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Hallucinogens and Rock Art

Altered states of consciousness in the Palaeolithic period By Eva Hopman

University of Groningen

Institute of Archaeology Groningen 2008

Contents
I. Introduction II. Altered states of consciousness II.I Hallucination III. Hallucinogens in the Palaeolithic world IV. Rock art in various cultures IV.I he !an of southern Africa IV.2 A"originals of Australia IV.# $eso% an& !outh%American tri"es IV.' (alaeolithic perio& V. "onclusion #i$liogra%h& 'ist of Pictures 2 3 6 7 11 12 1 21 2! 2 31 32

For my ever-inspiring friend, Jake

Author (va Ho%)an *tudent 16 11 at +roningen institute of archaeolog& Ri,ksuniversiteit +roningen +roningen- 17th .ece)$er 2//0 )over* A painting in the cave of +ascau, -.uspoli/ $. +ascau,* un nouveau regar&/ 01823.

I. Introduction
1an& theories e2ist on the Palaeolithic art- and es%eciall& on cave and rock art. 3ho )ade the art- which )aterials were used to %aint4 3h& was rock art )ade at this ti)e4 5he 6uestion I will $e tr&ing to answer in this essa& is the following7

Is it possi"le that the paintings in caves an& on roc4 in the (alaeolithic perio& 5ere inspire& "y the images seen in a state in&uce& "y hallucinogens6

I have co)e to this 6uestion $& wondering what )oved the Palaeolithic %eo%le in (uro%e to create their cave %aintings. *o)e of the %aintings don8t see) to 9)ake sense8. Is it %ossi$le that the sha)ans- or whoever %ainted the art- ate a certain t&%e of root or )ushroo) and saw things in an altered state of consciousness that ins%ired to create these things4 In order to answer these 6uestions- we will have to look at other hunter: gatherer societies that have )ade rock art- since no ethnogra%hic infor)ation is left a$out the Palaeolithic %eriod in (uro%e. It is of course te)%ting to link other %ri)itive cultures to the Palaeolithic %eo%le fro) (uro%e- $ut it is i)%ortant to $e careful what to conclude. 5he cultures we look at live far a%art and are ver& different in so)e wa&s; we should kee% that in )ind. However- considering that the $iological essence of )an is alwa&s the sa)e- no )atter what culture- so)e things can $e concluded 6uite safel&. <irst- I will go into what we understand to $e altered states of consciousness- and how these can $e created. 3hat can $e seen in such a state4 5hese are all things on which I need to shed so)e light so we can understand the different cultures. *u$se6uentl&- I will take a look at the %ossi$le hallucinogens growing in the world of the Palaeolithic %eo%le. 3hat kind of effects would these %lants or fungi have4 It is also i)%ortant to know- what we e2actl& )ean $& the ter) 9hallucinogens8.

I will descri$e the rock art fro) the Palaeolithic %eriod- %articularl& that of 'ascau2- and the rock art in a nu)$er of hunter:gatherer cultures of which we have infor)ation- and discuss the si)ilarities and differences. 5he cultures discussed are the *an in southern Africa- the A$originals of Australia and the a$original tri$es in 1eso: and *outh:A)erica.

II. Altered states of consciousness


5here are )an& different wa&s to co)e to an altered state of consciousness. 5he $est known wa& is %ro$a$l& that with the use of hallucinogens or %s&choactive drugs. However- there are also wa&s %eo%le are not so fa)iliar with- such as sensor& de%rivation =<ig. 1>- intense concentration- auditor&kinetic or visual driving%ainschi?o%hreniah&%erventilationslee%

de%rivation or sustained rh&th)ic )ove)ent- which is actuall& a co)$ination of kinetic and auditor& driving ='ewis:3illia)s- 2//2>. 5hese states don8t necessaril& lead to hallucinations- $ut all alter the hu)an )ind. 3hat can $e seen when hallucinating is descri$ed $elow in 9hallucination8. A )ore %o%ular ter) for an altered state of consciousness is trance. #en 3atson goes as far as calling drea)s an altered state of consciousness =#en 3atson- 2//7>. He writes that drea)s had a )ore i)%ortant )eaning in %rehistoric ti)es- as the& still do in %rehistoric tri$es- and the things occurring in the drea)s are often considered to have actuall& ha%%ened. 3hile this is true for the A$originals and the *an- the i)%ortance of drea)s as an ins%iration to )ake rock art is 6uestiona$le. #en 3atson is right when he states that so)e the)es in drea)s are universal for all %eo%leno )atter what cultural conte2t. As descri$ed $elow this is also the case with other for)s of altered states of consciousness. @ne e2a)%le 3atson gives is that the drea)ing of $eing chased $& dangerous ani)als )ight $e directl& linked to the =useful> %ri)al fear of these dangerous ani)als- like snakes. "reatures like this trigger an instinct and e)otion so strong- that the& also co)e $ack in our drea)s. 3atson clai)s that for this reason it can $e e2%lained wh& ferocious ani)als have $een %ainted in rock art. I do not 3

agree with hi)- if it was ,ust to %oint out that the dangerous ani)als in rock art are greatl& outnu)$ered $& her$ivores and other less har)ful organis)s =with the e2ce%tion of %erha%s .olnA VBstonice- as 3atson states hi)self- for the great nu)$er of lion head terracotta8s there>. However- it is unreasona$le to state that drea)s had no influence whatsoever on the creating of rock art. .rea)s )ost likel& did indeed have a greater )eaning in the Palaeolithic %eriod- and it is likel& that- of the drea)s that were re)e)$ered- a s%iritual )eaning was derived. 5his s%iritual )eaning could have ver& well ended u% on the walls of a cave. Although this )a& $e the case- I do not $elieve there was a consistent %rocess of drea)ing and later %ainting the content of the drea) on a rock surface. *ince the 1 6/8s a lot of research has $een done on altered states of consciousness and the effects of drugs- )ainl& that of '*.. Ps&chiatric %atients in the western world were given high doses of '*. and were told to draw what the& were seeing or e2%lain what the& were feeling. 5his led to so)e interesting results. It turned out that )an& different %atients with different t&%es of illnesses saw so)e things that were the sa)e. 5his isn8t ver& strangeconsidering the hu)an nervous s&ste) is the sa)e for ever&one. 5hese things are called entopics- entoptic phenomena/ entoptic &esigns/ constants or phosphenes =<ig. 2>. 5he& re%resent the i)ages the $rain creates when in an altered state of consciousness. 5he )ental i)ages that have $een recorded $& the la$orator& e2%eri)ents are lu)inous- %ulsating- contracting or e2%anding and $lending. 5he& include changing geo)etric sha%es- ?ig?ag %atterns- dots- grids- )eandering lines and C:sha%es. 5he& )ostl& a%%ear in an earl& or light stage in the altered state of consciousness. As we have reada trance can $e induced $& visual driving as well. Research has $een done on what %eo%le see when in a trance induced $& visual driving. 5he research )ethod is to %lace goggles =<ig. 3> that have strong '(. lights e)$edded in the) which can trans)it light at different fre6uencies on the su$,ect. 3hen the su$,ects kee%s his e&es closed and the light is $eing trans)itted- several ento%tic %heno)ena can $e recognised =Ho5 art ma&e the 5orl&- D.V.E>. In figure ! &ou can see several %heno)ena as descri$ed $& the su$,ect. 4

<ig. 17 *ensor& de%rivation; It8s often used in torture.

