons. He noted that "the holy fathers. for equality of honor does not unite natures. but the two were not one. not in the same way as he is said to dwell among the saints do we distinguish the manner of the indwelling.... (See Nestorianism) In letters to Nestorius which were afterwards included among the council documents. the salvation of humanity. nor do we name separately Christ the Word from God.. in her mother's womb: the dogma thus says that. not with the sort of conjunction that a human being might have with God as in a unity of dignity or authority.

Italy. it was fitting that she be completely free of sin for expressing her fiat. It seemed to Pius XII that the Blessed Virgin Mary herself wished to confirm by some special sign the definition. It is a public holiday in some countries where Roman Catholicism is predominant e.g. 2002. the ever virgin. she replied with her eyes raised to heaven and sweetly: "I am the Immaculate Conception. Probably composed by the 4th century. this early Christian apocryphal narrative may be as early as the 3rd century.e). with whose vision she was favoured. not to maintain it as such. which Pope Pius XII referred to in Deiparae Virginis Mariae and reported in Munificentissimus Deus. Pt.g. Catholic theology maintains that. John. but as specifically and explicitly contained as an object of supernatural faith in the Public Revelation of the Deposit of Faith (de fide credenda). accounts of the bodily assumption of Mary into heaven have circulated since at least the 5th century. although this is not a public holiday. (Stephen J. §3. Another was the century old Church-wide veneration of the Virgin Mary as being assumed into heaven. Dominae. 2006). 1854 as a truth not merely implied by the deposit of faith and discerned by the Church under the infallible guidance of the Holy Spirit (de fide tenenda). Mary.[52]Although the Assumption was only recently defined as dogma. The Transitus Mariae tells the story of the apostles being transported by white clouds . Mary's being greeted by Angel Gabriel as "full of grace" or "highly favoured"). (Ott. a work probably from around the turn of the 6th century that is a summary of the "Six Books" narrative. youthful and benign in appearance. 2. Also quite early are the very different traditions of the "Six Books" Dormition narratives. attributed to St. and often calls Mary the Blessed Virgin (Luke 1:48). who earnestly inquired the name of her. as well as either directly or indirectly by the writings of many of the Church Fathers. The earliest assumption narrative is the so-called Liber Requiei Mariae (The Book of Mary's Repose). Fund. In the Philippines. and Mariology Mary was assumed into heaven with body and soul (de fide). Later apocrypha based on these earlier texts include the De Obitu S. And to this same girl.1. covered with a white mantle and girded with a hanging blue cord." [51] For the whole Roman Catholic Church the dogma of the Immaculate Conception gained additional significance from these apparitions of Our Lady of Lourdes in 1858. showed herself to a simple and innocent girl at the grotto of Massabielle. The earliest versions of this apocryphon are preserved by several Syriac manuscripts of the 5th and 6th centuries. Ch. less than four years later. Melito of Sardis that presents a theologically redacted summary of the traditions in the Liber Requiei Mariae. because.December 8.Bernadette Soubirous In the Roman Catholic Church. Shoemaker. The story also appears in De Transitu Virginis. although the text itself probably belongs to the 4th century. except where conferences of bishops have decided. mother of God was free of original sin. [edit]Assumption of Mary Main articles: Assumption of Mary. Munificentissimus Deus. 3. the Solemnity of the Immaculate Conception is a Holy Day of Obligation. a late 5th century work ascribed to St. in a French town  The Virgin Mother. clothed in a shining white garment. The Catholic Church itself interprets chapter 12 of the Book of Revelation as referring to it.. with the approval of the Holy See. the predominance of Catholic Schools make it almost a holiday. Bk 3. a narrative which survives intact only in anEthiopic translation. Ancient Traditions of the Virgin Mary's Dormition and Assumption] Oxford University Press. The Catholic Church believes the dogma is supported by Scripture (e. since Jesus became incarnate of the Virgin Mary. The Immaculate Conception is one basis for the 1950 dogma. In Lourdes a 14-year-old girl.

