S0300-A8-HBK-010

CHAPTER CHAPTER 5 5
STRANDED STRANDED SHIPS SHIPS
5-1 INTRODUCTION
A stranded ship is in a position not intended by her designers, builders, or operators, and is subject to very different forces and conditions than
when in normal service; she is more like a poorly designed, inadequately protected, and usually inappropriately placed breakwater than a ship
at sea. Like a ship being drydocked, part of a stranded ship’s weight is supported by the surrounding water, part by the ground. The portion
of the ship’s weight supported by the ground is ground reaction (R), or tons aground; it is equal to the lost buoyancy. The ground reaction
distribution is uneven and unpredictable. There are four major effects of ground reaction:
• The loss of buoyancy alters hydrostatic characteristics and hull girder loading.
• The upward force of ground reaction at the keel causes a virtual rise in the center of gravity.
• Extremely high local loading with damage or penetration of the hull can occur, particularly on rocky bottoms.
• Ground reaction holds the ship stationary; she cannot respond to or fall away from disturbing forces, such as waves, as she does
when afloat.
The conditions of a stranding are seldom fully defined in the beginning and often are not completely defined during the salvage operation. The
stranding condition and the environment are the principal sources of forces on a stranded ship. Stranding salvage is time-critical; environmental
conditions may improve or worsen with time, but the condition of a stranded ship steadily deteriorates.
5-2 THE STRANDING CONDITION
The way the ship lies on the ground and her position relative to the seafloor and coastline influence the casualty in two ways:
• The way the ship lies on, and is supported by, the ground is a principal indicator of the effort required to free her.
• Distribution of the ship’s weight between residual buoyancy and ground reaction affects stability and strength.
The ship’s position relative to the shore and underwater features can either intensify or mitigate environmental effects.
Specific considerations are:
• Magnitude and distribution of ground reaction.
• Changes in list and trim caused by the stranding.
• The area of the ship in contact with the bottom.
• Depth of water under and around the ship.
• Channel depth—depth of water between the ship and unobstructed deep water.
• Position and attitude of the ship relative to the ground and the shore.
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5-3 GROUND REACTION
Ground reaction varies; any changes to the buoyancy or weight of the ship change the ground reaction. The salvor will attempt to reduce the
ground reaction enough to float the ship (R = 0) or to allow the available horizontal force to pull the ship off her strand. The salvor may also
increase the ground reaction temporarily to prevent the ship from being driven farther ashore.
5-3.1 Distribution and Center of Ground Reaction. Definition of ground reaction distribution is useful because:
• The ground reaction must be added to the load to evaluate the effect of stranding on local and hull girder stresses.
• Location of the center of ground reaction must be estimated to determine the effect of weight changes on the ground reaction.
• The ship will pivot about the center of ground reaction when acted upon by lateral forces.
5-3.1.1 Center of Ground Reaction. The
Figure 5-1. Forces on a Stranded Ship.
WL
G
B
B
d
1
d
2
W
R
forces on a grounded ship are diagramed in
Figure 5-1. If the ship is aground over
only one segment of its length, the center
of ground reaction can be found by
summing moments about a convenient
point, for example, LCG:
where:
Bd
1
= Rd
2
d
2
=
Bd
1
R
d
1
= distance from LCB to LCG
d
2
= distance from LCG to the
center of ground reaction
The centers of gravity and buoyancy are in vertical line in a floating ship. LCG can therefore be determined from LCB. LCB can be taken from
hydrostatic curves or tables if the prestranding drafts are known. If the casualty was trimmed prior to grounding, LCB from hydrostatic data
must be corrected, as described in Paragraph 1-6.6:
where:
BB
1
=
BM
L
(t)
L
BB
1
= movement of LCB because of trim
BM
L
= longitudinal metacentric radius
t = trim
L = length between perpendiculars
With the prestranding LCG established, LCG movement caused by subsequent weight changes can be determined.
LCB aground can be found from the buoyancy curve or taken from hydrostatic data for the grounded drafts and corrected for trim.
If hydrostatic data are not available, but LCF and MT1 can be estimated (see Paragraphs 1-6.2.3 and 1-6.4), the center of ground reaction can
be estimated by assuming the ship trims about the LCF:
where:
Bd
1
= Rd
2
d
2
=
Bd
1
R
d
2
= distance from LCF to the center of ground reaction
d
1
= distance from LCB to LCF
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5-3.1.2 Ground Reaction Distribution.
Figure 5-2 Uniform Ground Reaction Distribution.
WL
WL
r =
R __
l
g
r =
R __
l
g
l
g
l
g
L
L
r
r
The exact distribution of ground reaction
depends on seafloor composition and
topography, hull deformation, and weight
and buoyancy distribution of the ship.
Because these cannot be quantified, ground
reaction distribution cannot be determined
accurately. The simplest assumption is a
uniform distribution of ground reaction
along the grounded length:
This assumption is probably valid for the
r =
R
l
g
situations shown in Figure 5-2.
On a uniformly sloping seafloor, as
illustrated in Figure 5-3, the ship should
bear most heavily on the upslope end.
Grounding pressure (P
r
) increases from zero
at the point of last contact to a maximum at
the point of first contact. A reasonable
estimate for the grounding pressure
distribution in this case would be a right
triangle with height (P
max
) equal to:
where:
P
max
=
2R
l
g
b
avg
Figure 5-3. Asymmetric Ground Reaction Distribution.
WL
R
2R __
b l
g
l
g
L
P
r
P
r
= 0
P
max
= ma x i mu m g r o u n d i n g
pressure, lton/ft
2
R = ground reaction, lton
l
g
= grounded length, feet
b
avg
= average breadth of
cont act ar ea over
grounded length, feet
Unit ground reaction (r) at any point is
then:
where:
r = P
r
b
b = breadth of contact area,
feet
If the center of ground reaction is at or near the center of the grounded length, ground reaction may be assumed to be distributed symmetrically
about this point. The form of the distribution can only be estimated. The prudent assumption is the distribution that gives the largest bending
moment.
If the center of ground reaction lies towards one end of the grounded length, the ground reaction distribution is weighted towards that end in
an asymmetrical shape.
Salvors must be alert to ship responses that do not match expected responses closely. Analysis of these responses can lead to a more accurate
approximation of ground reaction distribution and the location of the center of pressure.
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5-3.2 Determining Ground Reaction. The magnitude of ground reaction is needed to determine the amount of work and methods to refloat
the ship and to evaluate casualty stability and strength. Ground reaction is determined by comparing the attitudes and positions of the ship before
and after stranding. The ground reaction acting at the keel causes the ship to rise bodily and to trim. Ground reaction is determined by one
of the five methods described in the following paragraphs.
Most methods of calculating ground reaction require knowledge of the ship’s drafts before stranding. These drafts are often not readily available.
Drafts at the time of departure from the last port are found in the ship’s log. From these drafts—and known weight changes between the time
of sailing and the time of stranding—drafts immediately before stranding can be estimated.
Poststranding drafts should be measured as accurately as possible. All drafts and hydrostatic functions must be on the same basis, i.e., fresh
water or saltwater. It is usually simplest to base all calculations on the type of water in which the ship is stranded.
5-3.2.1 Residual Buoyancy Distribution Method. Analysis of as-grounded weight and buoyancy distribution can determine ground reaction
and help to determine its distribution and center of pressure. The area between the weight curve and the buoyancy curve for the stranded
waterline is the total ground reaction. While the area between the weight and buoyancy curves is equal to the ground reaction, the shape of
this area does not define the ground reaction distribution precisely. The load curve formed by the sum of weight, buoyancy, and ground reaction
curves is not zero at every point, even though overall equilibrium exists. For equilibrium to exist, ground reaction must be distributed so that
the combined center of buoyancy and ground reaction is in vertical line with the center of gravity. By distributing ground reaction increments
over the grounded length so that the combined center of buoyancy and ground reaction is in line with the center of gravity, and applying the
principles discussed in Paragraph 5-3.1, the ground reaction distribution may be described with reasonable accuracy. This method is well suited
for use with computers and automated hull form databases.
The buoyancy curve is developed from section areas taken from Bonjean’s Curves or calculated from offsets. For most strandings, entering
drafts can be determined by linear interpolation between forward and after drafts by either calculative or graphical means. If the ship is
noticeably hogged or sagged, the buoyancy curve should be developed from drafts taken at several stations.
5-3.2.2 Change of Displacement Method. Ground reaction can be estimated by entering the Curves of Form or Hydrostatic Table with the
drafts before and after grounding and reading the displacements for the two conditions:
where:
R = ∆
b

g
R = ground reaction

b
= displacement immediately before stranding

g
= displacement after stranding
If the stranded ship is trimmed, a correction
Figure 5-4. Change of Draft Forward Method.
WL
2
WL
1
d
r
d
f
ST
f St
L
R
FP
LCF
to displacement for trim should be made by
the method described in Appendix B.
The change of displacement method is the
simplest means of determining ground
reaction and is very accurate for most
strandings. If there is no significant hull
deflection or trim, ground reaction
determined by change of displacement
method should agree closely with the
residual buoyancy curve method.
5-3.2.3 Change of Draft Forward
Method. The change of draft forward
method considers the ground reaction as
equivalent to a weight removal that causes
both parallel rise and change of trim. The center of ground reaction must be known or estimated with reasonable accuracy to determine the
trimming lever. The distances used in the following derivation are shown in Figure 5-4:
Change of draft forward = change because of bodily rise + change forward because of trim
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∆T
bodily rise
=
R
TPI
∆t =
Rd
r
MT1
, ∆T
forward, trim
=
d
f
L
∆t
∆T
f
=
R
TPI

¸
1
1
1
]
¸

¸
_

,
Rd
r
MT1
×
¸

¸
_

,
d
f
L
=
R
TPI
R(d
r
)(d
f
)
MT1(L)
=
R(L)(MT1) R(d
r
)(d
f
(TPI)
TPI(MT1)(L)
=
R (L)(MT1) (d
r
)(d
f
)(TPI)
TPI(MT1)(L)
R =
∆T
f
(TPI)(MT1)(L)
(L)(MT1) (d
r
)(d
f
)(TPI)
where:
∆t = total change of trim, in.
∆T
f
= change of draft forward = T
fb
- T
fa
d
f
= distance from the center of flotation to the forward perpendicular
d
r
= distance from the center of flotation to the center of ground reaction
R = ground reaction, tons
MT1 = moment to trim one inch
TPI = tons per inch immersion
The basic relationship can also be solved for d
r
:
If R can be calculated by other methods, d
r
can be calculated and compared with values obtained by the methods described in Paragraph 5-3.1.1.
d
r
=
1
TPI (d
f
)
×

¸
1
1
1
]
∆T
f
(MT1) (TPI) L
R
L(MT1)
5-3.2.4 Tons per Inch Immersion Method. A simple, but often satisfactory estimate of ground reaction can be made by multiplying the
change in mean draft on stranding by the tons per inch immersion (TPI):
where:
R = T
mbs
T
mas
TPI
T
mbs
= mean draft before stranding
T
mas
= mean draft after stranding
The TPI method is often used because mean drafts and TPI can be estimated in the absence of detailed information.
This method considers only the bodily rise of the ship and is suitable for a first estimate of ground reaction when trim has not been changed
greatly by the stranding. If the stranding causes a significant change of trim, the accuracy of the method can be improved by correcting the
mean draft for trim by the method described in Appendix B.
5-3.2.5 Change of Trim Method. The change of trim method is most useful when the total trim exceeds one percent of the ship’s length, the
center of pressure of the ground reaction is known or can be estimated with reasonable accuracy, and change of trim is the dominant effect of
the stranding. Ground reaction is treated as a force that causes only a change of trim.
where:
R =
MT1(∆t)
d
r
∆t = total change of trim, inches
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EXAMPLE 5-1
CALCULATION OF GROUND REACTION
This example compares ground reaction calculated by the residual buoyancy method for two identical ships stranded under different conditions with results
obtained by the four approximate methods. Ground reaction for the two conditions is calculated by the approximate methods in Example 5-3 of the U.S. Navy
Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010). The initial conditions and results are summarized here.
For both cases, drafts before stranding are 14' 6" forward and aft; prestranding displacement from the Curves of Form is 3,475 ltons. This value accounts
for the molded volume, plus the volumes of appendages such as the shell plating, sonar dome, bilge keels, propeller, rudder, fin stabilizers, etc. Displacement
volumes determined by integrating section areas from the FFG-7 Bonjean’s Curves include the volume of the shell plating, but do not include volumes of other
appendages. Deducting the poststranding displacement, determined by integration, from the displacement given by the curves of form will therefore give an
erroneous value for ground reaction. Actual buoyancy while aground is calculated by adding to the integrated buoyancy an estimate for appendage
displacement determined by multiplying full load displacement by an appendage allowance.

full load
= 3,951 lton (from DC Book, see Appendix H)
Appendage allowance = 0.017 (from Table 1-3, Paragraph 1-5.9.1)

appendages
= 3,951(0.017) = 67.2 lton
a. The previously described FFG-7 Class ship strands on a
gently sloping beach for much of its length. Calculate
ground reaction by the residual buoyancy method and com-
pare results with those obtained by the approximate methods
(FFG-7 Bonjean’s Curves are given in Figure FO-3). The
drafts after stranding are 13' 10" forward and 14' 0" aft.
Ground reactions as calculated by the indicated method
(Example 5-3, Salvage Manual, Volume 1):
(1) Change in displacement 225 tons
(2) Change in draft forward 93.8 tons
(3) Tons per inch immersion 227.5 tons
(4) Change of trim 20.4 tons
Displacement volume at the stranded drafts is calculated below by
numerical integration (Simpson’s Rule), using section areas taken
from the Bonjean’s Curves as ordinates. Drafts for each station are
determined by linear interpolation between forward and after drafts,
assuming no significant hull deflection.
The results obtained by the change of displacement method and the
tons per inch immersion method are slightly lower, but agree closely
with that of the residual buoyancy method, as would be expected in
this case. The results obtained by the change in draft method and
the change of trim method are very low and obviously inaccurate,
because the center of pressure is not clearly defined and small
errors in estimating its position cause large errors in the final answer.
The change of trim method is doubly inappropriate; the center of
ground reaction is poorly defined, and bodily rise rather than trim is
the dominant effect of the stranding. A reasonable estimate of
ground reaction is 230 long tons t 10 tons.
FFG-7 Displacement Integration on 21 ordinates (Simpson’s Rule)
Station Draft
T
Ordinate
(Section Area)
A
Simpson’s
Multiplier
m
Functions of
Volume
ƒ(V)
0 13.83 0 1 0
1 13.84 49 4 196
2 13.85 118 2 236
3 13.86 184 4 736
4 13.87 243 2 486
5 13.87 294 4 1176
6 13.88 340 2 680
7 13.89 384 4 1536
8 13.90 421 2 842
9 13.91 445 4 1780
10 13.92 461 2 922
11 13.92 458 4 1832
12 13.93 436 2 872
13 13.94 409 4 1636
14 13.95 358 2 716
15 13.96 294 4 1176
16 13.97 225 2 450
17 13.97 158 4 632
18 13.98 99 2 198
19 13.99 49 4 196
20 14.00 6 1 6
∑ƒ(V) = 16304
h = 20.4 ft
∇ = h/3∑ƒ(V) = 20.4/3(16,304) = 110,867.2 ft
3