<ig. 27 A few co))on ento%tic %heno)ena ='ewis:3illia)s- 2//2>.

<ig. 37 +oggles with strong 'ed lights can induce a trance through visual driving.

<ig. !7 *everal ento%tic %heno)ena as descri$ed $& a su$,ect undergoing a trance through visual driving.

5he ento%tic %heno)ena are the sa)e for ever&one- although it can8t $e %redicted whether the& will $e seen and if so- what t&%e will $e seen. 5he wa& in which the& are $eing inter%reted can- however- differ %er %erson. 5his has a lot to do with the $ackground of this %erson- such as in what culture the %erson has $een raised or what their %ast has $een like. 3e can therefore distinguish the universal 9neurological8 ele)ents and the 9%s&chological8 ele)ents that are culture:s%ecific ='ewis:3illia)s- 2//2>.

II.1 Hallucination
#asicall&- hallucinations are %erce%tions in the a$sence of e2ternal sti)uli that can $e %erceived as realit&. 5he e2%eriences that are often %erceived are difficult to e2%lain. 5he descri%tion Al$ert Hoff)an and Richard (vans *chultes give %ro$a$l& co)es close =Hof)ann F *chultes- 1 7>7

G5his last grou% DhallucinogensE is ca%a$le of causing radical changes in the %erce%tion of realit&- s%ace- ti)e- and the self. .e%ersonalisation can $e an effect. 3ithout losing consciousness the %erson in 6uestion enters a drea) world- that is so)eti)es )ore realistic than the real world. "olours are %erceived as indescri$a$l& $right; o$,ects lose their s&)$olic )eaning and

start to stand for the)selves and gain so )uch in )eaning that the& start to live their own life. 5he changes in the )ind and the e2traordinar& states of consciousness that are $eing su))oned $& hallucinogens- are so far fro) ever&da& life- that it is i)%ossi$le to descri$e the e2%eriences in these ter)s. *o)eone who is under the influence of a hallucinogen leaves the world he is fa)iliar with and is no longer su$,ect to the values of that world; he has entered a different di)ension and lives in a different ti)e.H

5he hallucinations caused $& to2ic %lants and the other )anners of co)ing into an altered state of consciousness as descri$ed earlier- are no real hallucinations. Rather- the e2%eriences are correctl& descri$ed as pseu&o hallucinations. 5he difference is that %seudo hallucinations can $e recogni?ed as a direct conse6uence of the altered state of consciousnesswhile those in real hallucinations are not se%arated fro) realit& $& the )ind. <or e2a)%le- if one would hear a voice that is not there in an altered state of consciousness- it would onl& $e heard in the hea& in the case of e2%eriencing a %seudo hallucination- while so)eone suffering fro) real hallucinations will %erceive the voice as co)ing from outsi&e- as an actual sound. Real hallucinations are )ost co))on in %eo%le who are suffering fro) serious )ental illnesses.

III. Hallucinogens in the alaeolithic !orld


Plants that have an =te)%orar&> influence on the )ental and $odil& functions of hu)ans are what we call hallucinogens. *o)e fungi also $elong to this grou%. 5he& are $asicall& %oisonous organis)s that are )ostl& not har)ful for hu)ans when used in the right a)ounts. A ver& s)all grou% of ani)als also %roduce to2ins that can have hallucinator& effects- such as the Bufo alvarius ="olorado River toad>. 5his toad discards a %oison fro) the skin when touched- that can $e dried and can $e s)oked or taken orall& = he vaults of Ero5i& DonlineE>. However- this toad and si)ilar toads live onl& in areas outside of the reach of the Palaeolithic %eo%le- and it is unlikel& the& would ever have gotten their hands on the). 5here are also the s&nthetic hallucinogens- $ut I assu)e I don8t have to e2%lain that these as well were $e&ond the reach of the Palaeolithic %eo%le.

1ost of the %ri)itive hunter:gatherer cultures =actuall&- ever& culturewhether it is %ri)itive or not> that still e2ist toda& are at least fa)iliar with hallucinogens. 5he %lants are often considered to $e sacred or even gods the)selves. It is likel& that in a world where science %la&s a su$ordinate role%lants with %owers that can 9%lace8 a %erson in a different world will have a great s%iritual )eaning. 5he %lants are often %art of rituals and the like- as will $e descri$ed later in this essa&. 5his cha%ter will $e on the different t&%es of hallucinogens that )ight have $een availa$le to the Palaeolithic %eo%le. It is likel& that for a culture such as in the Palaeolithic %eriod- and $asicall& )ost other hunter:gatherer cultures- all the %lant life around was known in great detail. 5he %lants %la& an i)%ortant role as a source of food- $uilding )aterial- tools- )edicine and also ingredients in rituals. It is not unrealistic to state that the direct effects of %resent hallucinogens when ingested were known to the Palaeolithic %eo%le. 5he cli)ate in the Palaeolithic %eriod changes fro) ti)e to ti)e. 5here were conditions )uch colder than those toda&- $ut also conditions )uch war)er than those toda&. Palaeolithic art was )ostl& )ade in the C%%er: Palaeolithic %eriod- in the %leniglacial %eriod. 3e know this- thanks to the archaeo$otan& research done on Palaeolithic sites. In this cli)ate- )ostl& her$s and grasses- as%en and a )inorit& of %ines were growing =<ig. I>. 5he cli)ate was 6uite cold- and in the north of <rance the ground )ight have $een seasonall& fro?en. A little later- in the #Jlling- the cli)ate was a little gentler- with )ore trees growing and less seasonal %er)afrost. It is clear that we can8t e2%ect the )ore e2otic hallucinogens to grow in a cli)ate like thislike %s&choactive cacti. Although I haven8t looked at the archaeo$otan& research done on the Palaeolithic research and what hallucinogens have $een found- I will discuss so)e hallucinogens that could have grown in this %eriod in (uro%e.

<ig. I7 5he cli)ate as it was in the Pleniglacial =$elow> and in the #Jlling =a$ove>.