the more common teaching of the early Fathers is that she did. Other saints also describe it. and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God. under the infallible guidance of the Holy Spirit. [55][56] [edit]Other Marian doctrines The Catholic Church holds many other teachings about the Virgin Mary. Madonna del Popolo(Madonna of the people) 1579 The Catholic Church teaches that the Virgin Mary is mother of the Church and of all its members. each from the town where he was preaching at the hour. it was defined as definitive doctrine by Pope Pius XII: We pronounce. and immaculate conception. namely all Christians. notably St Gregory of Tours. Others are century old teachings. and St Modestus of Jerusalem. sinlessness. St John Damascene. many of which are just as relevant as the defined teachings above. [edit]Mary is Mother of all Christians Federico Barocci. written sometime after the 6th century. which. Some flow logically from the formal dogmas of virginity. While Pope Pius XII deliberately left open the question of whether Mary died before her Assumption." [53][54] Since the 1870 solemn declaration of Papal Infallibility by Vatican I in 1870. this declaration by Pius XII has been the only ex cathedra use of Papal Infallibility. declare. although this is a much later work. was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory. Theological debate about the Assumption continued until 1950 the death-bed of Mary. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states: . the ever Virgin Mary. The Decretum Gelasianum in the 490s declared some transitus Mariae literature as apocryphal. An Armenian letter attributed to Dionysus the Areopagite also mentions the event. in the Catholic view. are an integral part of the deposit of Faith handed down by the Church. having completed the course of her earthly life. in the Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus. cults and celebrations.

Pope John Paul II stated that reading Saint Louis de Montfort's work on Devotion to Mary had been a "decisive turning point" in his life[60] [edit]Mary as Mediatrix Main article: Mediatrix In Catholic teachings. Pope Pius X employed this title in Ad Diem Illud in 1904. his Holy Mother. The devotion to the Virgin Mary thus continues to be emphasized in Roman Catholic teachings.[64] The theological discussion ongoing. In his 1954 encyclical Ad caeli reginam. as the sole remaining Apostle remaining steadfast with Jesus is taken to represent all loyal followers of Jesus from that time on.. and that the more a soul is consecrated to her the more will it be consecrated to Jesus Christ. . in the view of several prominent. The following year. from the cross gives the Apostle John to Mary as her son. is acknowledged and honoured as being truly the Mother of God and of the redeemer." In a separate address to the Montfortian Fathers. John here. Again. and gives Mary to John as his mother. Mediatrix of all Graces in 1921. Mother of the Church. In the first of his so called Rosary encyclicals.[59] Now. Mother of Christ. The earliest surviving recorded prayer to Mary is the Sub tuum praesidium."The Virgin Mary . Mary is seen as mother of Christians because Christians are said in scripture to become spiritually part of the body of Christ. but Mary is seen as having the greatest intercessionary power." "Mary. Christians are adopted by Jesus as his "brothers".. his encyclical Superiore Anno speaks of the prayers presented to God through her whom He has chosen to be the dispenser of all heavenly graces. .[61] He alone reconciled through his death on the Cross creator and creation. who are members of its head. the Syrian “after the mediater a mediatrix for the whole world [62] Intercession is something that may be done by all the heavenly saints. She is 'clearly the mother of the members of Christ' . supportive." [57] In addition.. They therefore share with Him the Fatherhood of God and also the motherhood of Mary. in the New Testamentbook of John [58] Jesus. Supremi Apostolatus (1883).[63] Mary has increasingly been seen as a principal dispenser of God's graces and Advocate for the people of God and is mentioned as such in several official Church documents. which he quoted:. but not all Catholics.Pope John Paul II discussed how his own motto "Totus Tuus" was inspired by the writings of Saint Louis de Montfort on total consecration to the Virgin Mary. . Pope Benedict XV introduced it into the Marian liturgy when he created the Marian feast of The Mary. . since she has by her charity joined in bringing about the birth of believers in the Church. Jesus Christ is the only mediator between God and man. preparatory. written in Greek. neither Pius XII nor his successors moved to a closure of this issue. Pope Pius XII calls Mary the Mediatrix of peace. 1884. But this does not exclude a secondary mediating role for Mary. Pope Leo XIII calls Our Lady the guardian of our peace and the dispensatrix of heavenly graces. it follows that among all devotions that which most consecrates and conforms a soul to our Lord is devotion to Mary. . Pope Pius IX used the title in Ineffabilis Deus. for example by Ephraim. For instance. in his encyclical Rosarium Virginis Mariae. since Mary is of all creatures the one most conformed to Jesus Christ. The teaching that Mary intercedes for all believers and especially those who request her intercession through prayer has been held in the Church since early times.