D
= ∇/35 + ∆
app
= 110,867.2/35 + 67.2 = 3,234.8 ≈ 3,235 lton
R = ∆
before
- ∆
after
= 3,475 - 3,235 = 240 lton
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b. The previously described FFG-7 Class ship strands on a
pinnacle. Drafts after stranding are 11' 6" forward and 15' 10" aft
(at draft marks). Calculate ground reaction by the residual
buoyancy method and compare results with those obtained by the
approximate methods.
Ground reactions as calculated by the indicated method
(Example 5-3, Salvage Manual, Volume 1):
(1) Change in displacement 200 tons
(2) Change in draft forward 221.4 tons
(3) Tons per inch immersion 165.8 tons
(4) Change of trim 220 tons
Because of the extreme trim of the stranded ship, drafts
observed at the draft marks differ significantly from those at
the perpendiculars. The damage control book (see
Appendix H for excerpts from the DC Book) shows that the
forward draft marks are 8.5 feet abaft the forward
perpendicular and the after marks are 7.5 feet forward of
the after perpendicular. Drafts at the perpendiculars are
calculated from observed drafts:
T
f
= 11' 6" = 11.5',T
a
= 15' 10" = 15.83'
t
between marks
= 15.83 - 11.5 = 4.33 = 4' 4"
T
FP
= T
f
- [(d
FP
/d
M
) × t
between marks
]
T
FP
= 11.5 ft - (8.5/392)4.33 ft = 11.41'
T
AP
= T
a
+ [(d
AP
/d
M
) × t
between marks
]
T
AP
= 15.83 ft + (7.5/392)4.33 ft = 15.91'
t
between perpendiculars
= T
AP
- T
FP
= 15.91 - 11.41 = 4.5' = 4' 6"
where:
T
FP
= draft at forward perpendicular
d
FP
= distance from forward perpendicular to
forward marks
d
M
= distance between draft marks
T
AP
= draft at after perpendicular
dAP = distance from after perpendicular to after
draft marks
Displacement volume at the stranded drafts is calculated by
numerical integration (Simpson’s Rule), using section areas taken
from the Bonjean’s Curves as ordinates. Drafts for each station are
determined by linear interpolation between forward and after drafts,
assuming no significant hull deflection.
FFG-7 Displacement Integration on 21 ordinates (Simpson’s Rule)
Station Draft
T
Ordinate
(Section Area)
A
Simpson’s
Multiplier
m
Functions of
Volume
ƒ(V)
0 11.41 0 1 0
1 11.64 35 4 140
2 11.86 95 2 190
3 12.09 153 4 612
4 12.31 205 2 410
5 12.54 257 4 1028
6 12.76 303 2 606
7 12.99 350 4 1400
8 13.21 392 2 784
9 13.44 423 4 1692
10 13.66 450 2 900
11 13.89 455 4 1820
12 14.11 445 2 890
13 14.37 425 4 1700
14 14.56 383 2 766
15 14.79 330 4 1320
16 15.01 265 2 530
17 15.24 203 4 812
18 15.46 151 2 302
19 15.69 95 4 380
20 15.91 49 1 49
∑ƒ(V) = 16,331
h = 20.4 ft
∇ = h/3∑ƒ(V) = 20.4/3(16,331) = 111,050.8 ft
3

D
= ∇/35 = 111,050.8/35 = 3,172.88 ≈ 3,173 lton

D
= ∇/35 + ∆
app
= 111,050.8/35 + 67.2 = 3,240.1 lton
R = ∆
before
- ∆
after
= 3,475 - 3,240.5 = 234.5 lton
Because of the extreme trim, the results obtained by the five methods vary considerably. The tons per inch immersion method especially gives results with
questionable accuracy. The change in trim method and change in draft forward method are well suited to this stranding condition and are in good agreement
with the residual buoyancy method. A reasonable working estimate of ground reaction would be 230 lton, t 10 tons.
The wide range of results obtained in this example emphasizes four important points about ground reaction calculations:
• All ground reaction calculations are approximate and are subject to error.
• All calculations should be checked by another method.
• Salvors must evaluate the casualty and the conditions of the stranding to select acceptably accurate methods to calculate ground reaction.
• Unless there is significant hull deflection, the appropriate approximate methods are nearly as accurate as the residual buoyancy method.
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5-3.2.6 Summary of Ground Reaction Calculations. The residual buoyancy distribution method is the only truly accurate method of
determining ground reaction when the hull is significantly deflected, although the change of displacement method can give results nearly as
accurate if the corrections for trim and hull deflections described in Paragraph B-2.1 are applied. Only the residual buoyancy method gives a
reliable estimate of LCB, which is the key to locating LCR. Given accurate drafts at stations and Bonjean’s Curves or automated hull data,
residual buoyancy and ground reaction can be calculated in a reasonably short time. If the buoyancy curve must be developed manually from
offsets, the marginally superior accuracy of the residual buoyancy distribution method over the approximate methods does not warrant the extra
work. The work can be greatly reduced by using computers and automated hull form databases. When weight and buoyancy curves are drawn
for strength analysis, ground reaction should be determined by the residual buoyancy distribution method.
The approximate methods of calculating ground reaction are used to provide quick initial estimates, when the data required for the residual
buoyancy distribution method is not available, or when the stranding condition is such that one of the approximate methods gives sufficiently
accurate ground reaction estimates and additional work is not justified. For example, the change in displacement method will give very accurate
ground reaction estimates for ships stranded on an even keel, with little trim, and without noticeable hull deflection.
The four approximate methods are not equally applicable to all strandings. Two methods of calculation—the change of displacement and change
of draft forward methods—take both bodily rise and trim into consideration. Their use is appropriate in all strandings, however, the change in
draft forward method may not give accurate results if the center of ground reaction cannot be estimated accurately. The tons per inch immersion
method considers only bodily rise, and the change in trim method considers only trim. Their use is appropriate when either bodily rise or trim
is the dominant effect.
The following factors are important when calculating ground reaction:
• The residual buoyancy distribution method using Bonjean’s Curves gives the most accurate results.
• All methods of calculation other than the residual buoyancy curve method give approximate results.
• Curves of Form or tabulated information are preferred over nomograms from Navy Damage Control Books as sources of
hydrostatic data.
• The accuracy of draft readings may be only ± 6 inches and the center of ground reaction poorly defined. The results can be no
more accurate than the basic data.
• Ground reaction should always be calculated by two appropriate methods and the results compared. The results may not be the
same, but should be reasonably close.
• A correction to displacement for trim should be used with the change in displacement method.
• The change of draft forward and change of trim methods require that the center of ground reaction be known or estimated with
some accuracy.
• The tons per inch immersion method requires a minimum of data and may be used for a rough first estimate. A correction for
trim improves accuracy. Accurate results should be expected only when there is little trim.
• The most accurate results should be expected from the change in trim method when trim is greater than one percent of the ship’s
length.
5-3.2.7 Stranding on Multiple Points. When a ship is aground on two widely separated points, such as two pinnacles or sandbars, total ground
reaction can be resolved into two reactions by summing moments about one of the grounding points. To sum weight and buoyancy moments,
the locations of LCG and LCB must be known with fair accuracy.
Ships stranded on more than two points can be treated as continuous beams under a distributed load (weight minus buoyancy), but this is difficult
as the three points seldom lie in the same plane. If hull deflection can be calculated, it may be possible to solve for the individual reactions
by superposition, as described in Paragraph 2-3.6.
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5-3.3 Weight Changes and Ground
Figure 5-5. Ground Restraints on a Stranded Ship.
CASE 1 - SHIP SUPPORTED ALONG ITS ENTIRE LENGTH.
CASE 3 - SHIP SUPPORTED ALONG A PORTION OF ITS LENGTH.
CASE 2 - SHIP SUPPORTED AT SINGLE POINT.
R
R
P
P
P
1
W
W
W
L
L
L
Reaction. A grounded ship is restrained
and cannot sink, rise, or trim in response to
weight changes as she would when afloat.
Floodwater or other weights added after
grounding alter ground reaction and its
distribution, affecting stability and hull
strength. Draft will not be affected unless
the ship lies on a bottom that will compact
under increased weight. The inability of
the ship to respond masks the fact that
weight changes made while aground will
affect floating drafts, trim, stability, and
strength. It is important to evaluate the
attitude, stability, and hull loading the ship
will have when refloated, as well as to
analyze the effects of weight changes on
strength and stability of the grounded ship.
In all cases, the sum of the buoyancy and
ground reaction exactly equals the weight:
Changes in weight must be matched by
W = B R
equivalent changes in the sum of the ground
reaction and buoyancy. If the ship cannot
change her position to change buoyancy, all
the change must be in the ground reaction.
If, however, the ship can trim and change
buoyancy, ground reaction may increase,
decrease, or remain the same depending
upon where the weight change occurs and
the way the bottom supports the ship.
In Case 1 of Figure 5-5, the ship is supported along its entire length. The ship is completely restrained from gaining buoyancy by either sinking
or trimming. The change in ground reaction must be the same as any change in weight.
In Case 2 of Figure 5-5, the ship is aground at a single point. Draft cannot increase at point P. The ship cannot trim about its center of flotation
but is constrained to rotate about P. The effect of weight additions on buoyancy and ground reaction depends on the location of the weight
change:
• Weight added between the center of flotation and P will increase draft aft and decrease draft forward as the ship rotates about P.
Because the ship is rotating about a point other than its center of flotation, both total buoyant force and buoyancy distribution change.
As buoyancy changes, there is a corresponding change in ground reaction.
• Weight can be added at a point such that at P the decrease in draft because of rotation is greater than the increase in draft caused by
parallel sinkage – ground reaction is reduced.
• For weight added farther forward, the decrease in draft at P because of trim is less than the increase because of parallel sinkage. As
the ship is constrained to rotate about P, the added weight is borne by increases in both buoyancy and ground reaction.
• Weight added or removed at P causes no rotation, and thus no change in buoyancy—the change in ground reaction will equal the
weight change.
Stranded ships are usually supported by the bottom along some portion of their length, as in Case 3 of Figure 5-5. In this case, the point P about
which the ship can rotate shifts to the end of the area supported by the ground. It can be seen from the illustration that the location of the point
about which the ship rotates depends on the direction of rotation. The ship is restrained so that it cannot increase draft by the bow, only by
the stern. If the ship does not rotate, the change in ground reaction will be the same as the weight change. If the ship rotates, it will gain or
lose buoyancy, but the sum of buoyancy and ground reaction will always equal the ship’s total weight.
The preceding discussion assumes that the ship and supporting ground are perfectly rigid bodies. In reality, both ships and seafloors are subject
to elastic and plastic deformation. Loss or gain of buoyancy resulting from elastic deflection of the hull girder may be of the same order of
magnitude as buoyancy changes resulting from weight additions or removals. On easily compactible seafloors, added weight may initially cause
an increase in ground reaction that is mitigated as the ship settles into a depression and regains some of the lost buoyancy over a period of days
or weeks. The seafloor may behave as a very dense fluid, changing consistency and behavior in response to the loading applied by the ship’s
weight and to environmental forces. In actual strandings, the support is seldom as clearly defined as shown in Figure 5-5. The point at which
support ends may not be readily identified. The point about which the ship rotates will probably lie somewhere between the center of pressure
of the ground reaction and the end of support, depending on the type of soil and the grounding conditions, but may move as the operation
progresses. The point of rotation can sometimes be located by carefully observing drafts along the grounded length as the tide rises and falls.
If the ship is pivoting about a hard point, the change in draft at the pivot point will be equal to the change of tide.
5-9
S0300-A8-HBK-010
5-3.3.1 Neutral Loading Point. When a
Figure 5-6. Neutral Loading Point.
W
d
n
d
r
L
R
CENTER OF
GROUND REACTION
NP LCF
weight is added to a floating ship at a point
other than the LCF, there is a point on the
opposite side of the LCF where the
opposing changes in draft caused by trim
and parallel sinkage are exactly equal and
draft remains constant. By applying this
principal to a stranded ship, a neutral
loading point (NP), where weight can be
added or removed without changing the
ground reaction, can be defined. There is
no tendency for the hull to move at the
point of ground reaction, so ground reaction
remains unchanged. The location of the
neutral loading point is found by the
following analysis. The referenced
dimensions are shown in Figure 5-6.
where:
∆T at R from parallel sinkage = ∆T at R from change of trim
∆T
parallel sinkage
=
w
TPI
∆T =
wd
n
MT1
, ∆T
trim
=
wd
n
MT1