In (lants of the Go&s =*chultes F Hof)ann- 1

7> the Amanita muscaria

is descri$ed as a %ossi$le )ushroo) to have grown in a cli)ate as descri$ed a$ove. It grows in o%en forests or on the edge of a forest )ade out of %ine trees and as%en or $irch trees. 5he )ushroo) grows %rett& )uch ever&where in the world- and is $etter known as the red fl& agaric. 5his )ushroo) was %ro$a$l& also the ingredient to the !oma of ancient India. *o)e other )ushroo)s in the A)anita genus are not %s&cho:active and contain a deadl& %oison. It is not reco))ended for an&one who is not a )ushroo) e2%ert to %ick )ushroo)s and consu)e the). 5he effects a consu)er of the A)anita )uscaria )a& e2%erience are7 eu%horia- %ain relief- rela2ationinternal dialogue- s&nesthesia =the s)elling of words or the seeing of sounds>clarit&- internal focus- socia$ilit& and so)eti)es se2ual feelings = he vaults of Ero5i& DonlineE>. 5hese effects %rett& )uch su) u% the usual effects of a 9tri%8an altered state of consciousness induced $& so)e hallucinogens- like '*. and %siloc&$in )ushroo)s. In the tri% )ostl& different stages can $e recognised- each with different effects. 5here are a lot of cos)o%olitan )ushroo)s in this world that could also have grown in Palaeolithic ti)es- like the )ushroo)s of the (anaeolus or the (silocy"e genus. 5here are )an& %s&cho:active )ushroo)s with the active ingredient %siloc&$in; too )an& to na)e here. 5he& all have si)ilar effects like the Amanita- onl& look a lot less attractive =)ostl& thin long ste)s with a %oint& hood- in a $rown or white colour>. Another %ossi$le %lant to inha$it the Palaeolithic %lains and forests )ight have $een the Hyoscyamus 7iger =<ig. 7>- )e)$er of the Hen$ane fa)il&. 1ost )e)$ers of this fa)il& %ossess so)e kind of %oison that so)eti)es also has ingredients that can induce hallucinations. 5his %lant was widel& used in the 1iddle:Ages $& =su%%osed> witches and sorcerers =*chultes

10

F Hof)ann- 1

7>. It can grow in regions that have strong winters- so likel& it

could also have grown in the Palaeolithic landsca%e of 1iddle: and *outh: (uro%e. 5he %lant8s %oison causes the user to lose consciousness; in this state the hallucinations are seen. 5he %lant also has a %ain:killing effect on the $od& and can cause co)%lete forgetfulness. A %lant like the $lack hendane $ut less likel& to have grown in the Palaeolithicu) is the $an&ragora offincinarum or )andrake %lant. 5oda& it grows onl& in the south of (uro%esince this %lant a%%reciates war)er cli)ates.

<ig. 67 Amanita muscaria- an attractive )ushroo).

A %lant that nowada&s grows in )ountain valle&s and in )eadows is the .anunculus acris =<ig. 0>. 5his %lant is $etter known as the )eadow $uttercu%. As innocent as it )a& look- according to several =%articularl& "hinese> sources it contains ingredients that cause deliriu) and

hallucinogens. It is a her$- and therefore it is likel& it would have grown in the Palaeolithic landsca%e- es%eciall& considering the cold )ountains it often grows in now. It grows in all %arts of the world in )oderate cli)ates. 5ests have shown that the %lant does contain glycosi&e ranuncosi&e- so it )ight have so)e effects.

11

<ig. 77 Hyoscyamus 7iger- the $lack hen$ane.

<ig. 07 .anunculus acris- the )eadow $uttercu%.

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5here are )an& hallucinogens all over the world that grow in )an& different cli)ates. In the $arren landsca%e of the Pleniglacial %eriod naturall& a s)all diversit& of %lants would grow. 5his )a& $e true- $ut it were )ostl& her$s and grasses that were thriving; )a& it $e es%eciall& her$s that %ossess hallucinator& 6ualities. It is ver& %lausi$le that different t&%es of )ushroo)s with %s&cho:active 6ualities grew in this cli)ate as well. 5he Amanita muscaria for e2a)%le was for a long %eriod of ti)e the onl& into2icating su$stance in *i$eria; it has $een used $& the *i$erian tri$es and their sha)ans for a long ti)e- until alcohol was introduced $& the Russians. It is likel& that also the Palaeolithic %eo%le were fa)iliar with hallucinogens. 'ike an& other hunter:gatherer culture the& knew their surroundings in and out. *%iritualit& was )ost %ro$a$l& ver& i)%ortant- and what could $e considered )ore s%iritual than %lants and fungi that )ade &ou see su%ernatural things4

I". Rock Art in various cultures


#efore we look at a few cultures that have )ade rock art- it should $e e2%lained what e2actl& we )ean $& the ter) 9.oc4 Art8. I noticed that different scientists often have different ideas of what the ter) Rock Art )eans- $ut )ostl&- it is used to indicate the art that is )ade in %rehistoric ti)es or $& hunter:gatherer societies on rock surfaces or solel& )ade out of rocks =3hitle&- 2//I>. In this )eaning there are )an& different for)s of Rock Art. It could indicate %ainting =%ictogra%hs> or engravings =%etrogl&%hs> on rock surfaces- in caves or shelters or on $oulders in the landsca%e; a whole different t&%e is the creating of art on the ground surface- either $& scratching awa& the u%%er la&er of dirt =intaglios> or $& %lacing rocks in a certain %attern =geogl&%hs> for instance to indicate a sacred %lace =3hitle&- 2//I>. 5he Palaeolithic culture will $e the last to $e descri$ed- so that we can kee% all the infor)ation that is gathered in this essa& in )ind when reading on the Palaeolithic cave art. I realise that )an& different cultures e2isted in the Palaeolithic %eriod- $ut whenever I refer to 9the Palaeolithic culture8 or 9the

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Palaeolithic %eo%le8- I generalise and )ean to refer to the Palaeolithic cave %ainters in (uro%e.

IV.1 The San of southern Africa


5he *an- so)eti)es referred to as $ush)en- nowada&s live in the Kalahari desert. A$out a hundred &ears ago- the& still inha$ited southern Africa- $ut are now cast awa&. 5he *an no longer )ake Rock Art- si)%l& $ecause there are no rock surfaces in the Kalahari to %aint on. 5he %eo%le who did once %aint in southern Africa- are all deceased. 'uckil& records of interviews with southern African *an are %reserved- collected $& 3ilhel) #lake. 1ost of the research on the *an Rock Art has $een done $& .avid 'ewis:3illia)s ='ewis: 3illia)s- 1 /- 1 2- 2//2>- who first discovered the connection $etween the