from all eternity joined in a hidden way with Jesus Christ in one and the same decree of predestination. "Let Heaven sustain me in its embrace. referred to Mary as "causa salutis" [cause of our salvation] given her "fiat [65] It is teaching. Being redeemed by Christ. because I am honored above it.[72] In the Papal bull Munificentissimus Deus on dogma of the assumption.[edit]Co-Redemptrix Main article: Co-Redemptrix Pietro Lorenzetti. to suffer with him under the cross and to sacrifice him for the sake of the redemption of mankind. 1918.[67] Mary herself needed redemption and was redeemed by Jesus Christ her son. She gave free consent to give life to the redeemer. implies that she cannot be his equal part in the redemption process. since Christ is the only redeemer." [74] Prudentius. Irenaeus." and the "Virgin Mother who brought forth the King of the whole world. Co-redemption is not something new. 1310 Co-Redemptrix refers to the participation of Mary in the salvation process. the Mother marvels "that she has brought forth God as man. Malta The doctrine that the Virgin Mary has been crowned Queen of Heaven goes back to the early patristic writers of the Church such as] St. a most perfect virgin in her divine motherhood." [75] and. which has been considered since the 15th century [66] but never declared a dogma. Ephrem. How . St. as the noble associate of the divine Redeemer [73] [edit]Queen of Heaven Main articles: Ad Caeli Reginam and Queen of Heaven Statue (detail) of the Assumption of Mary in Attard. Gregory Nazianzen"the Mother of the King of the universe. immaculate in her conception. For heaven was not Thy mother. Already. Inter Soldalica. to share his life. Papal teaching begin to mention this aspect in official Church documents during the pontificate of Pope Pius X [69] Pius X referred to it in his encyclical Ad Diem Illum.[70] Pope Benedict XV first described the term in his own right in his Apostolic Letter.[68] Co-redemptrix refers to an indirect or unequal but important participation by Mary in the redemption process. The Roman Catholic view of Co-Redemptrix does not imply that Mary participates as equal part in the redemption of the human race. the Church Father (Died 200). and even as Supreme King.[71][71] Pope Pius XIIrepeated this argument with slightly different accents in his encyclical Mystici Corporis. Pope Pius declares that “the revered Mother of God. issued March 22. but Thou hast made it Thy throne.

The local prelate did not believe his account and asked for a miraculous sign. With tens of millions of followers. as Mother of the divine Christ.much more honorable and venerable than the throne of a king is her mother. and was eventually declared venerable in 1987. . these devotions have not been started with decrees issued in Rome. Juan Diego's reported vision of the Virgin Mary was considered instrumental in the attraction of almost 8 million people to the ranks of Catholics in the Americas between 1532 and 1538. As mother of God. [edit]Mariology as theology of the people Unlike Roman Catholic theology which originates from the upper levels of the Church in the writings of scholars and theologians. In 1531. A good example is the case of Saint Juan Diego. is King. in the full and strict meaning of the term. and canonized in 2002. only Jesus Christ. reigns with a mother's solicitude over the entire world. from her union with Christ she receives the royal right to dispose of the treasures of the Divine Redeemer's Kingdom. Their faith and beliefs influenced priests and the higher levels of the Roman Catholic hierarchy. Yet. he reported an early morning vision of the Virgin Mary in which he was instructed to build an abbey on the Hill of Tepeyac in Mexico.[80][81][82] These devotions and prayers do not involve a petition for a living or deceased beneficiary. beatified in 1990. By all accounts. bearing a crown of twelve stars in Revelation[77] Many Popes have given tribute to it. in His royal dignity. but aim to repair the sins of others against the Virgin Mary. the God-Man. too. Queen and Ruler of the Universe (Leo XIII) and Queen of the World (Pius XII) [78] The theological and logical foundation of these titles rests in the dogma of Mary as the Mother of God. though in a limited and analogous way. but Mary. Mariology has often developed from the ground up by the tens of millions of Catholics with a special devotion to the Blessed Virgin. the Virgin Mother of God. as His associate in the redemption. The Raccolta Catholic prayer book (approved by a Decree of 1854. Mary is the Queen of Heaven and Earth. she participates in his salvation plan. just as she is crowned in heavenly blessedness with the glory of a Queen [79]: Certainly.[79] [edit]Reparations to the Virgin Mary Roman Catholic teachings and traditions includes specific devotions as Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary for insults that she suffers. (Pius IX). In several crucial cases. who independently adopted practices and devotions. Juan Diego did not receive a lot of attention in Rome during the 1530s." [76] The Catholic Church often sees Mary as queen in heaven. and published by the Holy See in 1898) includes a number of such prayers. since the Church was busy with the challenges of the Protestant Reformation of 1521 to 1579. Their recounting of their experiences in time created strong emotions among numerous Roman Catholics. from her union with Christ finally is derived the inexhaustible efficacy of her maternal intercession before the Son and His Father. has a share. but by religious experiences (and visions) of simple and modest individuals (in many cases children). This was provided by an icon of Our Lady of Guadalupe permanently imprinted on the saint's cloak where he had gathered roses. in his struggle with His enemies and His final victory over them. Juan Diego impacted Mariology in the Americas and beyond. For from her union with Christ she attains a radiant eminence transcending that of any other creature. The Catholic faith teaches that Mary.