¸
1
1
1
]
d
r
L
=
w
TPI
=
wd
n
d
r
MT1(L)
solving for d
n
:
d
n
=
( MT1)( L)
( TPI )( d
r
)
d
n
= distance from LCF to NP
MT1 = moment to change trim one inch
L = length between perpendiculars
TPI = tons per inch immersion
d
r
= distance from the center of ground reaction to LCF (location of LCF should be based on stranded drafts)
w = weight added or removed
The neutral loading point is a datum which helps predict the effect of weight changes at other locations. Weights added aft of the neutral loading
point will decrease ground reaction; weights added forward will increase ground reaction. The opposite is true for weight removed. As weight
is added or removed, the ship will trim; if trim is sufficient to alter MT1, TPI, or the position of LCF, the location of the neutral loading point
must be recalculated.
As grounded length relative to length between perpendiculars increases, the neutral loading point analysis becomes less applicable. As grounded
length increases, d
r
decreases, driving NP away from LCF; in general, if the center of ground reaction is less than L/8 from the center of
flotation, the NP will be off the ship. The ship will have little tendency to trim, and the change in ground reaction will equal the change in
weight.
5-10
S0300-A8-HBK-010
5-3.3.2 Changes in Ground Reaction from
Figure 5-7. Effects of Weight Changes on Ground Reaction.
NLP
C
H
A
N
G
E
I
N
G
R
O
U
N
D
R
E
A
C
T
I
O
N
C
H
A
N
G
E
I
N
G
R
O
U
N
D
R
E
A
C
T
I
O
N
NEUTRAL
LOADING
POINT
WEIGHT
ADDITION
WEIGHT
REMOVAL
+W
+W
0
0
-W
-W
W
W
-d d
d
nr
R
Weight Changes. Any change in weight
must result in an equal change in the sum of
buoyancy and ground reaction. If a stranded
ship does not rotate in response to a weight
change, the buoyancy is unchanged. The en-
tire weight change is taken up by a change
in ground reaction (∆R = ±w). If the ship
rotates about a point other than the center of
flotation, buoyancy will change. Part of the
weight change is reflected in the change in
buoyancy and the remainder in a change of
ground reaction. Because the pivot point can
change and is often difficult to define,
determination of the change in ground
reaction from weight changes is a complex
and inexact calculation. Approximate pre-
dictions of change in ground reaction caused
by weight change can be made if it is as-
sumed that the ship pivots about a stationary
center of ground reaction. The following
relationships can then be established:
• Weights added or removed at
the pivot point (center of
ground reaction) cause a
change in ground reaction
equal to the weight change,
with no change in buoyancy
(trim).
• Weights added or removed at
the neutral loading point cause
a change in buoyancy equal to
the weight change, with no
change in ground reaction.
• The proportion of the weight
change taken up by change in
ground reaction can be as-
sumed to vary linearly from 0
at the neutral loading point to
100 percent at the center of
ground reaction, as shown in
Figure 5-7.
The change in ground reaction (∆R) resulting from a weight change at any point along the length of the ship can thus be predicted by the
following relationship:
where:
∆R = w

¸
1
1
1
]
d
d
nr
w = weight added or removed
d = distance from the added or removed weight to the neutral loading point
d
nr
= distance from the neutral loading point to the center of ground reaction
= d
n
+ d
r
Although this relationship and the plot in Figure 5-7 imply that removing weights forward of the center of ground reaction will reduce ground
reaction by an amount greater than the weight removed, this is true only for a ship grounded on a pinnacle with a significant portion of the ship
forward of the pinnacle. Even in this case, the relation between weight removed forward of the center of ground reaction and the change in
ground reaction is not linear. For points aft of the center of ground reaction, the linear relationship will give reasonable estimates of change
in ground reaction if the ship is able to trim. There is no empirical data to show the actual effect of weight changes on ground reaction.
Predictions of change in ground reaction and casualty response to weight changes must be based on best estimates of the relative effects of
seafloor consistency, hull deflection, grounded length, etc.
5-11
S0300-A8-HBK-010
Figure 5-8 compares idealized weight
Figure 5-8. Effects of Weight Changes on Ground Reaction.
W L
P
1
IDEALIZED ∆R
PROBABLE
ACTUAL ∆R
∆R
∆R
WEIGHT REMOVAL
CAUSING ROTATION
ABOUT P
2
WEIGHT REMOVAL
FORWARD CAUSING
ROTATION ABOUT P
1
+W
+W
0
0
-W
-W
W
CASE 1. WEIGHT ADDITION AFT OF P
1
CAUSING
ROTATION ABOUT P1, WEIGHT ADDITION
FORWARD OF P
1
CAUSING NO ROTATION
CASE 2. WEIGHT REMOVAL AFT CAUSING ROTATION
ABOUT P
2
, WEIGHT REMOVAL FORWARD
CAUSING ROTATION ABOUT P
1
OR P
2
NLP LCF
P
2
change curves with probable actual curves.
The sense of impending motion and the
location of the pivot point must be known
to predict changes in ground reaction
resulting from weight changes. Assuming
rigid body behavior for Case 1, weight
added aft of P
1
will tend to induce rotation
about P
1
. Weight added forward of P
1
can
cause neither sinkage nor rotation. The
point (P
1
, w) is thus located on the ∆R
curve; the solid straight line drawn through
this point and the X axis at the neutral
loading point defines the curve in the
region between P
1
and the after
perpendicular. Between P
1
and P
2
, the
curve is flat and equal to w. The dotted
line on this plot shows the probable actual
∆R curve, as influenced by hull deflection
and hull and bottom deformation.
In Case 2, removing weight aft of LCF will
tend to induce rotation about P
2
. The point
(P
2
, -w) rather than (P
1
, -w), and 0 at the
neutral loading point, define the ∆R curve
for weight removal aft. When weight is re-
moved forward, parallel rise tends to cause
rotation about P
2
, while the trimming
moment tends to cause rotation about LCF.
The effect of ground reaction can force
rotation about P
1
, P
2
, or possibly LCF, de-
pending on the relative magnitude of draft
changes from parallel rise/sinkage and trim.
Weight removals that would decrease draft
at P
2
to less than the water depth, but leave
draft at P
1
greater than the water depth, will
cause rotation about P
1
. Weight removals
that would reduce draft at P
2
to less than
the water depth and leave draft at P
1
only
slightly greater than the water depth may
cause rotation about LCF or a point between
LCF and P
1
. Weight removed from the forward portion of ships stranded with extreme trim may cause rotation about P
2
if the parallel rise "out-
weighs" the trimming moment. An indication of the sense of rotation can be obtained by summing moments about the center of ground reaction.
The changes in forward and after drafts are predicted by relating the change in buoyancy to a corresponding change in mean draft:
where:
∆T
m
=
∆B
TPI
∆T
a
= ∆T
m
×
d
a
+ d
r
d
r
∆T
f
= ∆T
m
×
d
f
d
r
∆B = change in buoyancy = w - ∆R d
r
= distance from LCF to pivot point (center of ground reaction)
∆T
m
= change in mean draft ∆T
f
= change in draft forward
∆T
a
= change in draft aft d
f
= distance from center of ground reaction to forward perpendicular
d
a
= distance from LCF to after perpendicular
When the center of ground reaction is well forward, ∆T
a
is nearly twice ∆T
m
, and ∆T
f
is negligible.
5-12
S0300-A8-HBK-010
Changes in drafts should be checked after weight changes and while major weight changes are in progress. If, after accounting for differences
because of tide, draft changes are not as predicted, the ship is not pivoting about the center of ground reaction and actual change in ground
reaction is different from predicted. For a ship grounded forward:
• Change in draft aft less than expected indicates a greater-than-predicted change in ground reaction.
• Change in draft aft greater than expected indicates a less-than-predicted change in ground reaction.
• No change in forward and after drafts indicates that entire weight change was taken up by change in ground reaction; the ship is
unable to trim, or the moment induced by the weight change was not great enough to actually trim the ship.
Ground reaction after a major weight change should be determined by calculating the drafts the ship would have afloat. Ground reaction can then
be recalculated by the methods described in Paragraph 5-3.2 based on these drafts and the drafts observed following the weight change. Estimates
of ground reaction distribution and center can be refined by comparing predicted ground reaction with that calculated following a weight change.
Both ship and seafloor are deformed to some extent, so rigid body analysis is not exact. For ships stranded on firm seafloors, the error introduced
is small and the method gives satisfactorily accurate predictions of change in ground reaction. In soft seafloors, increased ground reaction will be
less than predicted because of bottom deformation.
5-3.3.3 Use of Weight and Buoyancy Curves. The sum of the areas under the buoyancy and ground reaction curves must equal the area under
the weight curve (adjusted for weight changes). The combined center of the two areas must be under the center of gravity. Analysis of weight and
buoyancy can help determine how close the actual change in ground reaction is to the idealized relationship. A buoyancy curve corresponding to
the drafts predicted by the linear relationship should be drawn. If the resulting ground reaction is not equal to that predicted by the neutral loading
point relationship, iterative adjustments of the predicted drafts and location of center of ground reaction can bring the two quantities closer.
5-4 ENVIRONMENTAL FORCES ON STRANDINGS
Environmental forces on a stranding include effects of the sea bottom and fluid forces of the surrounding water. Fluid forces on a stranded
casualty result from the tide, currents, waves, swells, and surf. Wind can be a significant factor, especially during and after refloating.
Environmental forces are generally independent of one another. Forces may be steady, cyclic, or irregular and may vary seasonally or over short
periods in response to local weather.
5-4.1 Seafloor Effects. Ships strand on rock, coral, hardpan, sand, mud, or combinations of these. Seafloor characteristics affect the nature of the
stranding and the work required for refloating. The following features are particularly important:
• Composition of the seafloor under the ship.
• Slope of the seafloor under and to seaward of the ship.
• Movement of the seafloor in the vicinity of the casualty.
Soils are classed as cohesive (clay) or cohesionless (sand, gravel, silt), based on their behavior under load. Load responses, such as friction
forces, bearing strength, resistance to lateral flow, etc., develop differently in cohesive and cohesionless soils. The general characteristics of
soils and means of identifying soil types are discussed in Paragraph 3-7.
5-4.1.1 Friction and Freeing Force. Friction between the seafloor and the casualty’s hull must be overcome to pull the ship free. On rock,
coral, and cohesionless soils, the frictional force resisting movement of a stranded ship is a function of the ground reaction component normal
to the bottom and a coefficient of friction (µ). For the shallow bottom slopes encountered in most strandings, the normal component of ground
reaction is essentially equal to the ground reaction (R) and:
where:
Table 5-1. Coefficients of Friction for Strandings.
Seafloor Type
Coefficient of Static Friction,
µ
Remarks
Silt or mud 0.2 to 0.3 Suction effects not included
Sand 0.25 to 0.4 µ increases with grain size
Gravel or pebble 0.4 to 0.5
Hardpan 0.5 to 0.8 Densely consolidated sand and
clay, may include gravel
Coral 0.5 to 0.8 Lower values for dead or
pulverized coral
Rock 0.8 to 1.5 See accompanying text
F
f
= µR
F
f
= friction force
Exact coefficients of friction for seafloor and shore soils are unavail-
able. The coefficients of static friction for strandings given in Table 5-
1 are based on the operational experience of salvors over many years.
The high coefficients for rock are for the commonly encountered rough,
uneven rock that may impale the hull. Rock protrusions of all sizes are
invariably sheared as the ship is retracted, leading to high resistance to
movement. In rare cases of stranding on relative flat, even, massive
formations, lower coefficients may be justified. Under industrial con-
ditions similar to ship strandings, coefficients of iron and steel against
stone range from 0.3 to 1.0, depending on the texture of the stone.
Heavy mats of algae or other vegetation, or thick coatings of heavy oils and other lubricants may reduce friction significantly. Because of the
uncertainty in determining coefficient of friction, coefficients outside the ranges given in Table 5-1 should be applied with caution.
5-13
S0300-A8-HBK-010
For cohesive soils, friction is a function of contact area and soil shear strength:
where:
F
f
= sA
s = soil shear strength
A = area of hull in contact with the seafloor
The relationships for frictional force apply strictly only if soil properties are constant along the grounded portion of the ship. Because soil
properties and bearing pressures are not uniform under stranded ships, total frictional force is the sum of the frictional forces on each incremental
area. Soil properties and bearing pressures can be affected by characteristics of the stranding. It is virtually impossible to quantify the effect
of these variables in the field. Friction estimates based on rigid body analysis and average values for µ or s may differ from actual friction by
± 20 percent.
In most strandings, friction will increase slightly with time as the thin water film that initially lies between the ship and the seafloor is gradually
squeezed out. The water film dissipates more rapidly on cohesionless soils and rock than on cohesive, impermeable soils; in any event,
coefficient of friction is essentially constant after a day or two. There is thus some justification for making an immediate retraction attempt
shortly after stranding if the ship is not impaled, or seriously damaged, if there is sufficient water depth to seaward, and if there are sufficient
assets available to retract the casualty and control her so that she does not restrand, perhaps in a less favorable condition. If stranded on sand
or similar loose sediments, a ship should make only a brief attempt to back off under her own power. When backing, the propeller stream
impinges on the vessel’s after hull and quickly loses velocity. Sediments carried by the water drawn into the propeller are deposited under the
stern and forced under the ship and along its sides. If there is any doubt that a casualty could control herself while backing off an exposed shore,
she is better off securing her position by
Figure 5-9. Turning Pull.
GROUNDED LENGTHS
ATHWARTSHIPS
COMPONENT OF
TURNING PULL
d
1
d
0
d
3
l
1
l
3
l
2
d
2
AP
AP
H
FP
FP
TURNING
AXIS
ballasting down and carrying anchors to
seaward than attempting to back herself off
and possibly broaching. Paragraph 5-7 and
the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual,
Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010) describe
methods used to refloat stranded ships; the
Salvage Manual includes a detailed
discussion of the advantages and disad-
vantages of immediate retraction attempts.
5-4.1.2 Turning Pull. It is sometimes
necessary to turn or slew a stranded vessel
before retracting so that she can be pulled
towards fair water. As the force required to
turn a casualty is often much less than that
required to drag it, turning or wrenching
may be coordinated with a direct pull to
induce motion that will reduce friction from
static to dynamic levels. If the ground
reaction distribution or coefficient of
friction is not uniform, the equilibrium
equations take the general form:
where H is the turning pull, d
H
is the distance from the turning axis to the point of application of the turning pull, and µ
i
, l
i
, and d
i
are the
F = 0 = H µ
1
r
1
l
1
µ
2
r
2
l
2
µ
3
r
3
l
3
M = 0 = Hd
H
µ
1
r
1
l
1
d
1
µ
2
r
2
l
2
d
2
µ
3
r
3
l
3
d
3
coefficient of friction, length, and distance from the center of ground reaction to the turning axis for the indicated grounded lengths, as shown
in Figure 5-9. To obtain a solution, all unknown distances must be expressed in terms of a single variable. If certain assumptions can be made,
turning pull can be estimated by the simultaneous solution of equations derived by summing equilibrium forces and moments about the turning
axis, as demonstrated in the following example.
5-14
S0300-A8-HBK-010
EXAMPLE 5-2
CALCULATION OF TURNING PULL
Figure 5-10. Stranding Case for Example 5-2.
GROUNDED LENGTH
LBP = 408’
FRAME SPACING = 1’
155’ 80’
155 - x
FRICTIONAL
RESISTANCE
TO TURNING =
FRICTIONAL
RESISTANCE
TO TURNING =
µr(155-x)
2
2
µrx
2
2
x
173’
FR 235
FR 80
AP
AP
H
FP
FP
TURNING
AXIS
Calculate the required turning pull for the stranded FFG-7 shown in Figure
5-10. Assume the turning pull H is applied at right angles to the ship’s
centerline and that ground reaction is uniformly distributed over the
grounded length.
Unit ground reaction: r = R/ 155
Friction forces are expressed as the product of the coefficient of friction (µ),
unit ground reaction (r), and an appropriate grounded length. For the
stranding shown, the unknown distance from the turning axis to one end of
the grounded length is designated x. With turning pull (H) and location of
the turning axis (x) unknown, a system of two equations with two unknowns
is developed:
F = 0 = H µr x µr (155 x)
= H 155µr 2µr x
M = 0 = H(173 [155 x]) µr (155 x)
¸