*an Rock Art and that of the Palaeolithic caves. A fa)ous sight where )an& of the %aintings are set is the Latal .rakens$erg ='ewis:3illia)s F .owson1 2>. 'ike in the case of the Palaeolithic cave art- archaeologists first dis)issed the art as $eing )ade to increase the chance of a successful hunt. However- the *an onl& de%ict a s)all nu)$er of creatures- of which the )ost are elands. Mou could al)ost state that the& are o$sessed with the eland- at least in an artistic %oint of view. 5he eland is the largest ga?elle in Africa =<ig. >. 5he& hunt )an& )ore ani)als than the eland alone. <urther)ore- 'ewis: 3illia)s also discovered )an& other features of the art that didn8t see) to add u% to the theor& that the art was a de%iction of the *an dail& life or to increase the chance of a successful hunt. 1an& hu)an figures that can $e recognised in the *an Rock Art- have ani)al features. 5he& have ani)al heads or $od& %arts- )ostl& those that original would $elong to the eland =<ig. 1/>. 5hese are called anthro%o)or%hic figures or therianthro%es- the last ter) indicating )ore of a transition fro) hu)an to ani)al than the first. 14

'ewis:3illia)s

discovered

that

)ost

of

the

hu)an

and

anthro%o)or%hic figures in the art rese)$led sha)ans. He found this in the interviews 3ilhel) #lake had with the original *an living in southern Africa. 5he *an sha)ans %erfor) a trance:dance =9dance of $lood8> that is still %ractised toda& a)ong the Kalahari *an. In this ritual the )e)$ers of the tri$e start singing- $acked u% $& )usic )ade $& other )e)$ers of the tri$e7 a rh&th)ic- )es)eri?ing sound is created and the sha)ans start dancing to this )usic and at a certain %oint in ti)e co)e into a trance. 5he trance in this case is induced $& auditor&Nrh&th)ic and kinetic driving. @ccasionall& a sha)an loses consciousness and falls down for a short %eriod of ti)e- or starts $leeding fro) the nose; this is called the 9d&ing8 of the sha)ans- where the& enter the s%irit world. *o)eti)es this is also referred to as 9going underwater8 or 9entering a waterhole8 to where the s%irits live. La)ing it this wa& is not strange- considering what the sha)an goes through when he goes into trance7 the struggling- gas%ing for $reath- sense of weightlessness- inhi$ited )ove)ent- affected vision- a 9$u$$ling8 sound in the ears and finall& the loss of conscious does have a lot of rese)$lances with the e2%erience of drowning. 3e can now safel& conclude that the de%ictions on the rocks )ade $& the *an are vivid descri%tions of ecstatic religious e2%erience. *o)eti)es the $leeding fro) the nose is also de%icted =<ig. 1/- low right and <ig. 11>. It is not known if the sha)ans were also the %ainters in all cases- $ut at least one case is descri$ed in #lake8s re%orts. 'ewis:3illia)s writes a$out these re%orts and draws so)e conclusions ='ewis:3illia)s- 2//2>7
G5he )utuall& confir)ator& co))ents given $& Oing and .iPQkwain show that )an& of the %aintings evoked an e2%erience linking hu)ans with the invisi$le and )&stical world. Cnlike the e%he)eral dance- which afforded hu)ans access to the $e&ondthe %aintings re)ained constantl& on view to affir) the realit& of the otherworld and to %roclai) the ulti)ate values of *an societ&.H

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<ig. 7 5he (land or aurotragus ory,- the largest genus of antelo%e in Africa.

<ig. 1/7 A co%& of southern African *an Rock Art- G.ance grou%H found in the "ave Province. It de%icts several eland and therianthro%es that have eland traits.

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<ig. 117 .ancing sha)ans in trance; their noses are $leeding.

3hile in trance- the sha)ans also see ento%tic %heno)ena =<ig. 12>. @ne of the )ost fre6uentl& e2%erienced ento%tic %heno)ena is that where a vorte2 or tunnel is e2%erienced and into which the su$,ect is drawn. 5he& inter%ret this as going through a tunnel in the ground or in the water. In the la$orator& e2%eri)ents done on western %s&chiatric %atients so)e e2%eriences were descri$ed as flat o$,ects turning into 3:di)ensional o$,ects- distances fluctuate; s)all ite)s would grow in si?e and see) )ore i)%ortant- while $ig ite)s could $eco)e s)aller- including the su$,ect itself. *o)eti)es the hallucinator& i)ager& see)ed to $e %ro,ected onto a flat surface. <or the *an- the e2%erience )ight have $een so)ewhat frightful and it has $een said $& so)e *an tri$e )e)$ers that the sha)an needs to change into ani)als to %rotect the)selves when in the s%iritual world. 'ike the a$originals of Australia- the trance:dance and rituals were %ro$a$l& held at a rock shelter. 5he sha)ans going into trance were %ro$a$l& surrounded $& Rock Art; 'ewis:3illia)s rightfull& wonders what effect this could have had on their trance ='ewis:3illia)s- 2//2>. 5he rock surface also had a s%iritual function in the creation of the Rock Art. As far as the rock surface goes- all the cracks- lines and the structure of the rock were i)%ortant. *o)e sha)ans $elieved the& would enter the otherworld through these =the tunnel>. 5his e2%lains )an& cracks and dark %atches on the rock showing %artial hu)ans or ani)als co)ing out of the) =see low right on fig. 1/ and fig. 12- .I>.

17

<ig. 127 (nto%tic %heno)ena in *an and "oso =also an African> culture. *o)e of the i)ages show the inter%retations )ade fro) the ento%tic %heno)ena.

"o))on ento%tic %heno)ena that can $e recognised in the *an Rock Art are the navicular entoptic phenomena- as 'ewis:3illia)s refers to ='ewis: 3illia)s- 2//2>. It so)eti)es looks a little like a $oat- hence the na)e =<ig. 13>. 5he ento%tic %heno)enon consists of a set of catenar& curves- often co)$ined with flickering lines or ?ig?ag sha%es. 3ithin the arc there is a 9$lack hole8 of invisi$ilit&- which is indicated on figure 13 as a dot. In the *an Rock Art these navicular sha%es are often %ainted in co)$ination with winged insects =<ig. 1!>. 5his indicates that the& %ossi$l& rese)$le hone&co)$s with $ees. 5he *an certainl& en,o&ed to eat hone&co)$s =<ig. 1I>. *o)e %eo%le $elieve it is nothing )ore than a de%iction of what the *an like to eat- $ut others- like 'ewis:3illia)s- $elieve these are inter%retations of the ento%tic %heno)ena

18

that are seen $& the sha)ans in trance. 5his would $e )ore likel&- in )& o%inion- considering the s%iritual nature of the Rock Art and the e2isting link with the sha)anistic trance. 'ewis:3illia)s adds another argu)ent for this7 not onl& the vision is altered in trance- $ut also other senses- like the hearing. In trance- the hearing of a $u??ing sound is 6uite co))on. 5he inter%retation of this sound as $eing "ees is a %s&chological ele)ent that differs %er culture.

<ig. 137 5hree variations of the navicular ento%tic %heno)enon. After *iegel 1 77.

19

<ig. 1!7 Rock %ainting with a navicular sign and winged insects- KwaRulu:Latal .rakens$erg.