only Paris has more hotels than Lourdes. Within France. I am the Immaculate Conception and asked that a church be built there. Pius X can accommodate 25. 14 year old peasant girl of no significant education. which was formed with a $25 donation for a typewriter in 1949. Large churches were built at the sites: Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico. Saint Bernadette Soubirous's reported vision of Our Lady of Lourdes was similar. Bernadette firmly but modestly insisted on her vision. has also influenced Mariology.The spread of Marian devotions. who said. In 1858. which in time influences the direction of Mariology as a whole. questioned. It now has thousands of volunteers who have distributed hundreds of millions of free rosaries to Catholic missions worldwide. The growth of Marian devotions builds sensus fidelium. and Our Lady of Lourdes in France. Bernadette Soubirous reported her vision of a woman in white. An example is Our Lady's Rosary Makers.[83] In time. . Both visions included a reference to roses. Que soy L’Immaculado concepciou. At first ridiculed. [edit]Influence of visions Bernadette of Lourdes Main article: Marian apparitions Saint Juan Diego was not the only young person to report an early morning vision on a hilltop where a Lady appears and asks for a Church to be built on that hill. and belittled by Church officials and other contemporaries. such as the Holy Rosary via lay Catholic organizations. Lourdes is now a major Marian pilgrimage site.000 people). the Basilica of St. many churches were built on that hilltop (one of them. such as free rosary distribution groups. Both saints reported a miraculous Lady on a hill who asked them to request that the local priests build a chapel at the site of the vision. The 20th century witnessed significant growth in the number of volunteer-based lay Marian devotional organizations. A simple. Eventually the Church believed her and she was canonized by Pope Pius XI in 1933.

the visions of Fatima were officially declared "worthy of belief" in October 1930 by the Bishop of Leiria-Fatima. as "living proof how Marian devotion is linked to 'Christology'" and the adoration of Jesus Christ.[88] Mariette Beco was twelve years old when she reported Marian apparitions in 1933 in Banneux. as an official Vatican website admitted in 2004. As a simple Marian nun. He donated the bullet that wounded him to the Roman Catholic sanctuary at Fátima. John XXIII.[87] In his encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor. and Francisco Marto. The local administrator initially jailed the children and threatened that he would boil them one by one in a pot of oil. In this case.[86] She made a vow at age 14 to dedicate her life to the Virgin Mary. listened to the Mariological faith. and then led the inmates in praying the Rosary. The children were consoled by the other inmates in the jail. with some delay. Paul VI and John Paul II voiced their acceptance of the supernatural origin of the Fatima events. The devotion to the Sacred Heart was officially recognized 75 years after Alacoque's death. After a canonical enquiry. the Church. 1981. Portugal. who supported her. She was initially rebuffed by her mother superior and was unable to convince theologians of the validity of her visions. she was subjected to many trials to prove the genuineness of her vocation and her visions of Jesus and Mary relating to the Sacred Heart. Three Portuguese children. Jacinta Marto. Lucia dos Santos. Pope Pius XI stated that Jesus Christ had "manifested Himself" to Saint Margaret and referred to the conversation between Jesus and Saint Margaret several times. 1917. the Holy See permitted the local bishop to allow the veneration of the Virgin of the Poor. A noted exception was Saint Claude de la Colombière. were equally young and without much education when they reported the apparition of Our Lady of Fatima in 1917.[85] Popes Pius XII. the reported visions at Fatima gathered respect. John Paul II credited Our Lady of Fatima with saving his life following an assassination attempt on the Feast of Our Lady of Fatima.[84] With millions of followers and Roman Catholic believers. "Thedogma of the Immaculate Conception was defined by Pius IX not so much because of proofs in Scripture or .[89] [edit]Impact on the Catholic Church While these and many other persons all faced problems for an initial period." In 1942. Mariologists refer to Saint Marguerite Marie Alacoque.Lúcia Santos (middle) with her cousins Francisco and Jacinta Marto. Belgium. the Lady in White reportedly declared she was the Virgin of the Poor and said: "Believe in me and I will believe in you. Thus.