¸
_

,
155 x
2
µr x
¸

¸
_

,
x
2
= 2H(328 x) µr (155 x)
2
µr x
2
= 2H(328 x) µr (24,025 310x x
2
) µr x
2
= 2H(328 x) 24,025µr 310µr x 2µr x
2
From the summation of forces, H can be expressed in terms of x:
H = 155µr 2µr x
Substituting this expression into the summation of moments:
0 = 2( 155µr 2µr x) ( 328 x) 24025µr 310µr x 2µr x
2
= 101680µr 1312µr x 310µr x+4µr x
2
24025µr 310µr x 2µr x
2
= µr ( 77655 1312x 2x
2
)
The resulting quadratic equation is solved for x:
x =
b t b
2
4ac
2a
=
1312 t 1312
2
4( 2) ( 77655)
4
= 590.2, 65.78
The value 590.2 is obviously an extraneous root as it places the turning axis
outside the grounded length. Substituting 65.78 ≈ 66 into the expression for
H and recalling that r = R/155:
H = 155µr 2µr ( 66) = 23µr
=
23
155
µR = 0.148µR ≈ 0.15µR
5-15
S0300-A8-HBK-010
Experience has shown that turning pull varies from about 0.3µR when ground reaction is evenly distributed along the entire length of the ship’s
bottom to 0.125µR or less when one end of the ship is afloat (Yang Gin-Lang, The Theory and Practice of the Refloating Project of M/V
DAMODAR GANGO and The Refloating of M/V AMERICAN SOUIX, MTS Journal, Second Quarter, 1984). External restraints, such as rock
outcroppings, accumulated settlements, or ground tackle can force the casualty to turn about a known axis. The system of simultaneous equations
is then solved for the turning pull and the force on the restraint. The resulting turning pull is not necessarily the minimum pull that would turn
the ship if the external restraints were removed.
Casualties lying parallel to the shore or a channel may be worked into deep water in a series of steps by slewing about alternate ends with the
opposite end held fast. If bow and stern are successively slewed through the same angle α, the ship will move a distance of approximately Lsinα
for each set of turnings, where L is the ship’s length or the distance between pivot points.
5-4.1.3 Mud Bottoms. Muds or silts are often found in harbors and estuaries, but seldom offshore, because the small particles are kept in
suspension by the slightest water movements. Muds consist of very fine silt particles and often include a high percentage of clay particles.
The particles are small enough to be influenced by electrostatic and intermolecular attraction. As the particles are deposited in still water, they
bond weakly to one another, forming a porous, unconsolidated mass.
The weight of a stranded vessel both consolidates and induces lateral flow in the mud. The lateral flow is resisted by adjacent soil; in highly
plastic muds, the lateral pressure is relieved in a bulging of the seafloor a few feet away from the casualty, called a mud wave. The height of
the mud wave and the speed with which it forms indicate the ease with which lateral flow can be induced as a means to refloat the ship, and
its tendency to settle into the mud as time passes. Noticeable settlement may continue on some muds for six months or more.
Ships stranded on clay-bearing soils may be subject to suction effects. The weight of the ship squeezes water out of the porous mud structure
to form a denser, less permeable structure. Under extreme pressures, clay and silt may separate. The clay forms impermeable layers that restrict
the movement of water and prevent the hydrostatic pressure under the ship from changing. If the pressure under the ship is lower than in the
surrounding water, the ship is held to the bottom. Suction most commonly affects full-bodied or flat-bottomed hulls. Fine-lined ships, especially
those with low metacentric height, are seldom held by suction because even very slight rolling is enough to allow water to flow between the
hull and mud. Suction can be overcome by disrupting the clay layers; methods to break suction are discussed in Paragraph 5-7.
5-4.1.4 Damage and Impalement. Bottom damage resists sliding by acting as a scoop or blade anchor embedded in the seafloor. These effects
are more pronounced on firm sand, gravel, stiff clay, coral, hardpan, or uneven rock than on soft mud or quicksand. To account for the increase
in sliding resistance, the effective coefficient of friction is taken as 1.5µ or µ + 0.5, whichever is larger. It is usually necessary to remove
damaged plating to free the ship.
If the ship is impaled, it must be trimmed or lightened enough to clear the impalement, or the obstruction must be removed. Otherwise, it is
rarely possible to generate enough force to free the ship.
Rudders, sternposts, and skegs on ships aground over their whole length can dig in and resist retraction (similar to the way damaged plating
or impalements resist retraction). On hard seafloors, the rudder or other structure may be damaged during retraction unless the obstructions are
removed or the stern raised before retracting.
5-4.2 Tides. Salvage operations are both aggravated and simplified by tidal effects. A large rise of tide adds significantly to the buoyancy
of an intact hull. The amount of weight that must be removed, or pulling force employed, is less if a large tidal range can be used to advantage.
However, such ranges may restrict the time available for lightering and salvage vessels to come alongside. Strong tidal currents make it difficult
for vessels to maneuver, and hamper diving. The times of slack water and extreme tides usually do not coincide. Knowledge of local tides
allows salvors to reduce the unfavorable effects and take advantage of favorable effects.
5-4.2.1 Tide and Ground Reaction. The waterline of a stranded ship rises and falls with the tide. When the tide is highest, the buoyancy
of the ship is greatest, and the ground reaction is decreased by the amount of buoyancy gained. When the tide falls, buoyancy decreases and
ground reaction increases.
For a ship that cannot trim, the change in ground reaction caused by the tide is nearly equal to the change in height of the tide multiplied by
TPI. For a ship that can trim with tide changes, the change in ground reaction can be estimated by relating change of ground reaction to change
in draft at LCF. For a change of trim, draft is constant at the center of ground reaction. Change of draft at LCF from trim is then given by:
where:
∆T
LCF, trim
= ∆t
¸

¸
_

,
d
r
L
∆t = change of trim, in.
d
r
= distance from the center of ground reaction, or assumed pivot point, to the center of flotation
L = length between perpendiculars
5-16
S0300-A8-HBK-010
The total change in draft at LCF is the sum of the changes caused by trim and rise or fall of tide. The change in draft because of tide is simply
the change in tide height. The two changes are opposed; a falling tide tends to decrease draft, but the rotation of the ship about the pivot point
tends to increase draft at LCF. A rising tide has the opposite effect. Total change in draft at LCF is then:
where:
∆T
LCF
= ∆h -
¸

¸
_

,
d
r
L
∆h = tide change, in.
Change in ground reaction can be estimated by multiplying change in draft at LCF by TPI:
If change of trim, ∆t, is expressed as ∆Rd
r
/MT1, then:
∆R =

¸
1
1
1
]
∆h ∆t
¸

¸
_

,
d
r
L
TPI = ∆h (TPI) ∆t
¸

¸
_

,
d
r
L
TPI
Expressing ∆t as ∆Rd
r
/MT1 implies an assumption that the ship is trimming about its center of flotation; it is not. This assumption introduces
∆R = ∆h(TPI)
¸