<ig. 1I7 Hone&co)$s in a tree; the& indeed do look like navicular ento%tic %heno)ena.

*o)eti)es not onl& the cracks on the rock surface are used as 9%ortals8 to the otherworld; in that case a $lack hole is %ainted in which ani)als and hu)an figures enter and e2it. 5his is %ro$a$l& derived fro) the ento%tic %heno)enon that shows a $lack hole in the centre where vision is a$sent at that ti)e =low left- <ig. !>. In figure 16 this can $e seen 6uite clearl&.

20

5he last two e2a)%les are onl& a %ortion of all the infor)ation 'ewis: 3illia)s has gathered to %rove that the rock art )ade $& the *an is ins%ired $& the ecstatic religious e2%eriences the sha)ans endure when in trance. 3hat is re)arka$le is that there are )an& si)ilarities $etween the art of the *an and that of the Palaeolithic cave art. <or instance- onl& several ani)als are chosen to $e %ortra&ed. Anthro%o)or%hs are %resent as well and recognisa$le ento%tic %heno)ena can $e seen. <or further anal&sis of the *an rock art- also in co)%arison to the Palaeolithic cave art- I refer to the work of 'ewis:3illia)s. 5he *an do use trance in their rituals- $ut there are no records known of the) using hallucinogens to induce this trance. Instead- the& use auditor& and kinetic driving. However- the& did have access to several hallucinogens. In Africa several hallucinogens are known; I"oga =of the .og$ane fa)il&>- is %ro$a$l& the )ost fa)ous. #ut there are )ore7 #ush)an fro) #otswana ru$ cut:o%en roots of the 95ashi =A)ar&llis s%ecies> over s)all incisions on their forehead- so that the active ingredients can $e a$sor$ed into the $loodstrea). 9anna is %ro$a$l& no longer used- $ut was once chewed $& the Hottentots to reach an eu%horic and even hallucinator& state.

21

<ig. 167 A $lack hole is %ainted fro) which eland feet are e2tended. Along a long line sha)ans and eland walk towards it.

IV.2 Aboriginals of Australia


<airl& little has $een %ainted in Australia- considering the si?e of the continent. *o)e %aintings can $e found that were once $elieved to $e )ade $& an Indo:(uro%ean culture that no longer lives in Australia =1athew- S. 1 03>. @f course it was the a$originals that created these %aintings. *o)e of the %aintings found in caves in the region are u% to !/./// &ears old. *o)e tri$es still %aint toda&- like the @en%elli- in Arnhe) 'and =Lorthern Australia>. @ne could al)ost sa& the& are o$sessed with %ainting =Ho5 art ma&e the 5orl& D.V.E>. 5he& %aint on different surfaces like rock- $ark- didgeridoos and other crafted ite)s. 1an& of the i)ages are of the sa)e the)e and contain the sa)e de%ictions. 1ostl& the $arra)undi:fish- the earth )other Mingana and the 'ightning )an are shown. #aldwin *%encer- who had s%ent so)e ti)e with the @en%ellirecognised these i)ages to $e the sa)e as on the walls of the caves that were thousands of &ears old. 5his )eans there is a continuous link $etween the %ast and the %resent- which is uni6ue in the world =<ig. 17 and 10>. 5he a$originals told *%encer that their i)ages de%icted stories. 5heir %aintings do not consist out of a se6uence of i)ages- $ut si)%l& a few characters and ite) %ut together; the %ictures still show a stor& $ecause the whole tri$e knows the stories. 5he stor& is recognised $& the )ain co)%onents that are $eing de%icted.

22

<ig. 177 5he $arra)undi:fish- as it is %ainted toda& =left> and in the %rehistor& =right>.

<ig. 107 5he earth )other Mingana- )odern =left> and %rehistoric =right>.

It was discovered later =around the 96/s> that the %aintings were not ,ust 9visual8 creativit&. 5he a$originals %erfor) rituals at the rock shelters- where rh&th)ic )usic is %la&ed with %ercussion- didgeridoos and singing. Peo%le will dance to the )usic and tell the ancient stories. 5he %ainted walls of the rock shelter would hence co)e alive. It is %ro$a$l& $ecause of the co)$ination of )usic- stor& telling and %ainting that the long continuous link fro) the %ast to the %resent could e2ist. 3hen )ore than one sense is sti)ulated- the )essage of art $eco)es stronger. Re)arka$l&- nothing is known of the use of hallucinogens in Australia and Lew Realand. 5he %lants although- are %resent. 5he %o%ular and widel& used Kava:kava %lant is used $& the A$originals on the islands- $ut it is not a hallucination:inducing %lant- and its effect is )ore like that of coffee =which is a h&%notic>. 5his- together with the a$sence of recognisa$le ento%tic %heno)ena =with so)e dou$tful e2ce%tions7 dots all over %aintings or latticed signs as in figure 1 > indicate that it is unlikel& that the a$originals of Australia de%icted the things the& saw in an altered state of consciousness.

23

<ig. 1 7 A$original art in "arnarvon +orge. 'atticed signs are also %resent.

IV.3 Meso- and South-A erican tribes


Although as )an& hallucinogens %ro$a$l& grow in $oth the he)is%heres- the use of the %lants is a lot greater in 1iddle: and *outh:A)erica. 3h& this is the case is not certain. 'ots of research has $een done on the hallucinogens in this %art of the world- es%eciall& on the hallucinogens used $& native tri$es. Sust to give &ou and indication of the e2tensive use of hallucinogens- here are a nu)$er of %lants used in the centre and the south of A)erica7 Ana&enanthera =<ig. 2/>/ :atura ino,ia =<ig. 21>- richocereus =*an Pedro>Banisteriopsis =A&ahuasca>- Brugmansia vulcanicola- +ophophora =Pe&ote>different t&%es of )ushroo)s- Virola- ur"ina )orymso"a and Ipomoea violacea =*chultes F Hof)ann- 1 7>. 5he )a,orit& of these hallucinogens are used in 1e2ico. 5he native tri$es there see) to have grown a s%ecial affection of the hallucinogens- and the& are entwined with their culture in )an& as%ects.

24

<ig. 2/7 Ana&enanthera;

the $eans of this %lant are ground u% and snorted.

<ig. 217 .atura is a $eautiful shru$- $ut has a strong s)ell and frightening effects when consu)ed.