opposing views based on progressive interpretations of have been presented by feminists.[92] To some non-Catholics and even to some theologically oriented Catholics. the sensus fidelium was already being shaped in the Middle Ages. the 1950 declaration by Pius XII has been the first and only ex cathedra use of papal infallibility. such as the Immaculate Conception. the profound and century-old sense of the faithful took precedence over academic theology. not free from every stain of sin?"[91] In several Marian teachings. where Pius XII supported such a faith: If the popular praises "of the Blessed Virgin Mary be given the careful consideration they deserve. who will dare to doubt that she. Catholics have viewed the Virgin Mary from a multitude of perspectives. a century-old sense of the faithful. but due to a profound sensus fidelium. .[90] Identical arguments were made for the dogma of the Assumption by Pope Pius XII. at times derived from specific Marian attributes ranging from queenship to humility. psychologists and liberal Catholics. and at times based on cultural preferences of events taking place at specific points in history. Yet these views have changed and been transformed over time. like Karl Rahner. ex cathedra dogmas: Immaculate Conception (1854) and Assumption (1950).[97][98] [edit]Traditional views Traditional views on May have emphasized the Marian dogmas and doctrines. Antonio da Correggio had completed his contract for the elaborate scene of the Assumption in the Cathedral of Palermo. and by 1530.[94] [edit]The multitude of perspectives Throughout the centuries. even for the briefest instant.[90] The Vatican quotes in this context Fulgens Corona. took place only in the 20th century. Thus while the dogmatic definitions of theAssumption. popular Mariology has been a major driving force in the past 150 years. this sensus fidei has some problems. who was purer than the angels and at all times pure.ancient tradition. accompanied by devotions and venerations.[93] Nevertheless. and the Magisterium".[95][96] In parallel with the traditional approaches to Mariology. It led to the two infallible. Since the 1870 solemn declaration of Papal Infallibility by Vatican I. the "theology of the people". was at any moment.

The image of the Virgin of Guadalupe that is highly venerated in Mexico has the appearance of a South American. and its adoption within a culture a world away is the transformation of the image of Mary from a Heavenly Queen to a mother of humility. a dual view had emerged in Europe. merciful figure of Kuanyin. and not in Spanish.A statute of John Paul II with Our Lady of Guadalupe. as well as a heavenly queen. they did not fit with the virtue of humility which was a key tenet of the spirituality of Saint Francis of Assisi.[106] Saint Juan Diego's account of the appearance of the Virgin of Guadalupe to him in 1531 on Tepeyac Hill in Mexico provides another example of the cultural adaptation of the view of the Virgin Mary. by depicting the Madonna sitting on the ground. and the clothing of the Virgin of Guadalupe has been identified as that of an Aztec princess. as well as a halo. The Virgin of Guadalupe was a turning point in the conversion of South . It offered a view of the Virgin Mary (often barefoot) as a mother nursing a child. Despite her low. rather than a European woman. as represented by Domenico di Bartolo's 1433 Madonna of humility which expressed the symbolic duality of her nature: an earthly barefoot woman. which was much admired in south China. as she is being attended to while she holds the Child Jesus. rather than a throne. sitting position. made entirely with keys donated by Mexicans to symbolize that they had given him the keys to their hearts. but as a tanned Aztec princess who spoke in his local Nahuatl language. and partly due to its similarity to the motherly. and the construction of views to accommodate both perspectives. rather than a Queen in a coronation scene.[103][104][105] However. the depiction of star and the gems. by the middle of the 15th century. by Pacho Cárdenas.[100][101][102] As the Franciscans began to preach in China. signify the regal status of the Virgin. Juan Diego did not describe the Virgin Mary as either European or Middle Eastern. [99] An example of the changing perspectives on the Virgin Mary based on specific spiritual views. the notion of the Virgin of humility resonated well with the Chinese. partly due to the cultural acceptance of humility as a virtue in China. While depictions of the Virgin Mary as the Queen of Heaven or Coronation of the Virgin by artists such as Paolo Veneziano or Giuliano da Rimini were common in the early part of the 14th century. The concept of the Virgin of humility was developed in the 14th century in order to accommodate Franciscan piety.