¸
_

,
d
r
L
TPI
¸

¸
_

,
∆Rd
r
MT1
∆h(TPI) = ∆R
d
2
r
(TPI) ∆R
L(MT1)
= ∆R
¸

¸
_

,
1
d
2
r
(TPI)
L(MT1)
∆R =
∆h(TPI)
¸

¸
_

,
1
d
2
r
(TPI)
L(MT1)
=
∆h(TPI)
¸

¸
_

,
(d
2
r
) (TPI) (L) (MT1)
L(MT1)
∆R =
∆h(TPI) (L) (MT1)
(d
2
r
) (TPI) + (L) (MT1)
errors into ground reaction predictions for different heights of tide. As salvage operations progress, drafts should be taken regularly and ground
reaction estimated for the height of tide at that time. Plots of ground reaction as a function of height of tide can be used to predict ground
reaction. The relationship between ground reaction and state of tide will not remain constant. The working of the casualty on the bottom will
deform both the hull and seafloor, shifting the pivot point and altering the response to tidal fluctuations. The degree to which the vessel response
is altered depends on the degree of motion of the casualty, range of tide, effects of currents and waves, and strength of the supporting seafloor.
Analysis of ground reaction versus tide plots will show trends that can be used to refine predictions of ground reaction.
5-4.3 Wave Effects. General wave characteristics and prediction methods are discussed in Paragraph 3-2. The significance of wave effects
on a stranding depends upon:
• The casualty’s position relative to the breaker line.
• The casualty’s orientation relative to the shore and approaching wave fronts.
• The size and period of waves and swell.
• How firmly the casualty rests on the ground and the nature of the bottom.
• Exposure to large swells, surf, and storm waves.
Waves move buoyant or partially buoyant objects with their cumulative effects. Near the crest, buoyancy of a stranded ship is increased and
ground reaction is reduced. Ground reaction distribution and location of the center of pressure are changed; the levering action of the ship
disrupts suction and may reduce friction. The combined effects make the ship easier to move. This effect is useful when the ship is being
refloated, but dangerous at other times, as the ship may be driven farther ashore or broached.
5-17
S0300-A8-HBK-010
A stranding just within the breaker line will be battered by short-period, shallow water waves. On refloating, it may be difficult to bring the
casualty back through the breakers. A casualty well outside the breaker line suffers less impact loading but is exposed to long-period swells
and commensurately greater variations in buoyancy over a greater percentage of length. Wave lengths nearly equal to the ship’s length cause
severe hogging or sagging loads.
Heavy surf or swell is particularly dangerous to a casualty stranded at one end with the other end floating:
• The casualty is easily broached. Large waves striking the seaward end of the ship at even small angles tend to swing the ship
because the ungrounded length of the ship acts as a lever arm. Longshore currents can add to this effect. The rotating moment
is determined by integrating the wave and current forces over the ship’s length.
• The floating end is subject to vertical forces as the buoyancy is alternately increased and decreased by the passing waves. If the
floating end is free to oscillate, it may pound on the sea bottom, while its levering action works and grinds the grounded end on
the bottom. The cyclic buoyancy changes can cause high hull stresses or fatigue failure.
A broached ship is susceptible to serious damage from the effects of waves. On rock, a broached ship will bear hard on the rock under its
inshore bilge. The swell impacting against the offshore bilge pushes the ship farther onto the rock, causing it to roll and grind heavily. Currents
from incoming waves scour loose sediment seafloors and can cause a broached ship to break, as discussed in Paragraph 5-4.4.1. A broached
ship should be swung perpendicular to the beach or refloated as soon as possible. It may be necessary to reinforce hull plating in critical areas,
such as the inshore bilge and seaward side plating.
Water depth may vary considerably around a stranding. The casualty may be exposed to different wave effects at different points. It is likely
the waves on the port and starboard sides of the ship will be out of phase. Variations in hydrostatic and dynamic pressures will place transverse
shear forces on the hull. Out-of-phase long waves on either side of the casualty will cause hull torsion and twisting and racking stresses that
may aggravate stresses caused by grounding, damage, and hull loading.
5-4.4 Current. The direct effects of current on a stranding result from the force the current exerts and its ability to carry suspended bottom
sediment:
• If strong enough, current force may change the stranded ship’s head, or drive it farther ashore. Weaker currents can cause the
ship to work on the bottom, or cause cyclic movement of appendages or damaged plating, resulting in increased damage.
• Depending on the stranded ship’s position relative to the current, sediment may either be scoured away from or built up around
the casualty. Either condition can cause excessive hull stresses or complicate refloating.
Currents can limit diving, complicate ship and boat movements, and otherwise delay and disrupt salvage operations. Current force and moment
calculations are described in Paragraph 3-4.5.1.
5-4.4.1 Scour. A ship or other large obstruction on a beach or shoal will alter current flow patterns and velocities; sediments may be scoured
away from or built up around the casualty. Silt clogs sea suctions, increases friction and suction, and covers shell areas requiring repairs.
Sediments are typically scoured away from the ends of the ship. When a ship lies across a current and blocks part of the flow area, current
velocity is increased in the remaining flow area, adjacent to one or both ends of the ship. Current velocity is further increased near the bottom
because the hull form near the bow and stern of most ships tends to deflect the current downward. Scour currents often sweep around the ends
of the ship through nearly 180 degrees as they are drawn towards the area of relative low pressure in the lee of the ship. Scour alters ground
reaction distribution and can cause severe hogging stresses. Strandings in way of strong currents are very susceptible to scouring, although ships
stranded at or near right angles to the beach are endangered more by swells driving them farther ashore or broaching them than by scouring.
A casualty broached in strong surf or swell is in a very dangerous position. The ship obstructs the translatory motion of the wave crests traveling
towards shore and creates a low pressure zone in its lee. The obstructed water is deflected sideways along the ship’s hull. These currents are
deflected around the ends of the casualty, and accelerated by the hydraulic pressure difference, the refraction of waves around the ends of the
ship, and the form of the ship at bow and stern. The swift currents scour fine-grained sediments from under the ends of the ship and deposit
them as current velocities drop in the lee of the ship, developing a spit reaching towards the casualty. The loss of support under the ends of
the ship produces severe hogging moments. Broached ships may break up within hours or days of stranding.
Scour, sedimentation, and other littoral processes are discussed in greater detail in Paragraph 3-7.4.
5-4.5 Wind Force. A heavily stranded ship is not likely to be moved or swung, even by very strong winds. As a casualty is refloated, she
becomes subject to wind drift and heel like any other floating vessel. If a stranding must be refloated during high winds, she must be controlled
by tugs or ground tackle to prevent her from restranding or colliding with salvage vessels.
The high seas that accompany strong winds are a threat to a stranded casualty. Storm surge, heavy surf, heavy swells, or other water level
fluctuations that increase a casualty’s buoyancy may reduce ground reaction enough for strong winds to move or swing her.
Salvage and lightering vessels alongside a casualty may work heavily in strong winds and damage themselves or the casualty if not adequately
fendered. Vessels in multi-point moors, or in beach gear harness, cannot swing to present minimum drag area to the wind as can a vessel riding
to a single anchor. Moorings for salvage vessels must be strong enough to hold them in anticipated winds. Stranded or moored vessels often
suffer more extensive topside damage than vessels free to ride with the wind. Wind force calculations are described in Paragraph 3-5.
5-18
S0300-A8-HBK-010
5-5 STABILITY OF STRANDED SHIPS
The stability of stranded ships is influenced by the way the ship rests on the ground. If a ship is stranded on a fairly flat bottom, there is little
danger of capsizing. A ship stranded on a pinnacle and free to incline is in a dangerous situation. The apparent stability of a ship supported
by the ground masks changes to the ship’s stability afloat. If stability is not calculated, serious reductions in afloat stability may not be evident
until the ship is refloated.
5-5.1 Effect of Grounding on Center of Gravity. Ground reaction is equivalent to removing an equal weight from the keel, and causes a
virtual rise in the center of gravity similar to that caused by the block reaction on a ship in drydock:
GG
1
=
R(KG)
(W R)
The effective height of the center of gravity can be calculated directly:
KG
1
=
(KG)(W)
(W R)
where:
GG
1
= virtual rise of the center of gravity W = weight of the ship
KG
1
= effective height of the center of gravity when the ship is aground R = ground reaction
KG = original height of the center of gravity above the keel
5-5.2 Effect of Grounding on the
Figure 5-11. Grounding Off Centerline.
C
L
W L
s
W
t
0
B
Z
M
G
R
Metacenter. KM for a stranding is based
on the residual buoyancy of the ship, and
can be found from the Curves of Form with
poststranding drafts. With a large range of
tide, the movement of the metacenter is
significant and large negative metacentric
heights may develop.
A stranded ship with a negative metacentric
height will tend to list. The angle of the list
will depend on the restraint of the seafloor.
If a large portion of the ship’s bottom is in
contact with the seafloor, there is no danger
of capsizing. Soft seafloors will assume the
shape of the bottom of the ship and assist in
preventing capsizing. On hard seafloors, the
ship is restrained from capsizing because the
bilge cannot penetrate into harder soils.
Ships stranded on pinnacles and fine-lined
ships aground only at the bow are not re-
strained from inclining, and may capsize if
their metacentric height is negative. Weight
movements on such casualties should be
controlled to keep the center of gravity low.
Liquid free surfaces and free communication
should be eliminated.
5-5.3 Grounding Off Centerline. A stranding with the center of ground reaction off the centerline experiences both a loss of displacement
and an upsetting moment. If free to incline, the ship will assume a list. The upsetting moment can be calculated by multiplying the distance
off center of the effective point of ground reaction by the magnitude of the ground reaction as shown in Figure 5-11. Summing moments about
the effective point of grounding:
Rs = Bt = WGZ = WGM
eff
sinθ (at equilibrium)
where:
R = ground reaction
s = distance off centerline of effective point of ground reaction
B = buoyant force (displacement aground, W - R)
t = lateral distance from effective point of ground reaction to center of buoyancy
W = gross weight of the ship (displacement before stranding ± weight changes after stranding)
GZ = righting arm, taken from the stability curve
GM
eff
= metacentric height, as stranded (corrected for free surface and virtual rise of G)
θ = angle of list
5-19
S0300-A8-HBK-010
The ship will incline until the moments are balanced or until it slides off the bank or rock. Unless restrained from sliding off the pinnacle, there
is little probability of capsize in still water. In order to capsize, the ship must lift off of the pinnacle; ground reaction and upsetting moment
will fail to zero and the ship will settle back onto the pinnacle. Offcenter ground reaction may reduce righting energy to the point where external
forces (wind, waves, towline pull) or internal weight shifts (free surface, cross-flooding, intentional weight movements, sliding objects) can
capsize the ship. Fine-lined ships aground on rocky shores with large tidal ranges are most at risk.
5-5.4 Stability During and After Refloating. During refloating, the ground reaction reduces to zero and the effect on stability, draft, and trim
is that of an equal weight added at the keel. If the ship was stable before refloating, it will become more stable during the refloating process
and will be stable when afloat. If the ship has a negative metacentric height while aground, she may either:
• Become more stable as the ground reaction is reduced and refloat in a stable condition, or
• Refloat in an unstable condition.
In the first case, the ship must be refloated quickly to pass from the unstable to the stable condition as rapidly as possible. Conditions that
decrease stability, such as free surface and high weight, should be eliminated before refloating. Unstable ships should not be refloated except
in cases of extreme emergency, because there is a high risk of losing the ship or creating a much more difficult salvage problem.
5-5.5 Summary of Stranded Stability. Stability aground is not usually a problem. It is unlikely that a stranded ship will capsize unless the
range of stability is severely reduced. The angle of inclination at which the ship would overcome friction and slide along the bottom is generally
much less than the range of stability. Fine-lined ships with significant deadrise are prevented from capsizing by their residual buoyancy, or by
settling into a soft bottom. A fine-lined ship stranded on hard or uneven ground, or near the bows, with a large range of tide is in a precarious
situation that will grow worse as the tide falls. Stability of the ship during refloating or tide changes can be evaluated in the same manner as
for a ship being drydocked, discussed in Paragraph 1-10.4.
5-6 STRENGTH OF STRANDED SHIPS
The bending moment of a grounded ship
Figure 5-12. Potentially High-Bending-Moment Strandings.
(a) ONE END AGROUND, OTHER END IN DEEP WATER
(b) AGROUND AMIDSHIPS, NO SUPPORT UNDER BOW AND STERN
(c) AGROUND AT ENDS, NO SUPPORT AMIDSHIPS
depends on the form and weight
distribution of the ship. A ship with
loading that produces high bending
moments afloat is likely to develop a
dangerously high bending moment when
grounded. The situations shown in Figure
5-12 are typical of those where large
bending moments are likely.
Hull girder stresses for strandings are
analyzed by the methods described in
Paragraph 1-11. Ground reaction, a
distributed upward force, is added to the
buoyancy curve. The altered buoyancy
curve in turn alters the load curve. Shear,
bending moment, and hull girder stresses
are changed. Relative magnitude and dis-
tribution of ground reaction and buoyancy
vary with the tide and passage of swells.
Different states of tide and swell must be
examined to fully evaluate a casualty’s
strength. The expression for maximum
bending moment for a simple beam under
uniform load (M = Wl/8) can be modified
by empirically derived factors to give a first
estimate of maximum bending moment for
casualties stranded on pinnacles:
where:
M
max
=
Rl
k
M
max
= maximum bending moment, [length-force]
R = ground reaction, [force]
l = length of span = length between perpendiculars or distance between pinnacles, [length]
k = factor to account for nonuniformity of force distribution
= 6 for casualty supported at both ends
= 7 for casualty supported near midships
5-20
S0300-A8-HBK-010
Evaluation of wave-induced bending mo-
Figure 5-13. Measuring Hull Girder Deflection with Draft Plot.
AP FP
12 12 12
11 11 11
10 10 10
17 17 17
16 16 16
15 15 15
14 14 14
SAGGING SHIP
HOGGING SHIP
HOG AT MIDSHIPS
EXTREME HULL
GIRDER DEFLECTION
SHIP WITHOUT
HOG OR SAG
13 13 13
ments is less certain for stranded ships than
for floating ships; the accuracy of the wave-
induced buoyancy curve cannot be checked
by ensuring that the area under it is equal to
the area under the weight curve because of a
third variable—ground reaction. The sum of
residual buoyancy and ground reaction must
equal the ship’s weight, but the relative pro-
portions change as waves pass along the hull.
Large hull deflections indicate high bending
moments. As a rule of thumb, hog or sag
greater than 0.001LBP is potentially
dangerous and justifies detailed strength
analysis. Extremely long, limber ships, such
as VLCCs, can safely accommodate some-
what larger deflections, perhaps as great as
0.003LPB. Hog and sag may be determined
by establishing a level line with a transit or
a leveled length of small stuff and measuring
the distance between the line and the deck.
In calm water, accurate draft readings at
three or more locations can be plotted as shown in Figure 5-13. Hull deflection should be measured periodically and recorded with the time and
state of the tide so that the gross effects of weight changes on hull stresses can be monitored. Weight movements should be planned to prevent
excessive hull stresses and deflections; unexpected changes in hull deflection should be investigated to determine their cause.
5-7 REFLOATING STRANDED SHIPS
Stranded ships are refloated by the following actions:
• Moving the ship to water deep enough to float it at the draft corresponding to its weight (displacement).
• Deepening the water around the casualty.
• Reducing the required draft at the grounded portion by removing weight, lifting, or altering trim.
In practice, a combination of methods is normally used. In most cases, the stranded ship is lightened until the required freeing force is less than