A lot of the hallucinogens occur in the )&tholog& of the tri$es. It is said the& are gods or flesh of the gods and are eaten at cere)onies. Csuall& onl&

25

the )en are allowed to eat fro) it =%erha%s to avoid %re)ature child$irth>$ut in so)e 1e2ican cultures the sha)ans are )ostl& fe)ale. 5he cere)onies were strict and ver& serious. In general- the hallucinogens are used to s%eak with the s%irit world or talk to ancestors. A&ahuasca- which is known under )an& na)es- is one of the )ost co))on used hallucinogen in *outh:A)erica. 5he a$original tri$es $elieve it can release the soul fro) the $od& and let it float to other worlds- where the su$,ect can co))unicate with ancestors. A %otion is )ade $& $oiling the $ark for a ver& long ti)e- occasionall& with so)e other ingredients to change the effects or strengthen the). After taking the %lant- nausea is not unusual. 5hrowing u% is actuall& a %art of the %urification %rocess when a&ahuasca is used in healing rituals. In the rituals )usic and dancing is often %resent 5he natives also %aint; the the)es often %ortra& rituals or )&thological stories. @ften the sa)e de%ictions are re%eated at different %laces =so)eti)es on a house- another ti)e on a rock surface; the %ots in which the a&ahuasca is %re%ared is also decorated with ento%tic %heno)ena that are seen in the trance>. 5he de%ictions often tell stories of how the world $egan; stories that have $een said to $e lived in the trance caused $& taking the a&ahuasca in. It has often $een suggested that )ost of the *outh:A)erican art- in whatever for)- was ins%ired $& hallucinogens. 5he art is )ostl& ver& colourful- like that of the Huichol indians =<ig. 22>.

26

<ig. 227 A Huichol &arn %ainting. Are their ento%tic %heno)ena in this4

1ost of the rock art in this region is found in 1esoa)erica- where for instance the enor)ous intaglios are found in Peru- the La?ca lines =<ig. 23>. *o)e rock surfaces have also $een %ainted- $ut little research has $een done on this su$,ect. 5he fact that so )an& hallucinogens are used in this %art of the world however- suggests that undou$tedl& their art de%icts ento%tic %heno)ena- either $ecause of the trance or $ecause of the effects of the ingredients of the hallucinogen that is used. 5he art in this %art of the world is es%eciall& characterised $& )&thological scenes in $right colours- where realistic de%iction %la&s an inferior role. In the societies the use of hallucinogens is not restricted for the sha)ans onl&- at least all the )en are welco)e to ,oin in =or o$ligated to>.

27

<ig. 237 @ne of the La?ca 'ines in Peru- this one rese)$les a )onke&.

IV.! Palaeolithic Period


5he art )ade in the Palaeolithic %eriod was )ade $& Ho)o sa%iens. It was actuall& )ade relativel& late- fro) 3I./// &ears on. 1odern )an lived a long ti)e $efore this ti)e alread&. 1an& archaeologists and other scientists have wondered wh& this 9creative e2%losion8 didn8t $egin an& earlier. In the .V. Ho5 art ma&e the 5orl& this )atter is discussed as well. In it is stated that the Palaeolithic %eo%le so)ehow found a wa& to %aint two:di)ensional figures that $efore that ti)e were unknown to )an =I cannot resist adding here that I can reco))end the .V. )entioned to an&one who has a general interest in art and archaeolog&- it8s great for those long- rain& da&s>. In our world filled with signs and s&)$ols- it is al)ost i)%ossi$le to i)agine a world where a two: di)ensional %icture would not have $een recognised. It has $een suggested $& different archaeologists- like Henri #reuil ='a)ing- A.- 1 I >- that the %rehistoric %eo%le )ade these i)ages $ecause the& $elieved it would increase their chance of a successful hunt. 5his thought )ight not $e ver& strange- considering the largest %ortion of the art consists of %ossi$l& hunted her$ivores. However- after research done on the $ones found in the caves and other sites- it has $een shown that the %re&ed ani)als were not %ainted e2clusivel&. 5herefore it can $e stated that there was little correlation $etween the diet and the %aintings of the Palaeolithic %eo%le.

28

However- there certainl& was chosen to de%ict onl& certain ani)als and not all that would have $een fa)iliar to the Palaeolithic %eo%le. <or further

infor)ation on the histor& of the research done at 'ascau2 and other cavesand nu)erous theories on the )eaning of the Palaeolithic Rock Art- I should refer &ou to the work of Annette 'a)ing ='a)ing- A.- 1 I >- who gives an e2cellent descri%tion in her $ook. 1ost of the Rock Art $& the Palaeolithic %eo%le is )ade on rock surfaces- whether in caves or in o%en shelters. *u$se6uentl&- also $oulders in the landsca%e or near the caves or o%en shelters can have Rock Art. 5he s)aller stones that have $een decorated $elong to the art mo"ilier =)o$ile art> and I won8t discuss that in this essa&- $ecause it is considered to $elong to a different grou% of Palaeolithic art. 5he %laces where we find Rock Art fro) the Palaeolithic %eriod in (uro%e are )ostl& in southern (uro%e. <a)ous regions where Rock Art has $een found are the PTrigord- P&renees and the Provence in <rance- $ut also caves in *%ain =such as Alta)ira> and in other regions are known. 5he Ouaternar& %eo%le )ade their art in )an& different wa&s. 5he& could %aint in outline- in flat wash- with or without colour- the& )ade crude finger tracings in soft cla&- dee% or shallow engravings in the rock of delicate or crude design- the& scul%tured around natural irregularities of the rock: surface or $& cutting it awa& and )odelled in cla& ='a)ing- A.- 1 I >. In the caves- it is not unusual to find a wide range of different kinds of %aintings of different st&les. 5he %laces in the cave that have $een %ainted also differ greatl&. 3hile large o%en s%aces have definitel& $een e2%loited- also in ver& hard:to:get:to s%aces and narrow %assages the %aintings and engravings occur. It is unlikel& that es%eciall& the %aintings in the narrow %laces were )ade for an aesthetic reason onl&. Rather- it is %ro$a$le that the caves were sacred %laces- and the de%ths and secret %assages were %ro$a$l& )ore sacred in nature due to their difficult:to:reach %osition. 5he theor& that the %ainted caves were sanctuaries is strengthened $& the fact that the& were not used for residenc& ='a)ing- 1 I >. @ther caves )ight have $een used to live in- $ut the %articular %ainted caves show no traces of this. It is %ossi$le 29