and it continues to be venerated today as the Patron of Poland.[114] The legends of miracles performed by the image of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa also go back for centuries. These views are generally critical of the Roman Catholic approach to Mariology as well as the Eastern Orthodox church. unless they have been subject to extensive analysis.[97][98][120] Some feminists contend that. which has even more Marian emphasis within its official liturgy. To that end . Italy go back to the Renaissance. spoke in Nahuatl as part of the ceremony. the image of Mary is a construct of the patriarchal mind. and is the primary view of Mary among millions of Catholics in Mexico in the 21st century. millions of Catholic pilgrims visit the Basilica at Our Lady of Lourdes in search of miraculous cures.[107][108][109] Pope John Paul II reinforced the localization of this view by permitting local Aztec dances during the ceremony in which he declared Juan Diego a saint. shown in this statue at the Louvre.[11] Since the end of the 19th century.[108] [110][111] The view of the Virgin Mary as a "miracle worker" has existed for centuries and is still held by many Catholics in the 21st century.[117][118] Although millions of Catholics hope for miracles on their pilgrimages. ranging from feminist criticisms to interpretations based on modern psychology and liberal Catholic viewpoints. the Vatican has generally been reluctant to approve of modern miracles.America to Catholicism. as with other women saints such as Joan of Arc. old gender stereotypes persist within traditional Marian teachings and theological doctrines. [119] [edit]Liberal perspectives Freud argued that the image of Mary was a reconstruction of the worship paid to the mythicalGoddess Diana. [98] In the feminist view.[112][113] The legends of the miracles of the Maddona of Orsanmichelein Florence.[115][116] Every year. called Juan Diego "the talking eagle" and asked him to show "the way that leads to the Dark Virgin of Tepeyac". a number of progressive and liberal perspectives of Mariology have been presented. They argue that Marian dogmas and doctrines and the typical forms of Marian devotion reinforce patriarchy by offering women temporary comfort from the ongoing oppression inflicted on them by male dominated churches and societies.

[122][123] Groups of liberal Catholics view the traditional image of the Virgin Mary as presented by the Catholic Church as an obstacle towards realization of the goal of womanhood.[12] Since the Reformation many Christians have opposed Marian venerations.books on "feminist Mariology" have been published to present opposing interpretations and perspectives. on the other hand.[121] A large number of other psychological interpretations have been presented through the years. Freud argued that Marian venerations were a surrogate for the worship of the Goddess Diana.[125] [edit]Eastern Catholic differences Roman Catholic Mariology A series of articles on Marian Prayers Alma Redemptoris Mater Angelus As a Child I Loved You Ave Maris Stella Ave Regina Caelorum Fatima Prayers Flos Carmeli .[124] Other liberal Christians argue that the modern concepts of equal opportunity for men and women does not resonate well with the humble image of Mary. and as a symbol of the systemic patriarchal oppression of women within the Church. who see the high level of attention paid to the Virgin Mary both as being without sufficient grounding in Scripture and as distracting from the worship due to Christ. some liberal Catholics view the cultivation of the traditional image of Mary as a method of manipulation of Catholics at large by the Church hierarchy.[10] The psychological analysis of Marian teachings dates back to Sigmund Freud. or the humble and loving figure presented by the East Asian Goddess Kwan Yin. and that trend has continued into the 21st century among progressive and liberal Christians. viewed the Virgin Mary as a spiritual version of the more loving Goddess Eros. who used the title of a poem by Goethe in his 1911 paper Great is Diana of the Ephesians. ranging from the study of the similarities of the Virgin Mary and the Buddhist Goddess Tara. Moreover. obediently and subserviently kneeling before Christ.[11] Carl Jung.