the available tractive forces, then pulled into deeper water. It is often necessary to remove many tons of cargo, stores, or floodwater. Methods
and equipment used to refloat stranded ships are discussed in detail in the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010).
Some amplifying information is provided in the following paragraphs.
5-7.1 Moving Stranded Ships. The force required to move a casualty over its strand is the sum of the forces required to:
• Overcome friction between the ship and seafloor.
• Move loose seafloor material that may be pushed ahead of the ship.
• Break or crush obstructions or impalements, such as rock outcroppings, coral heads, etc.
• Overcome suction on soft bottoms.
Friction is a function of ground reaction as modified by other factors, such as the coefficient of friction of the bottom, the area of the hull in
contact with the bottom, and the casualty’s list and trim. Freeing force is reduced by decreasing the effects of these factors, as well as by
decreasing ground reaction.
5-7.1.1 Reducing Ground Reaction. Ground reaction is reduced chiefly by removing weight, although external lifting may be employed.
In situations where the casualty is aground over only a short length at one end, trimming moments induced by weight shifts or additions can
reduce ground reaction.
• Weight Removal. Removal of floodwater and other weights is one of the principal means of reducing ground reaction. In some
instances, it is possible to remove enough weight to refloat the ship by this means alone. The ship must be controlled by ground
tackle, tugs, or her own propulsion to prevent being driven further ashore as she refloats. Weight should be removed so that the
ship will lift off her strand with her keel approximately parallel to the beach slope, or so that the bow remains in contact after the
stern lifts. The affects of weight removal on casualty strength and stability should be considered. Dewatering and weight removal
are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9.
• Lifting. Lifting is a means of spreading the casualty’s weight over additional vessels or buoyancy devices in order to reduce its
draft enough to float free, or to reduce ground reaction. Pontoons of any description may be placed alongside the stranded ship
and rigged to the hull or to slings under the hull to provide lift and reduce ground reaction. Where space and water depths permit,
cranes and sheer legs may be brought alongside and rigged to lift the stranded ship to reduce the ground reaction. When sheer
legs and cranes are used, the refloating should be slow and controlled to prevent sudden high loading of lifting gear or side loading
of cranes as the ship comes afloat and the center of buoyancy moves forward. Salvage lifting is addressed in detail in the U.S.
Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 2 (S0300-A6-MAN-020).
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S0300-A8-HBK-010
5-7.1.2 Reducing Friction. Methods used to reduce friction depend on the type of seafloor. Cohesive and cohesionless soils develop friction
forces in different ways; actions that effectively reduce friction on one type of soil may have little or no effect on another type. The following
general guidelines apply:
• Hard seafloors (rock, coral, hardpan, very stiff clay). Friction is essentially a function of ground reaction and is independent
of contact area. Hull contact is generally not continuous. Reducing ground reaction is the only way to reduce friction—reducing
contact area and attempts to induce vibration are generally ineffective. Friction-reducing water films cannot be maintained between
the small areas of hull-to-seafloor contact because of the high unit pressure.
• Cohesionless soils (sand, gravel, crushed coral, nonplastic silts). Friction is a essentially a function of ground reaction and is
independent of contact area. Reducing ground reaction reduces friction. Sands and gravels have good resistance to lateral flow
under distributed vertical loads, so increasing pressure alone is not effective. Heavy vertical loads on wedge shapes, such as a
narrow forefoot, may cause lateral flow in loose soils. Low-frequency vibrations can cause sand to assume fluid properties. High-
volume water flow through a sand bed can create quicksand, with fluid behavior. It is possible to maintain short-duration water
films between the soil and the hull with high-volume water flow.
• Cohesive soils (clay, plastic silts). Friction is a function of soil shear strength and contact area. Soil strength and adhesion
depend on its ability to inhibit water flow. These soils have low resistance to lateral flow under vertical pressure. Decreasing
contact area and increasing unit pressure are effective means of reducing friction. Vibration has little effect, but active disturbance
and other measures to open water flow paths to the hull effectively decrease friction. Disturbing adjacent soil masses is also
helpful; it reduces the distance water must flow through the essentially impermeable, undisturbed soil.
If some motion, however small, between the casualty and the bottom can be induced, the freeing force will be based on the smaller dynamic
coefficient of friction. Initial motion may also allow a film of water to develop between the hull and bottom, further reducing friction. Specific
actions to reduce friction include the following:
• Wrenching. Wrenching uses the length of the casualty as a lever arm to multiply pulling force and rotate the casualty about the
center of ground reaction. The induced motion reduces friction to dynamic levels and opens water flow paths in cohesive soils.
• Sallying. Ships with significant deadrise can sometimes be sallied by shifting weights back and forth athwartships. Contact area
is decreased and unit pressure increased momentarily on each cycle as the ship rolls across its keel.
• Vibration. Inducing vibration in the hull causes very small movements between the casualty and the bottom, and may reduce
the coefficient of friction. Vibration transmitted into the seafloor can fluidize cohesionless soils and may improve water flow
through cohesive soils very slightly. Vibration can be induced by operating the casualty’s machinery, moving heavy vehicles
within the ship or on deck, veering anchor chain, etc. Casualty machinery should be operated only if all support systems (cooling
water, lubrication, etc.) are operational.
• Reducing Contact Area. Measures taken to reduce ground reaction often reduce contact area by altering trim or removing ground
from under the casualty. Weight shifted or added forward may reduce contact area and increase pressure under a narrow forefoot.
Generating a strong trimming moment uses the ship’s length as a lever arm to break suction; the increased pressure under the
forefoot can reduce friction and cause lateral flow in soft soils. If the casualty is to plow through the bottom, it will take less force
to plow a narrower furrow.
• Disrupting Soil Continuity. Water or air jets can be directed under the casualty to disturb the soil. On mud bottoms, hogging
lines can be dropped over the bow and drawn along the hull. Disturbing cohesive soils reduces their shear strength and opens
water flow paths. Similar disturbances may fluidize cohesionless soils and induce quicksand-like behavior.
• Increasing Pressure or Ground Reaction Forward. Experience has shown that trimming ships with a narrow forefoot or very
fine lines forward stranded on sand or gravel bottoms hard by the bow often reduces resistance to sliding. The reasons for this
reduction in sliding friction are not clear. The extreme pressure may cause a reduction in coefficient of friction, or be sufficient
to cause lateral flow in the soil. The high bearing pressure may actually increase friction to the point that the underlying soil fails
in shear before sliding is initiated between the hull and soil. If this occurs over a reduced area, the total force required may be
less than that required to overcome friction between the hull and seafloor over a larger area. If the ships form is narrow enough,
the ship may penetrate into the seafloor, gaining buoyancy as it settles.
• Drainage Tubes. Perforated pipes inserted into the soil in contact with the casualty’s hull will allow water to flow between the
hull and the soil.
• Slipways. If a casualty or portions of it can be lifted by jacks or other means, slipways can be built underneath, allowing the ship
to be moved across a lower friction surface. Effective slipways are arranged so that the ground reaction is shared equally by the
ways. The slipways and underlying soil or rock must be strong enough to support the ship without deforming, so the ship can
slide smoothly. Jacks consisting of modified aircraft landing gear, complete with tires, arranged so that the tires could roll as the
casualty was pulled across them, have been used successfully on flat-bottomed hulls.
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5-7.2 Increasing Water Depth. Water depth under and around a casualty can be increased to:
• Obtain sufficient water depth to refloat the vessel.
• Reduce ground reaction by increasing buoyancy.
• Free one end of a vessel to allow it to be pivoted by other methods.
Water depth inside small coves or estuaries can be increased by closing the entrance with sheet-steel piles or cofferdams. In some navigable
rivers and canals, water level can be controlled to some extent by lock gates and dams—it may be possible to raise water level by increasing
flow past upstream dams. On very soft soils, it may be possible to increase the ship’s weight, by flooding or other means, so that she settles
more deeply into the seafloor. After she has settled, the excess weight can be removed to allow her to float free. More commonly, water depth
around a casualty is increased by removing ground from under it. Ground removal is accomplished by scouring or dredging soft bottoms, or
by blasting hard bottoms. These methods can also be used to cut channels to deep water through bars or behind vessels stranded high and dry.
Underwater excavation methods are described in Paragraph 5-9.
5-7.3 Temporary Reduction. Dynamic friction is almost always less than the static friction between two objects. If freeing force can be
reduced long enough for the pulling system to start the ship moving, it can usually be kept moving.
• Swells increase the buoyancy of the stranded ship and decrease the ground reaction as they pass. High seas or heavy swells
running during a retraction decrease the pulling force required to refloat the ship. If the pulling force is enough to start the ship
moving at the top of a swell when ground reaction is lowest, the coefficient of friction is lowered instantly to the dynamic level.
The dynamic coefficient of friction may be low enough that freeing force stays less than pulling force after ground reaction
increases again, and the ship keeps moving. When there are no natural swells, ships passing parallel to the beach at high speed
create swells that act like the natural swell. Destroyers running a long racetrack pattern as close to the refloating operation as
safety permits are ideal for this purpose.
• Jacking reduces freeing force by changing the nature of the ground reaction, rather than reducing it. Hydraulic jacks of 60 tons
capacity or greater are employed to temporarily lift the ship. By taking up part of the ship’s weight on the jacks, the amount of
weight bearing on the high friction interface between the ship’s bottom and seabed is decreased. The jacks are rigged on long
spuds that can pivot at their bases, allowing the casualty to be moved when the friction force is sufficiently reduced. Jacks are
placed symmetrically about the estimated position of the center of ground reaction and are secured with a retrieving line led to
the deck. The jacks are raised to their maximum lift at the beginning of a pull. When the ship moves, the jacks will topple and
must be reset for the next operation. Once the stranded ship is moving, it is often possible to keep it moving against the lower
dynamic coefficient of friction, even if the ground reaction increases when the jacks trip. If not, the casualty is refloated by
moving it seaward in a series of short steps.
For jacking to be successful, the seafloor must be hard enough, or must be reinforced, to support the jacking forces. On rock
seafloors, concrete rubble-filled beds or heavy timbers topped by steel plate are adequate foundations. On sediment seafloors, plate
or timber mats are used to spread the load until the unit pressure is less than the bearing capacity of the soil. Crushed coral, stone,
shell, or gravel can be laid in to increase soil bearing strength. Similarly, the hull of the ship must be protected from the jacking
forces. If these forces are not spread out along the hull, they will cause local damage at the point of application and may even
rupture the hull. Steel weldments or heavy steel angles welded to the hull and padded with timbers are suitable jacking pads.
The load is transmitted to the ship structure by shear stress in the welds and side plating.
5-7.4 Explosives. Explosive measures to reduce freeing force include:
• Judicious use of small charges to deepen the water around the casualty and cut channels through hard bottoms (explosive dredging).
• Explosively cutting or pulverizing coral or rock outcroppings that are impaling the casualty or blocking its retraction.
• Using small charges along the length of the casualty to cause vibration and fluid behavior in the seafloor under the casualty.
• Detonating moderate charges several hundred feet from the casualty to generate artificial swells to momentarily increase buoyancy.
Use of explosives requires skill and experience to avoid damaging the casualty. Explosives use is discussed in Chapter 10.
5-23
S0300-A8-HBK-010
5-8 APPLYING FORCES
Forces are applied to a stranded casualty to
Figure 5-14. Typical Pulling Arrangements.
GROUND LEGS TENSIONED BY
LINEAR PULLERS, PURCHASES,
OR WINCHES TO RETRACT,
OR WRENCH CASUALTY
BEACH GEAR ON CASUALTY
PURCHASES
WINCH
WRENCHING/
ROTATING
LEG
RETRACTING
LEGS
WRENCHING LEG
WRENCHING
LEG
DEADMAN
ON SHORE
PULLING VESSELS DEVELOP HORIZONTAL FORCE BY TENSIONING TOWING/
PULLING WIRES AND/OR ANCHOR GROUND LEGS WITH WINCHES, PULLERS,
OR MULTI-PART PURCHASES.
PULLING VESSELS
3. BOTH PULLING WIRE(S) AND GROUND LEG(S) TENSIONED.
2. PULLING WIRE(S) TENSIONED, GROUND LEG(S) HELD FAST.
1. TOW WIRE(S) HELD FAST, GROUND LEG(S) TENSIONED
achieve the following effects:
• Move the casualty directly off
the beach.
• Swing the casualty into a
more favorable position.
• Induce wrenching motion to
break suction or reduce
friction.
• Hold the casualty in position.
• Control the casualty’s motion
during refloating/retraction.
Pulling systems are combinations of
mechanical components that work together
to apply a controlled, essentially horizontal
force to a stranded ship. Pulling systems in-
clude, but are not limited to, the following:
• Tugs. Tugs can pull directly
on the casualty, or power
purchases for beach gear
syst ems. Tugs ar e
particularly useful for
applying wrenching forces,
and can be placed in action
quickly to restrain a casualty.
• Ground tackle. Heaving
systems located on the
casualty, on salvage vessels,
barges, or on shore can
tension ground tackle to
move or restrain the casualty.
• Winch pulling systems.
Heavy winches mounted on
barges, salvage vessels, or
ashore can pull directly on
the casualty.
Tugs and ground tackle are the pulling systems used most frequently in salvage. Tugs attached to the stranded ship with a towline develop
pulling forces with their engines. Salvage ground tackle is a system of anchors, ground leg, and hauling gear rigged to pullers, purchases, or
winches on a platform. The platform may be the stranded ship, an assisting ship, a barge, or the shore. In many salvage operations, the total
pulling force is developed by a combination of systems. Pulling systems are tailored to the particular stranding to gain maximum effect and
minimize interference. In rare circumstances, shallow draft tugs, jacks, heavy vehicles, or barges rigged with ground tackle can be used to push
a casualty off the beach. Figure 5-14 shows typical pulling arrangements. Figure 5-15 shows two examples of innovative pulling systems
tailored to particular situations
5-8.1 Tug Bollard Pull. Bollard pull is the pulling force or tow wire tension generated by a tug. Bollard pull is essentially the propeller thrust
at zero speed and is related to engine power and propeller characteristics. Propellers in shrouds (Kort nozzles) and controllable-pitch propellers
produce greater thrust than fixed-pitch propellers for the same amount of horsepower.
Bollard pull is measured by a standardized trial conducted when the tug is new and after major modifications. Bollard pull tests have been
conducted for some Navy salvage ships and tugs; results of these tests are documented in Appendix J of the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual,
Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010). Commercial tugs that have completed bollard pull trials carry a bollard pull certificate. There is no
requirement that tugs undergo such trials or carry a certificate; many do not have them.
5-24
S0300-A8-HBK-010
If there is no bollard pull certificate, static bollard (BP) can be expressed as a function of brake horsepower (BHP) and propeller design:
BP = 0.011 × BHP for open fixed-pitch propeller
BP = 0.012 × BHP for open controllable-pitch propeller
BP = 0.013 × BHP for shrouded fixed-pitch propeller
BP = 0.016 × BHP for shrouded controllable-pitch propeller
where:
BP = bollard pull in short tons
BHP = brake horsepower of the tug’s main engines