however- that the caves were used for ha$itation for short %eriods- during feasts and s%ecial cere)onies that )ight have lasted for several da&s. It should $e noted here that no sufficient archaeological research has $een done in the %ainted caves and that visitors were )ostl& let in $efore the cave was co)%letel& )a%%ed =including the floors>. 1ost of the de%ictions are 6uite realistic. A wide variet& of the wildlife can $e recogni?ed. 5he %aintings and engravings show us what ani)als lived in (uro%e in the Palaeolithic %eriod- and which were %ro$a$l& )ost i)%ortant to the %eo%le who )ade these %aintings. A large nu)$er of her$ivores- such as horses- )a))oths- $ison- $ovids- rhinos- deer and ga?elle are a)ong the creatures de%icted. *o)e of these could $e %otentiall& dangerous- like the $ison- rhinoceros and )a))oths. Ani)als that were %ro$a$l& not hunted for food- like lions and $ears- are also de%icted. Lot )an& hu)ans have $een de%icted; when the& are shown however- the& lack the realis) )ost of the ani)als %ossess. In )an& cases it is not the entire hu)an that is %ortra&ed- $ut onl& the genitalia- as )an& archaeologists $elieve. V:sha%ed engravings are considered to $e vulvae. 5he )eaning of these de%ictions %ro$a$l& have so)ething to do with fertilit&. Plants and terrain are rarel& seen in the Palaeolithic Rock Art. *o)e %aintings )ight %ortra& $ushes- $ut the& are 6uite vague. 5here are theories that the rock surface )ight so)eti)es have $een used to indicate a terrain- as in the case of the frie?e of the swi))ing deer in the 1ain +aller& of 'ascau2. 5here- according to archaeologists like Annette 'a)ing ='a)ing- A.- 1 I >- the natural differences of the rock surface were used to indicate water- as onl& the heads and necks of the deer are de%icted =<ig. 2!>. 5o )e- this sounds like a t&%ical western e2%lanation. If figure 2! is co)%ared to figure 1/ and 16- it see)s the deer )ight as well a%%ear fro) a %ortal to the otherworld. 5his e2%lanation is ,ust as likel&- if not )ore; considering the likeness of the *an rock art with that of the Palaeolithic caves.

30

<ig. 2!7 Heads and necks of deer co)e out of a natural irregularit& of the rock surface.

Le2t to the ani)als and hu)ans that are de%icted- fre6uentl& vague signs can $e recognised that don8t see) to have a clear )eaning. 5hese- in the case of the Palaeolithic art- can $e recognised as dots =%laced together>darts- latticed signs or other a$stract figures. *o)eti)es lines are %rotruding fro) the nose of ani)als or anthro%o)or%hic figures. A good e2%lanation has &et to $e written down. 5here are theories however; )an& archaeologists are convinced that the darts do actuall& %ortra& darts or har%oons- $ut this is connected to their $elief that the ani)als were de%icted to 9ca%ture8 the ani)als $efore the& would actuall& go out hunting. 5he lines %rotruding fro) the nose or )outh do look a lot like the nasal $lood that is often de%icted in *an rock art =<ig. 11 and 2I>. In the *an rock art this indicates the hallucinations e2%erienced $& the sha)ans in trance. If the Palaeolithic %eo%le indeed e2%erienced tranceit is %ossi$le the&

e2%erienced the sa)e. 5his )ight have $een de%icted.

31

<ig. 2I7 A $ear with a su$stance co)ing out of the )outh andNor nose. It is also covered in scratches and dots.

5he latticed signs that occur a)ong the de%ictions of ani)als- in case of 'ascau2- increase in nu)$er in the last %hase of the cave8s use. 5he& are either %ainted- engraved or $oth. *o)e of the) are also coloured =<ig. 26 and cover>. A different t&%e can $e seen in figure 27. 5hese s&)$ols were $elieved to rese)$le huts or %ri)itive houses- and are therefore called tectiforms. I $elieve the& are ento%tic %heno)ena. 5he& look a lot like the ento%tic %heno)ena that are descri$ed $& the su$,ects in western research.

<ig. 267 'atticed s&)$ols found at 'ascau2.

32

<ig. 277 5ectifor)s in the sha%e of waterlil& leaves.

5he a$stract figures are usuall& de%icted near realistic de%ictions of ani)als =<ig. 20>. 5he& are not li)ited to onl& the hard:to:reach %laces or the )ost =or least> sacred. An %ossi$le e2%lanation could $e that the Palaeolithic %eo%le e2%erienced trance and saw ento%tic %heno)ena in the dark cave thanks to sensor& de%rivation of sight. In the a$sence of an& sti)uli- the $rain creates i)ages for us to see. It is likel& these e2%eriences were considered to $e religious e2%eriences- or contact with the s%irits.

33

<ig. 207 A de%iction of a horse- running towards a latticed s&)$ol. @n the horse8s thigh there is an arrow.

An e2a)%le of these a$stract figures can $e found in the cave of Peche 1erle =<rance>- where near so)e horses nu)erous dots have $een %laced- not onl& on the $odies of the horses $ut outside the outline as well =<ig. 2 >. In the sa)e cave- at the end of a dee% and narrow %assage- a co)$ination of these dots and the %lacing of %aintings in hard:to:reach %laces was discovered.

<ig. 2 7 Horses fro) Peche 1erle- <rance. Lote the ver& s)all heads and the dots %laces over their $od& and outside the outlines.

Recentl&- connections have $een )ade $etween the art of the Palaeolithic caves and the Rock Art in southern Africa which was )ade $& the *an. 'ewis:3illia)s8 discoveries on the )eaning of the *an artwork are ver& i)%ortant to the %rehistoric studies. Lot onl& $ecause the art of $oth cultures show )an& rese)$lances- $ut also $ecause their )eanings were %ro$a$l& ver& alike.

". Conclusion
@nl& a few cultures have $een discussed in this essa&- $ut there are )an& )ore hunter:gatherer cultures around the world that are known to )ake rock art and use hallucinogens- like )an& Lorth:A)erican tri$es. It is clear however

34

that the hunter:gatherers attach great value to the s%iritual world and the world around the). 5he& have great knowledge of the local %lants and trees and know how to use the). 5his was %ro$a$l& not an& different for the Palaeolithic cultures. #ecause of the cold cli)ate the diversit& of %lants was s)aller than- for instance- that of the tro%ical ,ungles of *outh:A)erica- $ut %lent& of hallucinogens )ust have grown there. 1ost likel& the %lants of the Hen$ane fa)il& and %s&cho:active )ushroo)s- such as the Amanita muscaria were %resent. "onsidering )ost hunter:gatherer cultures use hallucinogens- with a few e2ce%tions- it is likel& also the Palaeolithic %eo%le used the). 3hether this was the reason %eo%le started creating rock art- is another 6uestion. It would $e ver& hard to %rove this is the case. Howeverento%tic %heno)ena have $een recognised in the %aintings; these occur es%eciall& vivid when under the influence of hallucinogens. 3e )ust kee% in )ind however- that looking at the %aintings alone is taking the) out of conte2t and i)%overishing their )eaning. 5he %aintings %ro$a$l& had a s%iritual origin- as in all the other cultures that have )ade rock art. 1usic- dance and singing and other kinds of rituals )ight have $een %erfor)ed around the %aintings. It is also i)%ortant to kee% in )ind that the %laces where we find concentrations of Rock Art are not )useu)s. 5he art is scattered over the rock surface- )ade $& )an& different %eo%le and over a ver& long %eriod of ti)e. 3hile in a )useu) onl& e2traordinar& and $eautiful works of great e2%ertise are %ut together- )ostl& with the sa)e the)e or of the sa)e ti)eon the rock surfaces there are de%ictions that var& in the)es that )ight have nothing to do with each other at all; not onl& the )ost talented )ade Rock Art. It can therefore $e difficult to deci%her the art. 5o conclude- I $elieve trance and s%iritual rituals %la&ed a %art in the creating of the cave %aintings. Possi$l& %eo%le $egun %ainting thanks to the ento%tic %heno)ena the& e2%erienced in the caves. 5wo:di)ensional i)ages- as if %ortra&ed on a flat surface =the rock surface>- could $e seen in the hallucinations. 5here is no wa& to %rove that this was what started the %aintings. However- the Palaeolithic %eo%le did use hallucinogens in )& 35

o%inion- since this is onl& likel& considering the other hunter:gatherer cultures. In conclusion I would also like to add a %icture I found in 'ewis:3illia)s work ='ewis:3illia)s- 2//2>- that shows the si)ilarities $etween the ento%tic %heno)ena descri$ed in la$oratories- recognised in the *an rock art and in the Palaeoltihic rock art.