Catholics. Eastern Catholics while not observing the Western feast. The differences in these observances is for some Eastern Catholics superficial. Eastern theology differs on specific Marian beliefs. However. [edit]Assumption of Mary The traditional Eastern expression of this doctrine is the Dormition of the Theotokos which emphasises her falling asleep to be later assumed into heaven. Furthermore. Roman Catholics in general object to this doctrine.[128] The Western concept of the Virgin Mary being free from original sin as defined by St.[126] However. and largely hold the same theological beliefs as Roman Catholics.Hail Mary Hail Mary of Gold Immaculata prayer Immaculate Mary Magnificat Mary Our Queen Memorare Regina Coeli Rosary Salve Regina Stabat Mater Sub tuum praesidium Three Hail Marys While Eastern Catholics respect papal authority. have no difficulty affirming it or even dedicating their churches to the Virgin Mary under this title. John XXIII with the Apostolic Letter Maiora in Dies defined the purpose of the PAMI: to promote and . much of the literature and publications on Mariology and centers for its study have been related to the Church of Rome. Protestants and Muslim. Eastern Catholics recognized from ancient times that Mary was preserved by God from sin. Orthodox. Augustine of Hippo is not accepted in the East. who authorized institutions for increased academic research into the veneration of the Blessed Virgin Mary.  Pontifical Marian International Academy The PAMI is an international pontifical organization connecting all Promoters of Mariology.[129] [edit]Centers for Mariological studies The formal study of Mariology within the circles associated with the Holy See took a major step forward between the Holy Year 1950 and 1958 based on the actions ofPope Pius XII.[127] [edit]Immaculate Conception The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception is a teaching of Eastern origin but expressed in the terminology of the Western Church.

the last Marian initiative of Pope Pius XII.[130] Of these organizations.[132] This Pontifical Catholic Faculty was founded by Father Gabriel Roschini (who directed it for several years) under the direction of Pope Pius XII in 1950. the Marianum Pontifical Theological Faculty is the most active marilogical centre in Rome (www. Since 1976. . Mariology: A Guide for Priests.T.[131]  Marianum was created in 1950 and entrusted to the Order of Servites.L.. The PAMI has the task of coordinating the other Marian Academies and Societies that exist all over the world and to exercise vigilance against any Marian excess or minimalism.[131]  Collegamento Mariano Nazionale (1958). In addition it started Marian youth gatherings and publishes the journal Madonna.000 volumes on Mariology and a number of magazines and journals of theological and Mariological concern. the University of Dayton in Ohio formed the International Marian Research Institute in affiliation with the Marianum to offer a doctorate in sacred theology (S. one can get a Master's degree in Mariology (2-year academic program) and one can also get a doctorate in Mariology. Marianum is also the name of the prestigious journal of Marian theology. At the Marianum. founded by Father Roschini in 1939.). It publishes the monthly Madre e Regina. every two years the Marianum organizes international conferences to find modern formulations which approximate the mystery of Mary.OCLC 225875371. ISBN 9781579183554.Also in 1950. including a doctorate in theology. This mariological facility has a library with more than 85.T. which is a part of a papal university. Raymond L. The Academy supports Salesian studies to further the veneration of the Blessed Virgin in the tradition of Saint John Bosco. It coordinates activities of Marian centres in Italy. and Consecrated Persons. and organizes Marian pilgrimages and Marian study weeks for priests.animate studies of Mariology through International Mariological Marian Congresses and other academic meetings and to see to the publication of their studies.) and a licentiate in sacred theology (S. et al.D. (2008). who was earlier canonized by Pius XII. Goleta. It is authorized to grant all academic degrees. The Centro promulgates the teachings of Saint Louis de Montfort. Promoters and Teachers of Mariology. For this reason the Pope determined that in the Academy there be a Council that assures the organization of Congresses and the coordination of the Mariological Societies.  Academia Mariana Salesiana .[133] [edit]Further  reading Burke.marianum. which promulgates the Marian orientation of Montfort. Seminarians. California: Queenship Pub. Deacons.[131] In 1975.[130]  Centro Mariano Montfortano.He granted the foundation of the Academia Mariana Salesiana. the Centro Mariano Montfortano was moved from Bergamo to Rome.

OCLC 70167611. (1993). Mo: Herder Book. OCLC 1453529. Co. Jenny. Avon. ed. Introduction to Mary: The Heart of Marian Doctrine and Devotion. Louis. Mariology.  Pohle.  Schroedel.  Miravalle. ISBN 0852446500. ISBN 1593377134. Paul (2004). The Everything Mary Book. Preuss. St. Mass: Adams Media. Everything profiles series. John (2006). Mark I. Haffner. Joseph (1948) [1914]. . Herefordshire: Gracewing Press. ISBN 9781882972067. Hillenbrand Books studies series. Santa Barbara. Arthur. A Dogmatic Treatise on the Blessed Virgin Mary. Mother of God. OCLC 28849399. Schroedel. Leominster. OCLC 58964281. The Mystery of Mary. California: Queenship Pub.