Brake horsepower can be estimated from
Figure 5-15. Pulling Arrangements for Unusual Circumstances.
BRACING TO PREVENT CRUSHING
HEAVY
PURCHASES
WINCHES
LINEAR
PULLERS
REEF SHELF
TUG OR
SALVAGE
VESSEL
PURCHASE
OR PULLER
GROUND LEG
TENSIONED
FROM CASUALTY
ANCHOR
REEF FACE
BITTS OR HEAVY
CHOCK
TOWLINE
SHORELINE
BARGE OR
FLOATING
ABUTMENT
BULLDOZERS
PUSHING AGAINST
BARGE
2. SHALLOWS IN SHORE AND STEEP SHELF NEAR SHORE FAVOR "PUSHING"
DEEP WATER
1. WATER DEPTH ASTERN OF CASUALTY TOO DEEP FOR BEACH GEAR ANCHORS
TO BE EFFECTIVE
shaft horsepower SHP (power at the
propeller):
BHP = SHP × 1.05
When estimating bollard pull, the
continuous-duty brake or shaft horsepower
is used. Commercial tugs often advertise
engine-indicated horsepower, installed
horsepower (both abbreviated IHP), or max-
imum overload horsepower. These quant-
ities do not reliably indicate bollard pull:
• The ratio of brake horsepower to
indicated horsepower is the
mechanical efficiency of the
engine, and may vary widely.
For most diesel engines, brake
horsepower varies from 65 to 85
percent of indicated horsepower.
• Installed horsepower includes
horsepower that does not
contribute to bollard pull, such as
that of engines for generators and
other auxiliaries.
• Engine manufacturer’s maximum
overload horsepower ratings range
from 110 percent of, to more than
twice the continuous-duty horse-
power. Maximum overload power
can usually be sustained for only a
very short time, often five minutes
or less, followed by immediate
shutdown. Intermittent power rat-
ings, i.e., power output that can be
sustained for brief periods sep-
arated by periods of less than con-
tinuous duty output, are generally
about 120 percent of continuous
duty rating. As refloating efforts generally require a tug to maintain steady bollard pull for much longer than five minutes, bollard pull
should be based on the continuous duty or intermittent duty power rating.
Static bollard pull is the force developed by a tug pulling against a stationary object and is the maximum force the tug can develop under any
conditions. Effective bollard pull may be reduced to as little as 50 percent of the static bollard pull if sea conditions prevent the tug from
maintaining a steady towline tension, reduce engine or propeller efficiency, or force the constant use of rudder to maintain heading. If the towing
hawser does not lead directly astern, bollard pull is resolved into components in line with and perpendicular to the hawser; only the in-line
component is transmitted to the casualty. Propeller efficiency is reduced by shallow water effects and rough seas, reducing propeller thrust.
Water temperature and fuel grade affect engine performance and thereby brake horsepower and bollard pull.
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S0300-A8-HBK-010
5-8.2 High-capacity Winches. Heavy winches can heave directly on the casualty from a firmly anchored barge or vessel, stationary platform,
or location ashore. Barges or ships may be specifically designed or modified for pulling, often with winches of 100-ton line pull or greater.
Some special-purpose ships, such as icebreakers, cable layers, net tenders, landing ships, oceangoing tugs, etc., have installed heavy winches
that may be used to retract a casualty.
Winch pulling systems on purpose-built craft can be deployed quickly for an immediate pull or to stabilize a lively casualty because little rigging
is involved. Some time is required to lay and set a sufficiently strong moor, however. Difficulties in slipping or recovering multiple mooring
legs can prevent the pulling vessel from moving out of the way of the casualty when retracted.
Large winches can be mounted on barges or ashore to power beach gear systems. Mounting large winches on the casualty is not usually
practical, but installed heavy winches can be used to tension beach gear ground legs.
5-8.3 Ground Tackle Notes. The U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010) includes detailed descriptions of salvage
ground tackle composition, arrangement, and use. The following paragraphs supplement the Salvage Manual’s guidance.
5-8.3.1 Required Ground Leg Scope and Length. Anchor embedment depth for very soft soils should be taken from Table G-3 of the U.S.
Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010). High-performance anchors, such as the NAVMOOR, penetrate more deeply than
the 10 feet given in Paragraph 6-3.3.3 of the Salvage Manual, Volume 1.
5-8.3.2 Linear Pullers. A disadvantage of linear pullers is that the ground leg cannot be released quickly. If quick release is desired, a 1
5
⁄ 8-
inch wire pendant with a carpenter stopper can be used to pull on the ground leg.
5-8.3.3 Beach Gear Purchases. The principal advantage of purchase systems is the light weight and portability of individual components,
compared to other heaving systems. The components of the
5
⁄ 8-inch fourfold purchase of the standard beach gear set are man-carriable and can
be transported in small boats. The purchase can be rigged and operated on any platform that has operating winches or capstans with five tons
line pull or greater, sufficient deck space for the purchase, and suitable attachment points.
Purchase systems enable relatively low-powered line-handling equipment to exert high forces against the ground leg anchors. The standard set
purchase requires a five- to eight-ton line pull, for example. By using luff-on-luff purchases, chain hoists, or grip hoists to increase mechanical
advantage, manual labor or draft animals can power the purchase, albeit at a very slow speed. Lightweight hydraulic winches (a five-ton unit
is man-carriable) can be used to power the purchase, because the hydraulic power unit need not be brought on board. Boats alongside or heavy
vehicles ashore or on deck can provide the line pull to power purchase systems, with some loss of fine control.
5-8.3.4 Heaving System Location. Heaving systems can be sited on the casualty, on salvage vessels or tugs, on barges, and occasionally
ashore.
• On the Casualty. The preferred placement for beach gear is on board the stranded ship. Beach gear is usually more effective
when tensioned from the casualty. The salvage officer can observe heaving operations and their effect on the stranded ship
directly, and has maximum control over the operation.
It is often advantageous to heave on the beach gear when a heavy swell or surf is running, because the lift of the passing waves
momentarily reduces ground reaction. A salvage ship in harness with taut ground legs over the bow is effectively in a multi-point
moor. In rough weather, the restrained ship motion can create excessive loads in the towline or ground legs.
On steeply shelving beaches, ground legs must be laid close to shore in shallow water to keep the pull roughly horizontal; placing
the salvage ship between the casualty and the anchors may not permit enough scope for the ground legs to hold.
• On a Salvage Vessel. When heaving systems are located on the salvage vessel, a towline from the salvage vessel transmits the
ground leg tension to the casualty. The salvage vessel pulls itself towards the ground leg anchors, pulling the casualty along with
it. If deck fittings are of sufficient strength, the pulling vessel can be made up alongside the casualty.
Beach gear heaving systems are rigged routinely on salvage vessels when it is impossible or inconvenient to rig them on the
casualty, or additional beach gear legs are required. Conditions that may preclude heaving from the casualty are:
(1) Weather, surf, location, or other conditions prevent the transfer of necessary equipment to the casualty.
(2) The casualty does not have sufficient deck space, operating winches, or attachment points for purchase systems.
(3) An immediate heavy pull is warranted; heaving systems can be rigged on the salvage tug while en route to the casualty, ready
for use as soon as the ground legs are laid.
Heaving systems can be rigged on the salvage vessel in sheltered waters before moving to the salvage site.
5-26
S0300-A8-HBK-010
• On a Barge. Barges are used as heaving system platforms in the same manner as salvage vessels. Typical situations where
heaving systems are rigged on barges include the following conditions:
(1) Operations require more legs of beach gear than can be operated from the casualty and salvage ships.
(2) Neither the casualty nor the assisting vessels have adequate deck space or fittings to operate beach gear.
(3) It is undesirable to foul the deck of either the casualty or the assisting vessels.
(4) A beach gear leg leading across shallow water cannot be tensioned from the casualty.
If the towline and heaving system are connected directly to the barge, the ground leg tension is transmitted through the barge
structure. Ordinary flat-topped barges are not built for this kind of loading and may be severely damaged if not properly
reinforced. Padeyes should be installed as described in Paragraph 5-8.3.5. Alternatively, a length of plate strong enough to carry
the pulling loads can be tack-welded to the deck. The winch and padeyes for the holding stopper and block are then welded to
the plate. If the heaving system is arranged as shown in Figure 5-16, it "floats" above the barge—pulling force is transmitted
directly from the ground leg to the pulling wire, and the barge need not be strengthened. Floating beach gear is a simple concept
that can be very difficult to put into practice. Because of their close proximity, the hauling and holding pendants are easily fouled.
The tendency of the barge to move under the beach gear can be very difficult to control, especially if there are strong currents,
winds, or seas. Floating beach gear is essentially a method of last resort. Floating a linear puller or direct pull winch system is
simpler than floating a purchase system because there is no requirement for a holding pendant.
• Ashore. Heaving systems and ground legs located ashore can be used to wrench or turn a casualty. Winches or heavy vehicles
Figure 5-16. Floating Beach Gear.
GROUND
LEG
LINEAR
PULLER
HOLDING STOPPER
ON PENDANT TO
WINCH FOUNDATION
GOB LINE(S) TO KEEP
BARGE FROM ROTATING
FROM UNDER GROUND LEG(S)
PULLING WIRES
MADE UP TO
LINEAR PULLER
OR WINCH
FOUNDATION
BEACH GEAR
PURCHASE
REINFORCED WINCH
FOUNDATION WELDED
TO DECK
CASUALTY
located ashore can power purchases on the casualty’s deck. Winches, standing blocks, and stoppers can be secured to concrete
footings, deadmen, or natural rock outcroppings. Advantages of locating heaving systems ashore normally include accessibility
and large working area. The most obvious disadvantage is that the heaving system cannot follow the casualty as it is retracted.
Lines led to vehicles must be attached so they can be quickly released to avoid pulling the vehicle into the water; winches must
be able to spool their wire off as the ship retracts. In polar and subpolar waters, winches and purchases can be rigged on natural
or artificial ice islands or fast ice (see Paragraph 3-8).
5-27
S0300-A8-HBK-010
5-8.3.5 Foundations. Anchoring points
Figure 5-17. Pulling Padeyes.
DIRECTION
OF PULL
DECK
PLATE
PADEYE
DOUBLER
PLATE
DOUBLER
PLATE
DECK PADEYE
BULKHEAD
SPACER
SINGLE PADEYE
DOUBLE PADEYE
FILLET
WELDS
BULKHEAD
DOUBLER
PLATE
1 2 3
4
for purchase systems, pullers or winches,
and attachment points for pulling wires
must be strong enough to carry anticipated
loads. Salvage ships will have deck
padeyes and other fittings designed and
installed specifically to anchor pulling
systems. On platforms of opportunity,
barges, and casualties, pulling systems are
modified to use existing fittings or
structures of adequate strength. Pulling
wires are often secured to gun, winch, or
mast foundations when there are no suitable
deck fittings. If existing fittings and
structure are not strong enough, they must
be strengthened, or stronger fittings
installed. Paragraph 7-8 gives guidance for
evaluating the strength of deck fittings and
designing padeyes. Figure 5-17 shows four
typical field installed padeyes:
1 – Padeye welded to doubler plate
welded to deck. Installation
depends on deck strength and the
continuity of deck to framing
connections to spread load
through the hull structure.
Doubler plates will be required
for most installations because the
deck will be too thin to carry the
load in the length of weld
obtained by welding the padeye
directly to the deck.
2 – Padeye inserted through deck and
welded to underlying girder/
beam, as well as deck. In-
stallation is more time-consuming
but stronger than 1, above.
3 – Padeye welded to doubler plate
Figure 5-18. Improvised Wire Rope Stoppers.
WIRE ROPE CLIPS WELDED IN PLACE.
NUMBER AND SPACING APPROPRIATE TO
WIRE ROPE SIZE
REBAR OR ROUND STOCK,
SAME SIZE AS WIRE
welded to deck in way of
underl yi ng gi rders/ beams.
Installation is relatively fast and
generally as strong as or stronger
than 2, especially if deck-to-
girder welds are of good quality.
4 – Padeye(s) inserted through deck
and welded to bulkhead and
deck; doubler plate may be
added. Installation is very time-
consuming, but anchoring point is
very strong and distributes load
well.
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S0300-A8-HBK-010
5-8.3.6 Improvised Beach Gear. Beach gear systems can be made up from items available on the casualty, other ships in company, attending
tugs and salvage craft, or in nearby ports. The capacity of an improvised system will be limited by its weakest component. Other components
should be sized to have only slightly higher capacity to reduce weight and handling requirements. In all cases, the weak link must be identified,
limiting load determined, and provision made to avoid overloading. Overload can be prevented by close monitoring and control of tension by
using a dynamometer or a power source that cannot overload the system. Sources of improvised beach gear components are described Paragraph
7-4.1 of the U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010) and amplified in the following paragraphs.
• Improvised wire rope stoppers can be constructed as shown in Figure 5-18. Beach gear capacity will be reduced when using
improvised stoppers. Carpenter stoppers are designed to carry loads up to 90 percent of the wire rope’s breaking strength without
damage to the rope. Improvised stoppers may slip or damage the wire at lower tensions; toggles (see Figure 7-14 of U.S. Navy
Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 1 (S0300-A6-MAN-010)) will damage the rope under heavy strain.
• The casualty’s bower anchors are usually the only ones available for an improvised ground leg. Some ships are equipped with
stern anchors or carry a stream anchor stowed aft. Moving these anchors seaward is difficult but possible even when tugs or
workboats are not on scene. Cargo booms or deck winches can be used to yard-and-stay bower anchors to the casualty’s stern.
The ground leg will not exceed the length of the ship but could have enough scope to hold the ship from further grounding or aid
in retraction, depending on the length and weight of the ship. Anchors in this position may prevent the ship from broaching.
• Construction, power, and displacement render most lifeboats and small combatant ship’s boats unsuitable for handling the ship’s
anchors. Some ships carry heavy workboats that are suitable for carrying anchors or other salvage work. Some examples are
heavy landing craft on amphibious warfare ships, large utility boats on tenders and repair ships, net skiffs on large purse seiners,
and workboats on industrial vessels.
• Shipboard cranes, booms, and weight-handling systems are sometimes equipped with dynamometers of large enough capacity to
be used as beach gear tensiometers. Dynamometers can also be obtained from shipyards and other weight testing facilities.
Smaller dynamometers can be used on the purchase wire; the dynamometer reading must be multiplied by the mechanical
advantage of the purchase to obtain the ground leg tension.
When using made up or improvised beach gear, appropriate safety factors must be used. Components with unknown design or breaking strengths
should not be used. An improvised system does not have the advantage of many years of use and testing like a standard system, and should
be used with caution. Personnel should be kept well clear of the gear when it is under tension. Components should be inspected after each
loading. The following conditions should be taken as indications of insufficient component strength; the system should be redesigned or operated
at reduced load after the damaged components are replaced:
• Elongated shackles and deck padeyes.
• Bent shackle and sheave pins.
• Sheaves no longer parallel in multiple-sheave blocks.
• Flattened wire rope.
• Broken strands in the wire rope.
• Deformed or cracked chain links.
5-8.3.7 Tensioning Purchases with Vehicles. Conditions sometimes exist where heavy tracked or wheeled vehicles, or more rarely, railroad
locomotives, can tension beach gear purchases. Heavy equipment and rail operators should be able to estimate the tractive effort, or drawbar
pull, of their equipment. In the absence of better information, drawbar pull for vehicles designed to tow can be estimated as:
0.90W for tracked vehicles
0.70W for wheeled vehicles
0.25W for railroad locomotives
where W is vehicle weight.
The values given are for horizontal pulls on dry, firm, level ground. Drawbar pull will be less on upslopes, on wet ground, or on loose soil.
The value for locomotives is the average value for dry, level rails. Drawbar pull may be as low as 0.15W for oily rails, or as high as 0.3W on
sanded rails.
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S0300-A8-HBK-010
5-9 UNDERWATER EXCAVATION
Table 5-2. Comparison of Underwater Excavation Methods.
Excavation Factor
Excavation Method