<ig. 3/7 Known ento%tic %heno)ena- *an and "oso rock art ento%tic %heno)ena and Palaeolithic art ento%tic %heno)ena.

36

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3I:6/. 3hitle&- ..*. 2//I. Introduction to rock art research. 'eft "oast Press7 3alnut "reek- "alifornia.

'ist of ictures
Fig. 17 *ensor& de%rivation. !cience"log 7europhilosophy. Sanuar& 27- 2//0. DonlineE. DAccessed 1!th .ece)$er 2//0E. Availa$le fro) 3orld 3ide 3e$7 Uhtt%7NNscience$logs.co)Nneuro%hiloso%h&N2//0N/1Nsensor&Wde%rivation.%h% V Fig. 27 "o))on ento%tic %heno)ena. 'ewis:3illia)s- 2//2. A cosmos in stone. Page unknown. Fig. 37 +oggles with '(. lights. Ho5 art ma&e the 5orl&. 2//6 D.V.E Fig. 47 *everal ento%tic %heno)ena as descri$ed $& a su$,ect. Ho5 art ma&e the 5orl&. 2//6 D.V.E Fig. 57 "li)ate in the Pleniglacial and #Jlling. Liekus- 1.S. <ong (aleolithicum :eel 2. 2//0 D1icrosoft Power%ointE- slide 7. Fig. 67 A)anita )uscaria. he vaults of Ero5i&. .ate unknown. DonlineE. DAccessed 1Ith .ece)$er 2//0E. Availa$le fro) 3orld 3ide 3e$7 Uhtt%7NNwww.erowid.orgN%lantsNshowWi)age.%h%4iXa)anitasNa)anitaW)usc aria22.,%gV Fig. 77 H&osc&a)us Liger. he vaults of Ero5i&. 2//2. DonlineE. DAccessed 1Ith .ece)$er 2//0E. Availa$le fro) 3orld 3ide 3e$7 Uhtt%7NNwww.erowid.orgN%lantsNshowWi)age.%h%4iXhen$aneNh&osc&a)usWni gerI.,%gV Fig. 87 Ranunculus acris. =lora von :eutschlan&/ >sterreich un &er !ch5ei? -088@3. 2//7. DonlineE. DAccessed 16th .ece)$er 2//0E. Availa$le fro) 3orld 3ide 3e$7 Uhtt%7NNcali$an.)%i?: koeln.)%g.deNYstue$erNtho)eN$and2NtafelW/03.ht)lV Fig. 97 (land. Encyclope&ia Brittanica. .ate unknown. DonlineE. DAccessed 13th .ece)$er 2//0E. Availa$le fro) 3orld 3ide 3e$7 Uhtt%7NNwww.$ritannica.co)N(#checkedNto%icN101 37NelandV Fig. 1:7 G.ance grou%H found in the "ave Province. 'ewis:3illia)s- 2//2. A cosmos in stone. Page unknown. Fig. 117 .ancing sha)ans with nose$leed. 'ewis:3illia)s- 1 southern African Rock Art. Page 32. 38 /. *iscovering

Fig. 127 (nto%tic %heno)ena in *an and "oso =also an African> culture. 'ewis: 3illia)s- 2//2. A cosmos in stone. Page unknown. Fig. 137 5hree variations of the navicular ento%tic %heno)enon. 'ewis: 3illia)s- 2//2. A cosmos in stone. Page unknown. Fig. 147 A navicular sign and winged insects. 'ewis:3illia)s- 2//2. A cosmos in stone. Page 1!7. Fig. 157 Hone&co)$s in a tree. 7ationmaster.com. 2//3:2//I. DonlineE. DAccessed 16th .ece)$er 2//0E. Availa$le fro) 3orld 3ide 3e$7 Uhtt%7NNwww.nation)aster.co)Nenc&clo%ediaNHone&co)$V Fig. 167 *an $lack hole. 'ewis:3illia)s- 2//2. A cosmos in stone. Page 1I1. Fig. 177 #arra)undi:fish. Ho5 art ma&e the 5orl&. 2//6 D.V.E Fig. 187 Mingana. Ho5 art ma&e the 5orl&. 2//6 D.V.E Fig. 197 A$original art in "arnarvon +orge. Ai4ipe&ia. 2//6. DonlineE. DAccessed 16th .ece)$er 2//0E. Availa$le fro) 3orld 3ide 3e$7 Uhtt%7NNen.wiki%edia.orgNwikiNI)age7A$originalWartW"arnarvonW+orge.,%gV Fig. 2:7 Anadenanthera. *chultes- R.(. F Hof)ann- A. 1 der goden - lants of the gods.. Page 3!. 7. /ver de planten

Fig. 217 .atura. Vascular plant image li"rary. 2//0. DonlineE. DAccessed 17th .ece)$er 2//0E. Availa$le fro) 3orld 3ide 3e$7 Uhtt%7NN$otan&.csdl.ta)u.eduN<'@RANi)a22sol.ht)V Fig. 227 Huichol &arn %ainting. Galeria In&igena. .ate unknown. DonlineE. DAccessed 17th .ece)$er 2//0E. Availa$le fro) 3orld 3ide 3e$7 Uhtt%7NNwww.galeriaindigena.co)Ninde2.%h%3V Fig. 237 La?cal line )onke&. =acepunch stu&iosBgigantic sym"ol seen on google earth. 2//0 DonlineE. DAccessed 17th .ece)$er 2//0E. Availa$le fro) 3orld 3ide 3e$7 Uhtt%7NNforu)s.face%unchstudios.co)Nshowthread.%h%4tXI1 /I V Fig. 247 .eer heads. 'a)ing- A. 1 I . 'ascau( & paintings ) engravings. Plate 33. Fig. 257 #ear. Rus%oli- 1. F "o%%ens- M. 1 06. 'ascau(+ un nouveau regard. Page 66.

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