Scouring Air Lifting Jetting Dredging Blasting
Type of Seafloor loose sediments
loose sediment,
cobbles
loose sediments
all except rock and
coral
rock, coral, hardpan,
stiff or hard clay
Water depth
less than 30 feet
below scouring
vessels propeller(s)
25 - 75 ft unlimited
depends on dredge
type; unlimited for
depths encountered in
salvage
unlimited
Horizontal spoil
transport
short short short
short to long, depend-
ing on dredge type
short
Vertical spoil
transport
negligible up to 70 ft short
depends on dredge
type
short
Current
dependence
not required but can
be beneficial (or
detrimental)
not required, may be
detrimental
required for most
efficient operation
not required, may
affect dredge
maneuvering
not required but
beneficial so long as
charges are not
disturbed
Ancillary
Equipment
1
Tug or powerful
workboat
LP air compressor HP pump HP pump
Rock drill for most
efficient blasting
Relative shipping
space/weight
large
large (can be re-
duced if lift pipe
shipped in sections)
small to medium small to medium
large (if drilling
equipment shipped)
NOTES:
1
In addition to work platform
Underwater and semi-submerged excavation
and earth-moving are conducted in support
of several types of salvage operations:
• Removal of seafloor material
from under stranded ships to
reduce friction and/or ground
reaction.
• Removal of accumulated
sediments from sunken ships
to reduce weight.
• Dredging channels for the
retraction of stranded ships.
• Digging trenches into which
stranded ships can slide or be
pulled.
• Tunneling under sunken ships
to pass messenger wires.
• Disturbing cohesive soils
Figure 5-19. Salvage Tug Scouring Away Soft Material.
INITIAL WORK AREA
SECOND WORK AREA
THIRD WORK AREA
CASUALTY
CASUALTY
CASUALTY
SCOURING TUG
SCOURING TUG IN NEW POSITION
SCOURING TUG REPOSITIONED
under and around sunken or
stranded ships to reduce
suction effects.
• Cutting new channels or
widening/deepening existing
channels in harbor clearance
operations.
• Digging holes to topple
wrecks into, or drawing sea-
floor material from under a
wreck, during wreck burial
operations.
• Removing sediments as they
build up around a stranded
casualty to prevent severe
hull stresses and keep
machinery sea suctions clear.
• Removing accumulated
sediments to gain access to
objects or portions of a
casualty.
There are five general methods of
excavating and/or moving seafloor material
available to the salvor:
• Scouring,
• Air lifting,
• Jetting,
• Dredging, and
• Blasting.
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S0300-A8-HBK-010
Seafloor blasting is discussed in Chapter 10; the other four excavation methods are discussed in the following paragraphs. The choice of
excavation method depends on a number of factors:
• Nature of the seafloor material: soft or hard, fine or coarse grained; maximum particle size.
• Water depth.
• Horizontal and vertical distance the excavated material must be moved.
• Quantity of material to be moved and nature of the excavation.
• Strength and direction of local currents and wave-caused surge.
• Available topside equipment and work platform.
• Weight and volume shipping limitations for excavation equipment.
Table 5-2 compares the relative advantages of various excavation methods for different circumstances.
5-9.1 Scouring. Water currents can scour loose soils from around a ship or out of a channel. Paragraph 3-7.4 discusses the current velocities
necessary to scour and carry sediments in suspension. Scouring currents can be produced by the propeller wash of tugs or workboats, a stranded
ship’s propeller wash, by pumps, or by channeling natural currents. Breakwaters or groynes built perpendicular to the beach can set up currents
that will prevent sediment buildup around the ship or will scour away the ground. Scouring is most effective on loose, fine-grained sediments,
such as sand or silt. Scouring is usually less efficient than dredging. The method of scouring chosen depends upon the assets available, the
conditions at the site, and the amount of ground to be moved:
• Tugs or workboats, trimmed by the stern to direct the propeller wash downward, can be moored alongside a stranded casualty with
their sterns directed towards the area from which ground is to be removed. The tug lies alongside the ship at an angle of 40 to
50 degrees to her heading, then builds up to full power and gradually works her way aft. Lines from the stranded ship and the
tug’s towline may be slacked or hove taut to change the direction of the wash. The wash from the tug’s propeller scours against
the stranded ship’s bilge, carrying seafloor material down the side and clear of the casualty. Tugs can also work from amidships
forward and scour both sides simultaneously. Twin-screw vessels with outward turning propellers produce more effective scouring
streams than single-screw vessels. The swirling propeller streams are angled towards each other at the bottom of the propeller
circle, where they merge into a nearly straight stream directed aft at the level of the vessels keel. Twin-screw vessels of less than
500 shaft horsepower and single-screw vessels of less than 1,000 horsepower are generally ineffective scouring platforms. Scouring
by tugs can move moderate amounts of material from under specific areas of the ship. Tugs with controllable-pitch propellers
should not be used for scouring because sand and other abrasive material stirred up may damage the pitch-control mechanism.
Figure 5-19 shows scouring by a tug. Some salvage vessels have been fitted with propeller nozzles or propwash deflectors to
better direct the propwash against the seafloor. If there is a possibility of the casualty working free from her strand while a
scouring vessel is working alongside, the casualty should be restrained by ground tackle. This method of scouring can also be
used to cut channels in sand, gravel, or mud. If an appropriate vessel can be trimmed by the stern enough that her propwash
strikes the bottom, she can scour material away from a series of areas while held in place by anchors.
• A stranded ship’s propeller may be run ahead to wash ground away from the after section of the ship. The effect will be limited
to the area immediately forward and for some distance aft of the propeller. When the ship’s propeller is used for scouring,
machinery cooling water intake should be shifted to high sea suctions to minimize the infusion of seafloor material into the ship’s
machinery, or pumps rigged to provide machinery cooling water. As an alternative, the sea suction(s) can be blocked with a plate
fitted with a large-diameter pipe or noncollapsible hose fitting, with the pipe led to an area of clear water. The ship must be
restrained by ground tackle to prevent her from driving herself further aground. Scouring should not be attempted when the ship
has controllable-pitch propellers or other underwater installations that may be damaged by grit. This method of scouring can be
used to open a channel in an obstructing bar behind the ship as she is drawn off her strand by tugs and/or beach gear. Stranded
ships have worked themselves across miles of mud flats in this manner.
• Jetting pumps or other high-pressure pumps may be used to scour limited areas. Pumps may be operated from the stranded ship,
but it is usually better to locate them on tugs or barges that are closer to the water and more mobile.
• Many small water jets are often more effective than one large jet. High-volume flow through perforated pipes or hoses rigged
alongside the ship can scour seafloor material away and/or effectively prevent sediment buildup.
Scouring should be coordinated to make maximum use of tidal and other currents. Scouring stirs up the seafloor material that can then be carried
away by favorable currents. Scouring during slack water, or when the current is flowing into or is stagnated against the casualty, may simply
redistribute the sediments around the ship.
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S0300-A8-HBK-010
5-9.2 Air Lifting. Air lifts can effectively
Figure 5-20. Typical Air Lifts.
(c)
MUD, SAND,
GRAVEL, ETC.
DRILLED
HOLES
ANNULAR
COLLAR
FLUID
MIXTURE
WATER
AIR HOSE
TO THE
SURFACE
DROP PIPE
SIMPLE FIELD-MADE AIRLIFTS
WELL-DESIGNED AIRLIFTS
(a) (b)
3/4"
AIR
LINE
3/4"
AIR
LINE
5" PIPE
3" PIPE
4"
remove loose materials at moderate depths
(25 to 75 feet). The amount of material
lifted depends on the size of the air lift, sub-
merged depth of the pipe, air pressure and
volume, and discharge head or lift. Air lift
operating principles and design are de-
scribed in Paragraph 8-2.5.2. Typical air
lifts are shown in Figure 5-20. Detailed air
lift designs are given in Appendix D of the
U.S. Navy Ship Salvage Manual, Volume 2
(S0300-A6-MAN-020).
Air lifting is started by opening the air sup-
ply valve and submerging the intake end of
the air lift into the seafloor material. Air
lifts are usually operated by divers, although
it is sometimes possible to control an air lift
from the surface in shallow water. Usually,
some experimentation is required to de-
termine the air flow for maximum efficien-
cy. Air pressure is relatively unimportant so
long as it is greater than hydrostatic pressure
at the excavation depth. Air lifts may be
from 10 to 70 feet, but are relatively inef-
ficient when lengths are less than 30 feet
long. In shallow water, eductors or impro-
vised dredges are generally more effective.
The horizontal transport of lifted materials is
determined by the inclination of the air lift.
A principal disadvantage of air lifting is that
excavated materials are discharged relatively
near the excavation. This disadvantage can
be mitigated by inclining the pipe less steep-
ly, positioning the discharge downstream so
prevailing currents can carry the material
away, or by discharging the air lift into a
spoil barge. Lifting material above the water
surface will reduce the efficiency of an airlift.
5-9.3 Jetting. In its simplest form, jetting
moves quantities of mud, silt, or sand by
directing a high-velocity water stream at the
material to be moved. This process is normally performed by a diver with a nozzle and a high-pressure water hose. It can be performed from
the surface in shallow water with lances improvised from 10- and 12-foot firefighting applicators or lengths of pipe. A flow rate of about 100
gpm and a discharge pressure between 50 and 150 psi over bottom pressure is adequate for most jetting. Jetting is most efficient when there is
a strong current to carry the disturbed material away from the work area (see Paragraph 3-7.4). Work should commence on the up-current side.
Ordinary nozzles develop a heavy reaction thrust that must be resisted by the diver. Special jetting nozzles, like the one shown in Figure 5-21,
have balancing jets that reduce or eliminate nozzle reaction. When the nozzle is used for tunneling, the balancing jets also help carry material
out of the tunnel. A balanced nozzle can be improvised from a pipe "T," as shown in Figure 5-21.
5-9.4 Dredging. Dredges can remove large quantities of seafloor material from around and under a casualty and dig channels to deep water.
Dredges are most effective in soft soils, but some can dig coral, hardpan, stiff clay, and some kinds of soft rock (limestone, shale, etc.). The
equipment used for dredging depends on the casualty location and attitude, seafloor type, and water depth.
A dredge’s production rate is its rate of removing seafloor material, or spoil. Production rate depends on the dredge type, size, digging
depth—depth to the bottom of the cut—and seafloor type.
Dredges are operated by the Army Corps of Engineers and commercial dredging, underwater construction, and seabed mining companies. If
dredging appears to be a viable technique for a salvage operation, the nearest Army Corps of Engineers district office should be consulted for
advice concerning the best type and size of dredge to use, and probable production rate.
The two basic types of dredges are mechanical (bucket dredge) and hydraulic.
5-9.4.1 Mechanical Dredges. Mechanical dredges are classified as grab, dipper, and ladder dredges. Mechanical dredges move spoil by
physically picking it up and depositing it elsewhere.
A grab dredge is a grab bucket operated from a derrick mounted on a barge. Either clamshell or orange peel buckets are used, depending on the
consistency of the spoil. Digging action depends on the weight of the bucket, so grab dredges work best in soft soils. Production rate for a dredge
with a one cubic yard bucket is 45 to 55 cubic yards of mud per hour in 15 to 20 feet of water. Production rate in clay is about half as much.
Digging depth is limited only by the length of the lift wires, although production rate decreases rapidly with increasing depth.
A dipper dredge is simply a power shovel operating from a barge. It is most effective in hard seafloors, such as gravel, broken rock, or shale.
Bucket capacities vary from one to five cubic yards. A dredge with a one cubic yard bucket may move 50 to 250 cubic yards of mud per hour;
about half as much clay per hour. Digging depth is limited by the length of the boom; 65 feet is about maximum. Dipper dredges are uncommon
outside the United States.
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S0300-A8-HBK-010
A ladder dredge moves spoil with an
Figure 5-21. Jetting Nozzle.
CUSTOM (CAST AND MACHINED)
JETTING NOZZLE
IMPROVISED
JETTING NOZZLE
1"
3/4"
1/4" DRILL
4 HOLES
1" NIPPLE
2 1/2" FIRE HOSE
TO 2" PIPE ADAPTER
4" TO 6" LENGTH
OF 2" PIPE
REDUCING OR
REGULAR "T"
6" LENGTHS OF 3/4" OR 1" PIPE
COUPLES TO
2 1/2" FIRE HOSE
endless chain of buckets running on an
inclined ladder, like a department store
escalator, that is lowered to the bottom.
Bucket sizes vary from 5 to 55 cubic feet.
The bucket cycle will average 20 to 30
buckets per minute in silts and muds, 18 to
24 in medium soils, and 9 to 12 in stiff
clay, with an average 85-percent bucket fill.
Maximum digging depth is usually about 40
feet, but may be as deep as 75 feet.
5-9.4.2 Hydraulic Dredges. Hydraulic
dredges move spoil with high-capacity cen-
trifugal or jet pumps. Plain suction dredges
draw seafloor material through a suction
pipe into a pump in the hull. The pump dis-
charges into hoppers within the hull or into
barges alongside. Some suction dredges
have water jets at the lower end of the suc-
tion pipe to break up the seafloor material.
A draghead dredge is a plain suction dredge
with a special suction head, or draghead,
attached to the suction pipe. The heavy
draghead breaks up the seafloor material as
it is dragged along. Since the dredge must
be in motion to operate, draghead dredges
are self-propelled.
The cutterhead dredge is the most versatile of
hydraulic dredges. A rotating cutterhead at
the end of the suction pipe breaks up seafloor
materials, including hardpan, coral, and soft
limestone. The spoil is drawn into the pipe
and is removed by a centrifugal pump.
Cutterhead dredges vary in size from a small
Figure 5-22. Improvised Dredge.
WL
SUCTION PIPE
JET PIPE
INTAKE DIVER
UMBILICAL
WORK BARGE
barge-mounted unit, drawing three feet with
a 6-inch pump, to large self-propelled ships
capable of moving 2,000 cubic yards of spoil
per hour. Amphibious and remote-operated
underwater dredges have been developed.
5-9.4.3 Improvised Dredges. Figure 5-22
Table 5-3. Improvised Dredge
Design Guide.
Suction Pipe
Diameter, in.
Jet Pipe
Diameter, in.
Minimum Pump
Output, gpm
2 1 55
3 1 100
4 1
1
⁄ 2 125
6 1
1
⁄ 2 300
8 3 500
shows a simple underwater dredge that can
be fabricated on a salvage site. It consists of
a tube or pipe with 30-degree bend near the
intake end. A water jet is connected at the
center of the bend, aimed along the center-
line of the main pipe towards the discharge.
The water jet creates a suction at the intake, drawing sediments into the pipe. Maximum lift depends on the size of pipe and pump output. A 200-
gpm pump with a 6-inch dredge pipe will lift spoil 60 feet above the seafloor. Keeping the dredge pipe only a few feet above the seafloor, the same
system can move 10 cubic yards of spoil per hour. The suction end of the dredge is controlled by divers, so the pipe should be constructed of
lightweight materials, such as aluminum, plastic, or noncollapsible salvage hose. Reaction forces are low. Table 5-3 is a design guide for sizing
dredge pipe, water jet, and pump capacity.
A similar dredge can be improvised by connecting a Peri-jet eductor to a length of pipe or noncollapsible hose.
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5-9.4.4 Salvage Dredging. The principal dredging operations in salvage are:
• Digging retraction channels for stranded ships,
• Trenching, and
• Ponding.
When dredges cut trenches close alongside casualties in soft or fluid soils, soil from under the ship will flow into the hole, and the ship will
settle, increasing buoyancy and decreasing ground reaction. Because of the currents set up at the suction head, hydraulic dredges can draw
material from under the ship. It may be possible to dig deep enough to refloat the ship. Ships can be pulled or heeled into trenches dug
alongside when the soil is too firm to flow. In a similar manner, dredges can trench alongside wrecks to be buried, allowing them to settle as
sediments are drawn from under them.
If a ship is high and dry, a basin can be dug by earth-moving equipment, leaving columns or ridges of seafloor material under the ship to support
her as blocks do on a drydock. A channel from the sea is opened into the basin with a dredge. The inrushing water, assisted as necessary by
high-pressure water jets, washes the supports from under the ship, allowing it to refloat.
Salvage dredging is a complicated operation requiring time, work, planning, and careful coordination with other work.
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